Wallcovering-Then and Now summary

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Wallcovering-Then and Now summary
Dear AIA Member:
As a member of the Wallcovering Source Group, Eykon is an approved Passport Provider of an AIA/CES
program called --- “Wallcovering --- Then and Now.” Our one-hour presentation entitles each properly
registered attendee to 1.0 Learning Units.
Our Wallcovering program also qualifies for one HSW (Health, Safety and Welfare) learning unit since it
deals with such issues as V.O.C.’s, Recycling, Indoor Air Quality, Mold and third-party test comparisons
between paint and wallcovering. If your firm employs IIDA or ASID members, they also would be
eligible for learning credits with our program. If your firm is interested in learning how wallcoverings
have evolved during the past 30 years and how they are now engineered to address the durability and
environmental needs of any commercial space, we are sure you and your staff will find our program
stimulating and enlightening.
To make arrangements to see, hear and participate in this important, educational program, please contact
your local Eykon representative or me at 800-222-7866. Though not mandatory, the preferred group size
would be a minimum of 12 people that could include everyone from architects and specifiers to interior
designers and other interested professionals. To earn learning units and become better informed on the
many value-added benefits of commercial wallcovering, give us a call today!
Sincerely,
Ron Carroway
Sales Manager
AIA/CES Point of Contact
[email protected]
800.222.7866
Sales Office: Atlanta  Baltimore  Birmingham  Charlotte  Jackson  Jacksonville  Knoxville
Little Rock  Memphis  Miami  Mobile  Nashville  New Orleans  Orlando  Philadelphia
Richmond  Tampa  Washington DC  West Palm Beach
Corporate Office: 5675 E. Shelby Drive Memphis, TN 38141 1.800.222.7866
Fax: 901.366.0447 www.eykon.net
LINGERING
Design Myths:
Ahem, we beg to differ.
The First and Foremost Recycled Wallcovering
Second-Look® is the first vinyl wallcovering with post-consumer recycled content. The recycled wallcovering and
retrieval program is so revolutionary, it won five industry awards. That’s why specifiers for corporate, hospitality
and healthcare projects across the United States and Canada are choosing Second-Look.
There are two ways to take advantage of Second-Look. First, specify Second-Look wallcoverings with recycled
content. Second-Look offers a wide range of patterns, textures and colors with a total of 20% recycled content,
including 10% post-consumer. Recycled wallcoverings have the same great durability, aesthetics and even the same
price as nonrecycled wallcoverings. You also have the option to participate in the Second-Look Retrieval Program
by reclaiming used vinyl wallcovering from renovation projects. Second-Look takes vinyl wallcovering of all makes.
Start Something Today
Start a process of sustainability today that can last a lifetime. Second-Look Recycled Wallcovering lasts 10+ years
and can be repeatedly recycled. By specifying this award-winning program, you initiate a continuing cycle with the
potential to divert wallcoverings from the landfill for decades. Second-Look offers hundreds of fashion-forward
patterns and all with 20% recycled content. When the wallcovering is ready for replacement, simply reclaim and
recycle it again through Second-Look.
Actions Speak Louder than Words
Second-Look won five 2007 awards:
• Innovations Grand Prize for Environmental Solutions at NeoCon
• Most Sustainable Gold Award at IIDEX/NeoCon Canada
• Most Sustainable Product at Healthcare Facilities Symposium
• Architectural Record Editor’s Picks Award
• Interiors & Sources Editor’s Choice Award
What was Old is New Again
Second-Look has a long life cycle, making it a sustainable and economical wall treatment. Its inherent durability and
10+ year expectancy conserves resources and reduces environmental impact. Reclaiming wallcovering through the
Second-Look Retrieval Program extends product life even further. The recycled wallcoverings are low-VOC and use
water-based inks and water-based adhesives.
Second-Look Supports LEED
Vinyl wallcovering is a versatile interior design product that offers aesthetic beauty, exceptional performance and
low environmental impact. The U.S. Green Building Council has studied vinyl products in the built environment and
reaffirmed their eligibility for LEED credits. Second-Look supports LEED criteria for low-emitting materials, recycling
construction waste and using post-consumer recycled content. Many projects are eligible for the 500-mile point of
manufacture credits.
A Comprehensive Sustainable Solution that:
• Offers a wide array of recycled wallcoverings with 20% recycled content
• Reclaims previously used vinyl wallcovering
• Optimizes life-cycle economic performance
• Diverts solid waste from landfills
• Supports LEED criteria
MR–Materials and Resources: Recycled Content
MR–Materials and Resources: Construction Waste Management
MR–Regional Material if within 500 miles
EQ–Indoor Environmental Quality: Low emitting materials
• Helps meet emerging state and municipality recycling requirements
• Is free of cadmium, mercury, perfluorooctanoic acid, brominated flame retardants and DEHP plasticizers
• Meets low-VOC standards of the California Section 01350 Indoor Air Quality Standard
• Meets low-VOC standards of the State of Washington Building Specification for Indoor Air Quality
• Is flame resistant and self-extinguishing
• Meets NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, NFPA 286 Corner Burn and Class A (ASTM E-84)
secondlookwc.com
Outdoor temperature and humidity are significant factors that must be considered
when selecting wall-finishing techniques. When to use a permeable (vapor-breathable)
or vapor-barrier (non-breathable) wall finish is critical in providing both personal
physical comfort and maintaining building construction.
1. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the exterior.
2. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the interior.
3. If building assemblies or surfaces get wet, or start out wet, allow them to dry
to either the exterior or the interior.
This is a particular challenge in southern climates when high temperature and high
humidity may force water vapor to move from the exterior of the building toward
the cool air-conditioned interior. Water may then condense behind the finished
wall surface and provide an environment for mold growth.
lighting
Permavent +
breathable paint +
breathable primer
Permavent Wallcovering
Paint
Primer
Mold and mildew may be harmful to a building environment and must be controlled
to maintain its integrity and interior decor. Versa Permavent is an innovative asset
that helps manage moisture and offers the remarkable beauty your clients demand.
In all cases a building design professional should be consulted to recommend
construction materials and HVAC systems that are best suited for the geographic
location of the building.
permavenT ™ insTallaTion requiremenTs
construction a
Wall Cavity
Building assemblies need to be protected from getting wet from the exterior, and
they must be allowed to dry towards the interior. As a result, air barriers and vapor
barriers (retarders) are usually installed on the exterior of building assemblies in
hot and humid climates.
-70% Screen of Black
-Stroke 70% of Black
potential approaches to moisture control include:
-60% Screen of WarmGray 7
-Stroke 70% of Black
The challenge of moisTure managemenT
-20% Screen of Black
-Stroke 70% of Black
conTrolling moisTure in Buildings
Permavent Microvented 20 oz. Wallcovering
Water method unmounted
34
Water method & gypsum
Most experts agree that the interior wall finish is an integral part of an efficiently
engineered building system. You have a wide variety of interior finishing techniques
at your disposal – each one offering unique benefits.
ASTM E-96: Wet Cup (water) and Dry Cup (desiccant) methods.
Data for unmounted (not adhered to gypsum) and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent Performance Versus Other Wall Finishes
Knockdown + semigloss paint*
13
Permavent 20 oz. (Mounted)
12
HUD 24CFR3280.504**
non-breathable paint
breathable primer
Microvented and non-microvented vinyl wallcoverings from Versa offer full coverage
and superior performance with products that range from 1–13 perms when installed
properly. Add the vast color and design options and superior durability, and Versa is
your one source for demanding construction and renovation projects.
When installed correctly, Permavent can breathe like
breathable paint or painted knockdown texture.
•
•
non-breathable primer
construction B
2
1
Non-microvented wallcovering (Mounted)
1
Permavent
breathable
ASTM E-96: Dry Cup — as desiccant sandwich and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
breathable primer
Primer
Primer sealer + satin paint****
• Glossy surfaces should be sanded with irregularities repaired.
• Sanding, using a medium to rough grit, should be done on walls
covered with a vapor barrier paint or primer, and/or oil-base
paint to allow breathability and adhesion.
adhesive
• Use a premium-grade, full-strength, heavy-duty clear,
•
•
Permavent™ tests were conducted at a certified independent laboratory.
* MHRA (Manufactured Home Research Alliance) Measured Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
** U.S. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Regulation for permeance of materials used in exterior walls of
manufactured homes in hot, humid climates.
*** ASHRAE (1993) American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
**** One coat latex primer sealer and one coat satin paint
primer is designed to be a vapor barrier, it may significantly
reduce the overall permeability of the installation.)
If primers are required, use only breathable latex primers.
Light sanding after priming prior to installation will help
improve adhesion and porosity and improve breathability.
existing walls
5
Oil-base paint***
• May require priming to promote adhesion. (NOTE: If the
Permavent Wallcovering
12
Painted knockdown textures, oil paints, latex flat, satin and semi-gloss paints offer
various design and texture options. But Versa offers enhanced color, texture and design
with unmatched durability. Permavent microvented wallcovering takes this to the next
level by adding moisture control functionality.
Wall Cavity
Permavent 15 oz. (Mounted)
new walls
Paint
12
Primer
Desiccant method & gypsum
at least six days prior to and after installation.
content (a moisture meter should be used).
Wall Cavity
23
• Between 60º – 80º F and relative humidity at 50% or less –
• Must be smooth, clean, dry and structurally sound.
• Newly plastered walls must not have excessive lime or alkali.
• Walls must not contain in excess of 5 – 7% residual moisture
breathable paint
breathable primer
14
Desiccant method unmounted
climate conditions
surfaces
specifying The righT wall surface
Permavent permeability performance
• Permanent lighting conditions only.
Permavent ™
non-breathable primer
strippable, mildew-resistant adhesive.
Apply adhesive to the wall surface.
Dry hang each sheet and follow adhesive manufacturer's
instructions on coverage and set time.
post-installation
• Closely monitor walls for excess or long-standing water or
Microvented Wallcovering
The maximum breathability with Permavent can be achieved
when installed with no primer or a breathable primer.
•
moisture infiltration.
If present, promptly remove and dry the surface completely.
conTrolling moisTure in Buildings
The challenge of moisTure managemenT
potential approaches to moisture control include:
Outdoor temperature and humidity are significant factors that must be considered
when selecting wall-finishing techniques. When to use a permeable (vapor-breathable)
or vapor-barrier (non-breathable) wall finish is critical in providing both personal
physical comfort and maintaining building construction.
1. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the exterior.
2. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the interior.
3. If building assemblies or surfaces get wet, or start out wet, allow them to dry
to either the exterior or the interior.
This is a particular challenge in southern climates when high temperature and high
humidity may force water vapor to move from the exterior of the building toward
the cool air-conditioned interior. Water may then condense behind the finished
wall surface and provide an environment for mold growth.
Permavent +
breathable paint +
breathable primer
Permavent Wallcovering
Paint
Primer
Mold and mildew may be harmful to a building environment and must be controlled
to maintain its integrity and interior decor. Versa Permavent is an innovative asset
that helps manage moisture and offers the remarkable beauty your clients demand.
In all cases a building design professional should be consulted to recommend
construction materials and HVAC systems that are best suited for the geographic
location of the building.
lighting
construction a
Wall Cavity
Building assemblies need to be protected from getting wet from the exterior, and
they must be allowed to dry towards the interior. As a result, air barriers and vapor
barriers (retarders) are usually installed on the exterior of building assemblies in
hot and humid climates.
permavenT ™ insTallaTion requiremenTs
Permavent Microvented 20 oz. Wallcovering
Water method unmounted
34
Water method & gypsum
Most experts agree that the interior wall finish is an integral part of an efficiently
engineered building system. You have a wide variety of interior finishing techniques
at your disposal – each one offering unique benefits.
ASTM E-96: Wet Cup (water) and Dry Cup (desiccant) methods.
Data for unmounted (not adhered to gypsum) and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent Performance Versus Other Wall Finishes
Knockdown + semigloss paint*
13
Permavent 20 oz. (Mounted)
12
HUD 24CFR3280.504**
non-breathable paint
breathable primer
Microvented and non-microvented vinyl wallcoverings from Versa offer full coverage
and superior performance with products that range from 1–13 perms when installed
properly. Add the vast color and design options and superior durability, and Versa is
your one source for demanding construction and renovation projects.
When installed correctly, Permavent can breathe like
breathable paint or painted knockdown texture.
•
•
non-breathable primer
construction B
2
1
Non-microvented wallcovering (Mounted)
1
ASTM E-96: Dry Cup — as desiccant sandwich and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent
breathable
breathable primer
Primer
Primer sealer + satin paint****
• Glossy surfaces should be sanded with irregularities repaired.
• Sanding, using a medium to rough grit, should be done on walls
covered with a vapor barrier paint or primer, and/or oil-base
paint to allow breathability and adhesion.
adhesive
• Use a premium-grade, full-strength, heavy-duty clear,
•
•
Permavent™ tests were conducted at a certified independent laboratory.
* MHRA (Manufactured Home Research Alliance) Measured Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
** U.S. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Regulation for permeance of materials used in exterior walls of
manufactured homes in hot, humid climates.
*** ASHRAE (1993) American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
**** One coat latex primer sealer and one coat satin paint
primer is designed to be a vapor barrier, it may significantly
reduce the overall permeability of the installation.)
If primers are required, use only breathable latex primers.
Light sanding after priming prior to installation will help
improve adhesion and porosity and improve breathability.
existing walls
5
Oil-base paint***
• May require priming to promote adhesion. (NOTE: If the
Permavent Wallcovering
12
Painted knockdown textures, oil paints, latex flat, satin and semi-gloss paints offer
various design and texture options. But Versa offers enhanced color, texture and design
with unmatched durability. Permavent microvented wallcovering takes this to the next
level by adding moisture control functionality.
Wall Cavity
Permavent 15 oz. (Mounted)
new walls
Paint
12
Primer
Desiccant method & gypsum
at least six days prior to and after installation.
content (a moisture meter should be used).
Wall Cavity
23
• Between 60º – 80º F and relative humidity at 50% or less –
• Must be smooth, clean, dry and structurally sound.
• Newly plastered walls must not have excessive lime or alkali.
• Walls must not contain in excess of 5 – 7% residual moisture
breathable paint
breathable primer
14
Desiccant method unmounted
climate conditions
surfaces
specifying The righT wall surface
Permavent permeability performance
• Permanent lighting conditions only.
non-breathable primer
strippable, mildew-resistant adhesive.
Apply adhesive to the wall surface.
Dry hang each sheet and follow adhesive manufacturer's
instructions on coverage and set time.
post-installation
• Closely monitor walls for excess or long-standing water or
The maximum breathability with Permavent can be achieved
when installed with no primer or a breathable primer.
•
moisture infiltration.
If present, promptly remove and dry the surface completely.
Outdoor temperature and humidity are significant factors that must be considered
when selecting wall-finishing techniques. When to use a permeable (vapor-breathable)
or vapor-barrier (non-breathable) wall finish is critical in providing both personal
physical comfort and maintaining building construction.
1. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the exterior.
2. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the interior.
3. If building assemblies or surfaces get wet, or start out wet, allow them to dry
to either the exterior or the interior.
This is a particular challenge in southern climates when high temperature and high
humidity may force water vapor to move from the exterior of the building toward
the cool air-conditioned interior. Water may then condense behind the finished
wall surface and provide an environment for mold growth.
lighting
Permavent +
breathable paint +
breathable primer
Permavent Wallcovering
Paint
Primer
Mold and mildew may be harmful to a building environment and must be controlled
to maintain its integrity and interior decor. Versa Permavent is an innovative asset
that helps manage moisture and offers the remarkable beauty your clients demand.
In all cases a building design professional should be consulted to recommend
construction materials and HVAC systems that are best suited for the geographic
location of the building.
permavenT ™ insTallaTion requiremenTs
construction a
Wall Cavity
Building assemblies need to be protected from getting wet from the exterior, and
they must be allowed to dry towards the interior. As a result, air barriers and vapor
barriers (retarders) are usually installed on the exterior of building assemblies in
hot and humid climates.
-70% Screen of Black
-Stroke 70% of Black
potential approaches to moisture control include:
-60% Screen of WarmGray 7
-Stroke 70% of Black
The challenge of moisTure managemenT
-20% Screen of Black
-Stroke 70% of Black
conTrolling moisTure in Buildings
Permavent Microvented 20 oz. Wallcovering
Water method unmounted
34
Water method & gypsum
Most experts agree that the interior wall finish is an integral part of an efficiently
engineered building system. You have a wide variety of interior finishing techniques
at your disposal – each one offering unique benefits.
ASTM E-96: Wet Cup (water) and Dry Cup (desiccant) methods.
Data for unmounted (not adhered to gypsum) and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent Performance Versus Other Wall Finishes
Knockdown + semigloss paint*
13
Permavent 20 oz. (Mounted)
12
HUD 24CFR3280.504**
non-breathable paint
breathable primer
Microvented and non-microvented vinyl wallcoverings from Versa offer full coverage
and superior performance with products that range from 1–13 perms when installed
properly. Add the vast color and design options and superior durability, and Versa is
your one source for demanding construction and renovation projects.
When installed correctly, Permavent can breathe like
breathable paint or painted knockdown texture.
•
•
non-breathable primer
construction B
2
1
Non-microvented wallcovering (Mounted)
1
ASTM E-96: Dry Cup — as desiccant sandwich and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent
breathable
breathable primer
Primer
Primer sealer + satin paint****
• Glossy surfaces should be sanded with irregularities repaired.
• Sanding, using a medium to rough grit, should be done on walls
covered with a vapor barrier paint or primer, and/or oil-base
paint to allow breathability and adhesion.
adhesive
• Use a premium-grade, full-strength, heavy-duty clear,
•
•
Permavent™ tests were conducted at a certified independent laboratory.
* MHRA (Manufactured Home Research Alliance) Measured Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
** U.S. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Regulation for permeance of materials used in exterior walls of
manufactured homes in hot, humid climates.
*** ASHRAE (1993) American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
**** One coat latex primer sealer and one coat satin paint
primer is designed to be a vapor barrier, it may significantly
reduce the overall permeability of the installation.)
If primers are required, use only breathable latex primers.
Light sanding after priming prior to installation will help
improve adhesion and porosity and improve breathability.
existing walls
5
Oil-base paint***
• May require priming to promote adhesion. (NOTE: If the
Permavent Wallcovering
12
Painted knockdown textures, oil paints, latex flat, satin and semi-gloss paints offer
various design and texture options. But Versa offers enhanced color, texture and design
with unmatched durability. Permavent microvented wallcovering takes this to the next
level by adding moisture control functionality.
Wall Cavity
Permavent 15 oz. (Mounted)
new walls
Paint
12
Primer
Desiccant method & gypsum
at least six days prior to and after installation.
content (a moisture meter should be used).
Wall Cavity
23
• Between 60º – 80º F and relative humidity at 50% or less –
• Must be smooth, clean, dry and structurally sound.
• Newly plastered walls must not have excessive lime or alkali.
• Walls must not contain in excess of 5 – 7% residual moisture
breathable paint
breathable primer
14
Desiccant method unmounted
climate conditions
surfaces
specifying The righT wall surface
Permavent permeability performance
• Permanent lighting conditions only.
non-breathable primer
strippable, mildew-resistant adhesive.
Apply adhesive to the wall surface.
Dry hang each sheet and follow adhesive manufacturer's
instructions on coverage and set time.
post-installation
• Closely monitor walls for excess or long-standing water or
The maximum breathability with Permavent can be achieved
when installed with no primer or a breathable primer.
•
moisture infiltration.
If present, promptly remove and dry the surface completely.
Measuring perms
Hot & humid
Materials are typically tested in two ways:
A breathable material with perm ratings greater than 10 is recommended on the
interior of exterior walls. This allows the moisture to escape the wall cavity into the
room and be removed by the HVAC system and not condense on the wall surfaces.
1. Dry cup testing – Conducted with 0% relative humidity on one side of the test sample
and 50% on the other side. 3
2. Wet cup testing – Conducted with 50% relative humidity maintained on one side
of the test sample and 100% on the other side. 3
Mixed & cold
Permavent™ Microvented Wallcovering
Available on all Versa designs, Permavent™ enhances the breathability
of wallcoverings. The microventing technology from LSI Wallcovering is
engineered for humid environments and areas where moisture management
is a challenge. Permavent increases permeability via perforations that allow
mobile moisture and condensation to pass through the wallcovering. The
technology preserves the aesthetic integrity of the design, while providing
added protection against the growth of mold and mildew. One of a host
of Versa performance enhancements, Permavent helps ensure exceptional
aesthetics, long-lasting durability and a healthy indoor environment.
Considering regional climates
Disclaimer and Limited Warranty
Subject to the conditions and limitations herein, the wallcovering is guaranteed to be free
of defects in workmanship and material for five years from the date of shipment of the
product. The manufacturer is not responsible or liable for claims if the application
instructions are not followed, nor is the manufacturer responsible or liable for labor
and associated costs, over and above the cost for replacement material.
The Manufacturer specifically advises all parties that mold will grow in conductive
conditions where moisture and/or water is present. The Manufacturer cannot control
such conductive conditions and is not responsible or liable for any claims, damages or the like
in any way related to or arising in connection with the occurrence or presence of mold. The
Manufacturer also shall not be liable for any damages arising from the misuse of the
product, improper handling or storage, improper or defective building conditions, or
alteration of the product by others.
The Customer understands and agrees that certain conditions within a building may cause the
growth of various types of mold, organisms or other hazardous pollutants or contaminates.
These conditions may be caused by a combination of moisture, warm air and an organic
medium. These conditions may be created by a number of circumstances including, but not
limited to, leaking roofs, walls, floors, windows, water or soil lines breaking, inadequate and
poorly balanced heating and ventilation equipment, the improper use of vapor control media
on exterior walls, storms, floods, vandalism, etc. Moist or wet areas may be undiscoverable
without removal of ceiling, wall and floor coverings and a thorough investigation of the specific
areas. These coverings include paneling, drywall or plaster materials, floor coverings, underlayment and subflooring, sheathing, exterior siding and possibly roofing materials and decking.
The Manufacturer assumes no responsibility or liability for any reason, now or in the
future, for any mold or other organisms that may grow in the covered or any other areas of
the building, and Customer will indemnify, defend, and hold harmless The Manufacturer
for any potential or realized property damage or health or safety issues because of airborne
pollutants or any other type of hazardous materials or organisms found in the covered or
other areas of the building.
This Limited Warranty Is The Sole And Exclusive Warranty Given By The
Manufacturer. The Manufacturer makes no other or additional warranty, whether
expressed or implied, including, without limit, the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose, all of which are hereby expressly disclaimed. The
Manufacturer expressly disclaims all liability for any redhibitory defects. The Customer’s
sole remedy and The Manufacturer’s sole liability shall be limited to product
replacement. The Manufacturer will not be liable for direct, consequential or incidental
damages, including without limitation lost profits, punitive damages, loss of use damages, loss
of value damages, damage to other property, etc. even if THE MANUFACTURER is aware of
the possibility of these damages occurring. All claims made under this Limited Warranty must
be in writing to The Manufacturer within 90 days of the first knowledge of any defect,
and within the warranty period or such claims are waived.
Materials with perm ratings less than 10 are recommended on the exterior of interior
rooms to keep the moist air from moving into the wall cavity during the heating season.
Extreme northern
During the heating season, humidity is typically low and maintaining some moisture
in the rooms is desirable.
The importance of permeance (perm) ratings
Building materials used in the construction of walls, including decorative finishes like
wallcovering, have classifications based on their ability to allow vapor (moisture) to pass
through them. The higher the perm rating the more breathable the materials. Below
are the classifications, their common names and perm ranges.
Classifications
PermsSynonyms
Impermeable
Semi-Permeable
Permeable
0–1Vapor barrier, Non-breathable
1–10Vapor retarder, Semi-breathable
10+
Breathable
The ASTM method specifies a total of six possible test conditions2 using both
the dry and wet cup methods at different temperatures and humidities. Unsupported
wallcovering is typically measured unmounted using the wet cup method. The dry
cup is used to test wallcovering that is mounted to a wallboard material like gypsum.
To accurately compare two construction materials like wallcovering and paint for
perm efficiency, the same ASTM method and procedure should be used.
Whenever possible it is best to test the whole interior wall construction including
wallboard, primer, adhesives and decorative finish. For this approach many experts agree
that the dry cup method should be used, and since most buildings will be maintained
at 70º and 50% humidity, it is best to use these environmental conditions in the test.
The exact ASTM reference for this combination is: ASTM E96-00, X1.1.1 Procedure A.
It is important to note that perm results do not necessarily correlate among the
six different standard ASTM test methods. Engineers, material manufacturers and
regulatory agencies may use different methods depending on the specific application.
For example, many liquid applied materials such as paints and primers are typically
measured as 10 mil. wet films in either one, two or three coats4 using methods other
than the wet or dry cup.
There is little published on recommended perm ratings information for commercial
buildings. However, US HUD (Housing and Urban Development) has specified a
perm-rating minimum of 5.0 on interior walls for residential manufactured construction
in hot, humid climates. And, several sources suggest that greater than 10 perms
is considered “breathable.”
Defining perms
Most construction materials can be tested in a controlled laboratory environment for
their ability to allow moisture to move through them. From these tests, a permeance
rating can be assigned and used to predict the effectiveness of a building material or
surface finish.1
The recognized industry test used to measure perms is called the Standard Test for
Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, and specified in ASTM E96-00.2
2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
ASTM, 2002
Burch, Douglas M. and Saunders, Christopher A. May, 1995
A Computer Analysis of Wall Construction in the Moisture Control Handbook
ASTM E96-00, Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
4 Manufactured Housing Research Alliance, 2000
Measuring Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
1
2
3
Additional References:
Building Science Corporation 2003, Insulations, Sheathings and Vapor Diffusion Retarders
MBMA, Metal Building Manufacturers Association Fact Sheet
Wallcovering Association, Mold Cause, Effect and Response and Chemical Fabrics: Film Association, Inc.
U.S. Federal Register 2002
Housing and Urban Development Department, 24CFR Part 3280
Condensation Control for Exterior Walls of Manufactured Homes Sited in Humid and Fringe Climates; Waiver; Final Rule
The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC), 2002 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Outdoor temperature and humidity are significant factors that must be considered
when selecting wall-finishing techniques. When to use a permeable (vapor-breathable)
or vapor-barrier (non-breathable) wall finish is critical in providing both personal
physical comfort and maintaining building construction.
1. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the exterior.
2. Prevent building assemblies and surfaces from getting wet from the interior.
3. If building assemblies or surfaces get wet, or start out wet, allow them to dry
to either the exterior or the interior.
This is a particular challenge in southern climates when high temperature and high
humidity may force water vapor to move from the exterior of the building toward
the cool air-conditioned interior. Water may then condense behind the finished
wall surface and provide an environment for mold growth.
lighting
Permavent +
breathable paint +
breathable primer
Permavent Wallcovering
Paint
Primer
Mold and mildew may be harmful to a building environment and must be controlled
to maintain its integrity and interior decor. Versa Permavent is an innovative asset
that helps manage moisture and offers the remarkable beauty your clients demand.
In all cases a building design professional should be consulted to recommend
construction materials and HVAC systems that are best suited for the geographic
location of the building.
permavenT ™ insTallaTion requiremenTs
construction a
Wall Cavity
Building assemblies need to be protected from getting wet from the exterior, and
they must be allowed to dry towards the interior. As a result, air barriers and vapor
barriers (retarders) are usually installed on the exterior of building assemblies in
hot and humid climates.
-70% Screen of Black
-Stroke 70% of Black
potential approaches to moisture control include:
-60% Screen of WarmGray 7
-Stroke 70% of Black
The challenge of moisTure managemenT
-20% Screen of Black
-Stroke 70% of Black
conTrolling moisTure in Buildings
Permavent Microvented 20 oz. Wallcovering
Water method unmounted
34
Water method & gypsum
Most experts agree that the interior wall finish is an integral part of an efficiently
engineered building system. You have a wide variety of interior finishing techniques
at your disposal – each one offering unique benefits.
ASTM E-96: Wet Cup (water) and Dry Cup (desiccant) methods.
Data for unmounted (not adhered to gypsum) and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent Performance Versus Other Wall Finishes
Knockdown + semigloss paint*
13
Permavent 20 oz. (Mounted)
12
HUD 24CFR3280.504**
non-breathable paint
breathable primer
Microvented and non-microvented vinyl wallcoverings from Versa offer full coverage
and superior performance with products that range from 1–13 perms when installed
properly. Add the vast color and design options and superior durability, and Versa is
your one source for demanding construction and renovation projects.
When installed correctly, Permavent can breathe like
breathable paint or painted knockdown texture.
•
•
non-breathable primer
construction B
2
1
Non-microvented wallcovering (Mounted)
1
ASTM E-96: Dry Cup — as desiccant sandwich and mounted to 1/2" gypsum board.
Permavent
breathable
breathable primer
Primer
Primer sealer + satin paint****
• Glossy surfaces should be sanded with irregularities repaired.
• Sanding, using a medium to rough grit, should be done on walls
covered with a vapor barrier paint or primer, and/or oil-base
paint to allow breathability and adhesion.
adhesive
• Use a premium-grade, full-strength, heavy-duty clear,
•
•
Permavent™ tests were conducted at a certified independent laboratory.
* MHRA (Manufactured Home Research Alliance) Measured Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
** U.S. HUD (Housing and Urban Development) Regulation for permeance of materials used in exterior walls of
manufactured homes in hot, humid climates.
*** ASHRAE (1993) American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
**** One coat latex primer sealer and one coat satin paint
primer is designed to be a vapor barrier, it may significantly
reduce the overall permeability of the installation.)
If primers are required, use only breathable latex primers.
Light sanding after priming prior to installation will help
improve adhesion and porosity and improve breathability.
existing walls
5
Oil-base paint***
• May require priming to promote adhesion. (NOTE: If the
Permavent Wallcovering
12
Painted knockdown textures, oil paints, latex flat, satin and semi-gloss paints offer
various design and texture options. But Versa offers enhanced color, texture and design
with unmatched durability. Permavent microvented wallcovering takes this to the next
level by adding moisture control functionality.
Wall Cavity
Permavent 15 oz. (Mounted)
new walls
Paint
12
Primer
Desiccant method & gypsum
at least six days prior to and after installation.
content (a moisture meter should be used).
Wall Cavity
23
• Between 60º – 80º F and relative humidity at 50% or less –
• Must be smooth, clean, dry and structurally sound.
• Newly plastered walls must not have excessive lime or alkali.
• Walls must not contain in excess of 5 – 7% residual moisture
breathable paint
breathable primer
14
Desiccant method unmounted
climate conditions
surfaces
specifying The righT wall surface
Permavent permeability performance
• Permanent lighting conditions only.
non-breathable primer
strippable, mildew-resistant adhesive.
Apply adhesive to the wall surface.
Dry hang each sheet and follow adhesive manufacturer's
instructions on coverage and set time.
post-installation
• Closely monitor walls for excess or long-standing water or
The maximum breathability with Permavent can be achieved
when installed with no primer or a breathable primer.
•
moisture infiltration.
If present, promptly remove and dry the surface completely.
Measuring perms
Hot & humid
Materials are typically tested in two ways:
A breathable material with perm ratings greater than 10 is recommended on the
interior of exterior walls. This allows the moisture to escape the wall cavity into the
room and be removed by the HVAC system and not condense on the wall surfaces.
1. Dry cup testing – Conducted with 0% relative humidity on one side of the test sample
and 50% on the other side. 3
2. Wet cup testing – Conducted with 50% relative humidity maintained on one side
of the test sample and 100% on the other side. 3
Mixed & cold
Permavent™ Microvented Wallcovering
Available on all Versa designs, Permavent™ enhances the breathability
of wallcoverings. The microventing technology from LSI Wallcovering is
engineered for humid environments and areas where moisture management
is a challenge. Permavent increases permeability via perforations that allow
mobile moisture and condensation to pass through the wallcovering. The
technology preserves the aesthetic integrity of the design, while providing
added protection against the growth of mold and mildew. One of a host
of Versa performance enhancements, Permavent helps ensure exceptional
aesthetics, long-lasting durability and a healthy indoor environment.
Considering regional climates
Disclaimer and Limited Warranty
Subject to the conditions and limitations herein, the wallcovering is guaranteed to be free
of defects in workmanship and material for five years from the date of shipment of the
product. The manufacturer is not responsible or liable for claims if the application
instructions are not followed, nor is the manufacturer responsible or liable for labor
and associated costs, over and above the cost for replacement material.
The Manufacturer specifically advises all parties that mold will grow in conductive
conditions where moisture and/or water is present. The Manufacturer cannot control
such conductive conditions and is not responsible or liable for any claims, damages or the like
in any way related to or arising in connection with the occurrence or presence of mold. The
Manufacturer also shall not be liable for any damages arising from the misuse of the
product, improper handling or storage, improper or defective building conditions, or
alteration of the product by others.
The Customer understands and agrees that certain conditions within a building may cause the
growth of various types of mold, organisms or other hazardous pollutants or contaminates.
These conditions may be caused by a combination of moisture, warm air and an organic
medium. These conditions may be created by a number of circumstances including, but not
limited to, leaking roofs, walls, floors, windows, water or soil lines breaking, inadequate and
poorly balanced heating and ventilation equipment, the improper use of vapor control media
on exterior walls, storms, floods, vandalism, etc. Moist or wet areas may be undiscoverable
without removal of ceiling, wall and floor coverings and a thorough investigation of the specific
areas. These coverings include paneling, drywall or plaster materials, floor coverings, underlayment and subflooring, sheathing, exterior siding and possibly roofing materials and decking.
The Manufacturer assumes no responsibility or liability for any reason, now or in the
future, for any mold or other organisms that may grow in the covered or any other areas of
the building, and Customer will indemnify, defend, and hold harmless The Manufacturer
for any potential or realized property damage or health or safety issues because of airborne
pollutants or any other type of hazardous materials or organisms found in the covered or
other areas of the building.
This Limited Warranty Is The Sole And Exclusive Warranty Given By The
Manufacturer. The Manufacturer makes no other or additional warranty, whether
expressed or implied, including, without limit, the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose, all of which are hereby expressly disclaimed. The
Manufacturer expressly disclaims all liability for any redhibitory defects. The Customer’s
sole remedy and The Manufacturer’s sole liability shall be limited to product
replacement. The Manufacturer will not be liable for direct, consequential or incidental
damages, including without limitation lost profits, punitive damages, loss of use damages, loss
of value damages, damage to other property, etc. even if THE MANUFACTURER is aware of
the possibility of these damages occurring. All claims made under this Limited Warranty must
be in writing to The Manufacturer within 90 days of the first knowledge of any defect,
and within the warranty period or such claims are waived.
Materials with perm ratings less than 10 are recommended on the exterior of interior
rooms to keep the moist air from moving into the wall cavity during the heating season.
Extreme northern
During the heating season, humidity is typically low and maintaining some moisture
in the rooms is desirable.
The importance of permeance (perm) ratings
Building materials used in the construction of walls, including decorative finishes like
wallcovering, have classifications based on their ability to allow vapor (moisture) to pass
through them. The higher the perm rating the more breathable the materials. Below
are the classifications, their common names and perm ranges.
Classifications
PermsSynonyms
Impermeable
Semi-Permeable
Permeable
0–1Vapor barrier, Non-breathable
1–10Vapor retarder, Semi-breathable
10+
Breathable
The ASTM method specifies a total of six possible test conditions2 using both
the dry and wet cup methods at different temperatures and humidities. Unsupported
wallcovering is typically measured unmounted using the wet cup method. The dry
cup is used to test wallcovering that is mounted to a wallboard material like gypsum.
To accurately compare two construction materials like wallcovering and paint for
perm efficiency, the same ASTM method and procedure should be used.
Whenever possible it is best to test the whole interior wall construction including
wallboard, primer, adhesives and decorative finish. For this approach many experts agree
that the dry cup method should be used, and since most buildings will be maintained
at 70º and 50% humidity, it is best to use these environmental conditions in the test.
The exact ASTM reference for this combination is: ASTM E96-00, X1.1.1 Procedure A.
It is important to note that perm results do not necessarily correlate among the
six different standard ASTM test methods. Engineers, material manufacturers and
regulatory agencies may use different methods depending on the specific application.
For example, many liquid applied materials such as paints and primers are typically
measured as 10 mil. wet films in either one, two or three coats4 using methods other
than the wet or dry cup.
There is little published on recommended perm ratings information for commercial
buildings. However, US HUD (Housing and Urban Development) has specified a
perm-rating minimum of 5.0 on interior walls for residential manufactured construction
in hot, humid climates. And, several sources suggest that greater than 10 perms
is considered “breathable.”
Defining perms
Most construction materials can be tested in a controlled laboratory environment for
their ability to allow moisture to move through them. From these tests, a permeance
rating can be assigned and used to predict the effectiveness of a building material or
surface finish.1
The recognized industry test used to measure perms is called the Standard Test for
Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, and specified in ASTM E96-00.2
2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
ASTM, 2002
Burch, Douglas M. and Saunders, Christopher A. May, 1995
A Computer Analysis of Wall Construction in the Moisture Control Handbook
ASTM E96-00, Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
4 Manufactured Housing Research Alliance, 2000
Measuring Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
1
2
3
Additional References:
Building Science Corporation 2003, Insulations, Sheathings and Vapor Diffusion Retarders
MBMA, Metal Building Manufacturers Association Fact Sheet
Wallcovering Association, Mold Cause, Effect and Response and Chemical Fabrics: Film Association, Inc.
U.S. Federal Register 2002
Housing and Urban Development Department, 24CFR Part 3280
Condensation Control for Exterior Walls of Manufactured Homes Sited in Humid and Fringe Climates; Waiver; Final Rule
The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC), 2002 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Measuring perms
Hot & humid
Materials are typically tested in two ways:
A breathable material with perm ratings greater than 10 is recommended on the
interior of exterior walls. This allows the moisture to escape the wall cavity into the
room and be removed by the HVAC system and not condense on the wall surfaces.
1. Dry cup testing – Conducted with 0% relative humidity on one side of the test sample
and 50% on the other side. 3
2. Wet cup testing – Conducted with 50% relative humidity maintained on one side
of the test sample and 100% on the other side. 3
Mixed & cold
Permavent™ Microvented Wallcovering
Available on all Versa designs, Permavent™ enhances the breathability
of wallcoverings. The microventing technology from LSI Wallcovering is
engineered for humid environments and areas where moisture management
is a challenge. Permavent increases permeability via perforations that allow
mobile moisture and condensation to pass through the wallcovering. The
technology preserves the aesthetic integrity of the design, while providing
added protection against the growth of mold and mildew. One of a host
of Versa performance enhancements, Permavent helps ensure exceptional
aesthetics, long-lasting durability and a healthy indoor environment.
Considering regional climates
Disclaimer and Limited Warranty
Subject to the conditions and limitations herein, the wallcovering is guaranteed to be free
of defects in workmanship and material for five years from the date of shipment of the
product. The manufacturer is not responsible or liable for claims if the application
instructions are not followed, nor is the manufacturer responsible or liable for labor
and associated costs, over and above the cost for replacement material.
The Manufacturer specifically advises all parties that mold will grow in conductive
conditions where moisture and/or water is present. The Manufacturer cannot control
such conductive conditions and is not responsible or liable for any claims, damages or the like
in any way related to or arising in connection with the occurrence or presence of mold. The
Manufacturer also shall not be liable for any damages arising from the misuse of the
product, improper handling or storage, improper or defective building conditions, or
alteration of the product by others.
The Customer understands and agrees that certain conditions within a building may cause the
growth of various types of mold, organisms or other hazardous pollutants or contaminates.
These conditions may be caused by a combination of moisture, warm air and an organic
medium. These conditions may be created by a number of circumstances including, but not
limited to, leaking roofs, walls, floors, windows, water or soil lines breaking, inadequate and
poorly balanced heating and ventilation equipment, the improper use of vapor control media
on exterior walls, storms, floods, vandalism, etc. Moist or wet areas may be undiscoverable
without removal of ceiling, wall and floor coverings and a thorough investigation of the specific
areas. These coverings include paneling, drywall or plaster materials, floor coverings, underlayment and subflooring, sheathing, exterior siding and possibly roofing materials and decking.
The Manufacturer assumes no responsibility or liability for any reason, now or in the
future, for any mold or other organisms that may grow in the covered or any other areas of
the building, and Customer will indemnify, defend, and hold harmless The Manufacturer
for any potential or realized property damage or health or safety issues because of airborne
pollutants or any other type of hazardous materials or organisms found in the covered or
other areas of the building.
This Limited Warranty Is The Sole And Exclusive Warranty Given By The
Manufacturer. The Manufacturer makes no other or additional warranty, whether
expressed or implied, including, without limit, the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose, all of which are hereby expressly disclaimed. The
Manufacturer expressly disclaims all liability for any redhibitory defects. The Customer’s
sole remedy and The Manufacturer’s sole liability shall be limited to product
replacement. The Manufacturer will not be liable for direct, consequential or incidental
damages, including without limitation lost profits, punitive damages, loss of use damages, loss
of value damages, damage to other property, etc. even if THE MANUFACTURER is aware of
the possibility of these damages occurring. All claims made under this Limited Warranty must
be in writing to The Manufacturer within 90 days of the first knowledge of any defect,
and within the warranty period or such claims are waived.
Materials with perm ratings less than 10 are recommended on the exterior of interior
rooms to keep the moist air from moving into the wall cavity during the heating season.
Extreme northern
During the heating season, humidity is typically low and maintaining some moisture
in the rooms is desirable.
The importance of permeance (perm) ratings
Building materials used in the construction of walls, including decorative finishes like
wallcovering, have classifications based on their ability to allow vapor (moisture) to pass
through them. The higher the perm rating the more breathable the materials. Below
are the classifications, their common names and perm ranges.
Classifications
PermsSynonyms
Impermeable
Semi-Permeable
Permeable
0–1Vapor barrier, Non-breathable
1–10Vapor retarder, Semi-breathable
10+
Breathable
The ASTM method specifies a total of six possible test conditions2 using both
the dry and wet cup methods at different temperatures and humidities. Unsupported
wallcovering is typically measured unmounted using the wet cup method. The dry
cup is used to test wallcovering that is mounted to a wallboard material like gypsum.
To accurately compare two construction materials like wallcovering and paint for
perm efficiency, the same ASTM method and procedure should be used.
Whenever possible it is best to test the whole interior wall construction including
wallboard, primer, adhesives and decorative finish. For this approach many experts agree
that the dry cup method should be used, and since most buildings will be maintained
at 70º and 50% humidity, it is best to use these environmental conditions in the test.
The exact ASTM reference for this combination is: ASTM E96-00, X1.1.1 Procedure A.
It is important to note that perm results do not necessarily correlate among the
six different standard ASTM test methods. Engineers, material manufacturers and
regulatory agencies may use different methods depending on the specific application.
For example, many liquid applied materials such as paints and primers are typically
measured as 10 mil. wet films in either one, two or three coats4 using methods other
than the wet or dry cup.
There is little published on recommended perm ratings information for commercial
buildings. However, US HUD (Housing and Urban Development) has specified a
perm-rating minimum of 5.0 on interior walls for residential manufactured construction
in hot, humid climates. And, several sources suggest that greater than 10 perms
is considered “breathable.”
Defining perms
Most construction materials can be tested in a controlled laboratory environment for
their ability to allow moisture to move through them. From these tests, a permeance
rating can be assigned and used to predict the effectiveness of a building material or
surface finish.1
The recognized industry test used to measure perms is called the Standard Test for
Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, and specified in ASTM E96-00.2
2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
ASTM, 2002
Burch, Douglas M. and Saunders, Christopher A. May, 1995
A Computer Analysis of Wall Construction in the Moisture Control Handbook
ASTM E96-00, Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
4 Manufactured Housing Research Alliance, 2000
Measuring Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
1
2
3
Additional References:
Building Science Corporation 2003, Insulations, Sheathings and Vapor Diffusion Retarders
MBMA, Metal Building Manufacturers Association Fact Sheet
Wallcovering Association, Mold Cause, Effect and Response and Chemical Fabrics: Film Association, Inc.
U.S. Federal Register 2002
Housing and Urban Development Department, 24CFR Part 3280
Condensation Control for Exterior Walls of Manufactured Homes Sited in Humid and Fringe Climates; Waiver; Final Rule
The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC), 2002 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Measuring perms
Hot & humid
Materials are typically tested in two ways:
A breathable material with perm ratings greater than 10 is recommended on the
interior of exterior walls. This allows the moisture to escape the wall cavity into the
room and be removed by the HVAC system and not condense on the wall surfaces.
1. Dry cup testing – Conducted with 0% relative humidity on one side of the test sample
and 50% on the other side. 3
2. Wet cup testing – Conducted with 50% relative humidity maintained on one side
of the test sample and 100% on the other side. 3
Mixed & cold
Permavent™ Microvented Wallcovering
Available on all Versa designs, Permavent™ enhances the breathability
of wallcoverings. The microventing technology from LSI Wallcovering is
engineered for humid environments and areas where moisture management
is a challenge. Permavent increases permeability via perforations that allow
mobile moisture and condensation to pass through the wallcovering. The
technology preserves the aesthetic integrity of the design, while providing
added protection against the growth of mold and mildew. One of a host
of Versa performance enhancements, Permavent helps ensure exceptional
aesthetics, long-lasting durability and a healthy indoor environment.
Considering regional climates
Disclaimer and Limited Warranty
Subject to the conditions and limitations herein, the wallcovering is guaranteed to be free
of defects in workmanship and material for five years from the date of shipment of the
product. The manufacturer is not responsible or liable for claims if the application
instructions are not followed, nor is the manufacturer responsible or liable for labor
and associated costs, over and above the cost for replacement material.
The Manufacturer specifically advises all parties that mold will grow in conductive
conditions where moisture and/or water is present. The Manufacturer cannot control
such conductive conditions and is not responsible or liable for any claims, damages or the like
in any way related to or arising in connection with the occurrence or presence of mold. The
Manufacturer also shall not be liable for any damages arising from the misuse of the
product, improper handling or storage, improper or defective building conditions, or
alteration of the product by others.
The Customer understands and agrees that certain conditions within a building may cause the
growth of various types of mold, organisms or other hazardous pollutants or contaminates.
These conditions may be caused by a combination of moisture, warm air and an organic
medium. These conditions may be created by a number of circumstances including, but not
limited to, leaking roofs, walls, floors, windows, water or soil lines breaking, inadequate and
poorly balanced heating and ventilation equipment, the improper use of vapor control media
on exterior walls, storms, floods, vandalism, etc. Moist or wet areas may be undiscoverable
without removal of ceiling, wall and floor coverings and a thorough investigation of the specific
areas. These coverings include paneling, drywall or plaster materials, floor coverings, underlayment and subflooring, sheathing, exterior siding and possibly roofing materials and decking.
The Manufacturer assumes no responsibility or liability for any reason, now or in the
future, for any mold or other organisms that may grow in the covered or any other areas of
the building, and Customer will indemnify, defend, and hold harmless The Manufacturer
for any potential or realized property damage or health or safety issues because of airborne
pollutants or any other type of hazardous materials or organisms found in the covered or
other areas of the building.
This Limited Warranty Is The Sole And Exclusive Warranty Given By The
Manufacturer. The Manufacturer makes no other or additional warranty, whether
expressed or implied, including, without limit, the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose, all of which are hereby expressly disclaimed. The
Manufacturer expressly disclaims all liability for any redhibitory defects. The Customer’s
sole remedy and The Manufacturer’s sole liability shall be limited to product
replacement. The Manufacturer will not be liable for direct, consequential or incidental
damages, including without limitation lost profits, punitive damages, loss of use damages, loss
of value damages, damage to other property, etc. even if THE MANUFACTURER is aware of
the possibility of these damages occurring. All claims made under this Limited Warranty must
be in writing to The Manufacturer within 90 days of the first knowledge of any defect,
and within the warranty period or such claims are waived.
Materials with perm ratings less than 10 are recommended on the exterior of interior
rooms to keep the moist air from moving into the wall cavity during the heating season.
Extreme northern
During the heating season, humidity is typically low and maintaining some moisture
in the rooms is desirable.
The importance of permeance (perm) ratings
Building materials used in the construction of walls, including decorative finishes like
wallcovering, have classifications based on their ability to allow vapor (moisture) to pass
through them. The higher the perm rating the more breathable the materials. Below
are the classifications, their common names and perm ranges.
Classifications
PermsSynonyms
Impermeable
Semi-Permeable
Permeable
0–1Vapor barrier, Non-breathable
1–10Vapor retarder, Semi-breathable
10+
Breathable
The ASTM method specifies a total of six possible test conditions2 using both
the dry and wet cup methods at different temperatures and humidities. Unsupported
wallcovering is typically measured unmounted using the wet cup method. The dry
cup is used to test wallcovering that is mounted to a wallboard material like gypsum.
To accurately compare two construction materials like wallcovering and paint for
perm efficiency, the same ASTM method and procedure should be used.
Whenever possible it is best to test the whole interior wall construction including
wallboard, primer, adhesives and decorative finish. For this approach many experts agree
that the dry cup method should be used, and since most buildings will be maintained
at 70º and 50% humidity, it is best to use these environmental conditions in the test.
The exact ASTM reference for this combination is: ASTM E96-00, X1.1.1 Procedure A.
It is important to note that perm results do not necessarily correlate among the
six different standard ASTM test methods. Engineers, material manufacturers and
regulatory agencies may use different methods depending on the specific application.
For example, many liquid applied materials such as paints and primers are typically
measured as 10 mil. wet films in either one, two or three coats4 using methods other
than the wet or dry cup.
There is little published on recommended perm ratings information for commercial
buildings. However, US HUD (Housing and Urban Development) has specified a
perm-rating minimum of 5.0 on interior walls for residential manufactured construction
in hot, humid climates. And, several sources suggest that greater than 10 perms
is considered “breathable.”
Defining perms
Most construction materials can be tested in a controlled laboratory environment for
their ability to allow moisture to move through them. From these tests, a permeance
rating can be assigned and used to predict the effectiveness of a building material or
surface finish.1
The recognized industry test used to measure perms is called the Standard Test for
Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, and specified in ASTM E96-00.2
2001 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook
ASTM, 2002
Burch, Douglas M. and Saunders, Christopher A. May, 1995
A Computer Analysis of Wall Construction in the Moisture Control Handbook
ASTM E96-00, Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials
4 Manufactured Housing Research Alliance, 2000
Measuring Permeance Values for Selected Interior Wall Assemblies
1
2
3
Additional References:
Building Science Corporation 2003, Insulations, Sheathings and Vapor Diffusion Retarders
MBMA, Metal Building Manufacturers Association Fact Sheet
Wallcovering Association, Mold Cause, Effect and Response and Chemical Fabrics: Film Association, Inc.
U.S. Federal Register 2002
Housing and Urban Development Department, 24CFR Part 3280
Condensation Control for Exterior Walls of Manufactured Homes Sited in Humid and Fringe Climates; Waiver; Final Rule
The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Clearinghouse (EREC), 2002 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

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