JHS Training Manual

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JHS Training Manual
WF-7-2010
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Why Use an Immune Support Supplement?
Your immune health has never been more important.
• Cold and Flu Season
• Recurring infections
• Drug therapies where immune
suppression is a common side effect
• Stress
• Constant exposure to low levels of toxins
in the environment (such as the offgassing of adhesives and building
materials used in modern office
buildings)
• Degraded nutritional value of foods due
to chemical farming
• Travel
Why Use a Mushroom Extract for Immune Support?
• The beta glucan based extracts from medicinal
mushrooms are the most powerful, effective
and useful immune support supplements
available.
• Mushroom extracts are one of the few immune
support supplements where the mechanism of
action, in terms of immune modulation, can
actually be documented and explained.
• Mushroom extracts are the best researched
immune support supplements in the world with
over 2,000 studies published in just the last 10
years.
• Unlike Echinacea, mushroom extracts can be
used for long term daily immune support,
stopping problems before they start.
• Beta glucan/polysaccharide extracts from
mushrooms have been scientifically proven to
strengthen the overall immune response, giving
them the widest array of immune related
applications:
Beta glucans offer protection from the side
effects of therapies that damage and/or
suppress the immune response.
Beta glucans enhance proliferation,
activation and differentiation of the
progenitor stem cells utilized in tissue
repair; a process that benefits athletes and
people dealing with injuries.
• Unlike Colostrum products and Transfer
Factor, mushroom extracts are not derived
from animals and can be used by vegetarians.
• Although there are many herbal based
supplements, such as Elderberry and
Echinacea, that are thought to have antiviral
properties, there is no scientific documentation
showing that they can strengthen the overall
immune response the way that beta glucans
from mushrooms do.
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Why a Hot Water Extracted Mushroom Supplement?
Short Answer
• Hot water extracts contain 50-80 times more beta glucan than mycelium
grown on rice or liquid alcohol extracts.
• 100% of the scientific studies published on the immune health benefits of
medicinal mushrooms have used hot water extracts.
• All of the references from TCM recommend that medicinal mushrooms be
prepared as a tea or decoction (a.k.a. hot water extract).
• All bioactive compounds known to exist in medicinal mushrooms have been
found through examining the contents of hot water extracts.
• Most people buy mushroom supplements because of the immune health
benefits reported on in the popular literature. The popular literature is
reporting on health benefits observed in the independent published
research. These research studies are using hot water extracts with
specified levels of the polysaccharides that contain the beta glucans.
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Advantages of
MushroomScience Line
• Organic and All-Natural
• Guaranteed Potency Listed on Label
• Research Validated
1. MushroomScience supplements offer the best of all worlds:
Guaranteed levels of all the active compounds identified in the
supporting scientific research.
The complete essence of what made each of these mushrooms
valuable in Traditional East Asian Medicine.
2. MushroomScience is the only line of mushroom supplements sold in North
America that lists precise levels of active compounds on the label of every
mushroom supplement.
3. Superior product potency information on the label allows for more effective
product use, which in turn creates better results for the customer and
stronger sales for the store.
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Why a Hot Water Extract?
Dr. Mark Stengler N.D., in his recently published book “The Health Benefits of Medicinal
Mushrooms,” made the observation that the independent scientific studies on medicinal
mushrooms are based on the use of hot water extracts.
All of the references from Traditional East Asian Medicine (TEAM) also recommend hot water
extraction when preparing medicinal mushrooms. We have absolute consensus on this issue from
two distinctly different healing traditions. Why do they recommend hot water extraction?
The answer is simple and based on two factors.
BIOAVAILABILITY
The immune supporting polysaccharides common to all medicinal mushrooms and
mushroom mycelium are found inside of the cell walls. However, the cell walls of
mushrooms and mushroom mycelium are made from an indigestible fiber called
“chitin,” the same material a lobster shell is made of.
Hot water extraction is the only clinically validated method for breaking these
polysaccharides out of the indigestible cell walls. Even soft materials like Shiitake
mushrooms and mushroom mycelium are prepared as a hot water extract or a tea
when used medicinally.* (Both in TEAM and the published scientific research)
CONCENTRATION
The immune supporting polysaccharides found in the cell walls of mushrooms and
mushroom mycelium comprise only 0.5-2% of the total mass by dry weight
(depending on the mushroom), not enough to have effect even if the polysaccharides
were bioavailable. Most hot water mushroom/mycelium extracts are at least a 20:1
concentration, meaning we use 20 kilos of dried mushrooms to produce one kilo of
a dehydrated hot water extract.*
Hot water extraction dissolves the indigestible fiber (chitin), allowing the inactive
fiber to be removed from the extract when the water is removed. This process
concentrates the polysaccharides to the therapeutically effective levels identified in
the published research.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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The active compounds in medicinal mushrooms
and mushroom mycelium comprise 1-2%
of the total mass by dry weight
Cells comprising
the body of the
mushroom or
mushroom
mycelium
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Immune
cell #1
Simplified
Representation
of Strand 2
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
Some companies claim their mycelium biomass
supplements contain up to 70% polysaccharide, however,
they are measuring simple sugars and the inactive linear
polysaccharides (starch) found in the undigested rice the
mycelium is grown on.
Diagram representing a polysaccharide without branching
side chains, such as the starch found in the brown rice
mycelium biomass is grown on. Without the side chains,
these polysaccharides have no way to stimulate an
immune response.
Diagram representing the triple helical structure of
glucan with branching side chains, the type of immune
stimulating polysaccharides found inside the cell walls of
medicinal mushrooms and mushroom mycelium.
Side chains allow for interaction with the receptors on the
surface of various immune cells such as macrophage and natural
killer cells.
Side View of Linear Polysaccharide
Simplified
Representation
of Strand 2
Simplified
Representation
of Strand 1
Strand 3 portraying
molecular structure
Side View of Non-Linear Polysaccharide
Immune
cell #3
Immune
cell #2
Branching side
chain triggering
the immune
cascade
Simplified
Representation
of Strand 1
Branching
side chains
Strand 3 portraying
molecular structure
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Branching
B
ranch
hing side
ch
chains
hains = B
Beta
eta glucan
glucan
partt off molecule
par
Receptor
R
eceptor
sit
e on
site
immune
cell
cell
IImmune
mmune
e
ccell #2
IImmune
mmune
e
ccell #3
Branching side
Branching
sid
de
chains
Beta
c
=B
eta glucan
glu
ucan
part of molecule
molecu
ule
part
Receptor
Receptor
o site
site
immune
on immu
une ccell
ell
Immune
e
ccell
ell #2
Immune
e
ccell
ell #3
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Hot water extraction allows MushroomScience
to concentrate the healing power of 750
grams of Reishi mushrooms into every bottle.
750 grams of certified organic, Reishi mushrooms in a concentrated extract.
One bottle contains 90 capsules at 400mg per capsule.
Our competitors that don’t use hot water extraction
offer supplements that are significantly less potent.
126 grams of Reishi mushrooms in a
concentrated extract, 15 grams of
Reishi mushrooms as unextracted
mushroom powder, 3 grams of a
standardized Maitake extract
containing 10% active proteoglucans
51 grams of unextracted Reishi
mycelium, 3 grams of Reishi
mushrooms as
an unextracted powder
2.4 grams of Vitamin C, 6 grams of Ginger,
150 mg of bioperene
One bottle contains 60 capsules
with approximately 900 mg per capsules
Microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose, vegetable
stearine, calcium stearate, and dicalcium phosphate
30 grams of
unextracted
Reishi mycelium
One bottle contains
60 capsules with
1000 mg per capsule
Microcrystallin cellulose, dicalcium phosphate,
silica, sucrose fatty acid ester
One bottle contains 120 caplets
with approximately 300 mg per caplet
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Beta 1, 3 Glucan–
Medicinal Mushrooms vs. Yeast
Beta Glucans can be found in oats, barley, yeast and medicinal mushrooms. However, there are significant
structural differences between the various beta glucans.
Of these, only the beta 1, 3 glucan from yeast and medicinal mushrooms provide any significant immunomodulating properties.
Between these two, only medicinal mushrooms contain the triple helical form of beta 1, 3 glucan. The beta
glucan from yeast consists of a single helix.
This is the key to the significantly superior immuno-modulating properties of mushroom derived beta
glucans as compared to those found in yeast.
Each strand or helix has side chains attached to them, and it is the side chains that are the key to the
immune related bioactivity of beta glucans. As the pictures illustrate, the beta glucans found in medicinal
mushrooms have three times more side chains as compared to the beta glucans from yeast.
Branching
Branching
g
chains
side chain
ns
SSimplified
implified
Representation
R
epresenta
t tion
ti
of Strand
Strand 1
Simplified
Simplified
Representation
R
epresenta
t tion
ti
of Strand
Strand 1
Branching
Branching
side chains
Simplified
Simplified
Representation
R
epresentation
of Strand
Strand 2
Simplified
Simplified
Representation
R
epresentation
of Strand
Strand 3
Triple Helix found
in Medicinal Mushrooms
Single Helix found in Yeast
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How to Choose
the Best Mushroom Extract
All medicinal mushroom supplements are effective at supporting immune health if they are hot water
extracts and contain effective levels of beta glucans (non-linear polysaccharides). However, some
mushroom extracts contain active compounds in addition to the beta glucans and offer health benefits in
addition to immune support.
Choosing the best mushroom supplement for immune support may be influenced by other health benefits
the different mushroom extracts offer. Looking at it this way, we have two groups of mushroom
supplements:
Group 1: Mushroom supplements that contain beta glucans but no significant levels of other active
compounds. These are used solely to protect, restore or support immune health.
Group 2: Mushroom supplements that contain active compounds in addition to beta glucans and offer
health benefits in addition to immune support.
GROUP 1
GROUP 2
Immune Support Only
Immune Support
and Other Health Benefits
Coriolus
(C)
Coriolus Super Strength, PSP
For customers that need to show their doctor
strong scientific research, 100’s of Scientific
Studies, 48 Human Clinical Studies
Agaricus blazei
(A)
Reishi Gano 161 – Beta Glucans Plus
Triterpene Compounds
Supports liver health, down-regulates the over expression
of TNF α and NF Kappa B*
Cordyceps Cs-4 – Polysaccharides plus
Adenosine Compounds
Adrenal, kidney and lung support, adrenal fatigue,
stamina and endurance, male libido*
Maitake
(M)
MaitakeGold Liquid
For people that need or prefer a liquid
hot water extract
Lion’s Mane – Beta Glucans Plus
Polysaccharide Fractions
Improves memory, concentration and cognitive function*
Maitake Full Spectrum Capsules
5 Mushroom Formula
Tonic Immune Support
Cold and Flu Season
Short Term Use
Chaga – Beta Glucans Plus
Betulin Compounds, Melanin Compounds
Anti-oxidant (has highest O.R.A.C. score of any food based
supplement), Melanin compounds nourish skin and hair*
Tremella – Beta Glucans Plus
Polysaccharide Fractions
Improves complexion and naturally improves the skins
appearance*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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Use and Safety
Medicinal Mushroom Extracts and Autoimmune Conditions
Mushroom supplements are not contraindicated in cases of autoimmune conditions.
Autoimmune conditions arise when a person is “attacked” by their own over-active immune
system. These autoimmune imbalances develop in that part of the immune system called the
“specific” immune response. This is also the part of the immune system in play when using
vaccines. Some references will refer to the “specific” immune response as the “Th2” side of the
immune system.
The beta glucans in medicinal mushrooms work on the “non-specific” part of the immune system,
also known as the “Th1” side of the immune system. This means that the beta glucans in hot water
extracted mushroom supplements have no effect, good or bad, on autoimmune conditions (we are
not making any comment on tinctures or mycelium biomass - there is no research on these forms
of mushroom supplements and the chemical constituents are unknown).
The one mushroom extract that does have possible relevance for autoimmune conditions is Reishi
Gano 161. According to the clinical research done at Bastyr University the triterpenes in Reishi
Gano 161 down-regulate TNF alpha and NK kappa beta. It is the over expression of these two
inflammatory cytokines that are usually involved in the genesis of autoimmune conditions and
chronic forms of inflammation.
Daily Use – All mushroom extracts should be taken twice a day, AM and PM, on an empty stomach
(1/2 hour before meals or 2 hours after).
Long Term Use – Mushroom extracts can be used long term, for years, with no negative side effects
or drop off in effect (there is one exception that is discussed on page 21). There is no problem with
“burning out” the immune system as reported with Echinacea. Mushroom extracts represent an
excellent choice of immune tonics for vegetarians as Echinacea should not be used long term and
colostrum products are animal derived.*
Pregnant Women and Nursing Mothers – There are no references regarding the use of mushroom
extracts by pregnant women or nursing mothers. We recommend that mushroom extracts not be
used in these cases.
Allergic – Mushroom extracts should not be used by people that have food allergies to mushrooms
or people that are hyper-sensitive to mushrooms. Mushroom extracts are okay for those people that
are allergic to the air-borne spores of molds.*
Candida and Yeast Infections – It is okay for people with candida or yeast problems to use
mushroom extracts. The primary treatment should be adjusted diet and adjusted intestinal flora,
however, immune support with mushroom extracts is a useful part of an overall protocol to address
either of these problems.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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Immune Challenges - Long Term Use
As we have gained more experience with the use of medicinal mushroom extracts we have come to learn
three important facts: 1.) After 3-4 months on a single extract at a high dose some people (less than
20%), experience a slight tailing off in terms of immune support; 2.) Each polysaccharide from each
medicinal mushroom produces a slightly different cascade of events in the non-specific immune
response; 3.) Using two extracts simultaneously creates a far more powerful immune response—
especially in the first three or four weeks—than using any single extract alone.*
The synergy created when using two extracts together is especially important when addressing immune
challenges; however, it is important to remember that an insufficient dose of one extract will not help an
insufficient dose of another extract work any better (the problem with many of the combination
formulas). Slightly lower doses can be used when using two extracts together; however, each single
extract must still be used at a dose sufficient to create an immune response if used alone.*
Rotating Extracts
One simple option to avoid the tailing off effect is to use a single extract for three months and then
switch to another single extract for three months, switching back and forth every three months. It is a
simple protocol to switch back and forth between Coriolus and Maitake every three months.*
Although it may seem complicated to some, the best option for immune challenges is to use a rotating
combination of extracts. The three Group 1 mushroom extracts are used most often in these
circumstances: Coriolus (C) Agaricus (A) and Maitake (M).*
Example
C+A
C+M
A+M
Three months each…
then start it over again
The most important point to remember is that it does not matter which mushroom extract or combination
of extracts you start with as you will rotate through all possible options in nine to twelve months.
Tonic Immune Support
When taking mushroom extracts for tonic or preventative immune support they are used at a lower dose
as compared to use for immune challenges, so the “tailing off” is not experienced. The best choice for
tonic immune support over the long term is to rotate between two different mushroom extracts, using one
extract at a time, and then rotating to a different extract every six months. Even though the “tailing off”
is not experienced at lower doses, it is best to keep coming at the immune system from different directions,
changing up the protocol to keep it “fresh.”*
For some people the choice of which extract to take for immune support may depend on other non-immune
related health issues such as fatigue (use Cordyceps) or liver health issues (use Reishi).*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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Differences between Coriolus Super Strength (PSK) and Coriolus PSP
1. Coriolus Super Strength (PSK) has more protein than peptides in the non-polysaccharide portion of the
molecule. Coriolus PSP has more peptides than proteins in the non-polysaccharide portion of the
molecule.
2. There are minor differences in the non-active single sugars.
3. The glucan (polysaccharide) portions of Coriolus Super Strength (PSK) and Coriolus PSP, the part
considered to be the primary active compound, are identical under NMR analysis.
4. Coriolus Super Strength (PSK) has 42% polysaccharide, Coriolus PSP has 30%.
5. Coriolus Super Strength (PSK) has 600 mg per capsule; Coriolus PSP has 400 mg per capsule.
6. There has been much more research done on the protein-bound form of Coriolus (Super Strength/PSK)
as compared to the peptide form of Coriolus (PSP). However, this is due to the fact that PSK has been
on the market 20 years longer.
MushroomScience started making the Coriolus PSP because it was developed in China and our ChineseAmerican customers prefer it over the Coriolus Super Strength (PSK). (The Coriolus Super Strength
[PSK] was developed in Japan.) Also, if a person does not mind taking more capsules the Coriolus PSP
is less expensive to use than the Coriolus Super Strength and, in effect, a better value.
Is AHCC a Medicinal Mushroom Supplement?
No. MGN-3 and AHCC (ImmPower, Kinoko) are modified rice bran supplements that provide active
compounds called arabinoxylane and alpha glucans. These products do not contain any detectable levels
of non-linear polysaccharides (beta glucans), the clinically researched immune boosting compounds
extracted from medicinal mushrooms.*
When making modified rice bran supplements, mushroom enzymes from the mycelium are added to the
manufacturing process to further break down the cellulose in the rice bran, creating higher levels of
arabinoxylane. However, the amount of mushroom material used in this bio-conversion process does not
constitute the level of mushroom based raw material normally needed or used when making mushroom
based supplements. As mentioned, there are no detectable levels of beta glucan in the rice bran
supplements we have analyzed.*
Arabinoxylane creates an immune response by interacting with receptors in the gut. Mushroom
polysaccharides/beta glucans pass through the gut, enter the blood stream, and create an immune response
by interacting with receptors on the surface of the immune cells. AHCC and mushroom extracts are
complimentary, not redundant. Mushroom extracts offer a customer using AHCC an entirely new and
different pathway for influencing immune health, a pathway of documented effectiveness when the
appropriate dose is used.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
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Effects of a complex Reishi preparation on Th1 and Th2
cytokine production in vitro and ex vivo
Jessica T. Leonard, Iman Majd, Jeff Novack and Cynthia A. Wenner
Bastyr University
Background: Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) is a mushroom used for thousands of years in traditional
Chinese medicine. Reishi is known for its use in adjunctive cancer therapy but also is used clinically to
treat allergies and asthma. Polysaccharides isolated from Reishi stimulate T helper-1 (Th1) cytokines
IL-2 and IFN-•, as well as TNF production in human leukocytes. However, whether complex Reishi
extracts modulate Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles in humans is unknown. This two-part study
investigated the effects of a Reishi mushroom preparation on Th1 and Th2 cytokine production, both in
vitro in immune cells from healthy humans, and ex vivo in immune cells from subjects taking Reishi
orally. This study used a proprietary strain of Reishi (Reishi Gano 161™), developed and supplied by
MushroomScience® LLC in Eugene OR.
Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from blood obtained from 6 healthy
human donors and cytokine production was measured in PBMC supernatants after 24 hr in culture with
varying concentrations of Reishi and phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Cytokine production was also assayed
in serum and in supernatants from unstimulated and PHA-stimulated PBMC from 5 of these study
participants at baseline, days 1, 2, 7 and 14, and one week post treatment with Reishi (1 gram) taken
orally twice a day for two weeks.
Results: In vitro, Reishi significantly decreased PHA-induced IL-4, IL-2, and IFN-• production. In
unstimulated cells, Reishi did not induce these cytokines at doses of 10 – 1000 mcg/mL, but induced a
bell shaped dose response curve for TNF, with maximal production at 100 mcg/mL. In PHA-stimulated
PBMC from 4 of 5 subjects, Reishi enhanced TNF production at low PHA levels, but suppressed TNF at
higher PHA concentrations. In PBMC from one subject, Reishi significantly increased TNF production
at all Reishi concentrations tested. In PHA-stimulated PBMC from participants taking Reishi orally,
production of all cytokines tested was increasingly down-regulated over time, with levels returning to
baseline after Reishi discontinuation. No subjects had detectable serum IL-4, IL-2 or IFN-•. However,
TNF concentrations decreased with time on Reishi in two subjects with detectable TNF serum levels.
Conclusion: Reishi significantly decreased IL-4 production in vitro, and trended toward suppressing IL-4
in PHA-stimulated PBMC from subjects taking Reishi orally. Reishi also decreased IL-2 and IFN-•
production in vitro and ex vivo, suggesting that this particular Reishi preparation may suppress both
Th1 and Th2 cytokine production, rather than induce a shift to a Th1 response. Reishi’s bi-directional
effects on TNF production were dependent on stimulatory conditions and may be indicative of an
adaptogenic response. These data warrant clinical studies assessing Reishi’s effects in diseases of
chronic inflammation, such as asthma and autoimmunity.
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Label Information Comparison
Reishi
Dr. Stengler’s potency recommendation based on the published research.
Supplement Facts
Serving Size 1 capsule
Amount Per Serving
%DV
Ganoderma lucidum (Red Reishi), 400 mg
fruit body extract, 10% Beta Glucan
(polysaccharide), 4% Triterpenes
(ganoderic acids)
*
*Daily Value not established
MushroomScience – Levels of research
validated polysaccharides clearly stated, as
recommended by Dr. Stengler.
Host Defense by Fungi Perfecti ® –
No indication of what the actual levels
of polysaccharides are.
Supplement Facts
Supplement Facts
Serving Size 2 capsules
Serving Size 2 Vcaps
Amount Per Serving
%DV
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum,
800 mg
Gano 161™) fruit body extract,
12% Beta Glucan (polysaccharide),
6% Triterpenes (ganoderic acids)
*
Amount Per Serving
%DV
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum var.
resinaceum) mycelium** 1000 mg
*
Other ingredients: freeze-dried myceliated brown rice**,
NPCaps® (Pullulan, an extra-cellular polysaccharide)
*Daily value not established **Certified Organic
*Daily Value not established
Eclectic Institute – No indication of what the
actual levels of polysaccharides are.
Mushroom Wisdom – No indication of what
the actual levels of polysaccharides are.
Supplement Facts
Supplement Facts
Serving Size 4 caplets
Serving Size 1 capsule
Amount Per Serving
%DV
Amount Per Serving
%DV
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)
freeze-dried mycelia
850 mg
*
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)
fruit body
500 mg
*
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)
air-dried fruiting body
50 mg
*
Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum)
14:1 extract
300 mg
*
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Root Powder
200 mg
*
*Daily Value not established
Maitake Mushroom Standardized 100 mg
Extract, TD-Fraction™ (10% active proteoglucan)
Vitamin C
80 mg
Bioperine (from Poper nigrum)
5 mg
®
*Daily Value not established
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