Products and their applications. Treatment of wood. Wood

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Products and their applications. Treatment of wood. Wood
Wood
Products and their applications.
Treatment of wood. Wood
preservatives products. Wood
profile.
Edited by: Arch. Sylvester D. Seno
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
History
 A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province
of New Brunswick uncovered the earliest
known plants to have grown wood,
approximately 395-400 million years ago.
 People have used wood for millennia for
many purposes, primarily as a fuel, or as a
construction material for making houses,
tools, weapons, furniture, packaging,
artworks and paper.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Wood
 Wood is one of the oldest and most
common structural material. It is plentiful,
inexpensive, relatively strong in both
compression and tension and easy to work
with and fasten.
 It is used primarily in one-way structural
systems, where the load is transmitted
through structural member in one direction
at a time.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Wood grain (Tagalog “haspe”)
In speaking of wood, the term grain refers to the
alternating regions of relatively darker and lighter
wood resulting from the differing growth parameters
occurring in different seasons (i.e., growth rings). The
term is used in several ways. Perhaps most important is
that in woodworking techniques (e.g. against the
grain). In describing the application of a woodworking
technique to a given piece of wood, the direction of
the technique may be:
with the grain (easy; giving a clean result)
against the grain (heavy going; giving a poor result such
as chipping or tear-out)
across the grain (direction of cut is across the grain
lines, but the plane of the cut is still aligned with them)
end grain (at right angles to the grain, for example
trimming the end of a plank)
The wood grain in the
legs of this table
pedestal table runs
parallel to the longest
dimension to make the
legs as strong as
possible. Were the
grain to run parallel or
perpendicular to the
pedestal, the legs
would be weak at the
ankles.
Wood Products and Application
Plywood
• Commonly used in
many applications
that need highquality, high-strength
sheet material
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Sizes & Thicknesses of
Plywood:
Plywood thickness varies
from
4 mm,
6 mm,
12 mm,
and 20 mm.
with commercial sizes of
90 x 180cm
and
120 x 240 cm
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Oriented Standardboard- a non
veneered wood panel product commonly
used for sheathing and as subflooring.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Waferboard- A non veneered panel
product composed of large, thin wood
flakes bonded under heat and pressure
with waterproof adhesive.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Fiberboard
• made out of wood fibers
• mainly used in furniture
industry
• used for sheathing,
interior panelling, roof
insulation, sound proofing
Wood Products and their Application
WOOD
Wood
Tabucao,
Products
Kathlyn
and their
andApplication
Tallud, Sheika
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
M.
Oafallas,
BUILDING
Miriam
TECHNOLOGY-1
Faith V. & Olavere,
/ 9:00-10:00
Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building
AM
Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Composite panel- A wood panel product
consisting of two face veneers bonded to a
reconstituted wood core.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Particleboard- also called chip board. A
non veneered wood panel product made
by bonding small wood particles under
heat and pressure. Used for sound
insulation.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Parallel Strand lumber- a structural
lumber product made by bonding long,
narrow wood strands together under heat
and pressure using a waterproof adhesive.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Glued laminated timber
(Glulam)
• composed of several layers of
dimensional timber glued
together with moistureresistant adhesives
• can be used for straight beams
and vertical columns
• more often are used to produce
great curved beams and
arching timbers
Wood Products and their Application
WOOD
Wood
Tabucao,
Products
Kathlyn
and their
andApplication
Tallud, Sheika
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
M.
Oafallas,
BUILDING
Miriam
TECHNOLOGY-1
Faith V. & Olavere,
/ 9:00-10:00
Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building
AM
Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Cross-laminated timber
(CLT)
• Each layer of boards is
placed cross-wise to
adjacent layers for
increased rigidity and
strength
• used for long spans and
all assemblies, e.g. floors,
walls or roofs
Wood Products and their Application
WOOD
Wood
Tabucao,
Products
Kathlyn
and their
andApplication
Tallud, Sheika
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
M.
Oafallas,
BUILDING
Miriam
TECHNOLOGY-1
Faith V. & Olavere,
/ 9:00-10:00
Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building
AM
Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Finger-jointed lumber
• provides a greater degree
of stability than single,
large dimension lumber
pieces
• used in floor boards,
timber roof and door
construction
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
I-joists
• consists of top and
bottom flanges of
various widths united
with webs of various
depths
• for floor and roof joists,
wall studs and roof
rafters
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Manufacturing Process
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Timber- Wood taken from the
forest/forest farm suitable for building
material.
Lumber- The timber product
manufactured by sawing, re-sawing,
passing lengthwise through a planning
machine, cross- cutting to length and
grading.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Types of Wood Preservatives
o Water-borne Preservatives- An organic,
water soluble compound as ammoniacal
copper arsenite (ACA) or chromated copper
arsenite. It is odorless and paintable.
o Oil-borne Preservatives- An organic
chemical dissolved in a petroleum oil carrier,
as pentachlorophenol or copper naphtenate.
o Creosote-An only liquid of aromatic
hydrocarbons obtained by the distillation of
coal tar. It penetrates odor and render wood
unpaintable.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
EXAMPLE OF WOOD PRESERVATIVE / TREATMENT : SOLIGNUM BRAND
Osmose Clear Water
Repellent
OSMOSE* CLEAR WATER
REPELLENT is acolourless solvent
based solution for interior
andexterior application.
It helps protect timber against
swelling, warping andcracking,
and protects walls against lateral
penetratingdamp (but not rising
damp), by the formation of a
waterrepellent zone at the surface
of the treated material.At the same
time, this water repellent zone is
vapourpermeable and so does not
prevent damp substratesfrom
drying out.
•Osmose Decking Oil
OSMOSE* TIMBER DECKING OIL is a
lowmaintenance, organic solvent based
protective coatingwhich enhances and
protects timber and provideswater
repellency.
•Features
•For use on all species of wood
•Enhances grain effect
•Easy to apply and maintain
•Resists moisture ingress
•For use on timber decking
•Compatible with wood preservative
pretreatmentsand most proprietary
exteriorwood stains
OSMOSE TIMBER
DECKING STAIN is
a low maintenance, organic
solvent based protective
coating which imparts
colour to the wood whilst
allowing thegrain to show
through.
It has water-shedding
properties, allows the
wood tobreathe and is
suitable for use in high and
lowtemperatures and
coastal environments.
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
EXAMPLE OF WOOD PRESERVATIVE / TREATMENT : SOLIGNUM BRAND
Solignum Brown
Exterior is an oil type,
Solignum Nitro
Cellulose Thinner
low cost wood
preservative for the
treatment of all types of
external timbers. It will
protect against wood rotting
fungi and wood boring
insects including termites,
and is available in Medium
and Dark Brown self staining
colour shades.
is a high quality thinner
and is used for thinning
paints and primers and
cleaning spray guns and
equipment.
Solignum Soilguard
is used to treat soil below
and adjacent to buildings
to control attack of building
timbers by subterranean
termites. Soilguard comes in
concentrate form and is
diluted before use by mixing 1
part of the product with 39
parts of water.
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Common Defects in Wood
(manufacturing defects)
1. Bow
2. Check
3. Crook
4. Cup
5. Shake
6. Split
7. Twist
8. Wane
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
9. Machine burn 10. Blue Stain
12. Loose knot
14. Spalt
11. Pitch
13. Tight knot
15. Wormhole
Natural
wood
defects
(nos. 10-15)
Wood Products and their Application
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Ferelie R. Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Wood Treatment
• Pressure-treated wood- wood
impregnated with chemicals applied under
pressure to reduce its resistance to decay
and insect infestation.
• Non-pressure treated wood- wood
coated, dipped or impregnated with a
preservative under atmospheric pressure.
• Fire-retardant wood- wood treated with
mineral salts impregnated under pressure
to reduce flammability or combustibility
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
SEASONING OF LUMBER:
Kiln-drying versus Air-Dried lumber
Kiln Drying is a more-expensive process whereby
lumber is treated by placing it in an airtight structure
(dry kiln), which is scientifically heated by steam pipes
where lumber is artificially dried to the correct
moisture content. This is opposed to Air-dried lumber
where the stacked-up wooden planks/panels are just
left to dry outside and exposed to the sun and air.
Applications:
K.D. (kiln-dried) doors for toilet-and-bath rooms, doors
exposed to constant moistures.
FINISHING OF LUMBER:
S1S – (“Smooth One Side”)
surfacing or planing (Tagalog
“kinatam”) of one side only
S2S – (“Smooth Two Sides”)
two sides planed
S3S – (“Smooth Four Sides”)
four sides planed
Rough – as sawn (Tagalog
“nilagare”) and not planed
(smoothened)
Wood Material type
Is basically divided into two (2):
Hardwood- the wood from a broad-leaved
flowering tree.
Softwood- from an evergreen or coniferous.
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Philippine timbers
Categorized into four (4) groups:
First Group
Narra – most expensive, used for furniture and panelings
Yakal and Guijo – both hardwoods, used for posts and girders, or jambs attached
to concrete and also for wooden decks having flooring and railings exposed to
weather
Pine Benguet – softwood, used for panneling, sidings, flooring and furniture,
framings and trusses.
Tanguile and Apitong – most common lumber in the market. Used for framings,
joists, trusses, nailers, etc.
White and red Lauan – for framings, chests, jewel boxes
Philippine timbers (cont.)
First Group (continued)
Kamagong – hardwood for chests, jewel boxes, and stair frames
Dao – used for paneling, and plywood veneer
Almaciga – similar to pine for paneling
Mahogany, Ipil, Kalantas, Kalamansanai, and Supa
Second Group
Acacia – (rain tree) for wood carvings
Agojo, Dita, Oak, Philippine Chestnut, Pili,
Malabayabas
Philippine timbers (cont.)
Third Group
Bakawan, Malakamias, Malasaging,
Matamata, Nangka and Santol
Fourth Group
All other ordinary wood species
Wood products
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Wood Balusters &
Newel Posts
Balusters are the vertical
posts, which support the
railing of the staircase.
Quality Stairs carries
these parts in a variety of
wood types.
"Balustrade" refers to the
baluster and rail system.
Wood Products and their Application
WOOD Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
AM
Stair balusters (one group of balusters =
balustrade)
4040
3" Newel Block
Top
5015
1-1/4"
Baluster
Pin Top
5070
1-1/4"Baluster
Square Top
3030F
3-1/2" Etched
Acorn Newel Block
Top
4500
3-1/2" Newel
Ball Top
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
WOOD
WOOD Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika
Tabucao,
Kathlyn
and
Tallud,
Sheika
M.
M. BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
AM
Mouldings - serves as ornamental treatments to the
usually blank/plain walls. These come in various
designs. Please refer to your History of Architecture
books (Greek/Renaissance Architecture)
Cornices (mouldings installed between the ceiling and
top of the wall)
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM
Cornice profiles
S1
S2
S4
S6
Wood Products and their Application
Oafallas, Miriam Faith V. & Olavere, Mara Ferelie R.
Building Tech. 1 : 8:00-9:00
Cornices
Baseboards (a form of
wooden moulding installed
between the lowest most
part of the wall and the
floor)
Baseboard profile
Tongue-and-groove (T&G) flooring (consists of a
“tongue” (male) and “groove” (female) wood
planks that are joined together in parallels
T&G
planks
being
installed
Floor joists
Wall panels/veneers – non-structural wall facings
which serves as an aesthetic purpose, to give
warmth to the cold concrete walls. These comes
in various wood grain finishes and patterns,
colour, and texture
END 
WOOD
Tabucao, Kathlyn and Tallud, Sheika M.
BUILDING TECHNOLOGY-1 / 9:00-10:00 AM

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