Technikmuseum "Hugo Junkers"

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Technikmuseum "Hugo Junkers"
Hugo Junkers
exhibition documents
Förderverein Technikmuseum „Hugo Junkers“ Dessau e.V.
Kühnauer Str. 161a, D-06846 Dessau-Roßlau
Tel.:
Fax:
E-mail:
Internet:
+49 (0)340 6611982
+49 (0)340 6611193
[email protected]
www.technikmuseum-dessau.de
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The history of the museums beginning
In the time of social upheaval, the thought arose to erect a museum on
the area of the former Junkers’ aircraft factory. In 1992, involved Dessau’
citizen and former factory members founded an association with the aim
to support the erection of a Technikmuseum.
The “promoting association” begun to collect exhibits and acquired a part
of former area of Junkers with an empty being factory hall from the 50s.
The museum in erection orients in the concept on the person Junkers as
engineer, scientist and inventor. The exhibition consists of single topic
complexes that represents a development section each.
The fields: Junkers- heat technology and gas appliance
construction and living
Hugo Junkers- pioneer of aviation
Hugo Junkers- pioneer of aircraft construction
engine construction
Hugo Junkers- life and work
are already arranged and presented in the museum hall. Later, the
Junkers world of employment and life, as well as the history of effects
should be presented in the exhibition.
The former factory hall offers exhibition area with 4200 m² for further
arrangements. At the time, the free area is being used for events and
presentation from economy, society and tourism. Furthermore, a
managed cafeteria, as well as exhibitions changing in the special
exhibition room are planned. The video and conference rooms are
offered for meetings and events. In the immediate vicinity of museum
you find memorial protected Junkers’ monuments from the 30s of
forward century:
the Junkers- administrative tower block (1934/1935)
the Junkers- wind tunnel (1934/1935)
an airplane compensating disc (1935) as well as
the runaway of former Junkers’ airport.
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Topic Island 1: Gas and Technology of Heat
In 1887, Hugo Junkers graduate from the Technical University of BerlinCharlottenburg where he studied electronic engineering and heat
technology at Professor Slaby. The theoretical knowledge he gained
there played an important role in his future professional career.
Recommended by his Berlin professor, Hugo Junkers joint the “Deutsche
continental Gasgesellschaft” in Dessau, where Wilhelm Oechelhaueuser
(senior) was the technical director. He moved to Dessau where began
the most fruitful period of his creative life. 114 patents were granted only
in the field of gas and heat technology. At the end of the 19th and at the
beginning of the 20th centuries, Dessau was called “the European gas
city” and offered the best conditions for research in the field of
engineering and technology.
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Heat in the Household: Gas-Bath Boiler
Until 1900, hot water and constant room heating were something special.
The new sources of energy, gas and electricity, provided new
possibilities. The first gas appliances for heating rooms and water could
not exploit the gas energy effectively. On the basis of his experience,
Junkers constructed appliances with a high degree of effectiveness.
From the 380 Junkers’ patents, 30% were on the field of gas appliances.
Hugo Junkers installed fins into the with gas heated standing bath boiler
to make the most of the heat. He met the first marketing problems with
an expensive advertising while he propagated the hygienically advantage
of warm water in the bathroom.
The serial production reduced the price of bath boiler, so that about
100.000 gas appliances already were sold after the turn of the century.
The factory of bath boiler employed 1100 employees in 1929. Electricity
being cleaner and safer than gas, the gas was more and more
superseded in the 1920s.
standing gas bath boiler
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On the link side: if heat source was missed, the boiler on a gas boiler could be used
for heating room.
On the right side: sectional view of gas bath boiler with fin
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The calorimeter of 1892 was the starting point for the fluid heater of 1894 and the
bath boiler of 1895.
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Topic Island 2: Construction and Living
Junkers- tower block
Metal stretch as a central thread over the artistic period of Junkers. Well
known by his metal airplane, Junkers was also an architect, master
builder and producer of light metal halls up to detached and terrace
house from steel. The Junkers’ administrative building from the years
1934/1935 was designed by him and was carried out in steel skeleton
construction. In the form of typical Bauhaus-architecture, it played the cooperation with the Gropius and the Bauhaus.
Many subjects were parallel worked by both of them; so there is also a
metal house from Bauhaus-representative in addition to the solely
preserved Junkers-Metal house in Dessau.
Being pointed in the museum hall:
- Junkers-Metal house
- construction of hall with lamella roofs
- metal furniture for garden
- steel door with frame
From his about 350 patents concerns a large part with the metal area. A
hall with lamella roof from the year 1905 still can be seen in Dessau
today.
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Junkers-metal house in the museum hall
Junkers-metal armchair
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Topic Island 3: Engine Technology
gas engine with opposed pistons from 1892
Also, he graduated a additional degree in electrical engineering and heat
technology beside the traditional mechanical engineering. This
knowledge made it possible for him to move it practically in his activity as
an employee of “Deutschen Continental-Gasgesellschaft Dessau”. The
principle of opposed piston engine, that he used for his gas engine from
1892, was the beginning of decades of development ways of engine
technology.
Though, after the separation of Oechelhaeuser and his gas engine
technology, Junkers concentrated upon the development of large-oil
engine, that means heavy-oil engine according to diesel principle, which
he say a great future chance for. He helped this principle to get
breakthrough and his lid piston engines gained currencies in masses. He
traced also the construction of light-oil engines, that made great
achievement possible, in addition to the development and construction of
heavy-oil aero-engines in the aero-engine construction.
Still today, there are efforts to go on from the technology of valveless
diesel engine under the consideration of current exhaust emission norm.
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Junkers’ Engine Development
Hugo Junkers’ unit assembly work principle had as its aim new
inventions and developments. New discoveries and side products, which
caused reforms and improvements in several fields of production of the
Junkers factories, were produced during the work process. New drive
units and side products like the water brake an the free piston
compressor came up in engine development.
In 1909/10 the development started with the large capacity oil engine M
12 with a double piston in a lying position, which were further developed
to the large ship oil engine M 25 (1914) and a small stationed
multipurpose engine.
In 1920/23 Junkers adapted this engine by ordering the pistons in a
standing position. The Diesel lid piston engines without compressor was
used in several fields and was a milestone n engine development. These
high-speed light weight Junkers Diesel engines cold be used for trucks,
locomotives and railcars. The M 12 was also the predecessor model of
Junkers light weight and aero-engines, e. g. the FO 2 (1918) that served
as basis for the Diesel and gas engines. Excessive building of lightweight
engines started with the development of aero-engines.
Lid piston engine 2 HK 160
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Topic Island 4: Hugo Junkers- Pioneer of Aviation
The creation of the national and international civil aviation can be
attributed to Hugo Junkers. He founded airlines as market for his
aircraft. The aviation should be important for the economical
development of a country and a peaceful international
understanding.
After the First World War Junkers realized that passenger and transport
aircraft in post and courier service would have a future. This use required
a “cheap, economical, light, simple, reliable and resistant aircraft”. Most
of the aircraft constructors used converted military aircraft.
In 1919 Junkers built the first all-metal commercial aircraft in the world
with a passenger cabin, the F 13, which was based on the intensive
research and construction work of a century. Security of the passengers,
comfortable traveling and economy were the center of attention .
There was no market for aircraft, so in 1921, Junkers established one
himself by the foundation of the department “Air Traffic” in his aircraft
factory to organize the participation in international airlines.
In 1924 the “Junkers Luftverkehr AG“ (ILAG) was disincorporated as
independent aviation company, which was financially involved in many
national and international airlines and holdings.
“Aviation has to be common heritage of the whole nation.”
Hugo Junkers
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Creation of Deutsche Luft Hansa AG
After World War I, an atmosphere of awakening dominated civil aviation.
In Germany, 15-37 small airlines were existing. These flew only routes
between two towns often along railway lines.
Therefore the competition was tough.
All of the companies made losses because they had no economic
experience in airline traffic. And in 1923, airlines, banks and business
merged to the “Deutsche Aero Lloyd AG” (DAL). The DAL flew with 162
aircraft of several manufacturers, therefore the maintenance and repair
was difficult. 62 of the aircraft were Junkers F 13.
In contrast to DAL, Junkers Luftverkehr (ILAG) had the best and safest
aircraft in the world and an efficient aircraft factory which did
maintenance and repair work. In 1925/26 Junkers aircraft covered 40%
of the world’s air traffic.
But even Hugo Junkers had no economic experience in air traffic and his
own company made losses.
On 6 January 1926, Aero Hansa, Deutsche Aero Lloyd and Junkers
Luftverkehr merged to “Deutsche Luft Hansa AG”. The blue, stylized
crane of the DAL on a yellow background in the color of the ILAG is still
the logo of Deutsche Luft Hansa.
Berlin-Tempelhof stayed the home airport of the new airline.
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Topic Island 5: Hugo Junkers-Pioneer of Aircraft Construction
Hugo Junkers is the father of commercial aircraft for the civil area. His
first all-metal cabin aircraft F 13 set standards and dominated the era of
aircraft history with the typical corrugated metal design for more than two
decade. The insertion of Duralumin and an own aircraft engine
development made Germany to a leading aviation nation by its aircraft
development. Also his achievements for creating of airlines over the
border stay inseparably connected with the name Junkers.
This attitude made him to pacifist finally and let him deny arising arming
plans of National Socialists. His Ju52/3m, in 1931 introduced, was a
further landmark and a commercial success. Air-worthy samples, lovingly
called “Auntie Ju”, are existing still today and making the flight happening
of that time experienceable.
After his forces leaving the Dessau’ factory, the aircraft factory was used
for arming purpose. A lasting monument should be set up to researchers,
engineers and brilliant inventors with the erecting of Technikmuseum
Dessau.
model G 38 in the museum hall
restored Ju 52/ 3m
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Junkers J 1 of 1915 “Blechesel” (tin donkey)
model F 13
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Topic Island 6: Life and Work
A board with foundation of the company, as well as an overall view about
total of 380 Junkers’ patents are presented in a rotunda and on the
limiting three walls. A glass cabinet contains honouring, decorations and
medals. Beside a age of portrait is also a tabular curriculum vital to see.
A bronze bust Hugo Junkers on a posament complete the presentation.
Junkers concentrated upon the development of large-oil engine, that
means heavy-oil engine according to diesel principle, which he say a
great future chance for. He helped this principle to get breakthrough and
his lid piston engines gained currencies in masses.
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Wind tunnel
The wind tunnel served to the aerodynamical analysis of aircraft. The
wind tunnel received partly was made of reinforced concrete in 1934/ 35.
With diameter of 6 metre, it was one of the greatest and the most
modern wind power plants of its time. At first, it was used for the military
aircraft of JFM (Junkers aircraft and engine factory), for the aircraft types
Ju 86 and Ju 87. Threads were fixed on the object made the run of the
air stream visible, also it was worked with flue gas.
After the war, the wind tunnel was dismantled so that only parts of ringshaped concrete pipes are in existence today. The planed reconstruction
is intending a glass construction which should be used as additional
exhibition area.
wind tunnel plant of 1935
wind tunnel in today’s condition
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Outer Area Heavy-Oil Engine M 12
Junkers developed a gas engine according to the opposed piston principle already in
1888. Later, he concentrated upon the development of large-oil engines which he
saw great future chance for. He helped this principle to get breakthrough. The test
engine M 12 has been the first oil machine according to the principle of dual pistons.
The machine, that was constructed in 1907, and essential investigations were
analysed concerning plants, contribution of fuel and possibility of increase in
efficiency. This construction being known as tandem engine has had a performance
of 2x100 hp and was transported from Munich to Dessau in 1997.
double piston engine M 12 on the free area of the museum
Compensating Disc
The partly kept compensating disc from 1933 served the error
compensation of on-board compass. The aeroplane was anchored on
the revolving ground disc with a diameter of 12m. With the engine
running, a turn of the ground disc happened together with airplane on a
certain graduated arc which was took from brass in accordance with the
degree marking available at motionless outer circle. The compensation
and error removal were made by small correcting magnet which was
fixed at compass. It was planned to reconstruct the compensating disc
and to make the interior circle poured out with concrete revolving again.
compensating disc on the free area of the museum
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Free area IL 14
The airplane was constructed under decisive interest of the aircraft
constructor of Junkers-factory, who came back from the Soviet
deportation some years before, in Klotzsche Dresden in 1957. It was
took over from the Lufthansa and later from the Interflug and was mainly
used at domestic flights. After a hard landing in 1967, it was put out of
service. It had its second life as catering facility in front of the ice sport
hall in Halle-Neustadt. In 1999, the acquisition happened by the
technology museum Dessau as well as a restoration. In September
2003, it can be seen by museum visitors.
The IL 14 presents a reference to military use of Junkers-areals in the
60s years, when a transport flight school for aircraft of type IL 14 was
maintained on the area.
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