Prehistory - Revolution PowerPoint

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Prehistory - Revolution PowerPoint
Prehistory
to
Revolution
Clinton Burch
Adapted from Long,
Cincinnati, Ohio
Big Ideas
• Europeans settled in the Americans for
prestige and luxury goods
• Native American populations were devastated
by disease
• Popularity of tobacco caused Virginia (and
other Southern colonies) to be agriculturebased
• Religious pressure and lack of good tobaccogrowing land caused Massachusetts Bay
Colonies to educate and industrialize
Indian
settlement
of America
Locations of Major Indian Groups
and Culture Areas in the 1600s
European Renaissance
Columbus’ “New World”
Columbus’s first voyage, 1492
The Invasion of America
What Drew Europeans to N.A.?
The drive to settle the Americas was fueled by:
1.Competition between Europeans
countries to be world powers
2. Luxury goods
North America’s Indian and Colonial Populations in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth
Centuries
The Columbian Exchange
Atlantic Slave Trade
Chesapeake
Bay
&
Jamestown
Settlement of Virginia
•
•
•
•
•
Virginia Company
Jamestown
John Smith
John Rolfe
Tobacco
• House of Burgesses
• indentured servants
• headright system
• “starving time”
Jamestown Settlement
(Computer Generated)
Early Colonial Tobacco
1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of
tobacco.
1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of
its colonists in an Indian attack,
Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of
tobacco.
1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
NEW
ENGLAND
English Migration, 1610-1660
Plymouth
• Separatists
– Fled England and
Netherlands to escape
“sinful” lifestyles
•
•
•
•
“Pilgrims”
Plymouth
Mayflower Compact
Hoped to build ideal
religious communities
Mayflower II
Old Satan Deluder Act (1643)
•
•
•
It being one chief project of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the
knowledge of the Scriptures, as in former times by keeping them in an
unknown tongue, so in these latter times by persuading from the use of
tongues, that so that at least the true sense and meaning of the original
might be clouded and corrupted with love and false glosses of saint-seeming
deceivers; and to the end that learning may not be buried in the grave of our
forefathers, in church and commonwealth, the Lord assisting our endeavors.
It is therefore ordered that every township in this jurisdiction, after the Lord
hath increased them to fifty households shall forthwith appoint one within
their town to teach all such children as shall resort to him to write and read,
whose wages shall be paid either by the parents or masters of such children,
or by the inhabitants in general, by way of supply, as the major part of those
that order the prudentials of the town shall appoint; provided those that
send their children be not oppressed by paying much more than they can
have them taught for in other towns.
And it is further ordered, that when any town shall increase to the number
of one hundred families or householders, they shall set up a grammar
school, the master thereof being able to instruct youth so far as they may be
fitted for the university, provided that if any town neglect the performance
hereof above one year that every such town shall pay 5 pounds to the next
school till they shall perform this order.
New England
•
•
•
•
•
towns
town meetings
church
Education
Harvard
College (1636)
• “Old Satan Deluder”
Act (1647)
• Merchants
• Beginning of
an industrial
economy
– Ship building
Land Division in Sudbury, MA: 1639-1656
New
England
Colonies,
1650
MIDDLE
COLONIES
New
Amsterdam
• Part of New Netherland
colony (1613)
• Reflected Dutch values
of openness and
tolerance (for the time)
• Became New York (1664)
after surrendered to the British
• Sweden conquered Netherlands in
1655 and incorporated New
Sweden
Middle
Colonies,
1685
Britain's American Empire, 1713
FRENCH &
INDIAN WAR
Big Ideas




Europeans settled in the Americans for prestige
and luxury goods
Native American populations were devastated
by disease
Popularity of tobacco caused Virginia (and other
Southern colonies) to be agriculture-based
Religious pressure and lack of good tobaccogrowing land caused Massachusetts Bay
Colonies to educate and industrialize
Big Question

How did the French and Indian War (the
North American theater of the “Seven Years War”)
change the relationship between Britain
and its American colonies?


Write down the year of each document, then write a one-sentence
summary of the document.
After you have completed all 8 documents, explain with a few
sentences how the relationship between England and the Colonies
changed.
Document A

Doc A shows us that a major
shift has occurred in control of
North America

The change started around 1754
and ended around 1763

With a major change like this,
we can infer that there’s going to
be some major changes within
those countries that lost and
gained land.

We can also assume that this
change in control will affect
colonists more than their home
countries.

France lost lots of territory, so
they must have sold it or lost it in
war…

French and Indian War
Document B

Native Americans have clearly adapted to the European economy – they realize that Europeans
want land and they’re not going to be cheated any longer.

Native Americans are active participants in the politics of the time.

Native Americans want the Europeans to stop encroaching on their lands.

We can predict that the colonists are going to have conflicts with Natives in the future.
Document C

George Washington wants to fight under General Braddock.

Colonists feel like they are valued citizens of England.


Protecting “King & Country” is important to the colonists.
We can infer that the relationship is good between the colonists and England.
Document D

Colonial soldiers feel like they’re not receiving the same benefits as soldiers from England.

Colonial soldiers are questioning the treatment of all soldiers by the British officers.

Soldiers are not being allowed to return home at the agreed-upon time.

Soldiers are losing faith in their superior officers.
Document E

Colonists were very proud of their role in the war.

Colonists viewed themselves as deserving much of the credit for success in the war.

Colonists consider themselves citizens of England.

The tone of this writing is very jubilant and positive, which suggests that the
colonists expect to be recognized for their role in the war.
Document F

His Majesty’s Treasury is raising revenue (tax) in the Americas and the West Indies.

The author is reporting to the King that the amount of revenue is small.

The author reports that the cost of collecting tax is greater than the amount of tax collected.

The author reminds the King that the tax must be collected to support the increased military presence in these
areas.

We can infer that colonists aren’t paying their taxes, and the British have sent more troops.
Document G

Ben Franklin is trying to get the Stamp Act repealed, but it doesn’t look likely.

Franklin tells Hughs that the Stamp Act will make him unpopular for a time.

Franklin tells Hughs to be “cool” and “steady”, and to maintain a firm loyalty to the Crown.

Ben Franklin is reminding Hughs to stay loyal – we can assume that many other colonists are
questioning their allegiance to England.
Document H

This is the front page of a newspaper. It has skulls and the phrase “The TIMES are Dreadful,
Doleful, Dismal, Dolorous and DOLLAR-LESS.”

It has a place to “Affix the Stamp” – probably a reference to the Stamp Act.

The paper is “EXPIRING” – going out of business.

The newspapers blames the Stamp Act for its going bankrupt.

If newspapers are publishing this kind of material openly, we can infer that the public has
turned against the taxes, and thus against England.
Big Ideas


Colonists had gotten used to being left
alone by England
The F & I War was expensive, and England
wanted the colonies to pay for it
North
America
in 1754
European Spheres
of Influence, 1754
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR:
Causes

History of Anglo-French Conflicts
Immediate cause? (after 1749)
 1754 - Fort Necessity



Geo. Washington
1755 – Fort
Duquesne
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR:
Peace of Paris (1763)
1. France transferred Canada and all land
east of Mississippi River (Ohio Valley) to
Britain
2. France ceded New Orleans and all
claims west of Mississippi River to Spain
(Spain cedes Florida to Britain)
3. France granted some Caribbean lslands
and all interests in India to Britain

Note: What did France keep in N. America?
North
America
after 1763
IMPERIAL
CRISIS
RESULTS OF THE WAR:
Imperial Crisis for Britain
1. Greatly larger colonial empire in North
America
2. Huge war debt
3. Resentment toward colonists
 Need for reorganization of
American empire
King George III
Effects of the War on the American
Colonials
1. It united them against a common
enemy for the first time.
2. It created a socializing experience
for all the colonials who participated.
3. It created bitter feelings towards
the British that would only intensify.
RESULTS OF THE WAR:
George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765
1. Sugar Act (1764)
• Direct system of taxation
• Strict enforcement of trade laws
2. Currency Act (1764)
3. Quartering Act (1765)
• Permanent troop presence
4. Stamp Act (1765)
George Grenville
Stamp Act Crisis


Stamp Act (1765)
Colonial opposition:









First internal tax – £, not trade
Not approved by assemblies
Broad impact
Postwar depression
Sons of Liberty
Stamp Act Congress
boycott
Stamp Act Repeal (1766)
Declaratory Act (1766)
Townshend Acts (1767-1770)
Tax on imported paper, paint, lead, glass, & tea
Purpose: pay for col. gov’t
officials – not debt & armies
 Increased custom officials at
American ports – est’d Board of
Customs in Boston.
 Colonial response:


 John Dickinson “Letters from a Farmer in
Pennsylvania” (1768) .
 1768 - 2nd non-importation movement:
* “Daughters of Liberty”
Charles Townshend,
Chancellor of the Exchequer
* spinning bees
 Riots against customs agents: 4000 British troops sent to
Boston.
Boston
Massacre
 March 5, 1770
9 p.m.
 “Massacre”?
Paul Revere’s
engraving
The “Boston Massacre”: a different view
Tea Crisis:
Tea Act (1773)



British East India Co.
British rationale &
expectations
Colonial response
Lord
North
The Boston Tea Party (Dec. 16, 1773)
The Coercive Acts (January 1774)
(AKA the “Intolerable Acts”)


Port Bill - Boston Harbor
Government Act - Town
meetings forbidden, Gov’s Council

Administration of Justice
Act - trials involving royal officials
out of NE

New Quartering Act –
uncompensated quartering of troops
in colonists’ homes
Colonial response?
Why?
"The Bostonians in Distress"
attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774
(First) Continental Congress (1774)







55 delegates from 12 colonies
Purpose: response to Coercive &
Quebec Acts
Radical vs. moderate delegates
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Continental Association
Follow-up meeting
British response: “state of rebellion”
British Troop
Deployments,
1775
Lexington & Concord
Battle of Lexington
Lexington Green today
The Old North Bridge
The Philosophy of the
American Revolution
Why did the Colonists revolt?



Self-rule: “Taxation without (actual) representation”
Protect Fundamental rights & liberties
British corruption, aristocracy
Was the Revolution inevitable? Could
Britain have avoided it?
Who was right?
Second Continental Congress (1775)




Olive Branch Petition
Continental Army
G. Washington
Role in revolution
George Washington assumes
command of Continental Army,
July 1775
Olive Branch Petition
Thomas Paine’s
Common Sense
Thomas
Paine

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