Aircraft Marshalls - Civil Aviation Authority

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Aircraft Marshalls - Civil Aviation Authority
KAIA Afganistan International Airport
Aircraft Marshaller
Kabul March the 17th of 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I
TOPIC
Personnel Safety in Aircraft and
Load Handling Operations
SECTION
7
................................................
Introduction
8
................................................
Aircraft Marshaller Curriculum
8
................................................
Personal Equipment
9
................................................
Aircraft Ground Handling
10
................................................
Operating Practices
12
................................................
Portable Electronic Devices (PED)
12
................................................
Load handling
II
14
Fire Protection and Prevention
III
15
Chocking of Aircraft
IV
16
Use of Marker Cones
V
16
Ground
Support
Operations
18
................................................
Circle of Safety
19
21
................................................
................................................
Equipment Restraint Area (ERA)
Guide-man Hand Signal for GSE operation
21
................................................
Off Bridge Passenger Operations
22
................................................
Mobile
Ground
Operations
22
Aircraft Fuelling Operation
22
................................................
Introduction
22
................................................
Definition of Fuelling Safety Zones
22
................................................
Fuel Safety Zones Description
23
................................................
Safe fuelling Procedures
25
................................................
In the event that fuelling must take place with
one aircraft engine running:
25
26
................................................
................................................
Fuelling with passengers on board:
Emergency Procedures
VI
VII
PAGE
7
Equipment
level
Covered
Walkway
VIII
27
De/Anti Icing of Aircraft
IX
28
Severe Weather Operations
28
................................................
Introduction
28
................................................
Scope
28
................................................
Weather definitions
28
................................................
Working in Extreme Temperatures (hot and cold)
-4-
CHAPTER
X
PAGE
TOPIC
SECTION
29
................................................
Severe Weather Forecasting
30
................................................
High Winds
30
................................................
Lightning
30
30
................................................
................................................
Low Visibility and Ground Icing
Notification Methods
31
................................................
What to do when Severe Weather is Imminent
31
................................................
General
31
................................................
High winds
31
................................................
Secure aircraft
31
................................................
Loading bridges
32
................................................
Ground support equipment
32
................................................
Baggage and Cargo
32
................................................
Aircraft Cleaning
32
................................................
Facilities
32
................................................
Passenger Safety
32
................................................
Fight crews
32
................................................
Shift change
32
................................................
Lightning
33
................................................
Low visibility
33
................................................
Operations in Snow &Ice Conditions
33
................................................
Lightning Safety
34
................................................
Lightning Protection
34
................................................
Personnel Safety
35
Safety Considerations For Aircraft
Movement Operations
35
................................................
Introduction
35
................................................
Definitions
35
................................................
Recommendation
35
................................................
General
36
................................................
Pushback Operations
37
................................................
Nose-gear controlled (towbarless)
39
................................................
Main-gear controlled
40
................................................
Power Back Operations
41
................................................
Towing Operations
-5-
CHAPTER
XI
XII
PAGE
XV
SECTION
42
................................................
43
Ground
/
Communication
43
................................................
45
Peculiarities of Some KAIA
Aircrafts
45
................................................
WINGSPAN, LENGTH & PARKING POSITIONS OF
KAIA AIRCRAFS:
46
................................................
SAFETY DISTANCE OF KAIA
AIRCRAFTS
47
Pacing Wingspans
47
47
................................................
................................................
Remember
On being a “wing walker”
Aircraft Signalling
Signals Used For Aircraft Movement on the
Apron
63
................................................
Signals Used for Helicopters
67
................................................
Signal from the Pilot of an Aircraft to the
Marshaller
70
................................................
Hand Signals
70
Radio
Procedures
71
................................................
Aviation Phraseology
76
................................................
Aviation Alphabet
77
................................................
Light Signals
77
Recommendations For Apron
Markings and Sings
77
................................................
REQUIREMENTS
78
................................................
CHARACTERISTICS
78
................................................
RECOMMENDATIONS
78
................................................
Service Roads
79
80
80
81
81
Directional markings
Traffic speed-limit markings
Pedestrian Crossings/Walkways
Stand/Gate Safety Line
“No Parking” Areas
Ground Support Equipment Parking Areas
XIII
XIV
TOPIC
Flight
Movement In/Out of Hangars
Deck
Minimum
Ground
Phraseologies
Staff/Cockpit
Communications
XVI
84
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
................................................
Runway and Taxiway Markings
XVII
86
Definition of Terms
XVIII
89
Abbreviations
-6-
Crew
I. Personnel Safety in Aircraft and Load
Handling Operations
Introduction
The objective of this training is to build a firm foundation in the marshalling
fundamentals for all new marshallers and a refresher for skilled ones in KAIA
International Airport.
By the end of this training you will demonstrate the ability to control the movement
of an aircraft on the apron using the International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) signals and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Standardization
Agreement 3117, and be familiar with the inherent dangers in apron operations and
plan ways to minimize them.
The CST service is a group of specialist not associated with any other work team
and are responsible only to Air Operations Chief. Their work is to ensure a safe
environment for ground crew members, aircrafts, and apron visitors.
The fundamental purpose of a marshaller is to control the movement of an
aircraft prior to and after the flight. This function is performed mainly on the
apron and occasionally on the taxiway and runway; taking care and ensuring that the
movement area is clear of vehicles and pedestrian traffic. This function is
accomplished using ICAO APPROVED marshalling hand signals.
The primary maxim of the KAIA Marshaller is:
“LET’S DO IT BETTER THAN PERFECT.”
In order to function as a marshaller, you must be:
KNOWLEDGEABLE
DECISIVE
ALERT
HIGHLY MOBILE
FLEXIBLE
COOL HEADED
GOOD COMUNICATOR
LAND CRUISER
COOPERATIVE
-7-
Marshalling is a team work and the team leader is known as the FOLLOW ME
CHIEF. The chief is responsible for the overall activity of the marshallers at the
apron. He is the coordinator, administrator, final decision maker, and is directly
responsible to Air Operations Chief. Problems with uncooperative personnel or
pilots, or equipment problems should be brought to the attention of Air Operations
Chief.
Aircraft Marshaller Curriculum
• Be qualified by a recognized aeronautical organization and demonstrate a
broad experience in marshalling.
• Be used to the KAIA CST Aircraft Marshaller Guide.
• Have a minimum LPS English Level of 2222, in accordance with STANAG
6001.
• Be in possession of the KAIA driver’s license.
• Be familiar with radio and telephone procedures in order to communicate with
Air-Ops & ATC Tower.
• Be in possession of a NATO SECRET security clearance.
Personal Equipment
Suggested gears for members of ISAF KAIA Marshalling Team:
• Good pair of safety leather shoes or boots. Nylon does not breathe and will
become uncomfortable after 14 or more hours on the ramp.
• Approved hearing protection should be worn when working in noise-intensity
areas, i.e. on the apron, maintenance lines, etc.
• Leather protective gloves appropriated to the job function. You may get hot
oil or hydraulic fluid on them and cloth gloves will absorb those fluids.
• Yellow cap with the acronym KAIA FOLLOW ME.
• Qualified marshallers should wear outer garments that contain reflective
material and are of high visibility colours. The design, material and layout of
the high visibility garment should take into consideration the specific weather
conditions of KAIA International Airport.
• Motorola TalkAbout 250 radio. (Or equal).
• Pen/Pencil and notepad for briefing notes.
-8-
• Safety sunglasses, face protection, sunscreen, whistle, small torch, short flat
blade screwdriver, and spare batteries for your radio.
• Jewellery such as rings and identification bracelets must not be worn.
Aircraft Ground Handling
This guide provides information and guidance for the handling of aircraft on the ground. The
aviation industry has found through experience that firm safety practices deter accidents. This
guide contains generally accepted information and safety practices, which may help, prevent
injuries to personnel and damage to aircraft.
Direct movement of aircraft. The person directing an aircraft that is being taxied should be far
enough ahead and to the pilots left so that the pilot has an unobstructed view of him.
a. Use standard hand signals as applicable.
b. When directing aircraft during darkness or inclement weather the marshaller should
use illuminated or reflective wands.
c. Movement of aircraft in congested areas should be avoided. However, when
necessary, additional marshallers or security should be stationed near the aircraft
wing-tips to ensure that adequate clearance is maintained.
Parked Aircraft. When an aircraft is parked, the main gear wheels should be chocked fore and
aft. If the aircraft is to remain overnight or if winds are expected, flight control locks should be
used and the aircraft tied down.
Visual check of aircraft. If it is possible you should make it a habit of visually inspecting the
aircraft before the crew boards or leaves the aircraft. Advise them of any unsafe condition that may
have been observed. This procedure may prevent unwarranted delays of the next departure.
Examples of conditions observed: low or flat tires, cracked windows, loose propeller spinners, oil
and fuel leaks, damaged flight surfaces, etc.
CAUTION: Many people have been injured by propellers in a moment of carelessness. When it
becomes necessary to position propellers, they should be handled as if the engine is going to start.
Before moving a propeller, always check to be sure the ignition switches are in the “off” position,
and the throttle and mixture control levers are in the “closed” position. Always stand clear of
propeller blade path, particularly when moving the propeller, because of a possible inadvertent
engine start. Particular caution should be around warm engines.
Tie-down aircraft. It is a good practice to always tie-down small aircraft after each flight and
large aircraft when unusually high winds are expected. When not in use, wheel chocks, tie-down
ropes, or chains, and other equipment, may be stored safely near the wing tie-down anchor points
on the ramp. These are usually located outside of the aircraft wheel traffic pattern. Wheel chocks
should be painted a bright colour so they can be easily seen.
Towing of aircraft. Persons performing towing operations should be thoroughly familiar with the
procedures that apply to the type of aircraft being moved. Particular care must be exercised when
pulling or pushing an aircraft with a tow vehicle.
a. One should never tow an aircraft in congested areas without guidemen or marshallers to
assist in determining that there is adequate clearance.
-9-
b. No less than two people should be used to tow large aircraft, including a qualified person
in the cockpit to operate the aircraft breaks, and a qualified tow vehicle operator.
c. The man operating the tow vehicle should assure that the nose wheel or tail wheel lock is
disengaged where applicable. He should also make certain that the nose wheel swiveling
limits are not exceeded during the towing operation.
d. The aircraft engines should not be operated during towing operations.
e. The tow vehicle operator should avoid sudden starts and stops Aircraft brakes should be
applied only in an emergency, on command from the tow vehicle operator or his clearance
man.
f. Clearance must be obtained from the airport control tower, either by appropriate radio
frequency or by prior arrangement through other means, before moving aircraft across
taxiways or runways.
Taxiing of aircraft. Only rated pilots or other qualified persons should be authorized to taxi
aircraft. Persons authorized to taxi aircraft should be familiar with the airport control
communications procedures and radio frequencies.
Operating Practices
• Personnel shall not walk or stand on a moving conveyor belt.
• Personnel must not ride up or down on the rear platform of a loader.
• Personnel should never attempt to jump off or on a moving vehicle.
• Personnel should not be transported on equipment unless there is a seat for
them.
• Personnel on moving equipment must be seated properly and should keep
their bodies within the confines of the vehicle structure.
• Personnel must not ride on elevating platforms when the vehicle is in the
drive mode.
• Personnel should not walk on rollers or castors.
• On arriving aircraft all personnel must remain clear of the propellers, engine
inlets and exhausts until the engines have spooled down and, in the case of
propellers stopped turning. Personnel must not approach an aircraft until the
anti-collision beacons have been switched off. If, for defined operational
purposes, specific personnel need to approach an aircraft before the anti- 10 -
collision beacons are switched off, clearly defined procedures must be in
place.
• Personnel and equipment must not pass through the arc of the propeller at any
time, including when it is stationary.
• On departing aircraft, as soon as the anti-collision beacons are on, personnel
must remain clear of propellers, engine inlets and exhausts. Personnel, unless
required to perform a specific function must immediately vacate the area.
There should be a clearly defined procedure detailing how personnel involved
in the departure process are to remain clear of the aircraft when the anticollision bacons are on.
• Personnel should stand clear of exits/entrances of facilities when a train of
carts/dollies passes.
• Never drive behind an aircraft which has an engine running.
• Never walk or drive in front of a running engine. Beware of suction from
engines.
• Never drive or park under aircraft wings, unless operationally required to do
so. Do not obstruct the push back area.
• Report all fuel, oil and other chemical spillages.
• Drivers must, when reversing, use a guideman at all times unless a clear and
unobstructed view is available.
• Leaving a vehicle unattended with the engine running in the vicinity of an
aircraft is strictly prohibited.
• Operators of equipment shall ensure that other personnel are not entrapped by
movement of load/pallets/containers either in the aircraft or on the loading
equipment.
• Gates of loaded carts should be lowered carefully. Serious injuries have
resulted from cargo tumbling out of carts.
• Extreme care should be exercised when entering and leaving aircraft cabins,
holds and compartments. Aircraft cabins shall only be entered or exited by
using stands, steps, or loadings bridges, which have been properly positioned
and secured. Hold and compartments shall only be entered or exited by using
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the appropriate elevating device, which has been positioned and secured, e.g.
belt conveyor and cargo loader.
• The surface of the apron must be kept free of any objects that might cause
damage to aircraft or equipment. Examples of such objects are; catering items,
baggage tags / straps, garbage.
• Pick-up and place all Foreign Object Debris (FOD) in bins provided.
• FOD bins are located at all aircraft parking bays. ALL airport employees and
users are required to pick up and deposit FOD in these bins.
• Hazardous Waste must be removed and disposed of by the apron users.
Failure to do so may result in disciplinary action.
• Personnel should not walk between unit load devices (ULDs) which are being
transported by vehicle or trailer. Nor should they walk between ULDs which
are being held on the apron awaiting dispatch.
- 12 -
Portable Electronic Devices (PED)
Portable Electronic Devices (PEDs) covers, but is not limited to, Mobile (Cell)
Telephones, Portable Radios and Pagers. Where National, State or Local road traffic
legislation exists governing the use of portable electronic devices, this should be
applied airside. Only company approved and / or issued devices should be allowed
airside, should not impair the use of Portable Protective Electronic (PPE) especially
hearing protective cover. Personal PEDs, unless specifically authorized, should not
be allowed airside.
Use of portable electronic devices, especially mobile (cell) telephones, can cause
loss of concentration and situational awareness, even to the pedestrian users.
Communication should be relevant and as brief as possible.
Load handling
• Personnel should assess the weight and never attempt to lift or move more
than their personal physical capabilities.
• Recognized lifting techniques should be utilized at all times to reduce the
risk of personnel injury.
• Handling load by the metal strapping, which is frequently used to bind
heavy or awkward shipments, should be avoided.
• All load should be set down easily (rather than dropping it) to avoid injuries
to the feet and toes as well as to prevent damage to aircraft floor and load.
• When moving pallets/containers, hands and feet should be kept clear of
stops/locks/guides so they do not get caught between the pallet/container
and the floor.
• When handling live animals, fingers and hands should be kept clear of the
interior of the containers to avoid being bitten.
• With the aim of reducing muscular/skeletal injuries to passenger handling
and baggage loading employees, it is recommended that:
The maximum weight of any single piece of checked baggage should not
exceed 23 kgs, without prior arrangement. “Heavy tags/labels must be
placed on all pieces of baggage which exceed 23 kgs, with the actual
weight of the piece to be shown on the “heavy” tag/label.
- 13 -
II. Fire Protection and Prevention
• Fire prevention is more important than fire fighting.
• Good housekeeping is essential. Garbage should not be allowed to accumulate,
but should be disposed of into approved containers.
• Any suspected or known fire must be reported immediately.
• Faults in electrical wiring must be reported immediately.
• Smoking shall NOT be permitted on any apron areas or in any vehicles on the
apron.
• The wearing of boots with steel tips showing, steel heels or nails in soles should
be prohibited.
• The location of fire-fighting equipment, fire alarms, emergency shut-off, etc.
must be known to personnel.
• Access to fire-fighting equipment, fire alarms, emergency shut-offs, etc. should
not be obstructed.
• If fire is discovered in a parked aircraft any persons on board should be
immediately advised and evacuated.
• If possible, doors and hatches etc, on aircraft should be closed.
• If fire occurs on a piece of ground support equipment, First of all: “call the firebrigade”, meanwhile, it should be controlled utilizing either the apron
extinguishers or extinguishers on the equipment. As soon as is practical, the
equipment should be removed from the vicinity of the aircraft.
• Equipment should not be operated in the vicinity of a fuel spill.
• Personnel should know the types of fire-fighting equipment available and should
be trained in their use.
- 14 -
Chocking of Aircraft
• Chocks should be of a high visibility colour and be identified by high visibility
markings.
• Chocks should be triangular in shape; with an approximate 45º angle at the
corners.
• Chocks should be made of a material that has a suitable coefficient of friction and
that has adequate rigidity.
• The length of the chock should be such that is covers the full with of the wheel(s)
required to be chocked.
• The height of the chock should be in relation to the size of the wheel and the type
of tyre.
• Chocks should be stored in a dedicated area so that they are not the cause of
FOD.
• Personnel should be made aware of dangerous areas in the vicinity of the aircraft
wheels, such as hot brakes and protrusions, gear doors and antennae which could
cause injury.
• Chocks should be positioned on an aircraft according to airframe manufacturer
recommendations.
• Chocking of the aircraft main gear should be achieved by positioning the chocks
in the front and rear of the outboard tires.
• Placing of chocks on an arriving aircraft must only be performed after engine
spool down, anti-collision lights switched off and clearance to approach the
aircraft is given by the responsible person.
• Chocks, when positioned, should be parallel to the wheel axle and only lightly
touching the tyres.
• In the event of high wind conditions, additional chocking and other measures
may have to be taken to secure the aircraft.
• Chocks should not be removed from an aircraft until clearance is given by the
responsible person.
- 15 -
• After use, chocks should be removed to a designated storage area.
IV. Use of Marker Cones
The purpose of “coning” aircraft is to create a safety buffer around specific areas on
aircraft that are susceptible to ground damage.
The design of cones should:
• Be conical in shape
• Be of a minimum height of 750 mm
• Have a minimum base weight of 4.53 kg
• Be orange in colour with reflective striping
Cones should be positioned:
• At each wing tips
• In front of all wing-mounted engines
• In front of other areas on an aircraft that are in conflict with the normal flow
of equipment during handling operations
• At wing tips immediately after the aircraft is at its parking position
• At others areas around the aircraft only when clearance to approach the
aircraft has been given
• At a distance from the area to “protected”
• Cones should be removed just prior to the aircraft departure to ensure
maximum protection of the aircraft and after use, to a designated storage area.
V. Ground Support Equipment Operations
• Only adequately trained, qualified and authorised personnel should be permitted
to operate equipment.
• A visual check of aircraft for damage is to be conducted upon arrival, before
service equipment is positioned. Visual check of aircraft for damage is to be
conducted prior to departure, after service equipment is removed from aircraft.
• Personnel must not operate motor vehicles or equipment whilst using hand held
portable electronic devices. Such devices should not be used unless a suitable
2Hands Free” device, either personal or installed, is available.
• Equipment should only be used for its intended purpose.
- 16 -
• Equipment should never move across the path of taxiing aircraft of embarking
and disembarking passengers. Aircraft and pedestrians should always have the
right-of-way.
• Apron equipment is to be positioned behind the equipment restraint line with the
parking brakes applied prior to the arrival of the aircraft at the parking position.
• The passenger loading bridge is to be in the fully retracted position prior to
aircraft arrival.
• During positioning of the passenger loading bridge, only the bridge operator
should be in the bridgehead. For safety reasons, all other staff must keep
sufficient distance from the bridgehead.
• Equipment, including passenger loading bridges must not move towards the
aircraft until it has; come to a complete stop, chocks are positioned, engines shut
down (see note), anti-collision beacons switched-off, and if applicable, Air
Operation contact established. Note: It may be necessary to connect external
power prior to engine shut down.
• Equipment shall have parking brakes applied, with gear selector in park or
neutral when parked away from, or positioned at, the aircraft. If equipped, wheel
chocks will be applied.
• Ground support equipment should be in good mechanical condition.
• Equipment when approaching or leaving an aircraft should not be driven faster
than a walking speed.
• Attachment fittings/transfer bridges and platforms must be correctly deployed.
• Handrails on conveyor belts, loaders and other elevated devices must be in the
raised position when the unit is in use.
• Ground equipment which interfaces with the aircraft passenger doors (e.g.
passenger steps, catering vehicles etc), should have platforms of sufficient width
that will allow the aircraft doors to be opened/closed with the equipment in place
and the safety rails deployed.
• Guides and safety rails on loaders must be properly deployed.
• Stabilizers, when fitted on equipment, must be deployed.
- 17 -
• Prior to the movement of any ground support equipment a walk-around check
must be made.
• Hoses or cables on equipment must be securely stowed when the unit is moved.
• Elevating devices must not be driven in the elevated position except for final
positioning.
• Baggage/cargo must not be transported on equipment not specifically designed
for that purpose.
• Cargo should be stowed evenly, in cargo carts, with heavy pieces on the bottom
and the centre to ensure stability. All doors, gates and curtains should be secured
to prevent cargo from falling out.
• The movement of carts/dollies by hand-operated equipment is very simple,
however, it has resulted in many injuries, and additional care must be taken.
• Loaded transporters and dollies must have the load secured from movement by
the use of locks, stops, rails or straps at ALL times, except when the load is being
transferred onto or off the equipment. All locks, stops, rails and straps should be
checked every time before use.
• Trains of carts/dollies tend to “drift in” or shorten the turning radius on corners.
Therefore, drivers should avoid turning prior to, or immediately after, passing an
obstacle.
• Unserviceable equipment should be clearly tagged “Out of Service” and
immediately be sent to the repair/maintenance department.
• When positioning equipment, special care must be exercised to ensure adequate
clearance of vehicles, aircraft, other equipment and facilities.
• When operator vision is restricted (such as positioning certain pieces of
equipment to or backing away from an aircraft) a guide person should be used.
• Standard hand signals must be used to guide ground support equipment.
• The guide person must be positioned so that clearances can be accurately judged
and be visible/able to communicate the signals to the vehicle operator at all
times. If visual contact with the guide person is lost, the driver will stop
immediately.
- 18 -
• When electrical/motorised equipment are in operating mode, an operator must be
within easy reach of the emergency controls that have their engines running may
not be left unattended in the stand area. The operator must remain in driving
position, in control at all times.
Circle of Safety
Personnel shall observe a virtual operational safety buffer zone when positioning
motorised vehicles/equipment to an aircraft.
The following processes shall be adhered to at all times;
• Conduct a vehicle/equipment pre-operational check including a brake test
prior to operating motorised vehicles/equipment;
• All motorised vehicles/equipment must make a minimum of one complete
stop prior to entering the operational safety zone or at a distance on no less
than five metres from the aircraft.
• All equipment must be driven at a “Walking pace” when operating within the
operational safety buffer zone.
• Drivers must also be aware of safety distances when driving in the vicinity of
parked aircraft:
o - 5m clear from the wing tip of parked aircraft.
o - 15m clear of aircraft which are being refuelled.
• Drivers must not start their vehicles when within 15m of another vehicle
which is engaged in the refuelling of an aircraft.
• Vehicles must not be driven over any hose or bonding cable laid on the
ground by fuelling agents during aircraft refuelling.
• Vehicles and persons must remain:
o - 2.5m radius clear from around the aircraft fuel tank vents.
o - 8m clear in front of an operating aircraft engine.
o - 55m clear behind an aircraft with engine idling.
• Vehicles must not be driven or parked under aircraft or aircraft wings, unless
operationally required to do so.
• Equipment and vehicles requiring to back up to or from an aircraft during the
servicing of that aircraft, must be directed by a marshaller. All drivers must
adhere strictly to this requirement.
• A minimum safety distance of at least 200mts must be maintained behind an
aircraft taxiing under their own power.
- 19 -
Equipment Restraint Area (ERA)
This is an enclosed area marked by a red line within which the aircraft must be
parked during ground handling. The dimensions of the ERA are determined by the
largest type of aircraft using the parking position. This area must be clear of any
vehicle or equipment during aircraft movement into/ out of the bay. Any bay which
has the ERA compromised, by any means whatsoever, will be considered as closed
and unavailable for aircraft until it is cleared.
All vehicles which approach the aircraft must stop at the Equipment Restraint Line
(ERL), before proceeding at walking pace.
During the servicing of the aircraft, all vehicles/equipment must be
kept back in the Equipment Restraint Line.
4- Other vehicles and equipment, which are not attending to the aircraft, are to keep
clear of the area and hold at the designated equipment staying areas.
Equipment Restraint Area (ERA)
Protective rubber bumpers on equipment, e.g. passenger steps, loading bridges,
conveyor belts, catering trucks, must not be compressed against the aircraft fuselage,
in order to prevent damage and to allow for aircraft setting during servicing.
When loading has been completed remove all loading equipment well clear of the
aircraft.
Before removing ground support equipment from any aircraft cabin access door, the
equipment operator must ensure that the door has been closed and secured by an
authorized person, or that a restraint device designed and secured to prevent a person
falling from the doorway (e.g. full width door net attached to anchor points etc) has
- 20 -
been placed across the opening. A single strap does not meet these criteria. Prior to
moving the equipment the operator should advise any personnel on board the aircraft
and/or the person responsible for the operation around the aircraft that the equipment
is to be removed. When the Cabin Crew are on-board the aircraft they are
responsible for closing the aircraft cabin doors, additionally they must request a
member of the ground staff to assist them. The ground staff should not leave the
immediate area outside of the cabin door until it is closed, seated and fully latched.
The access equipment may then be removed.
VI. Guide-man Hand Signal for GSE
operation
The guide-man for a specific manoeuvre shall be clearly identified so as to avoid
any possible confusion and shall remain the only responsible person throughout the
procedure.
The guide-man shall be positioned to keep permanent visual contact with the
equipment operator thought the manoeuvre. If visual contact between operator and
guide-man is lost, the operation must immediately stop until visual contact has been
re-established.
Manual signals shall only be used when verbal communication is not possible with
respect to technical/servicing communication signals.
Off Bridge Passenger Operations
Passenger movement on the apron between the aircraft and terminal building must
be closely supervised.
Passenger movement should follow a clearly designated and visible route.
The designated route must be kept free of any equipment and the surface conditions
kept clean.
Where passengers are embarked / disembarked by walking across the ramp, the use
of mobile telephones should be discouraged until the passengers are inside the
terminal building or transporter.
Passengers must be kept clear of protrusions on the aircraft, propellers, ground
support equipment, fuelling zones as well as jet blast or prop gust from other
aircraft.
- 21 -
Mobile Ground level Covered Walkway Operations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The operating path of the unit should be marked as a pedestrian walkway.
The unit should be marked on either side with reflective material.
The drive unit of the walkway should have a flashing beacon to indicate the
unit is in motion.
The unit when extended should be secured to the ground at suitable intervals
to prevent movement by jet-blast or wind.
Consideration must be given to the manufactures’ operating recommendations
when the unit is used in high-wind conditions.
The unit should not make a final approach to the aircraft until either the
aircraft stairs have been extended or mobile stairs are in place.
The unit should be positioned as close as is practical to the aircraft steps to
prevent vehicular traffic from operating between the unit and the aircraft.
VII. Aircraft Fuelling Operation
Introduction
As aircraft ground handling activities take place at the same time as aircraft fuelling
operations, which covers refuelling and de-fuelling. These activities must be
compatible to ensure the safety and integrity of the operation.
This section provides specific operating criteria for ground handling personnel that
when implemented will enable the interface of activities to be accomplished safely.
The following industry documents, as applicable, should be consulted:
• IATA Guidance Material on Standard Into-Plane Fuelling Procedures,
• JIC Guidelines for Aviation Fuel Quality Control and Operating Procedures
for Joint Into-Plane Fuelling Services.
Definition of Fuelling Safety Zones
The fuelling safety zone shall be regarded as a radial area extending 3 metres, from
the fuelling tank vents and aircraft fuelling connections points.
Equipment performing aircraft servicing functions shall not be positioned within a 3
metres radius of aircraft fuel system vent openings.
- 22 -
Due to the fire hazard associated with fuel vapours personnel shall not use items and
processes such as; matches, open flames, welding, use of photographic flash-bulb
etc. While fuelling is taking place on the aircraft stand.
Portable electronic devices, such as Mobile (Cell) Telephones, Portable Radios and
Pagers, should not be used within the fuel safety zone.
Fuel Safety Zones Description
The connection and disconnection of any aircraft electrical equipment, including
GPUs, batteries and battery charges, is not permitted.
The APU may be started during refuelling if the start is an initial start or a restart
after normal shutdown.
Do not attempt to start the APU during fuelling if the APU had an automatic
shutdown or a failed start attempt. Make sure the fuelling operation is complete and
the hose is disconnected before another APU start is attempted.
The APU may be shutdown (manual or automatic) during the refuelling operation.
The engines of unattended GSE should be switched off.
GSE MUST NOT be parked under the aircraft wingtip fuel vents.
Equipment must be positioned so that the fuelling vehicle has a clear exit rout and
can be moved away from the aircraft in a forward direction.
A distance of 1 mt. should be maintained, wherever possible, between ground
support equipment and any fuelling equipment, i.e. vehicles, hoses, hydrants pits.
Ground Power Units GPUs must not be operated unless they are positioned 6 mts.
from the aircraft fuelling vents and venting points.
Equipment with metal wheel or metal studded tyres capable of producing sparks
shall not be moved in the safety zones.
- 23 -
Safe fuelling Procedures
• Refuelling vehicles should, if possible, always move forward into the fuelling
position. If a fuelling vehicle has to be reversed, a guidance person must be
used.
• Vehicles should approach the aircraft at walking speed.
• Fuel trucks and their hoses must not block the access to the cabin and hold
doors.
• Each trailer tank or towed service must remain coupled to their tractors.
• The aircraft and the fuelling vehicles must be electrically bonded together
throughout the fuelling operation to ensure that no difference in electrical
potential exits.
• If the bonding cable connecting the fuelling vehicle to the aircraft becomes
disconnected during ground operations the fuel operator must be immediately
advised.
• Access to the hydrant emergency stop button must be visible and clear of
obstruction.
• A cord must be attached to the hydrant pit valve and be readily accessible.
• The hydrant pit valve shall be identified by a four winged flag or equivalent
and clearly visible to other ground equipment handlers.
• Minimize length of hydrant inlet hose to limit the exposure of the hose to
damage.
• Fuelling vehicles and equipment must have hoses of sufficient length to allow
the fuelling platform to be fully lowered whilst the hoses/couplings are
connected to the aircraft fuelling manifold.
• Extreme care must be taken to position refuelling vehicle and equipment
correctly, ensuring that strain is not applied to the fuelling hoses, coupling and
manifolds on the aircraft when the platform is lowered.
• Vehicles must be designed to ensure that the fuelling hoses cannot become
entangled on equipment during movement of the fuelling vehicle’s platform.
- 24 -
• Platforms must not be raised or lowered while fuelling operations are taking
place.
• When raising the lift platform of fuelling vehicle, care must be taken to ensure
that it does not touch any part of the aircraft.
• The fuel operator should conduct a final walk around the vehicle before
leaving the aircraft to ensure all hoses have been disconnected and stowed
correctly.
In the event that fuelling must take place with one aircraft
engine running:
• Fuelling shall be performed at the opposite side from running engine;
• Passengers shall not remain onboard the aircraft;
• No other servicing activities shall be undertaken until fuelling has been
completed.
Fuelling with passengers on board:
• The person responsible for fuelling shall inform crew/staff on board and
around the aircraft that fuelling is about to commence and when fuelling is
completed.
• The people responsible for fuelling shall inform the crew/ staff on board shall
a hazardous situation arise.
• Ground activities outside the aircraft and work within the aircraft, such as
catering and cleaning, should be conducted in such a manner that they do not
create a hazard of obstruct emergency exits.
• All exit areas, cabin aisles and cross aisles inside the aircraft should be kept
clear of obstructions.
• The ground area beneath nominated exit doors shall be kept clear of any
obstructions.
• When a passenger loading bridges are in use, access to the terminal shall be
available.
• When a passenger loading bridge is not used, aircraft passenger steps or
alternate means of emergency evacuation should be in place.
- 25 -
• Passengers joining or leaving the aircraft via the apron are moved without
delay under the supervision of a responsible person over a safe route.
Passengers shall be kept at a safe distance from the fuelling operation and
other hazardous areas such as aircraft engines, APU exhausts and fuel tank
vents. “No Smoking” regulations shall be strictly enforced.
• Aircraft fitted with integral stairs must have these deployed.
Emergency Procedures
In the event of a fuel spillage the following actions should take place:
• STOP the fuelling operation, advise the Captain or appropriate Authority and
the Emergency Services.
• EAs directed by the appropriate Authority evacuate all persons from the
immediate area.
• If safe to do so, mobilise fire fighting equipment as standby protection until
the arrival of the airport emergency services.
• Control the movement of un authorised personnel and equipment into the
area.
• As far as possible, restrict all activities inside and outside the spill area to
reduce the risk of ignition.
• All electrical equipment in use during the fuelling operation must be switched
off immediately.
• DO NOT start the APU until the spilled fuel is removed and there is no further
risk of spilled fuel or vapours.
• Normal operations must not be resumed on the aircraft or any engines started
before the person in charge of the emergency, determines that it is safe to
continue.
• If fuel is spilled on any item, then such items are NOT TO BE LOADED into
the aircraft.
• In the event of a fire occurring either on or in the vicinity of the aircraft STOP
the fuelling operation and call the emergency services. Ph.num: 3333
- 26 -
VIII. De/Anti Icing of Aircraft
No aircraft shall be allowed to depart with contamination on the airframe and this
can be prevented by a process of anti-icing and removed by de-icing. Procedures are
well defined in other documents and this section will provide guidelines for safe
Anti/De-icing operations.
De/Anti Icing operations must be performed with extreme caution to prevent injury
to personnel and damage to aircraft and equipment.
The term de-icing will be used throughout this section of the AHM but should also
be considered to cover the anti-icing process.
All staff involved in any stage of de-icing operations must be properly trained,
qualified and have access to information regarding specific procedures for the
aircraft they are servicing.
Prior to winter season all involved staff must undergo refresher training to maintain
their qualification. This qualification must be verified by a written examination.
Prior to de-icing, accumulations of snow may be removed by a process approved by
the operator. This can include the use of brooms, brushes, scrapers or ropes but
extreme caution must be taken to avoid damage to pitot tubes, antennas etc. And all
measures to prevent injury by falls from height taken.
De-icing Fluids must be stored in accordance with the manufactures instructions and
tested regularly to ensure no degradation has occurred.
The operators published holdover charts must be observed.
Communications must be in a standard format. Ensure two way communication
between Fight Deck and Ground Crew is maintained prior, during and when
finalising de-icing.
To ensure flight safety, on completion of the de-ice process the Pilot in Command
must be informed. Using carrier defined de-icing code, of the measures taken. At a
minimum this must include:
• Fluid type
• Fluid Mix
• Date and Local start time of final step
• Fluid brand name
• Confirmation of final check.
If there is any doubt, this must be agreed with the pilot in command prior to
commencing the de-icing process.
- 27 -
Post de-icing inspection, where this is delegated to ground staff, can oly be
performed by a suitable qualified person and this person should be able to identify
themselves by issuing a personalised realise.
IX. Severe Weather Operations
Introduction
Severe weather is a constant danger to all industries that have activities outdoors.
Airsides operations are particularly affected because of the open areas of airports
that are part of the work are. A Severe Weather Operations Plan should be
established.
Scope
This section provides industry recommended practices that when included in a
Severe Weather Operations Plan can minimize the dangers associated with severe
weather in the airside workplace.
Weather definitions
High/sustained winds: winds whether steady or gusting in excess of 75 kph (40
knots).
Lightning: shall include cloud-to-cloud as well as cloud-to-ground electrical activity.
Low visibility: shall include rain, snow, sandstorms of fog conditions when visibility
is typically below 800 m (1/2 mile).
Ground icing conditions: shall include the presence of snow and ice on surfaces and
movement areas as well as when surface temperatures/ wind-chill can cause
freezing.
Working in Extreme Temperatures (hot and cold)
Notification to staff is to be coordinated with the specifics of the weather patterns as
wind conditions will add to the effects of extreme temperature conditions. (E.g.
wind chill, sand storms).
Extreme Temperatures
Extreme temperatures might affect personal safety performance depending on time
of exposure, personal protection, activity and work rotation. All staff should be
made aware of the hazards, and processes that should be adapted to such extreme
conditions where applicable. Medical advice should be sought in the event of
extremes in temperatures.
- 28 -
Heat stress will result in poor performance, lack of concentration, dehydration, and
in the most severe cases of hospitalization. Awareness should be given to the
exposure to working in the environment.
Heat stress injuries can be reduced by some of the following:
• Adequate breaks, ventilation and shelter between activities to reduce exposure
to sunrays.
• Ample supply of drinking water located near to work area.
• Loose and appropriate clothing.
• Work rotation and monitoring.
Cold affects the human performance such as loss of feeling, fatigue, muscle
seizures, loss of awareness, poor concentration and in severe cases may result in
hospitalisation.
Prolonged exposure to wind is a significant factor in increasing cold weather effects
on the human body (wind chill factor).
Things to mitigate the cold effects are:
•
•
•
•
Correct clothing.
Rotation of activity. (essential to sedimentary staff)
Staff monitoring.
Adequate breaks provision of hot fluids and warmed shelter between
activities.
A wind-chill chart or forecast shall be made available to staff.
Severe Weather Forecasting
Knowing when severe weather will impact your work site is a key element in
prevention of injuries or damage. Below are some methods to obtain timely
information on approaching weather:
• Internal weather forecasting.
• National Weather Service Alerts.
• Local TV and Radio broadcasts.
• Pilot reports.
• Airport tower observations
• Ramp tower observations.
• Local detection devices.
- 29 -
In the case of lightning, automatic detection systems are available that track storms,
count and locate each lightning strike and determine the potential for lightning
strikes, based on atmospheric conditions.
These systems require human monitoring and human interpretation. Systems that
combine several methods of detection along with visual observation are the most
effective.
Severe Weather Notification
High Winds
As the measures are to be taken in the event of high winds, it requires a lot of
preparation, the earlier the “Warning” is given, the better.
Lightning
For lightning activity, the notification process may be broken down into 3 phases:
• Alert – Lightning activity is detected at a distance in excess of 8 km (5 miles)
from your operation.
• Stop/Suspend activities – Lightning activity is detected within 5 km (3 miles)
of your operation.
• All Clear – Lightning activity has moved beyond 5 km (3 miles) and is
heading away from your operation.
The distances referred to above may vary dependent upon local climatic parameters.
Low Visibility and Ground Icing
As lo visibility and/or ground icing conditions can be associated with various types
of weather events the notification phase will need to be coordinated with the
specifics of the weather patterns.
Notification Methods
Getting the word out to all personnel that severe weather is on the way or imminent,
is a challenge; therefore all organizations must be integrated into the notification
process. One or more systems may be used:
• Radio – Good for small areas where workers perform their duties together and
team leaders with radios can get the word to everyone.
• Visual – Lights on structures that indicate that you are to take shelter in doors
is another method. These lights must be distinctive so as not to blend into the
back-ground of be confused with other lights. Green for all clear, yellow for
warning, red for take shelter. For single light systems a flashing light may be
used as it is less likely to be confused with other lights. How these lights are
activated and by whom must also be considered.
• Audible – horns or sirens can also be used but they must be able to be heard
over engine and equipment noise.
- 30 -
What to do when Severe Weather is Imminent
General
• Activate the “The Severe Weather Plan” and communicate to all personnel
that it is in effect.
• Meet with ground operations, ground support equipment and maintenance
managers to outline the forecast and review resources.
• Notify dispatch, passenger service and planning groups that operations may be
interrupted.
• Continue to monitor and communicate the weather situation.
High winds
Ensure all personnel know of the impending weather event and before the high
winds arrive determine how long it will take to do all the things described
underneath.
Secure aircraft
• Aircraft should be appropriately secured, per airframe manufacturer´s
procedures by using additional chocks, and/or setting aircraft park brakes, and
/or ballasting the aircraft.
• Secure all cargo nets and close all cargo doors on aircraft.
• Secure all aircraft cabin doors
• Note: Securing the passenger cabin doors with the APU/packs operating or an
external conditioned air source connected can pressurize the aircraft.
• Close cockpit windows.
• Close all service panels.
• Lock control surfaces in accordance with aircraft maintenance manuals.
• Secure aircraft nose gear torsion links to prevent weather vaning with free
moving nose wheels.
• Hook up towbar and attach tugs when possible and install by-pass pins.
• If time permits, and parking areas are available, move the aircraft into
hangars.
• If hangars are not available consider remote parking aircraft to get them away
from structures that they could be blown into. Use all above securing
techniques and face aircraft into the wind if possible.
- 31 -
Loading bridges
• Retract ground power cords.
• Close all doors, retract loading bridges, lower them and secure wheels.
• Position loading bridges so that they face into the wind or up close to the
terminal or where available in a location for tie down and tie them down.
• Remove any loose equipment, e.g. ladders, FOD containers.
Ground support equipment
Remove non-essential ground support equipment from aircraft.
Position the equipment away from the aircraft and outside the path of possible
aircraft movement.
If possible, stow equipment indoors. All equipment left outside must be secured with
brakes set, disconnect strings or carts or dollies so each conveyance is held by its
own brake or attach a vehicle to them to help hold them in place.
Ensure all containers are locked on dollies or transporters with doors or curtains
secured. Remove all empty loose containers from areas around aircraft. If possible
tie them together and/or to a firm structure or store them indoors.
Secure work stands by chain to hitching rails where available or to fences or other
secure equipment. Put jack screws down if so equipped.
Lower all high-reach equipment, e.g. loaders, steps, catering trucks etc. And deploy
stabilizers.
Remove any loose equipment, e.g. chocks, cones, ladders etc.
Baggage and Cargo
Ensure all baggage room and cargo personnel are aware of conditions and do not
continue to bring load to aircraft of outside to be stored.
Use baggage rooms to stow luggage if possible.
Secure all cargo equipment the same as above.
Contact mail and freight facilities and return unloaded freight and mail.
Aircraft Cleaning
Stow all supplies and equipment; do not leave equipment or garbage on loading
bridge steps.
Move vehicles away from aircraft parking areas.
Keep doors of cleaning vehicles closed to avoid lose material being blown around.
Stow hoses on lavatory and water trucks.
Facilities
Ensure facilities personnel are aware of impending weather. Put facilities personnel
on standby for possible shut down of power or possible need to do facility repairs.
Close all doors that lead to the outside.
Secure all dumpsters and trash bins.
- 32 -
Passenger Safety
Ensure all passenger service personnel have up to date information of weather event.
Be prepared to move passengers to safe areas in the terminal.
Passenger enplaning/deplaning may need to be suspended during the weather alert
phases.
Fight crews
Ensure that pilots are advised that because of anticipated high winds, brakes shall be
set on all parked aircraft.
Shift change
Ensure all personnel coming on duty know that your severe weather plan is in effect.
Lightning
On receipt of an ALERT:
• Make preparations for the STOP phase.
• Suspend non-essential activities in open areas.
• Reduce fuelling pressures to prevent accumulation of static charges.
• Avoid using highly conductive equipment.
• On receipt of STOP
• Stop fuelling.
• Discontinue aircraft communication by head set.
• Stop all ramp activity and clear ramp.
• Personnel should seek shelter inside buildings or inside metal bodied vehicles.
No one should seek shelter under any part of the aircraft, loading bridge, near
light poles, fences, under trees.
• Make sure all passenger service personnel have up to date information of
weather event.
• If passengers have not started boarding hold the passengers in gate lounges. If
boarding has started, stop process and leave passengers already boarded on
the aircraft. If an aircraft has just arrived it should be held off the gate until
the lightning alert is terminated.
Low visibility
• All non-essential equipment should leave the Manoeuvring Area.
• Only the minimum required equipment should be permitted airside during low
visibility operations.
• Equipment operators must take extra caution at all intersections and
vehicle/apron taxi-lane crossings.
• Crossing of taxiways, where permitted, should only be undertaken with ATC
clearance.
• When visibility is low, operators must take additional care to ensure that
vehicle windshields are clean.
- 33 -
Operations in Snow &Ice Conditions
• Both ground and work surfaces on equipment will become particularly
hazardous during periods of ground icing conditions. The use of De/AntiIcing fluid can add to the slippery conditions on the ground.
• When ground icing conditions are predicted, special preparations of the
equipment will be necessary to ensure their functionality and safety of
operation.
• Wherever possible, snow and ice formations on equipment and work surfaces
should be removed prior to the start of operations.
• Personnel should allow extra time for activities, drive more slowly and allow
a greater distance to stop equipment.
• Personnel should be provided with suitable clothing to be able to maintain
efficiency.
Lightning Safety
• Generally if an individual can see lightning and/or hear thunder they are
already at risk.
• High winds, rainfall, and cloud cover often act as precursors for actual cloudto-ground strikes, notifying to the individual to take action.
• Many lightning casualties occur in the beginning, as the storm approaches,
because people ignore these precursors. Also, many lightning casualties occur
after the perceived threat has passed.
• The lightning threat generally diminishes with time after the last sound of
thunder, but may persist for more than 30 minutes.
• When thunderstorms are in the area but not overhead, the lightning threat can
exist, even when it is sunny, not raining, or when clear sky is visible.
• Remember that lightning is always generated and connected to a thundercloud
but may strike many miles from the edge of the thunderstorm cell. Acceptable
downtime has to be balanced with the risk posed by lightning.
Lightning Protection
The purpose of lightning protection is to protect persons, buildings and their
contents, or structures in general, form the effects of lightning, to a certain
acceptable level. Lightning protection is not aimed to prevent the formation of the
lightning discharge, instead it is intended to prevent the object form being directly
hit or be affected by an remote lightning discharge.
No place is absolutely safe from lightning threat, however, some places are safer
than others, e.g. Inside terminal buildings, fully enclosed metallic vehicles or safety
shelters.
- 34 -
Personnel Safety
During lightning activity personnel should not:
• Get out of enclosed vehicles.
• Use a head set connected to aircraft.
• Use portable electronic devices, e.g. mobile phones, pagers, two-way radios in
open areas or in front of windows.
• Stay in open areas or under aircraft.
• Seek shelter under tall tree.
• Load or unload explosive flammable material.
X. Safety Considerations
Movement Operations
for
Aircraft
Introduction
Aircraft movement operations must be performed with extreme caution to prevent
injuries to personnel as well as to avoid damage to aircraft, equipment and facilities.
Independently of the minimum safety requirements, safety factors should be
incorporated into the standard operating procedures.
Definitions
“PUSHBACK”: Moving of aircraft from parking position to taxi position by use
of specialised ground support equipment.
“POWERBACK”: Moving of aircraft from parking position to taxi position by use
of the aircraft’s engines.
“TOWING”: Moving of aircraft, other than pushback operations, with/without load
on board by use of specialised ground support equipment.
Recommendation
The CST personnel involved in aircraft movement operations may take into
consideration the following safety hint.
General
•
•
•
Prior to performing any aspect of aircraft movement operations an assessment,
will be made considering infrastructure, number of persons involved, aircraft
and equipment use to ensure a safe operation.
Only those personnel trained and qualified should perform aircraft movement
operations functions. Assign a person to be “in charge” of the operations. The
person “in charge” of the operation should brief all other personnel involved in
the operation of their responsibilities.
Personnel should be instructed on the hazards associated with aircraft
movement operations, (e.g. ice, snow etc).
- 35 -
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
An inspection should be made of the surface conditions to determine if it is safe
to conduct the operation, (e.g. ice, snow, etc).
A visual inspection must be made of the aircraft to ensure all service
doors/panels are closed and locked.
All equipment, except that necessary for the departure, is to be positioned
behind the equipment restraint line before the aircraft pushback is commenced.
Ensure that all ground equipment are removed from the aircraft and there are
adequate clearances between the aircraft and facilities/equipment.
A visual inspection must be made of the area of the operation to ensure it is
clear of FOD.
Verification must be made so that power cables, loading bridges etc are
detached from the aircraft.
A visual inspection must be made to ensure chocks are removed from all
wheels.
A general check of landing gear shock strut extension.
Personnel performing the functions required by the operation should be
positioned away from hazard zones.
Only those persons required to perform operating functions should be in the
operating area.
During aircraft movement the maximum nose-gear turn limits shall not be
exceeded in accordance with airframe manufacturers’ instructions.
Communication with the flight deck should if possible be achieved in a manner
that eliminates the need for personnel to walk in close proximity to the aircraft
nose gear of the tow tractor during the operation; e.g. use of flexible cord to the
tractor driver, or cordless system.
Agreed phraseology should be used for all verbal communication between the
flight deck and ground personnel.
When communication between the flight deck and tractor driver is relayed by a
third person it is important that this person either uses a flexible cord between
their headset and the connection to the aircraft or a cordless system to be able
to maintain a safe distance from both the aircraft and tractor in motion.
Provision should be made for a back-up communication system in the event of
a failure of the primary system.
Standard hand signals should be used for manual communications.
Prior to moving an aircraft all personnel involved in the operation must have
agreed on how communication should be performed and towing manoeuvred.
Standard operating procedures should be developed, in accordance with
airframe manufacturers’ recommendations, for each type of aircraft movement
operation.
Personnel performing marshalling or wing-walking functions should utilise
during daytime operations, either wands or gloves of a high visibility colour
and during low visibility/night operations lighted wands.
- 36 -
• Operations conducted in poor surface/weather conditions should be performed
at low speed.
• The general area of the operation should be kept clear of ground support
equipment.
Pushback Operations
• The operator should stay in view of the flight deck, remain clear of the hazard
zones during operation and avoid walking backwards when despatching the
aircraft.
• The tractor and towbar/shear-pin combination should be suitable for the
operation, considering: the aircraft type and weight, the weather conditions, the
apron surface conditions.
• The tractor should be in the appropriate drive mode prior to the commencement
of the operation.
• Chocks should not be removed from the main-gear until the tractor and towbar
are fully secured to the nose-gear and the parking brake set on the tractor.
• When connecting the towbar to the tractor personnel should be facing the
tractor and have both legs on only one side of the towbar. i.e. they should not
straddle the bar.
• The tractor and towbar should be in-line with the centre line of the aircraft
before the pushback commences.
• The tractor should not be left unattended with its engine running.
• The wheels on the towbar should be fully retracted/off the ground before the
pushback commences.
• For aircraft fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that the by-pass pin is
correctly installed prior to connecting the towbar to the aircraft and before
pushback commences and is removed after the towbar has been disconnected.
• For aircraft not fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that either the
steering hydraulic system is depressurised of the nose-leg steering torque links
are disconnected (as applicable).
• Personnel should not step across the towbar whilst the pushback operation is in
progress.
• If the connection between the aircraft and tractor should be lost while in motion
it is important to inform the flight deck to apply brakes gently.
• When stopping the pushback the throttle on the tractor will be closed and
brakes applied gently.
• At the end of the pushback sequence and before the towbar is disconnected, the
flight deck should be instructed to set the aircraft brakes and hold position until
receipt of visual signal for final clearance to taxi.
Note: Brakes set must be confirmed to ground staff.
• At the end of the pushback sequence and before the towbar is disconnected,
tension must be released from the towbar.
- 37 -
• A Chock may be positioned in front of the nosewheel while the disconnection
of the towbar takes place.
• Before the aircraft commences taxiing under its own power, all equipment and
personnel must be moved clear of the aircraft. Ground staff shall then give the
final clearance signal once they are clear of the taxiway/taxi lane and display of
the by-pass pin (if appropriate) to the flight deck crew. This indicates that all
equipment and personnel are clear of the aircraft and that it is safe to
commence taxying. An acknowledgement of the signal must be received from
the flight deck crew.
Nose-gear controlled (towbarless)
• The operator should stay in view of the flight deck, remain clear for the
hazard zones during operation and avoid walking backwards when
desptatching the aircraft.
• The tractor should be suitable for the operation, considering: the aircraft
type and weight, the weather conditions, the apron surface conditions.
• The aircraft shall not be lifted while equipment and/or boarding bridge
are still connected to the aircraft. Inform cockpit crew prior to lifting
the aircraft nose landing gear.
• Chocks should not be removed from the main-gear until the tractor is
fully secured to the nose-gear and brakes on tractor set.
• Ensure that the aircraft nose wheels are safely locked in the tractor
locking mechanism when connected to aircraft.
• Ensure that the nosewheel are lifted well above ground during the entire
pushback.
• The tractor should be in-line with the centre line of the aircraft before
the pushback commences.
• For aircraft fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that the bypass pin is correctly installed prior to connecting the tractor to the
aircraft and before pushback commences and is removed after the
tractor has been disconnected.
• For aircraft not fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that either
the steering hydraulic system is depressurised or the nose landing gear
steering torque links are disconnected (as applicable).
• If the connection between the aircraft and tractor should be lost while in
motion it is important to inform the flight deck to apply brakes gently.
• At the end of the pushback sequence and before the tractor is
disconnected the flight deck shall be instructed to set the aircraft brakes
and hold position until receipt of visual signals for final clearance to
taxi.
Note: Brakes set must be confirmed to ground staff.
- 38 -
• After disconnecting the tractor from the nose gear and before removal
of the by-pass pin, position the tractor in such a way that it is visible
from the cockpit (e.g. at a 90 degrees angle from the aircraft).
• Before the aircraft commences taxiing under its own power, all
equipment and personnel must be moved clear of the aircraft. Ground
staff shall then give the final clearance signal once they are clear of the
taxiway/taxi lane and display of the by-pass pin (if appropriate) to the
flight deck crew. This indicates that all equipment and personnel are
clear of the aircraft and that it s safe to commence taxiing. An
acknowledgement of the signal must be received from the flight deck
crew.
Main-gear controlled
• The operator should stay in the flight deck, remain clear of the hazard
zones during operation and avoid walking backwards when despatching
the aircraft.
• Ensure the correct remote control unit is used for the corresponding unit
(verify by the unit number or colour code).
• Prior to connection of the unit to the aircraft a check should be made, at
normal operating distance, to ensure that the unit’s remote control
system is functional.
• When positioning the unit on aircraft verification should be made that
the unit is appropriately configured for the aircraft type.
• Standard terminology should be used by the headset operator to enable
the aircraft steering function to be performed from the flight deck, as
follows:
“left, left”
“right, right”
“steady”
“reduce turn”
“neutral”
“rollers are open”
- Flight deck apply left steering
- Flight deck apply right steering
- Flight deck hold steering in current
position
- Flight deck reduce steering angle
- Flight deck place steering in neutral
position
- Standby for hand signals
• In the event of any equipment malfunction during push-back, the
headset operator should instruct the flight deck to gently apply the
aircraft brakes.
• At the end of the pushback the operator should verify that the rollers are
fully open by observing the unit’s indicator lights, before giving the allclear signal to the flight deck.
- 39 -
• In the event that an emergency passenger evacuation is required during
pushback, the main-gear controlled unit may have to be removed from
the aircraft so that it will not interfere with the evacuation process.
Power Back Operations
• The Powerback operations must be in conjunction with the safety
considerations for aircraft movement operations.
• Powerback operations should only be carried out within
limitations/approval of the respective authorities.
• Ground crew should consist of a minimum of 3 persons, i.e. a
marshaller and 2 wing walkers. The marshaller is in charge of the
operations.
• The marshaller engaged in powerback operations should wear, in
addition to their normal personal protective equipment, protective
goggles.
• In conjunction with the safety considerations operations should not be
conducted if any one of the following conditions exist:
- If any member of the ground crew is not properly protected,
the departure gate is not approved for such operations,
- The entire area of the operation is not adequately
illuminated,
- Visibility is restricted due to weather conditions,
- A accumulation ice or snow on the apron,
- Verbal agreement is not reached between the marshaller and
the flight deck.
• To terminate a powerback, only the “come straight ahead” signal is to
be given to the flight deck, the “stop” signal only being given when the
aircraft has achieved forward movement.
- 40 -
Towing Operations
• The tractor and towbar/shear-pin combination should be suitable for the
operation, considering: the aircraft type and weight, the weather
conditions, the apron surface conditions.
• The tractor should be in the appropriate drive mode prior to the
commencement of the operation.
• Chocks should not be removed from the main-gear until the tractor and
towbar are fully secured to the nose-gear and parking brakes on the
tractor are set.
• For aircraft fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that the bypass pin is correctly installed prior to connecting the towbar to the
aircraft and before pushback commences and is removed after pushback
is complete.
• For aircraft not fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that either
the steering hydraulic system is depressurised or the noseleg steering
torque links are disconnected (as applicable).
• Prior to the commencement of any towing operation a check should be
made to ensure the aircraft is “configured” correctly for the operation.
• Prior to the commencement of any towing operation a check should be
made that the communications link between the tractor and the aircraft
is functional.
• In the event that the communication link between the tractor and the
aircraft is broken during the tow the operation should be immediately
stopped.
• When towing on ice or snow the towing speed must be considerably
reduced and in particular before entering any turns. Under slippery
conditions stopping the towing operation while in a turn should be
avoided.
• If the aircraft is about to overtake the tractor the flightdeck operator
should immediately be warned by horn signal or radio/interphone to
immediately apply the aircraft brakes gently.
• The “brake rider” in the cockpit should wear a seat belt.
• Any personnel on board a moving aircraft should be seated.
• The aircraft should have full hydraulic brake system pressure prior to
and for the duration of the towing operation.
• When towing on a “down slope” the operation should be at a very low
speed to prevent the aircraft overtaking the tractor.
• When towing during low visibility/night conditions the aircraft should
be adequately illuminated.
• If maintenance towing is done, a chock shall be placed behind the
maingear before the tug is disconnected.
- 41 -
Towbarless
• The tractor should be suitable for the operation, considering: the aircraft
type and weight, the weather conditions, the apron surface conditions.
• Chocks should not be removed from the main-gear until the tractor is
fully secured to the nose-gear and brakes confirmed as set on the
tractor.
• For aircraft fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that the bypass pin is correctly installed prior to connecting the tractor to the
aircraft and before towing commences and is removed after towing is
completed.
• For aircraft not fitted with a Steering By-pass system, ensure that either
the steering hydraulic system is depressurised of the noseleg steering
torque links are disconnected (as applicable).
• When towing on ice or snow the towing speed must be considerably
reduced and in particular before entering any turns. Under slippery
conditions stopping the towing operation while in a turn should be
avoided.
• If the aircraft is about to overtake the tractor the flight deck operator
should immediately be warned by horn signal or radio/interphone to
immediately apply the aircraft brakes gently.
• When towing is on a “down slope” the operation should be at a very
low speed to prevent the aircraft overtaking the tractor.
• When approaching any facilities or congested areas the tractor operator
request the guidance of wigswalkers.
Movement In/Out of Hangars
• The movement of aircraft in the hangars operations must be in
conjunction with the safety considerations for aircraft movement
operations.
• Only those personnel trained and qualified in the movement of aircraft
in/out of hangars should perform this operation and a crew chief
assigned to the operation.
• Adequate personnel (wing/tail walkers) should be assigned to the
operation to ensure clearances between the aircraft and objects in the
hangar.
• Method of communication between the personnel involved in the
aircraft movement in/out of the hangar should be agreed upon before
any movement is started.
• The tractor and/or towbar/shear-pin combination should be suitable for
the operation, considering: the aircraft type and weight, the weather
condition, the apron surface conditions.
- 42 -
• Hangar door should be opened and secured to ensure sufficient wingtip
and horizontal/vertical stabiliser clearances under all operational
conditions.
• Aircraft docking systems and all other equipment must be removed and
stowed out of the path of travel of the aircraft.
• Consideration should be given to the ability of the tow tractor to
manoeuvre in/out of the tow position inside the hangar.
• Floor markings and stop signs should be in accordance with aircraft
type operating in/out of the hangars.
Ground/Flight Deck Communication
Minimum
Ground
Phraseologies
Staff/Cockpit
Crew
Pushback preparation
FD-GC
GC-FD
Confirm by-pass pin inserted and external checks
completed
Confirmed complete
If aircraft type requires pressurisation
FD-GC
GC-FD
Are you clear to pressurise?
Clear to pressurise
Pushback
FD-GC
GC-FD
Are we ready to push?
Ready to push
GC-FD
FD-GC
Release brakes
Brakes released
FD-GC
GC-FD
Cleared to push, face xxxx
Cleared to push, face xxxx
- 43 -
Engine start
FD-GC
GC-FD
FD-GC
Are we clear to start engines?
Clear to start engine(s)
Starting engine(s)
On completion of pushback
GC-FD
FD-GC
Pushback complete, set brakes
Brakes set
If using two-man pushback team
FD-GC
GC-FD
GC-FD
Clear to disconnect tractor/towbar
Disconnecting tractor/towbar
All ground equipment clear, by-pass pin removed, wait for
clearance on left/right
Using single-man pushback team
FD-GC
GC-FD
Clear to disconnect tractor/towbar
Disconnecting tractor/towbar, wait for clearance on
left/right
Note:
Once the Ground crew are clear of the taxiway they will display the bypass pin. The by-pass pin will be shown with a thumb up signal which
will be acknowledged by the flight crew before the ground crew leave
the area. Ground crew are to remain in position until the aircraft
commences its taxi.
Warning: Aircraft taxi or landing lights must not be switched on at any
time the Flight Crew suspect that the tug is attached to the aircraft of if
any person is believed to be in close proximity to the lights, even in
daylight.
GC-FD
FD-GC
Stop, Stop, Stop, Set Brakes
Brakes set
- 44 -
XI. Peculiarities of Some KAIA Aircrafts
C-130
IL76
A340
AN124
B747
Canadians Hercules are very sensitive with the GPU frequency: when the frequency of the GPU is
more than 2 Hz bellow 400 Hz, the GPU electrical power is disconnected from the aircraft.
Two IL76 cannot occupy two adjacent tactical positions, example: apron 8 positions 3 and 5. Almost
always requires GPU.
Airbus A340 always requests air-starter and refuelling ladder.
Most of the times it requires GPU.
Requires: Chocks and refuelling ladder and sometime air-starter.
WINGSPAN, LENGTH & PARKING POSITIONS OF KAIA
AIRCRAFS:
- 45 -
SAFETY DISTANCE OF KAIA AIRCRAFTS:
- 46 -
XII. Pacing Wingspans
Some people have an uncanny ability to look at a parking space and say “that
aircraft will fit in that parking space with 2 meters distance to spare”. Consider
yourself lucky if you can do it consistently.
For the rest of us mere mortals, we have devised a system that works just as well.
We rely on a system of “pacing” to determine how large a space really is. Here is
how it works:
• First, find out how long your pace is. On your pavement, take 10 slightly
exaggerated steps, then measure that distance and divide it by 10. Your pace
may be 0.76 metres, 0.86 metres, 0.90metres, etc. Keep doing this until you
can consistently take the same size step every time.
• Next, convert an aircraft’s wingspan into metres, and then divide that number
by the number of metres in your pace. For example, a TBM’s span is 16.95
metres. 16.95 divided by my pace, 0.95 metres = 17.84 or 18 paces. In this
example, you must have 18 paces plus the safety distance.
NOTE: Once you have your paces down put those on an index card in your note
pad.
Marshallers Stride Guide
Fuselage Length
AC
Wingspan
Wingspan in
Fuselage
in paces
mts.
paces
Length
mts.
Remember:
• You must develop a consistent pace.
• Plan ahead.
• You cannot wait until the aircraft is before you to start your pacing.
• Allow reasonable wingtip clearance.
• If something is not right, stop the aircraft and ask for help. It is much better to
apologize to the pilot for your slip than it is to pay out big dollars to fix his
crumpled wingtip.
• Always think safety first!
On being a “wing walker”
• Only one marshaller at a time should be acting as a wing walker. If two or
more marshallers are in position, they should decide in advance who will have
the honour. Those not helping should move back or squat down, so that there
will be no confusion as to who is the wing walker.
- 47 -
• The wing walker should advise the marshaller in control how close the tip
clearance is, not only by giving “thumbs up” or “thumbs down”, but by
holding his hands apart to simulate the actual clearance.
XIII. Signals Used For Aircraft Movement
on the Apron
All Marshaller signals will comply with North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Standardization Agreement 3117, and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO
signals.
The marshaller will signal facing the aircraft while standing in one of these positions:
1. Fixed-wing aircraft. The marshaller will stand forward of the aircraft to the pilots left.
Remember if you cannot see the pilot he cannot see you!
2. Helicopters. The marshaller will stand in front in full view of the pilot.
During night operations, the marshaller will use a pair of same colour light wands. During taxiing
or parking, the pilot must stop immediately if one or both of the marshaller’s wands fail.
Upon observing or receiving any of the signals, the aircraft shall take such action as may be
required by the interpretation of the signal given.
The signals shall be used only for the purpose indicated and no other signals likely to be confused
with them shall be used.
No person shall guide an aircraft unless trained, qualified and approved by the appropriate
authority to carry out the functions of a signalman.
The signalman shall wear a distinctive fluorescent identification vest to allow the flight crew to
identify that he or she is the person responsible for the marshalling operation.
Daylight-fluorescent wands, table-tennis bats or gloves shall be used for all signalling by all
participating ground staff during daylight hours. Illuminated wands shall be used at night or in low
visibility.
When you are going to marshall as you approach the aircraft, look all around, under and behind for
anything that may be a potential hazard either to the aircraft or to personnel behind the aircraft.
Assume your position in front the pilot. Make eye contact, raise fully extended arms straight above
head with wands pointing up, move hands forward and afterwards to keep from blending into the
background. Indicating to him “I am your marshaller.” Remember, if you can’t see the pilot, he
can’t see you. Your posture should be balanced, legs apart, yet relaxed. Check for fire bottle;
look over aircraft for leaking fuel, oil, and hydraulic fluid or open compartments. Check to ensure
civilians and ground crew are out of the way. Do a 360 degrees check before the engines are
started. Use the ICAO & NATO signals described ahead to marshall out:
- 48 -
Fig. 1 WING WALKER/GUIDE
Raise right hand above head level with
wand pointing up; move left-hand wand
pointing down toward body.
Note: This signal provides an indication by
a person positioned at the aircraft wing tip,
to the pilot/marshaller/push-back operator,
that the aircraft movement on/off a parking
position would be unobstructed.
Fig. 2 PROCEED TO NEXT
MARSHALLER
Point both arms upward, move and extend
arms outward to side of body and point with
wands to direction of the next marshaller or
taxi area.
Fig. 3 THIS MARSHALLER (Identify
gate)
Raise fully extended arms straight above
head with wands pointing up, move hands
fore and aft to keep from blending into
background.
- 49 -
Fig. 4 CONTINUE TO TAXI STRAIGHT
AHEAD OR MOVE FORWARD
Bend extended arms at elbows and move
wands up and down from chest height to
head.
Fig. 5 TURN TO THE LEFT (from the
pilot point of view)
With right arm and wand extended at a 90º
angle to the body, left hand makes the come
ahead signal motion. The rate of signal
motion indicates to the pilot the rate of
aircraft movement desired.
Fig. 6 TURN TO THE RIGHT (from the
pilots point of view)
With left arm and wan extended at a 90º
angle to the body, right hand makes the
come ahead signal. The rate of signal
motion indicates to the pilot the rate of
aircraft movement desired.
- 50 -
Fig. 7 SLOW-DOWN
Move extended arms downwards in a
“patting gesture”, moving wands up and
down from waist to knees.
Fig. 8 NORMAL STOP
Fully extended arms and wands at a 90degree angle and slowly move to above
head until wands cross.
Fig. 9 EMERGENCY STOP
Abruptly extended arms and wands to the
top head, crossing wands.
- 51 -
Fig. 10 START ENGINES
Raise right arm to head level with wand
pointing up and start a circular motion with
head; at the same time, with left arm raised
above head level, point to engine to be
started.
Fig. 11 CUT ENGINES/ROTOR
Extend arm with wand forward of body at
shoulder level; move hand and wand to top
of left shoulder and draw wand to top of
right shoulder in a slicing motion across
throat.
Fig. 12 SLOW-DOWN ENGINE(S) ON
SIDE INDICATED
With arms down and wands toward ground,
wave either right or left wand up and down
indicating engine(s) on left or right side
respectively should be slowed down.
- 52 -
Fig. 13 MOVE BACK
With arms in front of body at waist height,
rotate arms in a forward motion. To stop
rearward movement, use signals: Normal
Stop or Emergency stop
Fig. 14 TURN WHILE BACKING-TAIL
TO THE RIGHT
Point left arm with wand down and bring
right arm from overhead vertical position to
horizontal forward position, repeating rightarm movement.
Fig. 15 TURN WHILE BACKING-TAIL
TO THE LEFT
Point right arm with wand down and bring
left arm from overhead vertical position to
horizontal forward position, repeating leftarm movement.
- 53 -
Fig. 16 GPU CONNECTED
Hold arms fully extended above head; open
left hand horizontally and move finger tips
of right hand into and touch open palm of
left hand (forming a “T”). At night,
illuminated wands can also be used to form
the “T” above head.
Fig. 17 GPU DISCONNECTED
Hold arms fully extended above head with
finger tips of right hand touching open
horizontal palm of left hand (forming a
“T”); then move right hand away from the
left. Do not disconnect power until
authorized by flight crew. At night,
illuminated wands can also be used to form
the “T” above head.
Fig. 18 ESTABLISH COMMUNICATION
VIA INTERPHONE (technical/servicing
communication signal)
Extend both arms at 90 degrees from body
and move hands to cup both ears.
- 54 -
Fig. 19 OPEN/CLOSE STAIRS
(technical/servicing communication
signal)
With right arm at side and left arm raised
above head at a 45 degree angle, move right
arm in a sweeping motion towards top of
left shoulder.
Note: This signal is intended mainly for
aircraft with the set of integral stairs at the
front.
Fig. 20 CHOCKS - INSERTED
With arms and wands fully extended above
head, move wands inward in a “jabbing”
motion until wands touch. Ensure
acknowledgement is received from flight
crew.
Fig. 21 CHOCKS - REMOVED
With arms and wands fully extended above
head, move wands outward in a “jabbing
motion. Do not remove chocks until
authorized by flight crew.
- 55 -
Fig 22 RELEASE BRAKES
Raise hand just above shoulder height with
hand closed in a fist. Ensuring eye contact
with flight crew, open palm. Do not move
until receipt of “thumbs up”
acknowledgement from flight crew.
Fig 23 SET BRAKES
Raise hand just above shoulder height with
open palm. Ensuring eye contact with flight
crew, close hand into a fist. Do not move
until receipt of “thumbs up”
acknowledgement from flight crew.
5
- 56 -
Fig. 26 NEGITAVE (NOT CLEAR)
Hold right arm straight out at 90 degrees
from shoulder and point wand down to
ground or display hand with “thumbs
down”; left hand remains at side by knee.
Fig. 27 FIRE
Move right-hand wand in a “fanning”
motion from shoulder to knee, while at the
same time pointing with left-hand wand to
area of fire.
Fig. 28 EXTERNAL STARTING AIR
CONNECTED
Hands above head, left hand cupped, right
fully clenched, right fist moved in direction
of left hand and inserted into cup made by
left hand.
- 57 -
Fig. 29 EXTERNAL STARTING AIR
DISCONNECTED
Hands above head, left hand cupped, right
fist moved away from left hand
withdrawing fist from cup made by left
hand.
Fig. 30 ABANDON AIRCRAFT
Simulate unfastening seat belt and shoulder
straps and throwing them up and off.
Fig. 31 PERSONNEL APPROCH
AIRCRAFT
Left hand raised vertically overhead, palm
towards aircraft. The other hand indicates to
personnel concerned and gestures towards
aircraft.
- 58 -
Fig. 32 CLEARENCE FOR
PERSONNEL TO APPROCH
AIRCRAFT
A beckoning motion with right hand at eye
level.
Fig. 33 LANDING GEAR PINS
REMOVED
With arms and hands in the “INSTALLED”
position, the right hand unclasps left
forearm.
Fig. 34 LANDING GEAR PINS
INSTALLED
With arms above head, the right hand clasps
left forearm.
- 59 -
Fig. 35 LANDING GEAR PINS
REMOVED
With arms and hands in the “INSTALLED”
position, the right hand unclasps left
forearm.
Fig. 36 HOT BRAKES
Arms extended with forearm perpendicular
to ground. Palms facing body.
Fig. 37 HOT BRAKES LEFT SIDE
Arms extended with forearm perpendicular
to ground. Gesture indicates left side.
- 60 -
Fig. 38 HOT BRAKES RIGHT SIDE
Arms extended with forearm perpendicular
to ground. Gesture indicates right side.
Fig. 39 ENGAGE NOSE GEAR
STEERING
Point to nose with the index finger while
indicating direction of turn with the other
index finger.
Fig. 40 DISENGAGE NOSE GEAR
STEERING
Point to nose with the index finger, lateral
wave with open palm of other hand at
shoulder height.
- 61 -
Fig. 41 TAIL WHEEL/NOSE WHEEL
LOCKED
Hands together overhead, palms open from
the wrist in a vertical V, and then closed.
Fig. 42 TAIL WHEEL/NOSE WHEEL
UNLOCKED
Hand overhead, palms together then opened
from the wrists to form a vertical V.
Fig. 43 TILLER BAR/STEERING ARM
IN PLACE
Hold nose with left hand, right hand moving
horizontally at waist level.
- 62 -
Signals Used for Helicopters
Fig. 44 MOVE UPWARD
Fully extend arms and wands at a 90
degree angle to sides and, with palms
turned up, move hands upwards. Speed of
movement indicates rate of ascent.
Fig. 45 MOVE DOWNWARDS
Fully extend arms and wands at a 90
degree angle to sides and, with palms
turned down, move hands downwards.
Speed of movement indicates rate of
descent.
Fig. 46 MOVE HORIZONTALLY TO
THE RIGHT (from pilot’s point of
view)
Extend arm horizontally at a 90 degree
angle to left side of body. Move other arm
in the same direction in a sweeping
motion.
- 63 -
Fig. 47 MOVE HORIZONTALLY TO
THE LEFT (from pilot’s point of view)
Extend arm horizontally at a 90 degree
angle to right side of body. Move other
arm in the same direction in a sweeping
motion.
Fig. 48 HOVER
Fully extended horizontal arms and wands
at a 90 degres angle to the sides.
Fig. 49 LAND
Cross arms with wands downwards and in
front of body.
- 64 -
Fig. 50 HOLD POSITION/STAND BY
Fully extend arms and wands downwards
at a 45 degree angle to sides. Hold position
until aircraft is clear for next manoeuvre.
Fig. 51 DISPATCH AIRCRAFT
Perform a standard salute with right hand
or wand to dispatch the aircraft. Maintain
eye contact with flight crew until aircraft
has begun to taxi.
Fig. 52 DO NOT TOUCH CONTROLS
(technical/servicing communication
signal)
Extend right arm fully above head and
close fist or hold wand in horizontal
position; left arm remains at side by knee.
- 65 -
Fig. 53 LANDING DIRECTION
Marshaller turns and faces toward point
where aircraft is to land, the arms are
lowered repeatedly from a vertical position
to a horizontal position, stopping finally in
the horizontal position.
Fig. 54 WAVE OFF
Waving of arms over the head.
Fig. 55 TAKE OFF THIS WAY (at
pilot’s discretion)
Marshaller conceals left hand and makes
circular motion of right hand over head in
horizontal plane ending in a throwing
motion of arm towards direction of take
off.
- 66 -
Fig. 56 ENGAGE ROTOR(S)
Circular motion in horizontal plane with
right hand above head.
Signal from the Pilot of an Aircraft to the
Marshaller
These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the
signalman, and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the signalman.
The aircraft engines are numbered in relation to the signalman facing the aircraft, from right to left
(i.e. num. 1 engine being the port outer engine).
Fig. 57 NEED FUEL
Raise arm and hand, with the thumb finger
aiming to the mouth.
- 67 -
Fig. 58 LIGHTS ON
Raise arm and hand, with the fingers
Index and middle extended and aiming to
the eyes.
Fig. 59 BRAKES ENGAGED
Raise arm and hand, with fingers
extended, horizontally in front of face,
then clench fist.
Note.- The moment the fist is clenched or
the fingers are extended indicates,
respectively, the moment of brake
engagement or release.
Fig. 60 BRAKES RELEASED
Raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally
in front of face, and then extend fingers.
Note.- The moment the fist is clenched or
the fingers are extended indicates,
respectively, the moment of brake
engagement or release.
.
- 68 -
Fig. 61 INSERT CHOCKS
Arms extended, palms outwards, move
hands inwards to cross in front of face.
Fig. 62 REMOVE CHOCKS
The hands crossed in front of face, palms
outwards, move arms outwards.
Fig. 63 READY TO START ENGINE (S)
Raise the appropriate number of fingers on
one hand indicating the number of the
engine to be started.
- 69 -
Hand Signals
XIV. Radio Communications Procedures
• Use a transceiver with the airports ground frequency on it. Each vehicle
should have a call sign identifying the vehicle. (i.e. Orange 1, Orange 2, etc.)
• Know the proper phraseology and never use Citizen’s Band (CB) lingo or law
enforcement “Ten” codes.
• Think about what you are going to say before calling the controller.
• Use the proper sequence in calling the controller.
a) Say who you are calling and who you are. (Ground, Orange 1)
b) Wait for the controller to respond. Sometimes it may take awhile if they
are busy. When the controller responds, state where you are and where
you want to go. (Orange 1 is on CAF ramp and would like to proceed to
the general aviation ramp (heavies)).
c) The controller will either approve or deny your request, or issue special
instructions. Acknowledge that you have heard the controller. The
section titled “Aviation Phraseology” lists ground control phrases and
definitions. You should know what they mean before going onto any
taxiway or runway. Note: Use extreme caution when you hear the
phrase “go ahead”. Controllers use this to mean “state your
request” not to proceed to where you want to go.
- 70 -
Communications are not difficult with a little practice. If you are ever unsure what
the controller said, or if you don’t understand an instruction, ASK TO THE
CONTROLLER TO REPEAT IT WITH “SAY AGAIN”. A controller, even one
who is busy would rather repeat and explain something than have a
misunderstanding lead to an accident or runway incursion. Don’t proceed thinking
that the instructions will become clear once you go a little further.
Aviation Phraseology
Definitions
Approved:
Permission given for
action.
Approved as requested:
Permission given to carry out the
action according to the request.
Let me know you have received and
understand this message.
Acknowledge:
requested
Advise intentions:
Tell me what you plan to do.
Affirmative:
Break:
Yes
To be used where there is no clear
distinction between the text and
other portions of the message.
Indicate the separation between
messages transmitted to different
aircraft in a very busy environment.
Authorized to proceed under the
conditions specified.
Establish communication with.
My version is ... is that correct?
Break Break:
Cleared:
Contact:
Confirm:
Correction:
Correct:
Disregard:
Go ahead:
Expedite:
Expedite leaving the runway
An error has been made in the
transmission and the correct version
follows.
True or Accurate.
Ignore.
State your request.
Carry out the activity as quickly as
possible considering flight and
ground safety, always acknowledge.
Person/agency/vehicle must leave
the runway at the designated
- 71 -
at Delta:
intersection (Delta).
Hold:
Stop where you are, wait for the
next call, always acknowledge.
Stop at least 20 mts. Distance away
from the runway edge line, wait for
the next call, always acknowledge.
Stop at least 20 mts. Distance away
from the intersection applicable
taxiway edge line) wait for the next
call, always acknowledge.
How much was the message
readable.
Hold short of runway:
Hold short of taxiway Foxtrot:
How do you read? :
If unable (alternative
instructions) and advise:
Leave the runway/taxiway
Immediately:
Leave the runway
at Delta:
Monitor:
Negative:
Immediately:
I say again:
Pass your message:
Proceed:
(Read you) loud and clear:
(You are) Unreadable:
Read back:
Repeat it:
If unable, maintain alternative
instructions and advise.
Person/agency/vehicle must leave
the runway/taxiway in a shortest
way as fast as safely possible.
Person/agency/vehicle must leave
the runway at the designated
intersection (Delta).
Listen out on (frequency).
No or Permission not granted or
That is not correct or Not Capable.
At once.
I repeat for clarity or emphasis.
Say your message/request.
You can begin or continue moving.
Quality of the message was
inaudible,
check
your
radio/microphone then try again.
Quality of the message was
inaudible,
check
you
radio/microphone then try again.
Repeat my message back to me as
received.
Repeat you message/request.
- 72 -
Report:
Roger:
Say again:
Say again all
before/between/after:
Speak slower:
Standby:
Stop:
Unable:
Verify:
Wilco:
Words twice
Your transmission is
Broken, unreadable:
Pass me the following information.
I have received all of your last
transmission. (It should not be used
to answer a yes or no question).
Repeat what you just said.
Repeat the specified part of this
message before/between/after back
to me exactly as received.
Reduce your rate of speech.
Requested action is neither approve
or prohibited, the answer needs
further coordination of the situation,
wait for the next call.
Stop at present position, wait for the
next call.
I can’t do that
Request
confirmation
of
information.
I have received your message,
understand it, and will comply.
a) As a request: Communication is
difficult. Please send every word, or
group of words, twice.
b)
As
information:
Since
communication is difficult, every
word, or group of words, in this
message will be sent twice.
Parts of the transmission were
readable but due to breaks during
transmitting generally the whole
message was unreadable.
The following calls are examples only. It is impossible to standardize each case that
can happen. The users must be aware that ATC personnel are busy with handling air
and ground movements on the airfield at the same time, which is why they might not
answer on the first call instantly. If you call the TOWER and there in no answer at
once, do not call over and over again but try to call the TOWER within one to two
minutes. When speaking, keep the message short and clear. Speak slowly in order to
be understandable (attention native English speakers!). First call the tower with your
call sign to get attention to your call. After getting a respond, pass your
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message/request. Regardless of that, the answer from the tower is positive or
negative. In any case the caller must acknowledge the tower’s answer.
General syntax of a radio call:
Called party (i.e. who is called), Caller (i.e. who calls), message/request, reason,
time needed on the runway.
Note: That part of the message in italic is passed depending on the situation, but may
be omitted as well. The caller always has to advise the TOWER on the reason, why
he needs to proceed on the runway or taxiway. TOWER will give the reason of a
negative answer, if the circumstances permit. Irrespective of getting a reason or not,
caller must comply with TOWER’s instructions.
Examples for radio conversations:
Flight Safety Officer (FSO) request permission to proceed on the active runway at
taxiway Golf for runway inspection:
FSO,
TOWER,
FSO,
TOWER, FSO
FSO, TOWER, pass your message
FSO, request permission to proceed on the runway at Golf for
runway inspection.
The TOWER approves the caller to proceed on the runway as the air traffic situation permits.
TOWER,
FSO,
FSO, proceed on the runway report when off.
Roger, proceeding on, will report when off.
When the air traffic situation does not permit, TOWER will not issue a clearance to proceed on
the runway. In this case the caller must hold his position and in no case is approved to enter the
runway.
TOWER,
FSO,
FSO, NEGATIVE, hold position, reason (e.g. arrival traffic)
Roger, holding position
When the caller has completed the requested work, he must exit the active runway in a shortest
way, report to the tower to be off the runway then stay away from the runway.
FSO,
TOWER,
TOWER, FSO, off the runway at Alpha
FSO, Roger, remain off the runway.
CATO personnel request to proceed on the main taxiway from Hotel to kilo intersection with
two vehicles.
CATO,
TOWER,
TOWER, CATO
CATO, TOWER, pass your message.
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CATO,
CATO, request permission to proceed on the main taxiway from
Hotel to Kilo with two vehicles.
The TOWER approves the caller to proceed on the taxiway as the traffic situation permits.
TOWER,
CATO,
CATO, Roger, from Hotel to Kilo approved.
Roger, approved.
When the traffic situation does not permit, TOWER will not issue a clearance to proceed on the
taxiway. In this case the caller must hold his position and in no case is approved to enter the
taxiway.
TOWER,
CATO, NEGATIVE, hold position “reason” (e.g. aircraft is taxiing
on the taxiway).
Roger, holding position.
CATO,
Follow-Me vehicle request to cross the active runway at Charlie taxiway:
FOLLOW ME 1,
TOWER,
FOLLOW ME 1,
TOWER, Follow-Me 1
Follow-Me 1, TOWER, pass your message
Follow-Me 1, request permission to cross the runway at Charlie.
The TOWER approves the caller to cross the active runway as the air traffic situation permits.
TOWER,
FOLLOW ME 1,
Follow-Me 1, runway crossing at Charlie approved, report when
off.
Roger, proceeding on, will report when off.
When the air traffic situation does not permit, TOWER will not issue a clearance to cross the
active runway. In this case the caller must hold his position and in no case is approved to enter
the runway.
TOWER,
FOLLOW ME 1,
Follow-Me 1, NEGATIVE,
arrival/departure traffic).
Roger, holding position.
hold
position
“reason”
(e.g.
The caller must cross the active runway in a shortest way, report to the tower to be off the
runway then stay away from the runway.
FOLLOW ME 1,
TOWER, Follow-Me 1, off the runway.
TOWER,
Follow-Me 1, Roger, remain off the runway.
Examples for standard conversation without detailed explanation.
Caller stands for the person/agency/vehicle who is calling “TOWER” for permission to move
on the taxiway or runway.
CALLER,
TOWER a1
1º
TOWER, Caller, request permission to proceed on the taxiway from
Ramp 2 to Ramp 5 with 1 slow vehicle.
Caller, 2 to 5 approved.
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TOWER a2
TOWER a3
Caller, NEGATIVE, hold position, call me in 5 minutes.
Caller, Roger.
2º
TOWER, Caller, request permission to proceed on the taxiway from
Tango to Lima with 3 vehicles.
Caller, Tango to Lima approved.
Caller, NEGATIVE, call me in 3 minutes.
Caller, Roger.
3º
TOWER, Caller, request permission to proceed on the taxiway from
Crash Gate to Ramp 2.
Caller, Crash Gate to 2 approved.
Caller, NEGATIVE, hold position.
Caller, Roger.
4º
TOWER, Caller, request permission to proceed on the runway at
Charlie for maintenance.
Caller, proceed on the runway, report when off.
Caller, proceeding on, will report when off.
TOWER, Caller, maintenance terminated, off the runway at Alpha,
status of equipment maintained.
Caller, NEGATIVE, hold position.
Caller, Roger, holding position.
5º
TOWER, Caller, radio check channel 3, how do you read?
Caller, TOWER, loud and clear.
Caller, Roger, loud and clear also, check over.
CALLER,
TOWER a1
TOWER a2
TOWER a3
CALLER,
TOWER a1
TOWER a2
TOWER a3
CALLER,
TOWER a1
TOWER a2
TOWER a3
TOWER a4
TOWER a5
CALLER,
TOWER a1
TOWER a2
Aviation Alphabet
Alpha
Golf
Mike
Sierra
Yankee
Bravo
Charlie
Hotel
India
November Oscar
Tango
Uniform
Zulu
Delta
Juliet
Papa
Victor
Echo
Kilo
Quebec
Whiskey
Foxtrot
Lima
Romeo
X-ray
Light Signals
Air traffic controllers have a backup system for communicating if their radios fail.
They have a light gun with different colours to let you know what to do. If you are
ever working on a runway, taxiway or ramp and your radio stops, you should turn
your vehicle towards the tower, start flashing your headlights and the controller will
signal you with the light gun.
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This may take some time if the controller’s attention is directed towards another part
of the airport. BE PATIENT! Even a failed radio is not an excuse for proceeding
without a proper clearance.
Light signals and their meaning:
Steady green
Steady red
Flashing red
Flashing white
Alternating red & green
OK to cross runway or taxiway, proceed
or go.
Stop.
Clear runway or taxiway.
Return to starting point.
General warning signal: use extreme
caution. This can be followed by
another signal as circumstances permit.
XV. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR APRON
MARKINGS AND SIGNS
Although standards and recommended practices for aircraft ground movement have been
developed, only limited guidance material is available for ground support equipment movement
and parking on the apron. It is anticipated that implementation of world-wide standards for airport
apron markings will be a significant contribution to a safe apron environment.
REQUIREMENTS
The areas requiring safety markings are:
Service Roads;
Aircraft parking stands/gates;
Aprons;
Pedestrian crossing/walkways;
Safety parking position for Passenger Loading Bridge;
“No Parking” areas;
Ground Support Equipment parking areas;
Push-Back line;
Push-Back Limit Marking.
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The marking characteristics used in these guidelines for
traffic markings are:
Double white line – do not cross;
Single white line – cross with caution;
Broken white line – a roadway centre-line;
Offset white line – do not cross;
Solid single red line – do not cross during aircraft movement, cross with
caution when required.
CHARACTERISTICS
SPECIFICATIONS:
The following marking characteristics/specifications are defined:
PAINT;
COLOR;
Recommended colours are:
RED: for safety warning;
WHITE: for traffic markings;
YELLOW: for aircraft movement on aprons, taxiways and runways.
VISIBILITY:
Paint or other materials must be of high visibility e.g. reflective in nature and
consistent with every-day off-airport use.
Paint or other materials must be of sufficient coefficient of friction.
DIMENSIONS AND SHAPE:
The width, length and shape of a line or marking as outlined under the
paragraph RECOMMMENDATIONS.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Service Roads:
Roadway markings should be painted white and should consist of single
solid outer lines indicating that crossing with caution is permitted. Crossing
of a double white line and/or offset broken white line is not permitted. In case
of two opposing directions of travel, there should be a centre broken white
line to divide traffic. Each lane of a service road should be of a minimum
width to accommodate the widest equipment in use at that location.
It is recommended that the following minimum specification be adopted:
Width of line:
Gap between
10cm (4 in)
5 cm (2 in)
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lines:
Broken line:
1.5m (5ft)
In case of traffic STOP line, the width will be 20 cm (8in)
Directional markings should be in the form of a white arrow painted on the
service road surface. An arrow may be uni-or multi-directional. Arrows
should be positioned at points where traffic enters or exits a service road
with the objective to clarify the direction of travel.
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Traffic speed-limit markings painted on the service road surface should be
in the form of a white circle, with the maximum speed displayed inside the
circle and shall be in accordance with local regulations.
Pedestrian Crossings/Walkways:
Pedestrian crossings/walkways shall be painted in accordance with local
regulations to the following minimum dimensions:
Width of line:
0.5 m (20 in)
Length of line:
2 m (6 ft)
Gap between lines: 0.5m (20 in).
Pedestrian walkways must be clearly indicated and the design should keep
the pedestrian clear of hazards.
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Stand/Gate Safety Line:
The stand/gate safety line should be solid single red line indicating the
boundary of the aircraft parking area. The line should be painted so as to
accommodate the largest-sized aircraft onto or off the parking position.
Minimum width of line:
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10 cm (4 in).
“No Parking” Areas:
These areas should be marked by white hatching and should be bordered by
a solid white line of the same with:
Minimum width of line:
10 cm (4 in)
Gap between lines:
50cm (20 in)
The lines should be painted at an angle of 45º in reference to the aircraft
parking-position centre line.
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Ground Support Equipment Parking Areas:
The lines of these areas should be demarcated and painted white. Inner
marking is optional.
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XVI. RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY MARKINGS
Threshold Markings Designation
Markings
Aiming Point
Marking
Touchdown Zone
Markings
Signage when on taxiway A
Holding short of runway 16R
Hold Line Marking
Guidance Sign
Location Sign
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Center Line
500 Foot Increment
Distance Markings
APRON FORMS
FUNCTION
Air Ops Chief
Tower Chief
CATO Chief
FSO
Marshaller
Maintenance Chief
Refuellers Chief
First Aid Chief
NAME
COMMUNICATIONS
Frequency
Air Ops Freq.
FSO Freq.
Tower Freq.
Fire Bottles
Chocks
Follow Me Vehicle
Golf Carts
Ramp Passes
(Follow Me 1)
CAPABILITY LIST
Water Cart
Nitrogen
Tow Bars
A/P Layout
MARSHALLERS
(Follow Me 2)
Notes:
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CELL PHONE
Backup Freq.
XVII. DEFINITION OF TERMS
ACCIDENT Any occurrence associated with the operation or handling of a
vehicle or an aircraft in which equipment or personnel are damaged or
injured, and/or which may result in litigation for the DCA.
AIRCRAFT STAND/ BAY: That area on which an aircraft is to be parked
and/or handled.
AIRPORT/ AIRSIDE DRIVING PERMIT: The permit, issued by the DCA,
which authorizes the holder to drive specified vehicles in airside areas.
AIRPORT: International Airport.
AIRSIDE: Those parts of the airport that do not allow access for the general
public. Airside includes Apron, hangars and perimeter roads.
APRON: A defined area on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate
aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo,
fuelling, parking or maintenance.
APRON SAFETY BORDER LINE: A line marking the boundary of the apron
and limiting any Ground Support Equipment activity beyond this line for the
purpose of providing adequate clearance for adjacent taxing aircraft.
APRON STAND BODER LINE: A line marking the boundary of a specific
area required on the apron for the purpose of parking, servicing, loading or
unloading an aircraft.
AUTHORISED OFFICER: Member of the Airport Safety & Security Services
Division, or of the KAIA Airport Police.
ENGINE START UP BAR ON CENTRE LINE: This line provides guidance
to the tractor operator and indicates the specific position to align the aircraft
correctly at the aircraft pushback maneuver.
EQUIPMENT RESTRAINT AREA: An area on a parking bay defined by a
continuous red line within which no vehicles may be parked or driven
immediately before and during the parking of an aircraft on that bay.
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EQUIPMENT RESTRAINT LINES: The red lines defining the Equipment
Restraint Area at which all vehicles must STOP when approaching a parked
aircraft. Vehicles may then move towards the aircraft at walking pace.
FUEL HYDRANT SYSTEM POSITION MARKING: Designated fuel hydrant
system position marking in the aircraft parking position area. The marking is
provided to identify the position so that the fuel hydrant system is clear of
ground support equipment.
GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT PARKING AREA: A specific area set
aside for the parking of ground support equipment.
INCIDENT: An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the
operation or handling of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of
operations.
INJURY: Any condition which requires medical assistance, including first
aid.
LANDSIDE: That part of the airport not designated as airside and to which
the general public has free access.
MANOEUVRING AREA: The part of the Airport used for take-off, landing &
taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons.
MOVEMENT AREA: That part of the Airport to be used for the take-off,
landing, taxiing and parking of aircraft, consisting of the maneuvering area
and the apron.
NOSEWHEEL STOP BAR: This line indicates the specific position where
the aircraft nosewheel is to stop.
NO PARKING AREA: A specific area set aside in which parking of ground
support equipment is prohibited; e.g. apron-drive, passenger loading bridge
movement-areas, fueling pits, etc.
NO PARKING LINE: This line indicates an area where parking is prohibited
and that is to remain free of all Ground Support Equipment and/or vehicles.
NOSEWHEEL STOP BAR: This line indicates the specific position where
the aircraft nosewheel is to stop.
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OPERATOR: A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to
engage in an aircraft operation.
PASSENGER LOADING BRIDGE PARKING POSITION MARKING:
Designated passenger loading bridge parking position marking in the area in
which parking of ground support equipment is prohibited. The marking is
provided to identify the fully retracted parking position so the passenger
loading bridge is clear of incoming and departing aircraft.
PEDESTRIAN PATHWAY/CROSSING/WALWAY: A specific area set aside
for the safe passage of pedestrians, i.e. passengers, crew and/or airport
personnel, to of from the airport facilities and the aircraft.
PUSHBACK LIMIT LINE: A lead-out line providing guidance to the tractor
operator and ensuring obstacle clearance during aircraft pushback
maneuvers from an aircraft parking stand.
SERVICE ROAD: A specific area set aside for the safe movement of ground
support equipment and airport vehicles.
STAND/GATE SAFETY LINE: A line behind which ground support
equipment is kept during the movement of an aircraft on to or off the aircraft
parking position; prior to approaching the aircraft and as a safety zone for
engine intake and propeller clearance.
TAXIWAY/ TAXILANE: A defined path on a land aerodrome established for
the taxiing of aircraft
TRAFFIC SIGNS: These include all signals, warning signs, posts, direction
posts, signs, lines, lamps or other devices for the guidance or direction of
persons using the aerodrome.
VEHICLE: Any vehicle, whether mechanically propelled or otherwise and
including passenger loading bridge, and any mobile equipment.
VEHICLE ACCIDENT: An occurrence during which one or more vehicles, or
any of the occupants, are damaged or injured.
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XVIII. ABBREVIATIONS
AIR OPS: AIR OPERATIONS
ADP: Airport/ Airside Driving Permit.
AFS: Airport Fire Service.
AS:: Airport Safety.
ATC:: Air Traffic Control.
DCA: Department of Civil Aviation.
ERA: Equipment Restraint Area.
ERL: Equipment Restraint Lines.
FOD: Foreign Object Debris.
FSO: Flight Security Officer.
GSE (Road): General Service Equipment Road.
GC: Ground Control
NPA: No Parking Area.
PLB: Passenger Loading Bridge.
AVP: Airport/ Airside Vehicle Pass.
PPE: Personal Protective Equipment.
SSD: Security Services Division
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INTENTIONALLY LEFT IN BLANK
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