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CHIEF EDITOR
l CHIEF’S EDITOR MESSAGE l Page 2 Feature 1 l DIRECTIONAL STABILITY ANALYSIS Page 3‐14 IN SHIP MANOEUVRING l Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mohd Mansor Salleh
EXECUTIVE EDITOR
Feature 2 l A WATER FUELLED ENGINE FOR Dr. Mohd Yuzri Mohd Yusop
COORDINATING EDITOR
Pn. Nurshahnawal Yaacob
EDITOR
En. Aminuddin Md Arof
En. Atroulnizam Abu
En. Ahmad Azmeer Roslee
En. Iwan Zamil Mustaffa Kamal
En. Hamdan Nuruddin
En. Aziz Abdullah
Pn. Nik Harnida Suhainai
EDITORIAL MEMBERS
Feature 3 l SHIP REGISTERED IN THE PAST DECADE AND THE TRENDS IN SHIP REGISTRATION IN MALAYSIA: THE Page 26‐61 PREDICTION FOR THE NEW BUILDING AND DESIGN DEMAND IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS l Feature 4 l FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE USAGE OF PALM OIL AS ALTERNATIVE NON Page 62‐68 PETROLEUM‐BASED HYDRAULIC FLUID IN MARINE APPLICATION l Feature 5 l JOINING OF DISSIMILAR MATERIALS BY DIFFUSION BONDING/
Page 69‐73 DIFFUSION WELDING FOR SHIP APPLICATION l Feature 6 l DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL En. Kamarul Nasser Mokri
En. Sy Ali Rabbani Sy Bakhtiar Ariffin
En. Rohaizad Hafidz Rozali
UniKL MIMET Dataran Industri Teknologi Kejuruteraan Marin Bandar Teknologi Maritim, Jalan Pantai Remis, 32200 Lumut, Perak Darul Ridzuan +(605)- 6909000(Phone)
+(605)-6909091(Fax)
[email protected]
http://www.mimet.edu.my
FRAMEWORK GOVERNING THE CARRIAGE OF Page 74‐82 LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) WITHIN COASTAL WATER FROM CARRIER ASPECT (OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE) l Feature 7 l OBSERVATION ON VARIOUS Page 83‐95 TECHNIQUES OF NETWORK RECONFIGURATIONl Feature 8 l MOVING FORWARD TO BE A HIGH PERFORMANCE CULTURE ORGANIZATION: A Page 96‐105 CASE OF UNIVERSITY KUALA LUMPURl Feature 9 lTIME‐DOMAIN SIMULATION OF R&D ACTIVITIES
lPLASTIC TECHNOLOGY CENTER AT SIRIMl Page 106‐112 PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION LINEl Feature 10|REQUIREMENTS OF Page 119‐120 lUNIKL MIMET & ASM SDN. BHD. PROJECTl Page 15‐25 FUTURE MARINE CRAFT l | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
EDITORIAL
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME LAWS IN THE Page 113‐118 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A CHEMICAL TANKER| PLASTIC TECHNOLOGY
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Dear Readers, Welcome to the second issue of Marine [email protected]! We are happy that we are keeping to our targeted publication plan i.e the second issue is to be published in October 2010 after the first issue in July 2010. It shows the strong commitment of the academic staff of MI‐
MET towards research and consultancy activities. I would like to congratulate the Editorial group under the able leadership of coordinating editor, Pn. Nurshahnawal Yaacob for the excellent work of getting the second issue out on time. As the journey progresses, we are now going to embark on improving quality, after getting the quantity! We will improve as we go along our journey so that “Marine [email protected]” will be a quality journal after a full year of pub‐
lication. We will be looking at clustering the articles under different research areas grouped within the Departments or sections of MIMET. We would like to receive feedback from our dear readers so that we can keep improving our technical bulletin. Intending authors are welcome to send in contributions. A guide for authors is also given at the end of this issue. We are going to cast our net wider for research articles from within Malaysian Universities and research bodies or even international. Anything related to maritime studies including education is within our ambit and are welcome. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Happy Reading! Mohd Mansor Salleh Chief Editor | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
I am glad to inform that we have already ob‐
tained our ISSN Number recently: ISSN 2180‐
4907. This means that our Marine Fron‐
[email protected] can and will be distributed widely. Once again, congratulations to the Editorial group for a job well done. 2
Feature Article 1
DIRECTIONAL STABILITY ANALYSIS IN SHIP MANOEUVRING
ASSOC. PROF. IR MD SALIM KAMIL*
Department of Marine Design Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 20 May 2010; Revised: 8 July 2010 ; Accepted: 7 October 2010 ABSTRACT The directional stability analysis method presented is useful for solving directional instability problems of a vessel during the feasibility studies and design stage of a new construction or for operational ships. The governing equations and the influences of trim, rudder and skeg on the stability criteria are briefly derived. The computation of the analysis is per‐
formed using a simple program written in FORTRAN. Extracts from the computation output based on a known ship’s data are shown. One could provide recommendations for the solution of the directional instability problem of the vessel from the typical output. Apart from the stability criteria, a measure of manoeuvrability could also be investigated based on the turning radii evaluated. Keyword: Directional stability, manoeuvring Manoeuvring performance is one of the many technicalities normally checked by the ship designers during the initial stage of the design of a new construction. Corrections of directional instability can be made during or after the model tests phase. The standard tests on the particular free model are neces‐
sary to be carried out to determine the ap‐
propriate manoeuvring derivatives. The stan‐
dard tests to determine the manoeuvring derivatives carried out utilizing models in special manoeuvring tanks are oblique, ro‐
tating arm and planar motion mechanism tests. The planar motion mechanism tests which are necessary to be conducted for this purpose include the pure sway and pure yaw tests. The options available to solve the in‐
stability problem without changing the ship hull form include altering the design trim, addition of a skeg, changing the rudder size or the rudder effectiveness and any combi‐
nation of the above options. The Directional Stability Criteria The derivatives of the linearised non‐
dimensionalised equations of yaw and sway motions are derived based on the Taylor’s Theorem. Taking into consideration of small deviation or variation, the roll, surge and heave motions and the second derivatives are neglected. The linearised equations of *Corresponding Author: Assoc. Prof. Ir Md Salim Kamil CEng, CMarEng, PEng, FIMarEST, MIEM, was once the Dean and Head of Campus of Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Insti‐
tute of Marine Engineering Technology and a retired Commander of the Royal Malaysian Navy. He graduated with an MSc in Naval Architecture (London University ), a BSc (Hons) in Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering (Glasgow University), a Diploma in Naval Architecture (University College London) and a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia). He is currently pursuing a PhD course at St Petersburg State Marine Marine Tech‐
nical University, Russia. Email: [email protected] Tel:+605‐6909000 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
INTRODUCTION 3
motions of yaw and sway are simplified as fol‐
low: 
I   N  r  Nv  Nr  N  v
r


r

(1) of turning. NN

(2) v' where m’ 

m

 1 L
 2
3





vv  R ‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of sway force with respect to sway  acceleration. 
Yv
‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of sway force with respect to sway ‐ Helm angle. ‐ Non‐dimensionalised helm angle. ‐ Non‐dimensionalised turning rate. ‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of sway force with respect to helm II  ‐ Non‐dimensionalised second mo‐
ment of inertia of mass. angle. ‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of yaw moment with respect to turning acceleration. N v
‐ Radius of curvature. 
LL LL
rr xx 
UU RR velocity. r
‐ Non‐dimensionalised sway accelera‐
tion. 
v
N 
r
‐ Non‐dimensionalised sway velocity. rr  ‐ Non‐dimensionalised turning accel‐
eration. Y'
Y
‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of yaw moment with respect to helm angle. 
‐ Non‐dimensionalised mass. ‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of yaw moment with respect to rate ‐ Non‐dimensionalised first derivative of yaw moment with respect to sway velocity. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Equations (1) and (2) can be written as follow: v   ( m   Y ) D  Yv  r m   Yv  Y  

v
(3) v N v   r   N r  ( I   N  ) D   N   


r
(4) | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL

 '
 
 m  Y   v   Yv v   Yv  m  r   Y  

v 
NNrr
4
The determinant from equations (3) and (4) above equals to zero for zero control input, that is: m O I O D
2
m o'  m   Y 
I o'  I   N 
  N r m O  Y vI O D  Y vN r  N v m   Y v   0
(5) v
r
Equation (5) is a second order equation in the form of; (AD2 + BD + C) x = 0, x = v or r For a ship, A and B are always positive, there‐
fore the directional stability criteria requires C > 0. Hence, YvNr  Nv Yv  m  0
(6) Equation (6) can be written as follow to show the relationship between the levers of sway and yaw forces in the directional stability cri‐
teria: N
N r
 v 0
Y r  m  Y v
(7) Yrr
‐ Non‐dimensionalised first deriva‐
tive of sway force with respect to turning rate. Effect of Trim, Rudder and Skeg Effectiveness The effects on the hull derivatives due to trim, rudder and skeg effectiveness are as fol‐
low; Due to Trim; Due to Trim; MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Where 5
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
6
Trim
Rudder Effectivenes
Skeg
Effectivenes
Y’R
N’R
Y’V
N’V
Directional Stability Criteria
Turning Radius(m)
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
‐0.50
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.50
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.25
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
2.50
0.00
0.5
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.001
0.002
0.002
0.002
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.005
‐0.005
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.005
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.006
‐0.002
‐0.002
‐0.002
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.002
‐0.002
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.002
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.001
‐0.107
‐0.084
‐0.061
‐0.039
‐0.017
0.004
0.025
‐0.082
‐0.059
‐0.037
‐0.015
0.007
0.028
0.049
‐0.057
‐0.034
‐0.012
0.009
0.030
0.051
0.072
‐0.032
‐0.010
0.012
0.033
0.054
0.074
0.095
‐0.008
0.014
0.035
0.056
0.077
0.097
0.118
0.016
0.038
0.059
0.079
0.100
0.120
0.140
0.040
0.061
0.082
0.102
0.123
0.143
0.163
304.938
241.076
177.378
113.844
50.473
‐12.735
‐75.781
187.404
136.384
85.495
34.738
‐15.889
‐66.387
‐116.755
109.047
66.589
24.240
‐18.000
‐60.131
‐102.155
‐144.071
53.079
16.736
‐19.513
‐55.669
091.733
‐127.703
‐163.582
11.102
‐20.654
‐52.329
‐83.922
‐115.434
‐146.865
‐178.215
‐21.546
‐49.735
‐77.852
‐105.896
‐133.868
‐161.768
‐189.597
‐47.665
‐73.000
‐98.270
‐123.475
‐148.615
‐173.691
‐198.702
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Table 1 ‐ Results of Stability Criteria and Manoeuvrability with Effects of Trims, Rudder and Skeg Effectiveness 7
The Program L=115 The computation was performed using a simple program written in FORTRAN or it can also be cal‐
culated using COTS spread sheet software; T=3.92 DISP=3708 XR=50 C THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES DIRECTIONAL XS=45 C STABILITY CRITERIA AND NON‐DIMENSIONAL RO=1.023 C TURNING RADII DEL=25*3.1416/180 REAL NVB YVB=‐.00495 REAL NRB YRB=.000973 REAL M NRB=‐.000754 REAL NV(7,7,7) NVB=‐.00165 REAL NR(7,7,7) CLR=.00045 REAL NVR(7) REAL NRR(7) CLS=CLR/2 REAL NRS(7) M=2*DISP/(RO*L**3) REAL NVS(7) XRR=XR/L REAL NVT(7) XSS=XS/L REAL NRT(7) WRITE(1,*)’RESULTS OF STABILITY CRITERIA REAL NDEL(7) DIMENSION TR(7) $ WITH EFFECTS OF TRIM, RUDDER AND SKEG DIMENSION REFF(7) EFFECTIVENESS’ DIMENSION SEFF(7) WRITE(1,*) DIMENSION YVR(7) WRITE(1,*)’ TRIM REFF SEFF YR DIMENSION YVS(7) DIMENSION YRS(7) DIMENSION YVT(7) DIMENSION YRT(7) NR YV NV $ STAB T/RAD(m)’ WRITE(1,*) DIMENSION YDEL(7) DO 10 I=1,7 DIMENSION YRR(7) TR(I)=(I‐3)/4.0 DIMENSION YV(7,7,7) YVT(I)=YVB*(1+(2*TR(I)/(3*T))) DIMENSION YR(7,7,7) YRT(I)=YRB*(1+(.8*TR(I)/T)) DIMENSION S(7,7,7) NVT(I)=NVB*(1‐(.27*TR(I)/(T*NVB/YVB))) DIMENSION RAD(7,7,7) NRT(I)=NRB*(1+(.3*TR(I)/T))
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
AND MANOEUVRABILITY 8
Skeg effectiveness factor, (δCL/
δα)s Displacement MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
(δCL/δα)r/2 3708 tonnes | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
DO 20 J=1,7 REFF(J)=1+((J‐1)*1.5/6.0) Ship’s Data YDEL(J)=CLR*REFF(J) YVR(J)=‐YDEL(J) The above program was run based on the YRR(J)=XRR*YDEL(J) following ship’s input data as shown in Table 2; NDEL(J)=‐XRR*YDEL(J) NVR(J)=XRR*YDEL(J) Table 2: Ship’s input data NRR(J)=‐XRR**2*YDEL(J) Distance of rudder center from Longitudinal Centre Gravity 50m aft of LCG DO 30 K=1,7 (LCG), a SEFF(K)=(K‐1)/2.0 Distance of skeg center from 45m aft of LCG YVS(K)=‐CLS*SEFF(K) LCG, b Length between Perpendiculars YRS(K)=‐XSS*YVS(K) 115m (LBP), L NVS(K)=‐XSS*YVS(K) Draught, T 3.92m NRS(K)=XSS**2*YVS(K) Longitudinal position of the ‐5.0m NV(I,J,K)=NVT(I)+NVR(J)+NVS(K) centre of buoayancy, LCB Density, ρ 1.023 tonnes/m3 NR(I,J,K)=NRT(I)+NRR(J)+NRS(K) Trim, t ‐0.5m < t < 1.0m YV(I,J,K)=YVT(I)+YVR(J)+YVS(K) Rudder Effectiveness, Reff 1.0 < (δCL/δα)r < 2.5 YR(I,J,K)=YRT(I)+YRR(J)+YRS(K) Skeg Effectiveness, Seff 0.0 < (δCL/δα)s < 3.0 S(I,J,K)=(NR(I,J,K)/(YR(I,J,K)‐M))‐(NV(I,J,K)/YV Non‐dimensionalised first (I,J,K)) derivative of sway force of the RAD(I,J,K)=(L*((YV(I,J,K)*NR(I,J,K))‐(NV(I,J,K)* ‐0.00495 bare hull with respect to sway (YR(I,J,K) Yv0
velocity, $ ‐M))))/(DEL*((NV(I,J,K)*YDEL(J))‐(YV(I,J,K) Non‐dimensionalised first *NDEL(J)))) derivative of sway force of the bare hull with respect to turning 0.000973 WRITE(1,5)TR(I),REFF(J),SEFF(K),YR(I,J,K),NR Yr0
rate, (I,J,K) Non‐dimensionalised first $ ,YV(I,J,K),NV(I,J,K),S(I,J,K),RAD(I,J,K) derivative of yaw moment of 5 FORMAT(1X,F5.2,2X,F5.2,2X,F5.2,X, the bare hull with respect to ‐0.00165 F6.3,2X,F6.3,2X,F6.3,2X N v0
$ ,F6.3,2X,F6.3,2X,F8.3 sway velocity, Non‐dimensionalised first 30 CONTINUE derivative of yaw moment of 20 CONTINUE the bare hull with respect to ‐0.000754 10 CONTINUE N r0
STOP rate of turning, END Rudder effectiveness factor, 0.00045 (δCL/δα)r 9
(c) MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Skeg Effectiveness
Skeg Effectiveness
Skeg Effectiveness
Computation Output Extracts from the computation output based on the ship’s data input for t = ‐0.5, 1.0 < Reff < 2.5 and 0.0 < Seff < 3.0 are given below; Directional Stability
t=-0.5, Reff=1.5
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.057 -0.034 -0.012
0.009
0.03
0.051
0.072
Directional Stability Criteria
(a) Directional Stability
t=-0.5, Reff=1.75
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.032
-0.01
0.012
0.033
0.054
0.074
0.095
Directional Stability Criteria
(b) Directional Stability
t=-0.5, Reff=2
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.008
0.014
0.035
0.056
0.077
0.097
0.118
Directional Stability Criteria
10
Directional Stability
t=-0.5, Reff=2.25
Skeg Effectiveness
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.016
0.038
0.059
0.079
0.1
0.12
0.14
0.143
0.163
Directional Stability Criteria
(d) Directional Stability
Skeg Effectiveness
t=-0.5, Reff=2.5
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.04
0.061
0.082
0.102
0.123
(e) Figure 1: Directional Stability (a) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 1.5 (b) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 1.75 (c) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 2 (d) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 2.25 (e) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 2.5 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Directional Stablity Criteria
11
Turning Circle Radius
Skeg Effectiveness
t=-0.5, Reff=1
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
304.94
241.08
177.38
113.84
50.47
-12.74
-75.78
-66.39
-116.76
Turning Circle Radius (m )
(a) Turning Circle Radius
t=-0.5, Reff=1.25
Skeg Effectiveness
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
187.40
136.38
85.50
34.74
-15.89
Turning Circle Radius (m )
Turning Circle Radius
Skeg Effectiveness
t=-0.5, Reff=1.5
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
109.05
66.59
24.24
-18.00
-60.13
Turning Circle Radius (m )
(c) MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
-102.16 -144.07
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
(b) 12
Turning Circle Radius
Skeg Effectiveness
t=-0.5, Reff=1.75
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
53.08
16.74
-19.51
-55.67
91.73
-127.70 -163.58
Turning Circle Radius (m )
(d) Turning Circle Radius
t=-0.5, Reff=2
Skeg Effectiveness
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
11.10
-20.65
-52.33
-83.92
-115.43 -146.87 -178.22
Turning Circle Radius (m )
Turning Circle Radius
Skeg Effectiveness
t=-0.5, Reff=2.25
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-21.55
-49.74
-77.85
-105.90 -133.87 -161.77 -189.60
Turning Circle Radius (m )
(f) MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
(e) 13
Turning Circle Radius
t=-0.5, Reff=2.5
Skeg Effectiveness
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-47.67
-73.00
-98.27
-123.48 -148.62 -173.69 -198.70
Turning Circle Radius (m )
(g) Figure 2: Turning Circle Radius (a) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 1 (b) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 1.25 (c) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 1.5 (d) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 1.75 (e) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 2 (f) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 2.25 (g) at t = ‐0.5, Reff = 2.5 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
References: 1. R.K Burcher (1971) Development in Ship Manoeuvrability, Royal Institutions of Naval Architects (RINA). 2. Inou, Hirano and Kajima (1981) Hydrodynamic Derivatives on Ship Manoeuvring, International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 20. 3. E. C Tupper (2004) Introduction to Naval Architecture, 4th Edition, 253‐261. 4. K.J Rawson and E.C Tupper (2001) Basic Ship Theory, Vol. 2, 5th Edition, 539‐578 5. Toshio ISEKI (2005) Ship Manoeuvrability, Theory and Assessment, Advanced Topics for Marine Technology by, Tokyo University of Science and Technology, Japan. 6. Eda H. (1972‐1979) Directional Stability and Control of Ships in Waves, Journal of Ship Research, Vol. 16, Issue No. 3, Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 205‐218 7. N. Minorsky (2009) Directional Stability of Automatically Steered Bodies, Journal of the American Society of the Naval Engineers, Vol. 34, Issue 2, 280‐309 8. Haw L. Wong, Cross Flow Computation for Prediction of Ship Directional Stability, Hydrodynamics, Theory and Application, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Vol. 1, 285‐290 9. B. V. Korvin‐Kroukovsky (2009) Directional Stability and Steering of Ships in Oblique Waves, Journal of the American Society of the Naval Engineers, Vol. 73, Issue 3, 483‐487. 10. Ship Factors that affect Manoeuvring, SHIPS SALES.COM | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Conclusion It can be concluded that the ship’s directional stability improves as the trim moves towards positive values and so do with increasing rudder and skeg effectiveness. As the ship trimmed more by the stern (positive trims) and with increasing rudder and skeg effectiveness, the wetted surface area of the ship becomes larger. Therefore by virtue of its position, the centroid of the wetted surface shifts towards aft, the directional stability increases. The magnitude of the stability criteria is an indicative of the degree of the directional stability. The ship is more directionally stable with numerically higher values of stability criteria. The negative values of the stability criteria indicate that the ship is directionally unstable. The lower the negative values of the stability criteria, the more unstable directionally the ship is. It can be deduced that the ship manoeuvrability increases with increasing directional stability, turning radius, positive trim, rudder effectiveness and skeg effectiveness. 14
Feature Article 2
A WATER FUELLED ENGINE FOR FUTURE MARINE CRAFT AZMAN ISMAIL*, BAKHTIAR ARIFF BAHARUDIN Department of Marine Construction and Maintenance Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 23 May 2010; Revised: 19 July 2010 ; Accepted: 22 July 2010 ABSTRACT The search for alternative energy is active in replacing the depletion of the reserve petroleum. The increase of oil price makes it more critical and suitable for new technology development. Therefore there is a need to develop a new and cost
‐saving technology especially for marine applications that meet severe regulations for environmental protection. The need for environment‐friendly engines is high to cater to this requirement nowadays. For whatever application, the cost competitiveness remains the most important. The water‐fuelled engine is the best solution. Water is available every‐
where and no need to worry about the rising oil price. While reducing emissions, it can save money and time, give more profit and at the same time keeping environment clean and preventing global warming. Keyword: Alternative energy, water fuel, hydrogen, electrolysis, environmental‐friendly. The price of oil keeps increasing but the re‐
serve oil keeps reducing and surely one day it will diminish. Therefore more research and development are needed to explore for new alternative energy to run the ships effectively at lower cost with abundant supply. Solar can be used as alternative sources, but there will be no light during night, therefore it cannot guarantee a constant supply. If wind is used, sometimes it blows well but sometimes it does not blow so much. Sometimes it can cause havoc (typhoon). In addition, the same problem can happen if using current (water/
wave) as energy sources. The water itself can be used as the main source of energy. Fur‐
thermore, the greenhouse effect will melt the iceberg in the Artic and Antarctica thus pro‐
*Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909055 Email Address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
ducing a lot of water. Good resource man‐
agement is needed to prevent more dry land being flooded by this enormous source of wa‐
ter. This water can be used as fuel for internal combustion engine and at the same time pre‐
venting the disaster from happening. Water covers 70% of the earth. Water con‐
tains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, H2O. By electrolysis process, water breaks into two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen gases. The hydrogen is used as fuel and release oxygen to the environment thus can prevent greenhouse effect. In order to enable hydrogen as fuel, a customised en‐
gine system is needed. The objective of the study is to expose and look at the possibility of water‐fuelled engine for future marine craft. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
INTRODUCTION 15
In this case, water is used as fuel for in‐
ternal combustion engines in marine craft with minimal adjustment or changes. The equipment such as electrolysis chamber, control circuit and the water tank are the only changes needed to convert a petrol/diesel burning engine into a wa‐
ter burner. The existing battery and electrical system can be used to run this system easily. It requires no fancy storage or plumbing. Internal combustion is defined as a thermo‐vapor process since no liquid is in‐
volved in the reaction. Most people are un‐
aware that most of the petrol/diesel in a stan‐
dard internal combustion engine is actually consumed, (cooked, and finally, broken down) in the catalytic converter after the fuel has been partially burnt in the engine. This means that most of the fuel consumed is used only to cool down the combustion process, a pollution
‐ridden and inefficient means of doing that. A water‐fuelled engine system is shown in the Figure 1.0. From the water tank, water will be channeled to the electrolysis chamber. The water is pumped sufficiently to replenish and maintain the liquid level in the electrolysis chamber. The water level in the electrolysis chamber is set and controlled so that it well submerses the stainless steel pipe electrodes and yet leave some headroom for the hydro‐
gen/oxygen vapor pressure to build up. The electrolysis chamber will vary in size with the size of the engine being used. For example, a quarter capacity is big enough for the ordinary car type engine (small engine). Fig. 1 : A water‐fuelled engine system. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Methodology 16
This hydrogen fuel does not need oxygen from the atmosphere to burn, which is an im‐
provement over fossil fuels in saving the oxygen in the air supply. However, in this case, the hydro‐
gen and oxygen are combined and ignited in the motor cylinder. The resultant flame is extremely hot and force is produced to move the piston. In fact, when hydrogen burns perfectly, the only product produced is water. Or can be simplified as: 2(H2O) → 2H2 + O2 ………………………..(4) This means that two parts of hydrogen and one part of oxygen gases are produced during the electrolysis process. Hydrogen is collected at the negative pole (cathode, Eq.2) and oxygen at the positive (anode, Eq.3). The hydrogen and oxygen are introduced directly into the electrolysis cham‐
ber plus water. It is dangerous to store com‐
pressed hydrogen in tank. As a result, the hydro‐
gen is only produced in real time based on the system requirement. Only a certain amount of hydrogen is allowable in the electrolysis chamber to maintain constant flow of supply to the engine. This will prevent the problems associated with storing pressurized hydrogen. For extra safety precaution, a flashback arrestor unit is installed before the engine for accidental backfire protection for the electrolysis chamber. This will prevent the ignition from the engine from transferring to the electrolysis chamber which can cause explosion. All vapor/duct junc‐
tions must be air‐tight and can hold full pressure without leakage. This system is considered suc‐
cessful and properly adjusted when full power range at lower temperature and minimum vapor flow is obtained without blowing the pressure safety valve. 4OH‐ → 2H2O + O2 + 4e‐ ………………….(3) This type of engine can give instantaneous start‐
ing in any weather, elimination of fire hazards, cooler motor operation and fulfilling all motor requirements in power and speed. The engine would run for as long as water flows over the sys‐
tem and regular maintenance will ensure this sys‐
tem runs effectively. The technology can be en‐
joyed for many years at very low expense as it is one of the most practical free‐energy devices, marked by extraordinary simplicity and effective‐
ness. This system used low electricity out of the ship's battery, to separate water into gas, burn efficiently and provide tons of energy as needed. The water contains hydrogen and hydrox‐
ide ion which can be represented as equation be‐
low: H2O → H+ + OH‐ …………………………....(1) Reaction at cathode: 2H+ + 2e‐ → H2 ……………………………...(2) Reaction at anode: MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Stainless steel pipes are used as elec‐
trodes in the electrolysis chamber while making sure it has a symmetric 1 to 5 mm gap in between these two pipes. The closer it is to 1mm gap the better. The electrodes are vibrated with a 0.5 to 5A electrical pulse which breaks the water into its component gases which is oxygen and hydrogen. The theoretical power required to produce hydro‐
gen from water is 79 kW per 1,000 cubic feet of hydrogen gas. The key can be turned on when the pres‐
sure reached 30 to 60 psi to start the engine. High pressure could increase electrolysis efficiency. By pushing the throttle, more energy is sent to the electrodes thus produces more vapors to the cyl‐
inders (i.e. fuel vapor on demand). Then the idle max‐flow rate is set to get the most efficient use of power. The heat from exhaust is used to heat the seawater in the desalination tank, which will re‐
move the salt from seawater. The steam con‐
denses in the process and is pumped to the water tank. Larger diameter of pipelines for exhaust is required to produce more fresh water. 17
An engine (as with all internal combustion engines) turns heat energy into mechanical en‐
ergy. The mechanical energy is used to turn the electric generator which changes mechanical en‐
ergy into electrical energy. Since the water‐
fuelled engine also produces mechanical energy, it can also be used to run as an electric generator. carbon deposits is produced and this pre‐
vents future carbon build up. 
The water produced will cool the engine via heat transfer thus protecting the envi‐
ronment and the engine. This will greatly enhance the engine power and perform‐
ance. 
A calmer, quieter and much smoother engine & gearshifts. This is due to the ef‐
fect of water has on the combustion cycle inside the engine. 
Enjoy a longer life expectancy of engine, especially pistons, valves, rings and bear‐
ings. 
In today's high fuel prices, this simple technology will become more valuable asset. 
No more oil spill thus keeping the sea clean. The advantages for water‐fuelled engine are: No more bunkering is needed therefore save time and money. ‘Bunkering of wa‐
ter’ can be done during travelling from one port to another port. Water is avail‐
able everywhere. 
Increase ship’s mileage with longer dis‐
tance at no cost thus increases transport efficiency and minimising the operation costs all the way. 
When burned, the only product is water without harmful chemicals emitted from this system thus cleaning up emissions that are hazardous to health. The overall effect is a dramatic reduction in harmful emissions. 
Hydrogen burns completely therefore no Fig. 2: General arrangement MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL

18
Ivo Veldhuis and Howard Stone, together with Dr Neil Richardson and Dr Steve Turnock of Southampton's Ship Science Department are working on a container ship capable of 65 knots and powered by hydrogen fuel. The re‐
search started in the late nineties. It is a brave new approach to an established industry in order to cater worldwide fuel shortages and the increasing demand of manufacturers to deliver their products to the consumers faster. Smaller and faster is the mantra associated with car manufacturers, and those in the con‐
sumer of electronics industry but it is not the main factor when designing a container ship which travel thousands of nautical miles laden with cargo. In the world of seaborne freight, the bigger is better. The future of sea freight lie in a new breed of container vessels which travel two and half times the speed of their traditional counterparts but carry less containers, allow‐
ing for more sailings between busy ports and therefore delivering cargo within a smaller time frame. At 8,500TEU (one TEU equates to one 20ft container), current container ships are leviathans of the ocean at 335m long. This size is reduced to just 600TEU per ship thus increased the present maximum speed of 25 knots (46.3 kph) to a whopping 65 knots (120.4 kph). Ship Design The design can be qualified by achievable engineering. In order to prove the concept, a new ship design must capable of completing the 18,000km roundtrip from Yokohama to L.A in half the time, thus allowing for double the amount of sailings per week. Hydrogen Ocean‐
jet 600 is a work in progress which is fuelled exclusively by liquid hydrogen and powered by four gas turbine engines. The Oceanjet repre‐
sents an ambitious new set of thinking and MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
offers real solutions to an industry to the new business improvements. Speed of 65 knots requires an extremely high level of propulsion power for the size of the craft proposed (175m/600TEU). With this in mind, Oceanjet will utilised gas turbine engines derived from similar turbine engines as those found on a Boeing 747, each capable of 49.2 MW of propul‐
sive power when fuelled by hydrogen. This pro‐
pulsive power has to be translated into forward speed, and waterjets is used to give a high propul‐
sive efficiency at this high speed. The design proposed allows for four such 2.5m‐wide waterjets, two inside each demi‐hull transoms of each catamaran hull. This type of pro‐
pulsion system is capable of rotating the outgoing waterjet flow and so the entire propulsion force is utilised to steer the ship at 65 knots. The schematic layout of the ship design, is a catamaran with long and twin hulls known as a 'semi SWATH' (Small Water plane Area Twin Hull), an ideal shape to avoid unwanted wave resis‐
tance. A significant part of the vessel's buoyancy is located beneath the waterline. As a result there is limited wave interaction and this translates into reduced wave resistance. Crucially, this type of design creates an aero‐
foil‐shaped air cavity for running the ship with minimal foil friction. The hydrofoils create a verti‐
cal lift force that reduces the draught of the cata‐
maran and consequently reduces the ship's sur‐
face area exposed to seawater. At such high‐
speeds frictional resistance between seawater and the ship's hull surface is the biggest resistance component. By reducing the draught via the hy‐
drofoils, the frictional resistance is reduced. An additional advantage from using the hydrofoils is damping of the ships motions. Another benefit of the catamaran layout lies in the speed of loading and unloading it creates. Whereas conventional mono‐hulled container ships require cargo to be loaded vertically, via cranes, this design will allows for horizontal 'drive on and drop' container delivery, making the proc‐
ess a lot swifter. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Current development Hydrogen Oceanjet 600 19
hydrogen quickly in the event of an accident. Liquid hydrogen turns to gas instantaneously when in contact with the air and does not linger and burn longer like other fuels such as kero‐
sene. SMART H‐2 Project Fuel system In maintaining such a speed for a long time about 3,000 tonnes diesel are required on‐
board. That is about the same weight as the cargo. Methanol and ethanol are also too heavy. Therefore hydrogen is used in the fuel system. It releases a lot more energy per kilo‐
gram than conventional fuels, and the fuel de‐
livery system devised can use both liquid and gaseous hydrogen, so no fuel is wasted. 0.86kg of liquid hydrogen per second is required in order to operate the turbines at speed of 64 knots. This means 176 m³ of hydro‐
gen burned every hour. For a ship to travel the distances required, it would therefore require a fuel storage capability of 14,500 m³. The design of the Oceanjet allows for ten separate but in‐
terconnected fuel tanks, with a total storage capacity of 1,001 tonnes of liquid hydrogen. Safety first Naturally, the use of liquid hydrogen raises a number of key safety questions, not least how volatile a liquid fuel can be inside a ship travel‐
ling in excess of 60 knots. Because of hydrogen behaves differently compared to other conven‐
tional fuels, it requires a different approach al‐
together. Current shipbuilding regulations do not allow for the use of liquid hydrogen as a fuel source. The liquefied hydrogen is kept at ‐253°C for safety reason. A safety system can vent the MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Fig. 4 “Elding” | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Fig. 3: Hydrogen Oceanjet 600 The progress within the SMART‐H2 has been excellent. Already launched is an auxiliary engine on board a whale watching ship “Elding”. The opening ceremony was held at the harbour of Reykjavik, Iceland on April 24th 2008 when media and guests were invited on the first trial run of using hydrogen on board a commer‐
cial vessel. 20
Table 2: H2RV performance Car industry A small group of local scientists in Malaysia have invented a technology called Hydrogen Fuel Technology (HFT) which could reduce petrol con‐
sumption up to 50 percent. The HFT system was designed to fit all types of cars with particular em‐
phasis on national cars, namely Proton Perdana, Proton Waja, Proton Wira, Proton Iswara, Proton Saga and Perodua Kancil. The prototype has been tested in Proton Waja for a period of over two years and Perodua Kancil for one month. For every 10 li‐
tres of petrol, the system uses 20 litres of water to generate a fuel capacity of 20 litres. The mixture of petrol, hydrogen and oxygen will flow into the carburettor and the engine, enabling the car to run as usual. Besides that, a foreign car manufacturer Ford had introduced the Ford Focus H2RV which used an internal combustion engine powered by hydrogen, boosted by a supercharger, with a Ford patented Modular Hybrid Transmission System (MHTS) which incorporates a 300‐volt electric motor for full hybrid operation. The MHTS system can be used interchangeably. Hy‐
drogen engines have logged thousands of hours on dynamometers, and more than 10,000 miles on the road. Hydrogen producing ship. The Hydrogen Challenger GmbH devel‐
oped a worldwide patented wind‐hydrogen‐
production ship. Several wind turbines with dif‐
ferent heights and power outputs are installed and operating on a ship. This ship may anchor in some areas with strong wind for instance in Bremerhaven or Helgoland, and the ship can produce hydrogen and oxygen gases from the regenerative energy (wind energy). The ex‐
tracted electricity will be applied into the elec‐
trolysis of water, which will split the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen, and these gases will be continuously compressed into the high‐pressure storage tanks on the ship. With fully loaded storage tanks, the gases are sold to the customer. Table 1: H2RV vehicles specifications Discussion Problems associated and possible solution with hydrogen as fuel; In comparison, the basis for the H2RV is its hydrogen‐powered internal combustion engine which is regarded as a transition or "bridging" strategy to stimulate the hydrogen infrastruc‐
ture and related hydrogen technologies includ‐
ing on‐board hydrogen fuel storage, hydrogen fuel dispensing and hydrogen safety sensors. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Hydrogen embrittlement. In an internal combustion engine, one of the problems with the burning of hydrogen is embrittlement which occurs when the walls of the cylinder become saturated with hydrogen ions. This will cause loss of ductility of metals due to corrosion as a result of intergranular at‐
tack which may not readily be visible. The metal becomes fragile or porous and can shatter or fracture upon impact, thus damaging the en‐
gine. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
21
Hydrogen storage. Pure hydrogen is dangerous to be stored in high‐pressure tanks. Like all fuels, hydrogen has inherent hazards and must be handled care‐
fully. In fact, hydrogen has been used for years in industrial processes and as a fuel by NASA, and has earned an excellent safety record. Like other fuels, hydrogen can be handled and used safely. In this case, hydrogen and oxygen were generated. All hydrogen and oxygen produced get consumed by the engine instantly. The suit‐
able size of tank for certain pressure is needed to maintain constant flow of supply to the en‐
gine. The presence of oxygen and water vapour MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
in the system makes hydrogen very safe. The mixture of hydrogen and oxygen give a power‐
ful combustible gas but it is not explosive com‐
pared to pure hydrogen. It does not need cool‐
ing and will be ignited only by the strong spark inside the engine. The hydrogen can be com‐
pressed into a crystal matrix form in order to make it safer but it is not so cost‐effective. Speed control. In getting the right speed at the right time and to maintain a constant supply, a control circuit is attached to the electrolysis chamber. This circuit (Figure 5.0) will produce square pulse signal which 'plays' the stainless steel electrodes like a tuning fork. The faster speed is needed, the wider the pulses go into the elec‐
trolysis chamber to create more hydrogen gases as needed. So when the throttle is pushed, it will electrically create more hydrogen gases for immediate consumption. On demand, low‐high flow rate is needed, from idle to maximum power. This signal is the input to the circuit as the primary control (i.e. throttle level = pulse width = gas rate). For carburettor, the built‐in vents need to be sealed and making a single way air‐intake. The throttle circuit is set in order to maintain minimum gas flow at idle and maximum gas flow at full power without blowing the pressure relief valve. In this way, the mixture is con‐
trolled by the strength of the pulse (i.e. “width” at the optimum pulse frequency). If there is in‐
sufficient power at any throttle setting, some variables need to be changed such as the pulse frequency, the gap between the electrodes, the size (bigger) of the electrodes, or make a higher output pulse voltage (last resort). Excess heat. Excess heat due to combustion of hydrogen and oxygen can be rectified by recent material achievements and when the hydrogen is burned, water is produced thus cool down the engine down via heat transfer. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
As to embrittlement, the acidity of water has been found to have great effect on the speed and the degree to which a material can be dissolved. A metal corrodes because of the acidity of the solution in which it is immersed due to an interchange of hydrogen ions in the solution with the atoms of the exposed metal. When the solution is in liquid form, the metal is dissolved into the solution and hydrogen tends to plate out on the piece. Once a hydrogen film has deposited on the exposed surfaces, the dis‐
solving of the metal will cease. Oxygen plays an important part in this process since the oxygen that dissolved in water will react with the film of hydrogen to eliminate it by forming water which allows the corrosion process to proceed. This problem can be solved by coating the pistons/cylinders ceramic. It cannot be delayed as these items will rust, either by sheer use or by neglect (i.e. letting it sits) and fitted with a stainless steel exhaust. Frosting. Some places such as in Europe are colder than Malaysia climate. In colder condition, the water inside the system can be easily getting frosted and disturb the system. In order to solve this problem, the heating coils to prevent water from freezing in the system. 22
Big oil companies. For business survival, big oil companies may stop the emergence of this technology. These companies can buy the patent and keep the secret quietly. Many claims they have the tech‐
nology but not many has come forward to prove this. The rest have either been threat‐
ened, sold out or keep the secret to themselves. Apparently, it is not a good idea to threaten big oil companies. Nowadays, with the increase of oil price and soon the depletion of the fossil fuel, this technology will have a better chance. 
Thorough research and development must be done to design and optimise the engine capability to accept water as fuel so as to fully utilise this technology at lower cost, meet owner requirement to get maximum profit and most importantly make it safe for all. 
Reliable data analysis and statistics must be recorded persistently for future reference thus the design can be simplified and impro‐
vised. This will con‐
vince the ship owners to use this water‐
fuelled engine on‐
board of their ship. It is the right time to make a mindset shift for water fuelled en‐
gine. Fig. 5: Electric circuit diagram for control unit Recommendation 
Eliminate harmful exhaust emissions that pollute the environment and contribute to global warming. This clean‐burning fuel will add only water and oxygen into the atmos‐
phere instead of polluting it. 
The engine that run on water could be an interesting project, thus give a great reward of never having to pay for petrol/diesel for‐
ever and helping humanity at the same time. Water can be fully utilised. A lot of benefit can be extracted from it. There were some recommenda‐
tions regarding a water fuelled engine; 
This technology must be developed for the benefit of all. Big oil companies will cover up this innovation but with the current situation such as higher oil price, the depletion of oil in future, and higher coal price, it will strongly push the ship owners for other al‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Reduce petroleum demand and economy dependability since water is available for free everywhere and only a little of it is used. Global warming provides more than enough water supply. It is the ultimate solu‐
tion for non depend‐
ency on fossil fuels. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
ternative which is water as fuel. There are a lot of benefits can be get from this technol‐
ogy. 23
Financial assistance is needed to make this engine into a reality. This will be a test run project in order to get the prototype and fi‐
nally get the practical design which is afford‐
able for all. Conclusions Based on the discussion, water is the solu‐
tion to energy problems as petrol dependency is a national security hazard. Petrol will increase in price and soon will deplete. Therefore, water is the best alternative. Water‐fuelled engines offer a cost effective and immediate solution to the en‐
ergy crisis and pollution nowadays. In some de‐
sign aspects, a thorough research and develop‐
ment is needed to get a better practical design and free energy is hard to believe until it is actu‐
ally happens. Ayob, Dr. Mohd Yuzri Mohd Yusof, Pn. Nurshah‐
nawal Yaakob and Mr. Ahmad Azmeer Roslee for their constructive opinion in reviewing my paper. Big thanks to Mr. Fuaad Ahmad Subki for his guid‐
ance and invaluable knowledge. Their expert ad‐
vice proved invaluable. References Documents; 1. En Fuaad Ahmad Sabki, Advanced Marine De‐
sign Lecture Notes, 2008, UTM. 2. Klaas Van Dokkum, Ship Knowledge: Covering Ship Design, Construction and Operation, 3rd Edition, 2006, DOKMAR, Netherland. 3. B.R.Clayton and R.E.D.Bishop, Mechanics of Marine Vehicles, 1981, University College Lon‐
don. Nowadays, the industry has been 4. Robert Boylested and Louis Nashelsky, Elec‐
tightly controlled by industrialists with political tronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 6th Edition, allies that have exploited mainly the transporta‐
1996, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. tion industry including shipping through cabotage or cartell practices. The key to overcoming this 5. Joseph J.Carr, Elements of Electronic Instrumen‐
tation and Measurement, 3rd Edition, 1997, stronghold is the public enlightenment alterna‐
Prentice Hall, Singapore. tives and making these alternatives available to the public. This water‐fuelled engine could be‐ 6. Stephen Chambers, Apparatus for Producing come a threat to those who already well estab‐
Orthohydrogen and/or Parahydrogen, US Pat‐
lished in the petroleum business. ent 6126794, uspto.gov. Water is universal and a very powerful 7. Stanley Meyer, Method for the Production of a source of energy. It is an ideal fuel of the future. Fuel Gas, US Patent 4936961, uspto.gov This fuel is re‐useable and does not give off any toxic chemicals. Therefore, diesel /petrol as a fuel 8. Creative Science & Research, Fuel From Water, fuelless.com are not necessary now. It is just an option. When water is used, it creates new opportunities, both 9. Carl Cella, A Water‐Fuelled Car, Nexus Maga‐
economic and in ship design. It will become more zine Oct‐Nov 1996 investment in greener fuel production to fuel fu‐
10. Peter Lindemann, Where in the World is All ture marine craft. The transition to a water‐
the Free Energy, free‐energy.cc fuelled engine is going to be a huge national and international challenge. Good support from all 11. George Wiseman, The Gas‐Saver and HyCO parties is needed to realise this technology for Series, eagle‐research.com future used. 12. C. Michael Holler, The Dromedary Newsletter and SuperCarb Techniques Acknowledgement Thanks to Pn. Puteri Zarina Megat Khalid for checking my writing aspect, Mr. Fauzuddin MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
13. Stephen Chambers, Prototype Vapor Fuel System, xogen.com | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL

24
Websites: tus=1&subject=Hydrogen+Fuel+Tech+By+Malaysia
%3F; 2.00pm, 30 April 2008. 1. http://www.schatzlab.org/h2safety.html; 9.00am, 23 Mac 2008. 19. http://www.autointell.com/News‐2003/August‐
2003/August‐2003‐2/August‐13‐03‐p1.htm; 2.00pm, 30 April 2008. 2. http://www.angelfire.com/sd/ZSPdomain/
HydrogenHomepage/Cprop.html; 9.05am, 23 Mac 2008. 20. http://www.focaljet.com/allsite/content/
h2rv.html; 2.10pm, 30 April 2008. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen; 9.10am, 23 Mac 2008. 4. http://media.uow.edu.au/news/2005/1104c/
index.html; 9.15am, 23 Mac 2008. 5. http://www.spiritofmaat.com/archive/feb2/
carplans.htm; 9.15am, 23 Mac 2008. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Solar_Powered_Desalination_Unit; 9.15am, 23 Mac 2008. 7. http://www.raindancewatersystems.com/
desalinators.html; 9.20am, 23 Mac 2008. 8. http://www.gas‐water‐car.com/; 9.20am, 23 Mac 2008. 9. http://jalopnik.com/cars/alternative‐energy/water
‐engine; 9.20am, 23 Mac 2008. 21. http://fuelcellsworks.com/Supppage37.html; 2.10pm, 30 April 2008. 22. http://www.theage.com.au/news/environment/
benvironmentb‐iceland‐aims‐to‐be‐free‐of‐fossil‐
fuels/2008/01/25/1201157669193.html?page=3; 2.10pm, 30 April 2008. 23. http://www.soton.ac.uk/ses/news/stories/
hydrogenship.html; 2.20pm, 30 April 2008. 24. http://www.newenergy.is/naha/; 2.20pm, 30 April 2008. 25. http://www.greencarcongress.com/2008/01/
whale‐watching.html; 2.20pm, 30 April 2008. 26. http://www.hydrogen‐challenger.de/
index_english.htm; 2.30pm, 30 April 2008. 27. http://www.accagen.com/p‐electrolyzers.htm; 2.30pm, 30 April 2008. 10. http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/
showArticle.jhtml?articleID=199601111; 9.20am, 23 Mac 2008. 11. http://www.dimewater.com/desalination.html; 9.30am, 23 Mac 2008. 13. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/
els/01968904/1997/00000038/00000010/
art00161; 9.30am, 23 Mac 2008. 14. http://books.google.com.my9.30am, 23 Mac 2008. 15. http://www.fuellesspower.com/water2.htm; 9.35am, 23 Mac 2008. 16. http://www.able2know.org/forums/
about26695.html; 9.35am, 23 Mac 2008. 17. http://www.btimes.com.my/Current_News/BT/
Saturday/Corporate/BT548344.txt/Article/; 2.00pm, 30 April 2008. 18. http://www.autoworld.com.my/forum/
allposts.asp?
summary=1&Forum=ap469682640&access=1&sta
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
12. http://www.dolphindesalinators.com/
operations.html; 9.30am, 23 Mac 2008. 25
Feature Article 3
SHIP REGISTERED IN THE PAST DECADE AND THE TRENDS IN SHIP REGISTRATION IN MALAYSIA: THE PREDICTION FOR THE NEW BUILDING AND DESIGN DEMAND IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS SAMSOL AZHAR ZAKARIA* Department of Marine Design Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 25 May 2010; Revised: 8 July 2010 ; Accepted: 14 July 2010 ABSTRACT Malaysia marine industry has been one of the key stepping stones to economic growth and prosperity all along its history. In recent years, the shipping sector has expanded considerably. There has been a considerable increase in the number of ships in operation, both in the international and domestic markets. Unfortunately, the economic crisis arrives at a mo‐
ment in time when the Malaysian shipping sector is starting to boom and facing multiple challenges, including fierce competition from companies, human factor, piracy and terrorist threats of the international trade system. This paper describes the trend in ship registration in Malaysia. Also, from the analysis the prediction for new building and design demand in future is presented. Keywords Ship registration, shipbuilding, shipping Malaysia’s fleet, which was ranked in 21 position with the largest registered deadweight tonnage at the beginning of 2006, has dropped to 23rd position at begin‐
ning of 2009 under the UNCTAD Maritime Review as shown Table 1. [1] st
A major national fleet expansion is espe‐
cially taking place in the petroleum and gas tankers sector. Among the ship owners ahead with their expansion drive in the off‐
shore shipping includes Bumi Armada Bhd,Tanjung Offshore,Alam Maritim Re‐
sources Bhd, Scomi Marine Bhd and Petra Perdana Bhd. In the tanker sector, MISC Bhd, Gagasan Carrier Sdn Bhd, Malaysian Bulk Carrier Bhd, Nepline Berhad, Global Carrier Bhd and Swee Joo Shipping have placed or‐
ders for more ships, including Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC). [2] *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909049 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
The global financial crisis really started to show its effects in the middle of 2007 and into 2008. Around the world stock markets have fallen, large financial institutions have collapsed or been bought out, and govern‐
ments in even the wealthiest nations have had to come up with rescue packages to bail out their financial systems. In this conjunc‐
tion, growth in international seaborne trade decelerated in 2008, expanding by 3.6 per cent as compared with 4.5 per cent in 2007. [1]
Furthermore, the fall down in global dem‐
mand has significant impacted growth in the world trade merchandise. In Malaysia, the situation directly affects some 14 shipping lines, which has caused them to reduce the number of vessels they have in service. Some orders for new ships have also been cancelled. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
INTRODUCTION 26
Table 1: Global maritime Fleet Ranking (as of 1 January 2.1 Regulatory Aspects of Shipping 2.0 Malaysian Shipping: An Overview. The Malaysian economy contracted moder‐
ately by 1.7% in 2009 as recovery strengthened in the second half of the year. [3] The demand for ocean transportation in Malaysia’s international trade is very high and this is largely because of the size of the country’s external trade sector and its high dependence on foreign trade. The shipping industry in Malaysian comprises in two sector: 1. International Shipping 2. Domestic Shipping MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Shipping is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Transport. The Maritime Division of the Ministry is the administrative body responsible for the over‐
all development of the shipping industry, while Ma‐
rine Department is responsible for acting as registry of ships besides enforcing rules and regulations re‐
lating to standards and safety of shipping in Malay‐
sia. Shipping in Malaysia is regulated by the Mer‐
chant Shipping Ordinance (MSO) 1952 that was ex‐
tended to both Sabah and Sarawak. In order to own a Malaysian ship the person must be a Malaysian citizen or corporations which satisfy the requirement such as: 1. incorporation is incorporated in Malaysia 2. the principal office of the corporation is in | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
2009), Source: [1] 27
Malaysia Table 6 : Anchor Handling Tug & Supply Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) 3. the management of the corporation is car‐
Table 7 : LNG Registered in Malaysia (1996‐2006) ried out mainly in Malaysia 4. the majority, or if the percentage is deter‐ Table 8: Tankers Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) mined by Minister, then the percentage so Table 9 : Bulk Carrier Registered in Malaysia (1996‐
2006) determined , of the directors of the corpora‐
tion are Malaysia citizen Table 10: Passenger Ship Registered in Malaysia
Registration of ships in Malaysia follow an almost identical practices as in United Kingdom from which much of existing Malaysian mari‐
time laws and administrative practices are in‐
volved. The Merchant Ship Ordinance (1952) provides for registration of ships in Malaysia. Port of Registries for national flag vessels are Port Klang, Penang, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu. The registry provision of MSO 1952 were ex‐
tended to Sabah and Sarawak by the Merchant Shipping(Amendment and Extension) Act 1977 (Act A393) on June 1991.While, Labuan offers registration of non national flags as part of an International Registry subject to specific condi‐
tion . 2.3 List of ship registered in the past decade in Malaysia (1996 – 2006) Compilation of this data mainly refers to Marine Department Malaysia [4] and Malaysian Maritime Yearbook 2007‐2008 (from Malaysian Shipowner’s Association) [2]. This general data was segregate based on type of vessel, name of vessel, shipowner, GRT and year of registration. (Appendix 1 – Table 2 to Table 10) (1996‐ 2006) Table 11: Container Ships Registered in Malaysia (1996‐ 2006) 3.0 Trends in ship registration in Malaysia (2001 ‐2006) From the analysis shown in Figure 1, it clearly shows that Malaysian merchant fleet has grown at a modest pace over the years with 284 vessels was registered in 2006 with GRT reach to 33,238,000 tons. This is mainly due to the policy of government, to actively involve in develop‐
ment of Malaysian merchant fleet to reduce de‐
pendence on foreign shipping services and em‐
phasizing on greater self sufficient in shipping services. The domestic shipping services and its chain which comprises shipping lines such as tug boat, barges, passenger ships, also show the positive growth with increasing number of ves‐
sels registered in 2006 ,where tug boats and barge dominates the numbers and tonnage in registration (Figure 2 and Figure 3). It is esti‐
mated that there are about 300 Malaysian ship‐
ping lines owning or operating about 3500 ships totaling 9.09 million GRT in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak [4]. Table 2: Number of Ships Registered in Malaysia by Type (New Classification) and weight, 2001‐2006 Table 3 : Tug boat Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) Table 4 : Barge Registered in Malaysia (1996‐2006) Table 5 : General Cargo Carrier Registered in Malay‐
sia (1996‐2006) MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
2.2 Ship Registration 28
Total Ship Registered in Malaysia (2001-2006)
300
283
35000
284
33238
251
250
30000
229
25000
170
GRT ('000)
No. of Ships
200
20000
150
131
15000
100
10000
50
5000
286
1181
639
338
1357
0
0
2001
2002
2003
2004
Year
No. of Ships
2005
2006
GRT
Figure 1: Total Ship Registered in Malaysia (2001‐2006) 70
Total Number of Barge Registered in Malaysia (2001-2006)
62
57
60
50
14000
11991
12000
55
10000
45
8000
31
30
6000
20
4000
10
2000
45
51
89
70
84
0
0
2001
2002
2003 Year
No. of ships
2004
2005
2006
GRT
Figure 3 : Total Number of Barge Registered in Malaysia (2001‐2006) MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
40
GRT('000)
No. of Ships
42
29
Total Number of Tug Boat Registered in Malaysia(2001-2006)
80
1600
68
64
59
60










1400
58
1200
50
1000
40
36
33
800
30
600
20
400
10






70
1469
200
4
12
11
9
6
0
0
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Year
No. of s hips
GRT
Figure 4 : Total Number of Tug Boat Registered in Malaysia (2001‐2006) sumption centers. For example, the LNG vessels registered in 2001‐2006 show that the constant growth and reaching to 194000 ton GRT (see Figure 5). In term of GRT , for LNG and LPG are stagnant with around 190,000 GRT per year from 2003 until 2006. The AHTS as part of offshore support vessel show the rapid growth, where in 2005 the total registered vessels by local mari‐
The domestic shipping sector also consists of liner shipping services and non‐liner services es‐
pecially in the transportation of general and bulk cargo. Non‐ liner service is more important com‐
ponent due to its covers the oil & gas sector, off‐
shore supply vessel, and also crude oil & product tankers serving between local refineries and con‐
250
3.5
3
3
3
2.5
No. of Ships
191
189
2
2
2
1.5
1
150
100
93
1
200
GRT('000)
194
190
1
50
0.5
0
0
2001
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
Year
No. of s hips
GRT
Figure 5 : Total Number of LNG & LPG Registered in Malaysia (2001‐2006) MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Total Number of LNG & LPG Registered in Malaysia (20012006)
regional port. Local ports such as Northport, Westport , Port of Tanjung Pelepas, Penang Port, Bintulu are among the ports which have recorded increased ship calls ( source [5] : Fed‐
eration of Malaysian Port Operating Companies ‐FMPOC). Cargo volumes at the nation's ports are expected to increase further due to the im‐
plementation of an ambitious free‐trade agree‐
ment (FTA) between the Association of South‐
time players is 30. The demand for oil tankers increase in 2005 and gradually reduced in the following years in 2006 (see Figure 6). The de‐
mand for Bulk, Grain, Ore, Log carrier however seems decreasing over the years. This pattern also followed by full container ship with an ex‐
ception of the year 2006 where it hits 118,000 GRT on that year. Total Number of Petroluem Tankers Registered in
Malaysia(2001-2006)
8
100
7
7
92
90
80
67
5
70
5
60
4
4
50
3
40
3
GRT('000)
No. of ships
6
30
2
23
1
20
1
13
10
5
0
2001
2002
0
2003
2004
2005
0
0
2006
Year
No. of ship s
GRT
Registered in Malaysia(2001‐2006) 4.0 Prediction for new building in next five years. Based on the analysis, ship registered in Malaysia its show that the domestic and coastal trade is have a significant structural changes which are also having positive effects on local ports including by generating greater volume of trade and widening shipping connectivity ant its chain likes barges and tugs. The changes and trends is predict to be accentuate over the next five years with strong implications to develop‐
ment of shipping and ports in this region. An‐
other significant development is that, aside from expansion in the volume of trade, coastal shipping companies, especially liner operators, are now expanding market outreach by linking their domestic shipping services with calls at MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
east Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China. In Janu‐
ary 2010, the ASEAN‐5 (Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia) and Brunei signed an FTA with China, creating the world's third‐largest trade block. The agreement elimi‐
nates tariffs on 90% of goods traded between the countries and China and is expected to boost volumes of trade between them. Four other states, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar, are on course to join the trade bloc in 2015.[6] Several container liner operators have in recent years started to introduce new and addi‐
tional service at regional ports such as Ho Chi Minh, Bangkok, Yangoon, Cittagong as well as Jakarta. Therefore, parallel with this widening outreach the prediction for new building and | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Figure 6 : Total Number of Petroleum Tankers 31
Malaysia's largest shipping line, MISC Ber‐
had, launching its 10th owned chemical tanker, the Bunga Allium, which sailed from South Korea to the port of Pasir Gudand. MISC is expanding heavily into the chemical shipping sector, an area that expects to be a strong source of growth for shipping lines. The ship was the third in a series of eight chemical tanker new‐builds ordered from the shipbuilder. The delivery is part of a rapid expansion of the company's chemical fleet, which expects to receive 15 addi‐
tional ships between 2010 and 2012. Tankers design characteristics such as bigger L/B ratio (remains around 5 to 6) as maneuverabil‐
ity ,stability, safety and economically are the main concern apart from speed still remain. But, it will be significant changes in size and tonnage of the tankers are predicted to be bigger in the future and double hull vessel. With the new resolution or requirement by IMO to implement only double hull tankers in world fleet by 2010, it seems there will be potential in new building for the next five years by Malaysian maritime player. Also the non‐liner sector such as require‐
ment bigger and economical AHTS, LNG and tankers have a good potential in new building from local maritime player .Our LNG fleet is the MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
largest in the world while the tanker fleet is among the top three in the world. It is expected that there is a surge of order in the years to come for AHTS and supply vessel. Average day rates for larger AHTS vessel in the world market have increase substantially, from less than £ 8000/ day (RM 38,211.12/day) during 1999 to over £ 51000/ day (RM 243,667.37/day) during 2007. The growth of tourism industry sector and Malaysian government is targeting 25.5 million tourists for 2008 and hope to bring in foreign revenue of RM50billion [6]. By 2010, the minis‐
try hopes to achieve half of the tourists from SEA and the rest from other parts of the world. The passenger ferries trend also keep increasing showing there is a demand for these kind of public transportation such as route from Malay‐
sia to Indonesia. The accident of passenger ferry at Langkawi and Mersing may be give an impact on the requirement of the new vessels completes with navigation and safety features. The enforcement form government agencies to strictly follow the rules and regulation are the main reason a requirement of new vessel by local maritime players.
Malaysia has strong potential to grow its maritime and shipbuilding industry in the global front with the partnering of international ship‐
ping company from a big maritime nation. Part‐
nership is a big opportunity for Malaysia to go further in the maritime industry while proving the local company's capability and ability to the point of engaging the trust of a foreign country. Finally, the Malaysian marine industry is hoping that the industry rebounds in 2010, when the global economy begins to recover from the current recession. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
design demand in next five years is of course the deployment of bigger container ship both to provide more space as well as to meet the need faster ships to cover longer journey. Ports also play a role in this development by providing appropriate facilities and services aimed at re‐
gional trade. It is important to highlight that the implementation of Cabotage policy (implemented in Malaysia on 1 January 1980) marked the beginning of an important phase in the development of shipping in Malaysia. This will also reflected the growth of national ship‐
ping fleet and the growth Malaysian shipping companies 32
References
[1] UNCTAD, Review Maritime Transport 2009, [2] Malaysian Shipowners’ Association, Malaysian Maritime Yearbook 2007‐2008, page 123‐216, [3] Bank Negara Malaysia‐ Annual Report 2009, [4] Marine Department of Malaysia –Registration, [5] Federation of Malaysian Port Operating Companies –
FMPOC Magazine, [6] Business Monitor International, Malaysia Shipping Report Q2 2010. Internet source : [1] www.mot.gov.my [2] www.lloydslist.com [3] www.malaysianshipowners.org [4] www.marine.gov.my | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
[5] www.portsworld.com MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
33
Appendix 1
Table 2: Number of Ships Registered in Malaysia by Type (New Classification) and weight, 2001‐2006 Type of ship Oil Tanker LNG, LPG Carrier Chemical/Petroleum Tanker Bulk, Grain, Ore, Log Carrier General Cargo, Semi Container Passenger, General/Passenger Ship RO‐RO Full Container Anchor Handling Tug & Supply (AHTS) Barge 2001 GRT NRT BIL ( ' ( ' No. 000) 000) 11 14 7 1 ‐ ‐ DWT BIL ( ' No. 000) 15 4 ‐ 2002 GRT NRT ( ' ( ' 000) 000) 6 3 2003 2004 DWT GRT NRT DWT GRT ( NRT BIL BIL ( ' ( ' ( ' ( ' ' ( ' No. No. 000) 000) 000) 000) 000) 000) 10 4 161 101 305 13 722 436 1 93 28 76 3 190 57 155 3 194 2006 DWT GRT ( ' NRT ( ' DWT ( BIL ( ' 000) 000) ' 000) No. 000) 108 5 9 4 11,473 2 189 57 152 58 55 2 191 57 2 8 24 7 92 37 29 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 103 13 7 19 10 2,264 1,174 9 4 67 28 111 1 5 8 5 23 13 39 3 13 5 96 54 155 2 32 17 52 2 32 17 50 2 56 34 19 26 13 29 10 31 17 35 7 11 2 2 7 5 2 5 1 1 1 27 2 2 20 21 6 2 0 21 4 2 23 35 26 96 ‐ ‐ 1 11 4 4 2 49 15 ‐ ‐ ‐ 5 10 64 32 87 1 5 3 7 1 4 6 4 1 3 9 8 2 57 18 16 ‐ 2 ‐ 4 1 9 3 4 1 9 4 23 12 14 5 118 3 68 280 95 5 15 30 41 12 148 16 21 6 433 89 30 143 55 84 26 12 62 11,991 3,657 4,386 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 4 12 5 9 3 1 ‐ 8 3 2 2005 DWT GRT ( NRT BIL ( ' ' ( ' No. 000) 000) 000) 1,362 14 561 341 1 1 26 7 1 47 27 10 1 ‐ 42 51 19 38 31 45 14 47 45 70 22 3 57 Landing Craft Tug Boat 5 2 33 4 ‐ 1 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 36 6 ‐ 1 ‐ ‐ 7 4 59 9 1 3 ‐ ‐ 8 5 64 11 2 3 3 7 4 1 58 12 1 5 8 5 2 4 90 68 1,469 444 ‐ 59 Fisshing Vessel ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 7 ‐ ‐ ‐ 5 1 0 ‐ 18 2 1 8 21 25 1 ‐ Pleasure Vessel 4 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 5 ‐ ‐ ‐ 2 0 0 ‐ 3 ‐ ‐ 2 3 9 ‐ Government Ship Others ‐ ‐ 6 9 ‐ 3 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 7 ‐ 21 38 11 11 40 70 ‐ 21 ‐ 12 25 36 Total ‐ 1 0 65 20 16 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 27 60 284 155 81 47 17,081 8,268 10,259 170 286 131 353 131 338 131 334 229 639 261 663 251 1,181 600 1,839 283 1,357 678 590 284 33,238 13,796 27,015 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
34
NO SHIP NAME 1 Bosta Kayung No 11 2 Bosta Kayung No 12 3 Bosta Kayung No 15 4 Bosta Kayung No 16 5 6 7 8 9 10 Canggih 7 Canggih No 1 Cathay 28 Costal 45 Continental No 1 Dai Feng Hang 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Delta 3 Dikson 4 Ever commander Ever Plying Ever Profit Ever Star Ever Sunny Ever Trust Flora Hung Ann No 2 Jaysiang 1 Kencana Murni Kendredge 3 Kionhim 99 Power 6 Promex 16 Rajang 2 Rebecca No 1 Rising No 2 Sang Collie Shin Yang 25 Shin Yang 26 Shin Yang 33 Sing Meu 2 Smooth Trend No 5 Surplus Well 1 Timberwell No 1 Tong Seng No 10 Tung Yuen 16 Brantas 25 Cathay 8 Chico Chiong Hin No 8 Crystal No 2 Destiny East Ocean 2 Fordeco 19 GHKO No 1 Global I Hin Leong 98 OWNER/OPERATOR GRT Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Canggih Shipping sdn bhd Canggih Shipping sdn bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Coastal Transport (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Tung Yuen Tug Boat Sdn Bhd Hock Peng Furniture & General Contractor Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Bhd Dickson Marine Co Sdn Bhd Pengagkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Ocarina Development Sdn Bhd WTK Realty Sdn Bhd Jaysiang Shipping Sdn Bhd Lunar Shipping Sdn Bhd Kendredge Sdn bhd LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Natural Power Sdn Bhd Penguin Maritme Sdn Bhd Tristar Shipping & Trading Sdn Bhd Laut Sepakat Sdn Bhd Rising Transport Sdn Bhd Sang Muara Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shiping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shiping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd KingLory Shipping Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Bhd Surplus Well Sdn Bhd Timberwell Enterprise Sdn Bhd Mee Lee Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Brantas Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Malaysia Berhad United Orix Leasing Berhad Chung Sie Chiong Hong Leong Leasing Sdn Bhd Empayar Semarak Sdn Bhd Samsilamsan Shipping Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd GHKO Shipping Company Sdn Bhd Kai Lee Shipping Sdn Bhd Puh Tye Shipping Sdn Bhd 61.00 61.00 DWT ‐ NRT LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) DEPTH (D) YEAR OF REGISTRY 1996 17.00 21.56 6.77 2.59 1996 163.00 1996 64.00 1996 4.88 1.83 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 6.70 5.88 7.60 4.75 6.70 6.68 7.92 6.10 6.10 4.57 5.09 5.09 6.07 6.03 4.01 7.30 4.88 6.40 7.60 6.40 6.10 5.49 2.43 2.20 3.20 2.44 2.90 1.98 3.65 2.44 2.75 2.13 2.44 2.44 2.71 2.44 1.98 3.20 2.29 3.05 3.50 2.65 2.75 2.44 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 99.00 91.00 43.18 60.00 70.88 42.77 100.00 18.00 91.70 38.71 38.71 75.00 38.71 38.71 155.00 81.00 36.00 107.00 104.73 186.00 95.52 95.00 41.00 123.00 78.00 228.00 58.00 58.00 58.00 93.00 84.00 94.15 85.00 100.00 33.41 144.00 59.91 88.45 90.00 49.00 152.00 191.00 98.00 86.00 99.00 78.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
‐ 10.71 16.38 ‐ ‐
8.00 33.64 22.71 20.12 ‐ ‐
‐
‐
‐ ‐ ‐
‐
47.00 9.69 6.41 25.53 55.00 35.53 18.00 9.00 23.61 15.15 22.06 20.91 24.36 20.48 20.74 15.75 ‐
‐ ‐
8.00 8.00 28.00 18.48 18.48 19.41 ‐ 28.48 20.27 ‐
‐ ‐ ‐ 7.39 44.00 12.87 13.70 16.37 22.04 16.82 19.28 170.83 46.00 37.00 10.00 19.00 23.13 20.73 23.10 20.92 ‐ 115.22 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Table 3 : Tug boat Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) 35
OWNER/OPERATOR 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 Ilham Tiga Jayatung No 3 Jimi Huak 96 Jinway No 21 King Rich 96 Kresna Raya I Kuari Rakyat No 8 Puh Tye No 5 Rank No 1 Riki 15 Ronmas No 6 Ronmas No 7 Sabahtug No 9 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Sarinto 2 Seawell 9 Seraya No 3 Sili Suai No 6 Sili Suai No 8 Sin Matu 18 Sin Matu 22 Sing Hong 97 Solid Marigin No 1 Swee Ta Ho No 1 Tai Feng Long Togo Super Transspacific 1 Trumpco Satu Bosta Kayung No 17 Ilham Marine Services Sdn Bhd Rajang Palmcorp Sdn Bhd Lea Wah Enterprise Sdn Bhd Bonworld Shipping Sdn Bhd Trans‐Sungai Development Sdn Bhd See Song & Sons Sdn Bhd Kuari Rakyat Sdn Bhd Puh Tye Shipyard Sdn Bhd Multi Rank Sdn Bhd Perkapalan Pelayaran Sdn Bhd Ronmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Ronmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Samlimsan Shipping Sdn Bhd Seawall Sdn Bhd GoodWood (Sabah) Sdn Bhd KTS Equiment Rental Sdn Bhd KTS Equiment Rental Sdn Bhd Sin Matu Sdn Bhd Sin Matu Sdn Bhd Lee Siew Hee Solid Margin Sdn Bhd Swee Joo Coastal Shipping Sdn Bhd Chieng Lee Hiong Wang Nieng Lee Holdings Berhad Kim Huak Trading Sdn Bhd Merit Metro Sdn Bhd Trumpco Sdn Bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd United Orix Leasing Malaysia Berhad Penguin Maritime Sdn Bhd Dickson Marine Co Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Brantas Sdn Bhd Juara Marin Sdn Bhd Kuala Lumpur Indholding Bhd Hock Peng Furniture & General Contractor Sdn Bhd Ngie Lee Dockyard Sdn Bhd Double Dynasty Sdn Bhd WTK Realty Sdn Bhd WTK Realty Sdn Bhd Shing Liang Shipping Sdn Bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Brantas Sdn Bhd Mega shipping Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Vital Focus Shipping Sdn Bhd 80 Bosta Kayung No 18 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 Cathay 38 Cormorant 1 Dikson 8 Ever Splendid Haggai 1 Juara Klih 1 Poh lee hong 3 89 90 91 92 93 94 Poh Thai No 1 Seawell 83 Sharon Silvia Singawan Bunga Bosta Kayung No 19 95 96 97 98 99 Brantas 22 Bumban Jaya Cathay 58 Cathay 68 Haggai 1 LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) 16.75 5.00 18.74 4.88 21.76 6.98 20.66 6.19 GRT DWT NRT 46.00 120.96 56.07 36.00 114.81 60.96 90.32 76.00 28.00 96.00 81.00 99.00 55.73 27.70 13.00 ‐ 15.44 ‐ 32.27 ‐
33.00 191.00 60.00 97.00 70.00 59.00 106.00 97.00 81.00 91.00 117.00 93.00 43.00 67.09 186.00 83.20 136.00 66.31 DEPTH (D) 2.13 2.32 2.90 2.36 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 2.29 2.90 2.44 3.70 3.43 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 59.91 104.00 123.28 38.71 99.00 172.00 109.00 69.00 ‐ ‐
12.87 32.00 16.82 20.26 ‐
‐ ‐
29.10 51.00 33.00 22.56 22.85 20.31 4.88 6.70 6.46 7.60 6.80 40.09 178.00 82.00 77.00 105.00 66.31 ‐
‐
‐
54.00 23.00 21.00 24.26 18.45 18.45 7.60 5.88 6.10 3.50 2.29 2.44 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 ‐
‐
‐ 7.68 50.00 29.10 16.18 17.20 22.56 4.11 5.70 6.46 2.13 2.62 2.44 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 144.05 87.71 36.11 58.00 99.26 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 36
OWNER/OPERATOR 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 Highline 1 Hongdar 99 Kendredge 2 Keng Seng Kuantan Sin Matu No 23 Teknik Juara Cathay 78 Coastal 55 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 Ever Achieve Fordeco 30 Haggai 3 Highline 21 Kendredge Reignmas No 1 Sabahtug No 10 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 Syukur Teraya 1 Teraya 11 Transcend 1 Botany bay Cathay 26 Cathay 36 Destiny No 4 Inai Teratai 122 Jaya Raya Jayaraya Kismet 11 Robin 6 Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Hung Leong Shipping Sdn Bhd Kendredge Sdn bhd Yoe Tian Sang Kuantan Port Consortium Sdn Bhd Sin Matu Sdn Bhd Lunar Offshore Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Coastal Transport (Sandakan) Sdn Bhd Pengagkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Vital Focus Shipping Sdn Bhd Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Kendredge Sdn bhd Reignmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Northport (Malaysia) Bhd Huang Teck Soo Sdn Bhd Huang Teck Soo Sdn Bhd Maju Kidurong Shipping Friendly Avenue Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Destiny Shipping Agency (M) Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara Sdn Bhd LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Bontalia Shipping Sdn Bhd Robin Welding & Engineering Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Kionhim Shipping Sdn Bhd Lee Teng Hooi & Sons Trd Sdn Bhd Shing Liang Shipping Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Lau Hua Ching Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd Destiny Shipping Agency (M) Sdn Bhd Fonlink Shipping Sdn Bhd Fast Meridian Sdn Bhd Fast Meridian Sdn Bhd Fast Meridian Sdn Bhd Gunung Damai Shipping Sdn Bhd LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Bintulu Port Sdn Bhd Seawell Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara Sdn Bhd 129 Sabahtug No 11 130 Sapah No 51 131 Sapah No 52 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 Serdadu Jaya Shinta Perkasa Singawan Wira Suria Permata Triwise Cathay 56 Danum 2 Destiny No 3 Fonlink 1 Gerak Cekap GerakPantas Gerak Tegas Gunung Damai 1 Gunung Damai 1 Highline 23 Highline 26 Hilal Hock Mew XII Inai Teratai 85 DEPTH (D) 2.31 4.36 1.92 2.40 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 6.82 6.55 3.63 2.44 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 6.30 3.32 2.92 1.04 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 144.00 2001 49.00 2001 2001 5.37 7.32 9.60 2.23 2.44 3.60 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 GRT DWT 192.00 132.00 136.00 41.63 319.00 135.00 253.00 40.57 60.00 ‐ ‐ 63.76 103.00 115.00 102.46 144.00 136.97 81.00 169.00 45.69 36.64 91.00 75.22 66.39 66.39 165.00 149.00 91.00 91.00 88.73 153.00 55.73 92.35 105.06 125.00 80.79 145.00 475.00 432.00 85.12 171.00 171.00 164.00 265.00 265.00 207.00 271.00 242.00 76.22 83.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
‐ ‐ LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) 12.10 15.35 4.88 95.00 28.46 9.60 8.11 17.07 4.88 11.00 18.60 5.90 NRT ‐
‐
31.00 31.33 23.04 20.76 ‐
12.61 19.51 7.78 13.02 ‐ ‐
‐
26.96 14.43 19.42 18.73 65.40 73.00 24.00 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 37
OWNER/OPERATOR 151 Jemaja 152 Jin Hwa 8 153 Kantan Mesra Wang Nieng Lee Holdings Berhad Yimanda Corporation Sdn Bhd Kantan Jaya Marine Services (Pg) Sdn Bhd Bontalia Shipping Sdn Bhd Woodman Avenue Sdn Bhd Daily Venture Corporation Sdn Bhd Woodman Mewah Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara Sdn Bhd Fast Meridian Sdn Bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Sawai Jugah Sendirian Berhad Shin Yang Shipping Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Zengo corporation Sdn Bhd Zengo corporation Sdn Bhd Zengo corporation Sdn Bhd Epic OffShore (M) Sdn Bhd Pengagkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Fonlink Shipping Sdn Bhd Fordeco Shipping Sdn Bhd Fordeco Shipping Sdn Bhd Godrimaju Sdn Bhd Grand Marine Shipping Sdn Bhd Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Highline Shipping Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara Sdn Bhd Woodman Indah Sdn Bhd Wong Sie Tuong Kendredge Sdn bhd Kionhim shipping Sdn Bhd Tenaga Shipping Sdn Bhd Omni Maritme Sdn Bhd Reignmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Royston Cole Marine Sdn Bhd Elik Sdn Bhd Lee Ting Hock Sung Fatt Shipping Sdn Bhd Sung Tahi Lee Sdn Bhd Woodman Layun Sdn Bhd Target Shipping Sdn Bhd Bonafile Shipbuilders & Repairs Sdn Bhd James Lau King Wee Lau Hua Ching 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 Kismet 12 Sinar Pelutan 1 Spring Star 1 Sungai Silat 1 Triple Light Tuton Bosta Kayung No 20 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 Cathay 76 Cathay 96 Chin Ung 1 Danum 11 Danum 6 Danum 8 Dolson Dolxin Dolyi Epic Challenger Ever Armada Fonlink No 2 Fordeco 25 Fordeco 33 Godri Satu Grand Marine No 1 Highline 29 Highline 32 Highline 35 Inai Teratai 321 Inai Teratai 72 Indah Abadi 1 Jin Hwa 10 Kendredge 5 Kinsing Jaya Kline 1 Poly 7 Reignmas 3 Royco 119 Salik Sing Hong 98 Sung Fatt Sung Tahi lee 3 Sungai Julan 1 Target Taurians Three 197 Tobi 9 198 Tri zip GRT DWT NRT 110.00 52.71 232.00 83.29 256.00 141.36 271.00 149.00 171.00 239.00 78.46 38.16 46.83 89.00 89.00 475.00 139.50 137.20 138.60 404.00 131.87 120.90 202.00 83.00 120.00 434.00 271.00 427.00 187.00 379.48 97.50 267.00 114.00 127.00 56.48 246.00 139.80 155.00 194.00 86.25 86.25 54.39 144.00 271.00 220.00 171.00 102.46 60.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) ‐ ‐ ‐ 27.00 27.00 143.00 22.00 22.00 34.92 ‐ 82.00 28.21 81.00 28.83 ‐
26.87 19.51 DEPTH (D) YEAR OF REGISTRY 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 6.10 6.10 11.40 8.60 8.54 5.18 2.70 2.70 4.95 4.12 3.80 2.13 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 38
NO
SHIP NAME
OWNER/OPERATOR
199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 Cahaya 5 Cathay 17 Cathay 86 Epic Sasa Epillars Ever Master Everbright 9 Fordeco 35 Fordeco 37 Fordeco 39 Goldlion Harbour Aquarius Inai Teratai 31 Jin Hwa 12 Jin Hwa 15 Kentjana No 6 Rembros 21 Sabahtug No 12 Se Mariam 1 Se Mariam 2 Searights Satu Sungai Layun 1 Texaron 1 Ever Venus Johan Pioneer 1 Straight Ace Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Epic Industri (M) Sdn Bhd Eastern Pillars Shipping Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Midas Choice Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Baker Marine Sdn Bhd Harbour Agencies(Sibu) Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara Sdn Bhd Teck Sing Hing Shipping Sdn Bhd Gimhwak Enterprise Sdn Bhd Sawai Jugah Sdn Bhd Scyii Brothers Shipyard Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Se Mariam Sdn Bhd Se Mariam Sdn Bhd Right Attitude Sdn Bhd Woodman Enterprise Sdn Bhd Brantas Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kekal Sdn Bhd Johan Shipping Sdn Bhd GRT
DWT
NRT
LENGTH
(L)
BREADTH
(B)
DEPTH (D)
117.00 89.78 40.39 229.00 122.00 101.28 253.00 194.00 93.00 93.00 391.00 150.00 425.00 128.00 128.00 52.26 114.00 144.00 247.00 247.00 177.00 261.00 62.91 133.20 269.00 26293.40 ‐
‐
‐
36.00 13.09 11.92 21.96 19.68 13.14 28.00 28.00 21.24 21.24 ‐
‐
‐
‐
79.00 24.50 46.88 81.00 28.82 17.88 21.30 28.07 6.10 6.10 4.90 6.00 6.00 8.54 4.90 6.70 8.60 3.05 2.44 2.50 2.88 2.88 3.80 2.36 2.90 4.12 YEAR OF
REGISTRY
2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
39
N
O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR Bangga Bestvic 11 Bestco 98 Bonggoya 83 Bonspeed Boo Hin No 26 Canggih 8 Dimensi 1 Econ 9 Fel 7 Fordeco No 26 Fordeco No 20 Fordeco No 23 Fordeco No 2301 Gantisan Satu King Rich 168 Kingglory 8 Kingglory 9 Labu Jaya Legendary 1 Legendary 2 Legendary 3 Legendary 4 Liga No 2 Linau 26 Linau 30 Linau 38 Linau 39 Lingco 151 MAC PB 3 Malian Maju Manjung Damai Mayong No 10 Mayong No 2 Mee Le No 9 Megakina 9 Meranti 35 Nan Hai One Up 36 Otimber V Power 3 Rakan Daya I Rising No 1 Sea Kite Sebangun II Sigma 2 Sin Lian No 5 Singa Besar 10 Singamas Support Station 3 Ocean Contract Sdn Bhd Hong Leong Sdn Bhd Ling Peng Noon Shipyard Sdn Bhd Syarikat Pengangkutan Bonggoya Sdn Bhd Bonspeed Shipping Sdn Bhd Hong Leong Leasing Sdn Bhd Canggih Shipping Sdn Bhd WTK heli‐Logging Sdn Bhd Akasuria Sdn Bhd Mee Lee Shipping Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Lembaga Letrik Sabah Trans‐Sungai Development Sdn Bhd Kinglory Shipping Sdn Bhd Kinglory Shipping Sdn Bhd Omni Maritime Sdn Bhd Kii Ek Ho Kii Ek Ho Rimbunan Hijau Sdn Bhd Mrloh Shiiung Ming Liga Muhibbah Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Tekun Enterprise Sdn Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Ma Lien Shipping Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Berhad Mayong (S)Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Bhd Mee Lee Shipping Sdn Bhd Megakina Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Wehaai Shipping Sdn Bhd Syarikat One Up Sdn Bhd Hornbilland Bhd Natural Power Sdn Bhd Hong Leong Leasing Sdn Bhd Rising Transpot Sdn Bhd RS&L Marine Sdn Bhd Borneo Shipping& Timber Agencies Sdn Bhd Sigma Ray Shipping Sdn Bhd Hong Leong Leasing Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Bhd Ngang Hock Kung Amble Strategy Sdn Bhd MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) GRT DWT NRT 2,132.00 1317.00 602.00 1,097.00 703.00 1,368 839.00 256.00 635.00 909.00 644.00 1078.00 1041.00 927.00 1961.00 849.00 1273.00 1273.00 702.00 522.00 522.00 251.00 499.00 829.00 1223.00 1622.00 1444.00 1444.00 410.00 188.00 841.00 616.00 243.00 482.00 836.00 943.00 1444.00 1093.00 722.00 750.00 763.00 710.00 507.00 37.03 1349.00 1277.00 642.00 291.00 443.00 6135.00 ‐
‐
‐
612.00 ‐ 376.00 211.00 252.00 77.00 1293.00 67.30 54.88 52.67 35.11 69.49 ‐ ‐ ‐
‐
‐ ‐
‐
589.00 589.00 265.00 211.00 157.00 158.00 189.00 150.00 57.60 57.60 52.68 52.67 43.89 43.89 35.12 42.14 ‐ ‐ ‐
‐ ‐ ‐
‐ ‐ 367.00 953.00 433.00 433.00 123.00 56.00 253.00 185.00 69.66 61.45 69.66 69.66 43.89 26.33 52.67 52.67 ‐
‐ ‐
283.00 433.00 328.00 58.52 69.66 58.52 18.29 17.07 17.07 12.19 19.20 22.00 22.00 17.07 17.07 15.24 15.24 12.19 1524.00 18.30 18.30 18.29 18.29 12.19 12.19 17.07 15.24 17.07 18.29 17.07 DEPTH (D) YEAR OF REGISTRY 4.27 3.05 3.66 2.44 3.66 4.00 4.00 3.66 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.05 3.66 4.57 4.27 4.27 3.05 2.44 3.66 3.05 3.66 4.27 4.27 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Table 4 : Barge Registered in Malaysia (1996‐2006) 40
SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR SYN Kiong No5 Tristar II Vision 8 Vision 9 Vision 10 Wah Hai Satu Wang Hin Lee No 2 Warisan 2 Yan Yan 5 Bestvic 18 Blue Sky 99 Bonspeed Tiga Borneo Lighter 21 Cathay 2 Cathay 18 Cathay 183 Dong Feng Jaya 1 Dynaroy EK Soon Ching 99 Entimau No 9 Faedah Mulia dua Fauna Fordeco No 6 Fordeco No 31 Fortuna No 9 Ging lee No 1 Kian Lee No 7 Kiong Min I Kkong Thai No 1 Kong Thai No3 Kong Thai No 5 Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Daily Venture Sdn Bhd Next Corporation Sdn Bhd Next Corporation Sdn Bhd Next Corporation Sdn Bhd Wah Hai Marine Supplies (M) Sdn Bhd Hoo Chong Yiang Lembing Megah Sdn Bhd Marine Quest Sdn Bhd Hong Leong Sdn Bhd Blue Sky Shipping Sdn Bhd Bonspeed Shipping Sdn Bhd Kionhim Shipping Sds Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Dong Feng Gravel Merchant Sdn Bhd Empayar Semarak Sdn Bhd Reignmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Globular Sdn Bhd Faedah Mulia Sdn Bhd Ocarina Development Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd John Wong Su Kiong Dragonic Shipping Sdn Bhd Lee Ling Timber Sdn Bhd Pengangkutan Kiong Min Sdn Bhd Umas Sdn Bhd Umas Sdn Bhd Umas Sdn Bhd GRT DWT NRT LENGTH (L) BREADTH (B) DEPTH (D) YEAR OF REGISTRY 702.00 833.00 2132.00 2132.00 1854.00 498.00 322.00 741.00 839.00 1446.00 838.00 914.00 519.00 322.00 259.00 634.00 730.00 1625.00 341.00 844.00 553.00 553.00 995.00 3028.00 839.00 633.00 838.00 664.00 477.00 477.00 477.00 ‐ ‐ ‐ ‐ 600.00 1600.00 ‐ 2462.08 ‐ ‐ 251.00 275.00 156.00 97.00 77.00 190.00 219.00 488.00 103.00 166.00 52.70 52.70 43.90 35.11 35.11 51.46 55.34 70.23 38.90 46.82 17.07 18.30 15.22 12.19 12.19 15.24 15.72 19.51 12.15 15.24 3.66 3.66 3.00 3.05 2.44 3.00 2.75 4.57 2.42 3.05 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
N
O 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
41
NO SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Umas Sdn Bhd Kuari Rakyat Sdn Bhd Kim Huak Trading Sdn Bhd WTK Realty Sdn Bhd Lee Teng Hooi & Sons Trd Sdn Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Kumpulan Meda Liziz Berhad Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Navasco Shipping Sdn Bhd Syarikat One Up Sdn Bhd Syarikat One Up Sdn Bhd Instant Bloom Sendirian Berhad Metroco Timber Trading Sdn Bhd Mega Shipping Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Berhad Puh Tye Shipyard Sdn Bhd Ronmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Laut Sepakat Sdn Bhd Sanbumi Sawmill Sdn Bhd Vector Omega Sdn Bhd Mbf Finance Berhad Seawise Shipping Sdn Bhd Shing Liang Shipping Sdn Bhd Solid Margin Sdn Bhd Kini Abadi Sdn Bhd Kini Abadi Sdn Bhd United Orix leasing Berhad Vector Omega Sdn Bhd Ladyang Shipping Sdn Bhd Vistama Shipping Sdn bhd Syarikat One Sdn Bhd Phua Soon Heng Sdn Bhd Rajang Palmcorp Sdn Bhd Hi‐Trade (Sarawak) Sdn Bhd Hi‐Trade (Sarawak) Sdn Bhd Hock Seng Lee Bhd Hock Seng Lee Bhd Hock Seng Lee Bhd Hock Seng Lee Bhd 477.00 838.00 833.00 302.00 632.00 264.00 623.00 45.00 486.00 555.00 710.00 640.00 1358.00 1176.00 604.00 493.00 526.00 270.00 642.00 833.00 605.00 526.00 1078.00 1165.00 758.00 1362.00 498.00 833.00 78.00 624.00 555.00 443.00 1232.00 526.00 346.00 796.00 734.00 833.00 841.00 DWT NRT LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) YEAR OF REGISTRY 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Kong Thai No 7 Kuari Rakyat No 7 Lee Wah No 2 Longchyi 97 Manjung Setia MEB C8 Meda Liziz 1 Meranti No 5 Navacso One Up 52 One Up 63 Palma 5 Pline 3 Prime Delta 1 Profit 188 Puh Tye No 6 Ronmas No 9 Sabahlight Tiga Sanbumi B3 Sealine 1 Seng No 2 Sinbee 2 Singawan Maju Solid Marging No 2 Soon Hing No 3 Soon Hing No 32 Sunlight 97 Vector 3 Venus II Vistama 99 Winbuild 1608 Winbuild 6 Yan Yan 3 Ying Li 11 Yong Hoe 10 Yu Lee 20 Yu Lee 22 Yu Lee 23 Yu Lee 24 GRT MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
42
OWNER/OPERATOR 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 Carrier 1 Cathay 22 Cathay 181 Ekoon No 8 Ketara Tiga Labroy 149 Low Kim Chuan 1 Lucky Star 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 MAC PB 9 MEB B 15 Petrobiz Satu Thompson No 1 Tidalmarine Perkasa Wantas 1 Atilla 23 Barges Island 19 Benzoil No 1 Bersama Abadi 2201 Cathay 182 MEB B22 Reignmas No 2 Teknik Mutiara Tidalmarine Putra Tidalmarine Putri Vger 4 Well Leader No 3 Asiapride 102 Bebas Jaya Tiga Big Fair DB1 Fordeco No 17 Golden Peace 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 Golden Sea No 29 Golden Sea No 36 Golden Sea No 41 Golden Sea No 42 Kiong Nguong 106 Linau 46 Low Kim Chuan 8 MAC PB 15 MEB JB2 Sealink Pacific 108 Singa Besar 3 Singa Besar 5 Equal Tranport Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd United Orix Leasing Malaysia Sdn Bhd Dong Guan Enterprise Sdn Bhd Port Klang Offshore Pilling Sdn Bhd LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Lkc Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Miri Housing Development Realty Sdn Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Kembang Suci Sdn Bhd Omni Maritime Sdn Bhd Tidalmarine Engineering Sdn Bhd Wantas Shipping (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Tinjar Transport Sdn Bhd Tristar Navigation Company Banzoil Shipping Sdn Bhd Megah Mewah Shipping Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Reignmas Shipping Sdn Bhd TI Jaya Sdn Bhd Tidalmarine Engineering Sdn Bhd Tidalmarine Engineering Sdn Bhd lee Teng Hooi & Sons Trd Sdn Bhd Katas Credit Leasing Sendirian Berhad Bonafile Shipbuilder & Repair Sdn Bhd Nam Hua Shipping Sdn Bhd Hong Lian Shipping Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Hung Tung Trading (Sarawak) Sendirian Berhad Tawau Tug Service Sdn Bhd Tawau Tug Service Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Tawau Tug Service Sdn Bhd Koinhim Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Lkc Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Muhibbah Engineering (M) Bhd Sealink Pacific Sdn Bhd Rong Rong Marketing Sdn Bhd Tropical Energy Sdn bhd GRT 256.00 257.00 630.00 164.00 639.00 948.00 865.00 502.00 516.00 158.00 553.00 44.00 399.00 1067.00 616.00 604.00 1279.00 633.00 2920.00 838.00 20.56 799.00 799.00 1171.00 158.00 3137.00 1,368.00 811.00 1078.00 259.44 627.00 642.00 868.00 642.00 1078.00 1829.00 1434.00 466.00 735.00 1368.00 1168.00 1692.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) DWT NRT YEAR OF REGISTRY 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 43
Singa Besar 11 Singa Besar 15 Sung Thai Lee 2 Zambatek 88 Alliance 88 Atilla 24 Atilla 25 Bagusia No1 Bosta Jaya 18 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 Dunga 2302 Entimau No 2 Linau 48 Linau 49 Linau 50 Malindo No 2 Monarch 39 Sane No 1 Sin Matu 25 Singawan Raya Tairen II Togo Satu Bonggoya 90 1811.00 512.00 1829.00 812.00 895.00 1218.00 1073.00 2132.00 1468.00 1069.00 666.00 519.00 1,368.00 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 Dynaroy No 3 Pelepas Trainer Reignmas Jaya Serafine 02 Asiapride 3048 Asiapride 30617 Atilla 32 Azimat 1 Botany 1203 Cathay 151 Cathay 189 Modermott Derrick Barge No 26 Penaga Warni Pulau Keladi Sealink Pacific 202 Sealink U285 Sealink U286 Yong Yong Trading Sdn Bhd Singa Cerah Sdn Bhd Sung Thai Lee Sdn Bhd Focus Fleet Sdn Bhd Dickson Marine Co Sdn Bhd Tinjar Transport Sdn Bhd Tinjar Transport Sdn Bhd Bagusia Sdn Bhd Borneo Shipping & Timber Agencies Sdn Bhd LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Globular Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Msgear Shipping Sdn Bhd Castalia Sdn Bhd Syarikat Sebangun Sdn Bhd Sin Matu Sdn Bhd Shing Liang Shipping Sdn Bhd W & Y Enterprise Sdn Bhd Globular Sdn Bhd Syarikat Pengangkutan Bonggoya Sdn Bhd Destiny Shipping Agency(m) Sdn Bhd Pelabuhan Tanjung Pelepas Sdn Bhd Reignmas Shipping Sdn Bhd Bonafile Shipbuilders & Repairs Sdn Bhd Bonafile Shipbuilder & Repair Sdn Bhd Bonafile Shipbuilder & Repair Sdn Bhd Tinjar Transport Sdn Bhd Azimat Engineering Services Sdn Bhd Friendly Avenue Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Barmada Modermott (L) Limited 3072.00 256.00 1416.00 1352.00 3137.00 3137.00 419.00 256.00 256.00 512.00 729.00 11213.00 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 LKC Shipping Line Sdn Bhd Pekerjaan Piasau Konkerit Sdn Bhd Sutherfield Resources Sdn Bhd Sealink Sdn Bhd Euroedge Sdn Bhd 2142.00 930.00 2641.00 2641.00 2641.00 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
NRT | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 259.00 260.00 1002.00 1899.00 181.00 1279.00 1,067.00 522.00 799.00 DWT YEAR OF REGISTRY 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 OWNER/OPERATOR 198 199 200 201 202 GRT LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) NO SHIP NAME 44
NO SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 CB Industrial Product Sdn Bhd Rong Rong Marketing Sdn Bhd Rong Rong Marketing Sdn Bhd Lee Sooi Sean John Wong Su Kiong And Fong Nyet Len Bonafile Shipbuilder & Repair Sdn Bhd Bonafile Shipbuilder & Repair Sdn Bhd Bonafile Shipbuilder & Repair Sdn Bhd Friendly Avenue Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Ampangship & Marine Sdn Bhd Fordeco Sdn Bhd Sipoh Shipping & Exporter Sdn Bhd Gainline Enterprise Sdn Bhd Coastal Transport(Sandakan)Sdn Bhd Se Mariam Sdn Bhd Muhibbah Engineering Muhibbah Engineering (M) BHd Muhibbah Engineering (M) BHd Pertiwi Shipping Sdn Bhd Sutherfield Resources Sdn Bhd Navitex Shipping Sdn Bhd Makjaya Sdn Bhd Makjaya Sdn Bhd Makjaya Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Cowie Marine Transportation Sdn Bhd Alam Kejora Sdn Bhd Rong Rong Marketing Sdn Bhd Rong Rong Marketing Sdn Bhd Rong Rong Marketing Sdn Bhd Kini Abadi Sdn Bhd Kini Abadi Sdn Bhd Kwantas Oil Sdn Bhd Kwantas Oil Sdn Bhd Wantas Shipping (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Fast Meridian Sdn Bhd Lunar Shipping Sdn Bhd Lunar Shipping Sdn Bhd 258.00 249.00 2167.00 256.00 728.00 3137.00 3137.00 3137.00 634.00 631.00 4472.00 1416.00 1446.00 702.00 896.00 3327.00 1217.00 634.00 634.00 468.00 2987.00 2641.00 947.00 947.00 835.00 835.00 1298.00 1271.00 1252.00 249.00 1404.00 737.00 737.00 1342.96 109.62 629.00 1338.00 1981.00 8484.00 96320.58 DWT NRT LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) YEAR OF REGISTRY 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2006 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Sin Tung 120 Singa Besar 19 Singa Besar 21 Tai Hin 13 Tian Li 28 Asiapride 3087 Asiapride 3093 Asiapride 3095 Botany 1801 Cathay 188 Emerald Fordeco No 29 Forest Prime No 2 Gainline No 5 Lucky Way Mariam 281 Muhibbah B25 Mihibbah B26 Muhibbah B27 Pertiwi VII Sealink Pacific 288 Sealink Pacific 382 Silversea No 1 Silversea No 2 Silversea No 3 Silversea No 4 Silversea No 5 Sinar Samudera Singa Besar I Singa Besar 27 Singa Besar 29 Soon Hing No7 Sonn Hing No 168 Taclobo 1 Taclobo 3 Wantas V Asiapride 23117 Luna Jaya Luna Mulia GRT MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
45
Table 5 : General Cargo Carrier Registered in Malaysia (1996‐2006) 1 Able Ensign Amanah 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Bahagia Maju Bintang Harapan Budi Suryana Gee Hong Ginhoting Golden line Hiap Kin No 2 Hung Ann No 3 Hung Lee vl Ing Hua Seng Ing Hua Soon 96 Joy 97 Kahing dua Kedah Cement l Kim Ma No 2 Kim Yuen 95 Kong Jun No 2 Lada Kargo l Lee Ung Mega Harapan Otimber 111 Petu 9 25 Qian Feng 26 Raja Balleh Rinwood Jaya 27 No11 28 Riverbank Star 29 Riverbank 30 Ronsan 88 31 Salura 32 San Tai Lee 1 33 Senari 34 Shinline 4 35 Song Kian Baru 36 Song Yong Wang 37 Soon Thai 38 Superior Star 39 Swee Joo Satu 40 Transallied Maju 41 Unity II 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Wei Ling Yiaw Yang Vistama 96 Able Fusilier Buana Indah Builder Fortune Demak Indah 1 49 Eco Charger 50 Etlee OWNER/OPERATOR GRT Tauladan Gigih Sdn Bhd Amanah International Finance Sdn Bhd Ngee Tai Shipping Sdn Bhd Fajar Lawas Sdn Bhd Budisukma Sdn Bhd Fokus Marine Sdn Bhd Ginhotin Sdn Bhd Rasa Shipping Sdn Bhd Hiap Kian Enterprise Sdn Bhd WTK Realty Sdn Bhd Hung Lee shipping Sdn Bhd Ing Hua Seng Shipping Sdn Bhd Ling Liong Kiik Bendindang Ak Manjah Tetap Sugih Sdn Bhd Jumewah Shipping Sdn Bhd Welldone Shipping Sdn Bhd Tang Siong Tiang Malsuria Holding (M) Sdn Bhd Belait Shipping Co Sdn Bhd Su Tung Jem Hua Tai Shipping Sdn Bhd Hornbilland Bhd Pito Shipping Sdn.Bhd Wang Hin Leong Shipping Sdn.Bhd Pelangi Sakti Sdn.Bhd 3898 3007 Ling Kiong hua Riverbank Shipping Sdn.Bhd Riverbank Shipping Sdn.Bhd Premier Fairview Sdn.Bhd Salura Sdn Bhd Lau Kiing Ling Harvest Venture Sdn.Bhd Shinline Sdn.Bhd Soon Hai Kee Shipping Sdn.Bhd Ling Soon Chiong Crest Enrich sdn.Bhd Yong Hung Shipping Sdn.Bhd Swee Joo Coastal Shipping Sdn.Bhd Trans‐Allied Sdn.Bhd Golden Dollars Shipping Sdn.Bhd Hong Yang Shipping Sdn.Bhd Dunmas Shipping Sdn.Bhd Vistama Shipping Sdn.Bhd Tauladan Gigih Sdn Bhd Roundtree Shipping Sdn Bhd Chong Fui Shipping & Forwarding Sdn Bhd Wang Nieng Lee Holdings Berhad Charger Shipping Sdn Bhd Ling Yeo Tung 498 494 3007 9896 305 118.00 162.00 69.00 1593.00 497.00 180.00 301.00 1220.00 10508.00 233.00 241.00 1,773.00 1,023.00 127.00 427.00 699.00 738.00 DWT NRT 5119 5115.52 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 98.66 16.33 8.4 89.5 16.2 7.2 40.35 11.57 16.21 3.7 7.2 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 43.42 9.76 3.18 80.22 14 8.7 43.42 9.76 3.18 89.5 499.00 80.00 666.00 528.00 495.00 149.00 200.00 198.00 1476.00 5,615.00 381.00 182.00 397.00 1523.00 638.00 374.00 876.00 408.00 5577.00 311.00 5691 439 2679 439 138.52 259 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
YEAR OF REGISTRY 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 46
OWNER/OPERATOR 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Fonwell Shipping Sdn Bhd Irama Marine Sdn Bhd Ging San Hon Shipping Sdn Bhd Wah Leang Shipping Sdn Bhd Ing Hua Seng Shipping Sdn Bhd Ing Hua Seng Shipping Sdn Bhd West‐Mall Corporation Sdn Bhd Tele Kenyalang Engineering Sdn Bhd Tetap Sugih Sdn Bhd Chiu Nik Kiong Fonwell Shipping Sdn Bhd Lipan Enterprise & shipping Sdn Bhd Swee Joo Coastal Shipping Sdn Bhd Borneoply Shipping Sdn Bhd Timor Offshore Sdn Bhd GHwoods Sdn Bhd Nam Hua Shipping Sdn Bhd Nutrajaya Shipping(M)Sdn.Bhd Chieng Tiew Sing Riveron Shipping Sdn.Bhd Ronmas Shipping Sdn.Bhd San Sun Shipping Sdn.Bhd United Orix Leasing Bhd Senayong Jaya Sdn.Bhd Shinline Sdn.Bhd Sigma Ray Shipping Sdn.Bhd Tiang Chiong Ming Virgo Metro Sdn.Bhd Chua Eng Seng Sanleean Shipping Sdn.Bhd Wong Sii Kieng Fonwell Gihock Ging San Hon Hung Lee ll Ing Hua Seng 2 Ing Kua Seng 2 Jamaliah 58 Jin Hwa 59 Kahing Tiga 60 Lian moh No 1 61 Lick Teck 62 Lipan Burau 63 Maju Borneo 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 Megaline No 1 Melati Mas Moh Hin No 2 Mulia Abadi Ngie Tai No 5 Pioneer 87 Riki 13 Ronmas No 8 San Shun Selamat Bahagia Senayong Jaya Shinline 5 Sigma 1 Sin Moh Soon Sri Nam Hua 8 Surya Baru Teck lee Tiasa indah 96 Transources Cargo 18 Transources Cargo 19 Vertexto 22 Yong Hing 12 Yung Fah Satu Zimyin Zuria Bersatu Abadi Foresline 3 Ingtai Lai Lai No 51 93 Lian seng hin 3 Transport Resources Sdn.Bhd GRT DWT NRT 291 6377 498 362.12 731.00 731.00 479.00 5359.00 754.22 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 111.39 18.6 10.2 44.55 1224.00 720.00 291.00 433.00 581.00 347.00 3960.00 193.00 499.00 3084.00 26.00 560.00 732.00 445.00 498.00 428.00 5,554.00 636.00 288.00 499.00 462.00 339.00 66.00 6414 90.41 308.00 Transport Resources Sdn.Bhd 308.00 Compass Transport Sdn.Bhd Tan Tiew Yong Yung Fah Sdn.Bhd Zim Yin Shipping Sdn.Bhd Bonkinmas Shipping Sdn.Bhd Nam Hua Shipping Sdn Bhd Shinera Shipping Sdn Bhd Ing Tai Shipping Sdn Bhd Lai Lai Development Sdn Bhd swee Joe Coastal shipping Sdn Bhd 1142.00 556.00 418.00 526.00 481.00 497 453 344.00 89.00 586.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
YEAR OF REGISTRY 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 12.18 2.71 1997 1997 1997 1997 20 7.7 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 47
NO SHIP NAME 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 Sin Min Shipping Sdn Bhd Tropical Vision Sdn Bhd Nepline Berhad Lau Hui Lee Tang Sing Kian Thailine Sdn.Bhd Thailine Sdn.Bhd Yong Hua Marine Sdn.Bhd Master Ace Territory Sdn Bhd Guan Hoe Huat Fishmeal Co Sdn Bhd Ing Soon Lee Shipping Sdn Bhd Ting Yew kun Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Tropical Vision Sdn Bhd Pan Pacific Shipping Sdn Bhd Bendera Mawar Sdn.Bhd Shing Lian Realty Sdn.Bhd Shinline Sdn.Bhd Shinline Sdn.Bhd Ing Tai Shipping Sdn Bhd E & W Freights & Logistics Sdn Bhd Mas Sutra Metro Prominent Sdn Bhd New Time 1 Yasmore Timbers Sdn Bhd Shinline 9 Shinline Sdn.Bhd Transveneer 200 Empayar Semarak Sdn.Bhd Transveneer Jaya Empayar Semarak Sdn.Bhd Oriental Evermare Sendirian Transveneer Pearl Berhad Chromis Import & Export Wave Ruler Sdn.Bhd Bonsonic Zim Yin Shipping Sdn Bhd Falcom Wise‐Synergy Sdn Bhd Fonwell No 2 Fonwell Shipping Sdn Bhd Lawas Mewah united orix Leasing Bhd Lawas Venture Katex Shipping Sdn Bhd Lee Chiong Hing Tie Teck Yew No 3 Lee Hong Sii Tiung Lok Mee Nguong 2 Chiew Tieng Ping Mee Nguong 3 Chiew Tieng Ping GRT 181.00 350.00 2696.00 88.00 384.00 6,178.00 6,178.00 2359.00 383 DWT NRT 250.00 569.00 196.00 386.00 336.00 5922.00 10889.00 231.00 5,555.00 5,433.00 235 4477 609.20 444.00 5,551.00 434.00 434.00 15746 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 94.59 18.8 13 80.29 21.34 4.88 37 10.2 3.8 12.4 12.9 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 37.54 37.54 11.08 11.08 11.06 3.65 3.65 3.65 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 37.81 11.08 3.66 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 139.35 436.00 37.6 956.00 712 27 255 996.00 356.00 494.00 181.00 135.00 135.00 1999 21.2 18.8 91.87 839.7 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 2000 2001 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
128 129 130 Marineline No 1 Megaline No 7 Nepline Teratai Singawan Timbul Sung Hing No 2 Thailine 8 Thailine 8 Yong Hua 2 Fortuneline 2000 Guan Hoe Huat No 3 Ing Soon Lee No 1 Lian Soon Linau 42 Megaline No 9 MMM Belinda Santa Suria Shing Lian No 2 Shinline 6 Shinline 8 Crystal No 1 Galactic Dolphin OWNER/OPERATOR MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
48
OWNER/OPERATOR 131 Mee Nguong 5 132 Mee Nguong 6 Chiew Tieng Ping Chiew Tieng Ping Oriental Evermore Sendirian Berhad Bonai Shipping Sdn.Bhd Asas Mewah Sdn.Bhd Pansutria Sdn.Bhd 133 New Time 2 134 Nikka 135 Rena 136 Riverbank Emas Riverbank 137 Rainbow 138 Sentosa Jaya 139 Thailine 2 140 Thailine 5 141 Tina 142 Alica 143 Cora 1 144 Rampai 145 Santa Suria II 146 Sinmah 147 Thailine 3 Pansutria Sdn.Bhd JP Lines Sdn.Bhd Thailine Sdn.Bhd Thailine Sdn.Bhd Kusin Jaya Sdn.Bhd Realink Sdn Bhd Coralink Shipping Sdn Bhd Rampai Kembara Sdn.Bhd Samudera Sempurna Sdn.Bhd Ting Pin Lu Thailine Sdn.Bhd Oriental Evermare Sendirian 148 Transveneer Glory Berhad Transveneer Oriental Evermare Sendirian 149 United Berhad 150 Cathay SP 1 OG Marine Sdn Bhd 151 Linau 15 Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd 152 Marugawa Marugawa Sdn Bhd 153 Meu Huat Meu Huat Navigation Sdn Bhd 154 New Primeline Mathew Apoi Njau 155 Sinlehinn Rajang Line Sdn.Bhd 156 Thailine 6 Thailine Sdn.Bhd 157 Malayan Progress Malayan Navigation Co Sdn Bhd 158 Malayan succes Malayan Navigation Co Sdn Bhd Perkapalan Man Kee (88) Sdn 159 Man Kee 88 Bhd 160 Maricom No 5 Maricom Shipping Sdn Bhd MV Borcos Sabhan Syarikat Borcos Shipping Sdn 161 1 Bhd MV Borcos Sabhan Syarikat Borcos Shipping Sdn 162 2 Bhd MV Borcos Sabhan Syarikat Borcos Shipping Sdn 163 3 Bhd MV Borcos Sabhan Syarikat Borcos Shipping Sdn 164 4 Bhd 165 Psalm 23 Jaya Coastal Transport Sdn.Bhd 166 Bima Lima Sribima (M) Shipping Sdn Bhd GRT DWT NRT 1323.00 194.00 418.00 1886.00 1238.00 492.00 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 65.01 492.00 1,660.00 5,552.00 5,601.00 1673.00 1591 206 671.00 10598.00 641.00 5,582.00 3865 68.01 16767 136.24 474.00 468.00 457 857.00 1643.00 706.00 153.00 229.00 7,633.00 1193.00 997.00 330.00 713.00 219.00 219.00 219.00 219.00 134.00 243 4486.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
64.3 1605 64.4 YEAR OF REGISTRY 2001 2001 2001 11 5.7 2001 2001 2001 13 22.3 7 12.18 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 14 11.5 5.4 6.3 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2001 2002 2002 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 49
Table 6 : Anchor Handling Tug & Supply Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Dickson 4 Jetta 7 Kencana Murni Sealink Maju Setia Cekal Jetta 8 Suria I Armada Merak 9 Armada Mutiara 10 Armada Tuah 6 11 Jetta 16 12 13 14 15 Oliserve Beta Oliserve Beta Ajang Harapan Jetta 17 16 MV Setia Jaguh 17 MV Shema 18 Shema 19 Armada Tuah 7 20 Sealink Maju 2 21 Armada Hydro 22 Cathay 16 23 Cathay 6 24 Jetta 22 25 Armada Tuah 9 26 27 28 29 Sealink Cassandra Tugau Ajang Ikhlas Armada Tuah 8 30 Armada Tuah 9 31 Ella 32 MV Ella 33 Armada Salman 34 Armada Tugas 1 35 Borcos Tasneem 1 36 MV Setia Gagah 37 MV Setia Handal 38 Armada Tuah 10 39 Permint Indah 40 Permint Perkasa 41 Armada Firman 42 Armada Tuah 100 43 Armada Tugas 2 44 Borcos Takdir 45 46 47 48 49 50 Royco 99 Sarku Santubong Saz Supply Sealink Vanessa 3 Sealink Victoria 3 Statesman Service OWNER/OPERATOR Dickson Marine Co sdn Bhd Clamshell Dredging Sdn Bhd Lunar shipping sdn BHd Sealink Sdn Bhd Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Bhd Clamshell Dredging Sdn Bhd Lunar Shipping Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd See Yong & Son Construction sdn Bhd Oilerve Marine Sdn Bhd Oilerve Marine Sdn Bhd Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd See Yong & Son Construction sdn Bhd Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd Seri Mukali Sdn Bhd Seri Mukali Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Sealink Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Sdn Bhd See Yong & Son Construction sdn Bhd Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Sealink Sdn Bhd Bintulu Port Sdn Bhd Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Deli‐Boyee Sdn Bhd Deli‐Boyee Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Syarikat Borcos Shipping Sdn Bhd Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Bhd Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Jasa Merin (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Jasa Merin (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Syarikat Borcos Shipping Sdn Bhd Royston Cole Marine Sdn Bhd Sarku Resources Sdn Bhd Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd Sealink Sdn Bhd Sealink Sdn Bhd Tidewater Offshore Sdn Bhd GRT DWT NRT LENGTH (L) BREADTH (B) 18.00 99.38 107.00 223.00 994.00 87.67 86.00 75.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 750.00 92.30 0.00 54.15 6.41 66.00 299.00 25.95 14.15 22.00 17.14 22.06 27.08 56.89 18.00 19.82 19.94 22.00 75.00 ‐ ‐ 6.71 6.70 8.60 12.80 6.71 6.52 6.00 DEPTH (D) 2.44 2.90 4.35 4.88 2.44 2.93 2.60 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 19.94 6.00 2.60 1997 663.00 0.00 199.00 39.59 11.60 4.96 1998 8765.00 0.00 21.41 18.30 6.71 2.44 1998 8.27 2.13 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 443.00 443.00 3757.00 493.00 2920.00 45.00 1127.00 7.66 70.81 16.50 18.29 5.18 2024.76 609.00 59.65 15.00 6.80 223.00 353.00 176.00 302.69 77.00 106.00 27.01 34.80 9.00 8.50 4.25 3.80 2000 2000 93.15 90.44 8,671,00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.78 8.42 25.02 17.56 16.00 17.57 7.70 7.62 6.71 2.49 2.44 2.44 2001 2001 2001 353.00 55.55 13.80 5.50 2001 45.31 13.16 34.92 54.69 11.00 4.60 11.40 13.80 3.50 2.30 4.95 5.50 2001 2001 2002 2002 55.55 13.80 5.50 2002 2002 2002 2002 2023.00 339.00 339.00 799.00 1,178.00 ‐ 490.00 33.00 475.00 1,173,00 1382.33 147.00 10.00 143.00 353.00 1,178,00 1382.33 353.00 339.00 339.00 2,83.00 499.00 1,369.00 1,188.00 681.00 1,178,00 580.00 ‐
2,400.00 ‐ ‐ 860.00 ‐
0.00 851.00 61.27 20.00 6.50 149.00 45.31 11.00 3.50 2002 410.00 52.90 13.80 5.50 2002 356.00 204.00 353.00 55.00 45.64 54.69 13.30 11.58 13.80 6.00 4.20 5.50 2002 2002 2003 1075.00 1075.00 3,351.00 1,178.00 846.00 0.00 352.00 889.00 13.80 5.50 2003 68.16 20.00 6.50 2003 696.00 66.04 16.00 6.50 2003 253.00 46.81 13.80 4.50 2003 1,369.00 381.00 2,999.00 492.00 496.00 1,058.00 999.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
2003 55.58 2,977.00 1,005.00 ‐ ‐
‐
575.00 976.00 2000 899.00 147.00 149.00 299.00 75.09 42.74 45.31 56.69 17.25 11.00 11.00 12.19 7.00 3.43 3.50 5.18 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 50
OWNER/OPERATOR 51 Tanjung Jara 52 Armada Tuah 20 Forsayth Offshore Pteltd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd Inai Kiara sdn bhd Epic Industri (M) Sdn Bhd Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd Tidalmarine Engineering Sdn Bhd 53 Inai Lily 1 54 MV Epic Sasa 55 MV Setia Emas 56 Perkasa II Sealink Maju 6/Sealink Maju 7 58 Ajang Safa 59 Armada Tuah 21 57 Sealink Sdn Bhd Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 60 Armada Tuah 22 Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 61 Armada Tugas 3 Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 62 Armada Tugas 4 Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 63 Dayang Pertama Desb Marine Services Sdn Bhd 64 Gulf Fleet No 63 Tidewater Offshore Sdn Bhd 65 Inlet Amble strategy Sdn Bhd 66 Mutiara Lestari Marine Sdn Bhd 67 Palmas Service Jasa Merin (malaysia) Sdn Bhd 68 Permint Aman Jasa Merin (malaysia) Sdn Bhd 69 Ajang Ikhtiar Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd 70 Ajang Indah Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd 71 M.V Tanjung Huma Tanjung Offshore Servies Sdn Bhd 72 MVSetia Fajar Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 73 MV Setia Indah Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 74 MV Setia Lestari Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 75 MV Setia Mega Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 76 MV Setia Nurani Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 77 Permint damai Jasa Merin (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd 78 Sealink Maju 21 Sealink Sdn Bhd 79 Sealink Maju Sealink Sdn Bhd 4/Sealink Maju 5 80 Armada Tuah 23 Bumi armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 81 Bima Lima Sribima (M) Shipping Sdn Bhd 82 M.V. Tanjung Manis Tanjung Offshore Services Sdn Bhd 83 MV Setia Kasturi Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Bhd 84 Sealink Vanessa 4 Sealink Sdn Bhd 85 Armada Tuah 23 Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 86 Armada Tuah 24 Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd 87 Madindra Langkawi Viva Omega Sdn Bhd 88 MV Setia Padu Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 89 MV Setia Rentas Alam Maritim (M) Sdn Vhd 90 Ajang Hikmah Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd 91 Dayang Seri Viva Omega Sdn Bhd 92 Permint Murni Jasa Merin (malaysia) Sdn Bhd 93 JMM Hadhari Jasa Merin (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd 94 JMM Seri Besut Jasa Merin (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd 95 Redang Dickson Marine Co Sdn Bhd LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) GRT DWT NRT 1,495.00 1,333,00 1457.00 399.00 55.54 15.00 0.00 69.00 27.03 8.53 69.00 229.00 964.00 1927.00 DEPTH (D) 5.50 YEAR OF REGISTRY 2003 2004 4.27 2004 2004 2004 254.00 2004 2004 297.00 1,333.00 ‐
1,458.15 89.00 399.00 27.88 55.54 9.50 15.00 3.80 5.50 2004 2004 1.333.00 1,458.15 399.00 55.54 15.00 5.50 2004 149.00 45.31 11.00 3.50 2004 147.00 37.86 11.40 4.93 2004 ‐
1,016.00 69.36 20.00 3,703.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 216.00 241.00 149.00 480.00 51.61 42.04 37.95 56.39 12.19 12.60 11.40 16.00 6.50 4.27 5.30 4.95 5.50 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 499.00 491.00 3,387.00 738.00 1,241.00 1,512.00 722.00 1,210.00 803.00 496.00 1,601.00 ‐ ‐ 1,470.00 1365.00 1470.00 496.00 1523.00 1212.00 0.00 441.00 54.12 14.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 441.00 149.00 441.00 363.00 58.70 37.81 54.11 55.58 14.60 11.40 14.60 13.80 499.00 248.00 0.00 0.00 149.00 76.00 35.01 28.03 399.00 1,333.00 ‐ 243.00 915.00 ‐
1,443.00 496.00 1333.00 ‐
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1333.00 1,356.00 1470.00 1470.00 3,351.00 780.00 1,210.00 1212.00 1212.00 441.00 21,032.64 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
‐ 0.00 0.00 1361.71 0.00 ‐
0.00 11.80 8.60 4.80 4.11 2005 2005 55.54 15.00 5.50 2005 72.00 274.00 36.00 41.36 8.00 12.60 3.30 5.20 2005 2005 431.00 149.00 399.00 54.92 45.31 55.54 13.30 11.00 15.00 6.00 3.50 5.50 2005 2005 2006 399.00 55.54 15.00 5.50 2006 441.00 460.00 1,005.00 54.12 54.12 68.16 14.60 14.60 20.00 363.00 52.30 13.80 5.50 5.50 6.50 5.50 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 ‐
2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 128.00 32.59 10.00 5.50 5.50 4.95 5.50 5.50 2007 4.90 2007 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 51
Table 7 : LNG Registered in Malaysia (1996‐2006) NO SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd DWT 86205 16336 86205 16336 2856 94430 94430 94446 94446 94446 94446 95729 95729 95729 83483 1145252.000 73519 9201 73519 9201 76190 76190 76197 76197 76197 76197 83483 83483 83483 83483 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 25861 263 43 22 4901 125 26 13 25861 263 43 22 4901 125 25 13 28329 266 43 21 28329 266 43 21 28333 268 43 26 28333 268 43 26 28333 268 43 26 28333 268 43 26 28718 272 43 21 28718 272 43 21 28718 272 43 21 28718 272 43 21 NRT YEAR OF REGISTRY 1996 1997 1997 1998 2000 2002 2002 2003 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Puteri Zamrud Aman Sendai Puteri Firus Aman Hakata Armada Puteri Puteri Delima Satu Puteri Intan Satu Puteri Nilam Satu Puteri Firus Satu Puteri Zamrud Satu Puteri Mutiara Satu Seri Alam Seri Amanah Seri Anggun Seri Angkasa GRT MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
52
Table 8 : Tankers Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) 1 Eagle 8 2 3 4 5 6 Eagle Baltimore Eagle Beaumont Eagle Boston Kah Soon Baru 95 Million Line 1 7 MMM Jackson 8 Nepline Delima 9 Nis Hin 96 10 Petro Ranger 11 Seng Seng No 1 12 Suhaila 13 Tung Shing Master 14 Armada Perkasa 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Bunga Kelana Dua Bunga Kelana Satu Bunga Melati Dua Bunga Melati Satu Catherine Domino Eagle Birmingham Eagle Charlotte Eagle Colombus Geruda Satu Gloryang Mandat Bersama Metro One 28 Mewah Jaya 29 MMM Houston 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Princess Amelia Ramai Dua Selendang Mutiara Selendang Permata Venice Bunga Kelana 3 Eagle Albany Eagle Austin Eagle Pneonix Hoe Hup 99 OWNER/OPERATOR Sempurna Bunkering Services(M) Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Lau Ngee Leong Kau Siong Sdn Bhd Pan Malaysian Marine Services Sdn Bhd Nepline Berhad Nishin shipping Sdn Bhd Enerfrate Sdn Bhd Patroleum Master Seng Sdn Bhd Synergy Point Sdn Bhd Petrobiz Sdn Bhd Bumi Armada Navigation Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Kamakura Sdn Bhd SS Shipping Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Geruda Shipping Sdn Bhd Kaikura Services Sdn Bhd Mandat Bersama Sdn Bhd Metro Sedia Transport Sdn Bhd Eusolid Sdn Bhd Malaysian Ocean Line Sdn Bhd SMT Transport Sdn Bhd Chen Yii Shipping Sdn Bhd Wawasan Shipping Sdn Bhd Wawasan Shipping Sdn Bhd Rejang Venice Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Harvesville Sdn Bhd Sri Similaju Corporation Sdn Hoe Hup No 5 Bhd Laju Jaya No 1 Bantumaju Sdn Bhd M T Sun Diamond Sun Up Shipping Co Sdn Bhd Mesra 128 Perkapalan Mesra Sdn Bhd Miri Cheery Semua Shipping Sdn Bhd Nova Nova Adiwarna Sdn Bhd Selendang Gemala Wawasan Shipping Sdn Bhd Selendang Wawasan Shipping Sdn Bhd Kencana Selendang Ratna Wawasan Shipping Sdn Bhd Selendang Sari Wawasan Shipping Sdn Bhd Selendang Tiara Tiara Navigation Sdn Bhd GRT DWT NRT 49.00 57456.00 57456.00 57456.00 5500.00 61.00 0.00 0.00 30.00 29.00 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 28.69 27.90 4409.00 4,629,00 57.00 6,718,00 0.00 33.00 28.97 92.00 659.00 49.00 0.00 21.00 24.02 32665.00 57017.00 57017.00 22254.00 22254.00 140.00 672.00 57456.00 57949.00 57949.00 210.00 270.00 4242.00 217.00 158.00 105400.00 32719.00 105400.00 32719.00 32126.00 8766.00 32126.00 8766.00 0.00 75.00 0.00 313.00 235.81 235.81 168.98 168.98 34.55 57.00 0.00 0.00 101.00 156.00 38.75 40.89 0.00 111.00 34.99 0.00 81.00 33.75 4509.00 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1996 4.60 4.81 1.98 2.17 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 4.53 2.10 1996 1996 1996 4.92 1.53 1996 1996 42.00 42.00 30.00 30.00 6.09 9.20 7.93 7.93 7.96 21.00 21.00 15.20 15.20 2.25 4.00 2.44 2.89 2.86 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 6.80 2.30 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 187.00 214.00 29,965,00 29,965,00 0.00 0.00 46000.00 46000.00 81.00 116.00 12354.00 12354.00 36.07 34.91 176.37 176.37 7.30 7.92 32.26 32.26 2.44 2.58 18.90 18.90 1997 1997 1997 1997 367.00 57017.00 57929.00 58156.00 65346.00 323.00 0.00 176.00 105400.00 32719.00 41.40 235.81 8.54 42.00 7.00 3.66 21.00 3.00 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 14.40 32.26 32.26 6.50 18.90 18.90 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 32.26 32.26 18.90 18.90 1998 1998 1998 206.00 382.00 5340.00 2688.00 1358.00 459.00 29,965,00 29,965,00 29,965,00 29,965,00 39,755,00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
520.00 153.00 44.00 0.00 807.00 87.12 46000.00 46000.00 12272.00 12354.00 176.37 176.37 45363.00 45363.00 11997.00 11997.00 176.37 176.37 1998 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 53
NO 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR Semua Bersatu Sun Diamond Alam Bitara Bunga Kelana 4 Bunga Kelana 5 Bunga Kelana 6 Bunga Melati 3 Bunga Melati 4 Bunga Melati 5 Eagle Anaheim Eagle Atlanta Eagle Augusta Hoe Hup No 7 Jasa Maju 1 Laju Jaya No 2 Linau 45 Sibu Glory Bunga Kenanga Bunga Melati 6 Bunga Melati 7 Central Star 2 Hoe Hup 18 Semua Shipping Sdn Bhd Sun Up Shipping Sdn Bhd Bitara Shipping Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Hoe Hup Seven Sdn Bhd Semua Shipping Sdn Bhd Meroni(buntulu) Sdn Bhd Shin Yang Shipping Sdn Bhd Grolite Shipping Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Mujur Suria Sdn Bhd Holiday Park Sdn Bhd Hoe Hup Six Shipping Sdn Bhd Semua Shipping Sdn Bhd Progresif Cekap Sdn Bhd Shipet Maritime Sdn Bhd Shipet Maritime Sdn Bhd Mohamad Umar Bin Ahmat Bistari Shipping Sdn Bhd Alam Budi Sdn Bhd Oriental Grandeur Marine Sdn Bhd 73 Hoe Hup No 6 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 Jasa Ketiga Penrider Petro Foremost Petro Venture Sejati Alam Bistari Alam Budi 81 Cathay Tk1 5810.00 45513.00 105400.00 105400.00 105400.00 31983.00 31983.00 31983.00 1741.00 11802.00 32719.00 32719.00 32719.00 8678.00 8678.00 8678.00 LENGTH (L) 97.47 173.10 235.81 235.81 235.81 168.98 168.98 168.98 4998.00 1790.00 93.06 ‐
‐
73096.00 31983.00 31983.00 71.00 380.00 20900.00 8678.00 8678.00 31.62 54.37 220.68 168.98 168.98 110.79 32.00 31.71 4999.00 ‐
12632.61 1858.00 341.00 3852.00 95.01 54.78 118.91 ‐
47172.00 47065.00 38.82 12385.00 12385.00 20.15 173.10 173.10 GRT 3,878,00 5,340,00 28932.00 57017.00 57017.00 57017.00 22116.00 22116.00 22116.00 57929.00 57929.00 58156.00 185.00 3166.00 258.00 115.00 673.00 40037.00 22116.00 22116.00 307.00 95.00 DWT 174.00 3321.00 740.00 7,678,00 4,974,00 626.00 28539.00 28539.00 369.00 NRT BREADTH DEPTH (B) (D) 16.50 8.50 32.20 18.80 42.00 21.00 42.00 21.00 42.00 21.00 30.00 15.20 30.00 15.20 30.00 15.20 15.40 7.80 5.80 2.80 11.58 3.65 32.24 20.20 30.00 15.20 30.00 15.20 5.48 2.37 15.60 11.00 21.50 4.88 32.20 32.20 7.80 4.50 11.00 1.83 19.10 19.10 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
54
OWNER/OPERATOR GRT 82 Domino No3 Meroni(buntulu) Sdn Bhd 482.00 Metro Sedia Transport Sdn 83 Metro No 2 497.00 Bhd 84 Sutra Dua Sutrajaya Shipping Sdn Bhd 4,521,00 85 Tuba No 5 Marine Teamwork Sdn Bhd 140.00 86 Wec 9 WEC Transport Service Sdn 927.00 Bhd 87 Danum Yayasan Sabah Dua 4792.00 Shipping Sdn Bhd 88 Eagle Tacoma MISC Bhd 58166.00 89 Eagle Vermont MISC Bhd 161223.00 90 Eagle Virginia MISC Bhd 161233.00 91 Oriental Glory Glow Quest Sdn Bhd 1,824,00 92 Samudra Dua Prosperline Shipping Sdn 276.00 Bhd 93 Ajang Medina Ajang Shipping Sdn Bhd 487.00 94 Atlantic Ocean Special Pyramid Sdn Bhd 1992.00 95 Bunga kasturi MISC Bhd 156967.00 96 Eagle Tampa MISC Bhd 58166.00 97 Eagle Toledo MISC Bhd 58166.00 98 Eagle Trenton MISC Bhd 58166.00 99 Eagle Tucson MISC Bhd 58166.00 100 Jasa Maju 2 Semado Maritim Sdn Bhd 4999.00 101 Kelisa BHL Marine(M) Sdn Bhd 294.00 102 Lynn Lau Hue Kuok & Sons Sdn 204.00 Bhd Azam Fowarding & Trading 103 Senawang 3,120,00 Sdn Bhd 104 Sutra Empat Sutrajaya Shipping Sdn Bhd 4,599,00 105 Tuah Sejagat Victory Supply Sdn Bhd 198.00 106 Bunga Kelana 10 MISC Bhd 58194.00 107 Bunga Kelana 7 MISC Bhd 58194.00 108 Bunga Kelana 8 MISC Bhd 58194.00 109 Bunga Kelana 9 MISC Bhd 58194.00 110 Eagle Vienna MISC Bhd 161233.00 111 Gagasan Melaka Gagasan Carriers Sdn Bhd 4464.00 112 Hailam Satu Zengo Marine Sdn Bhd 166.00 113 Maritime Kelly Wawasan Shipping Sdn 29211.00 Anne Bhd 114 Maritime Tuntiga Wawasan Shipping Sdn 29211.00 Bhd 115 Mewah Sejati Victory Supply Sdn Bhd 480.00 Malaysian Merchant 116 MMM Ashton 2479.00 Marine Bhd 117 Tuah Kuatan Victory Supply Sdn Bhd 195.00 118 Bunga Kasturi MISC Bhd 157098.00 Dua 119 Eagle Valencia MISC Bhd 160046.00 120 Eagle Venice MISC Bhd 160046.00 Wawasan Shipping Sdn 121 Maritime North 29174.00 Bhd 122 Bunga Kasturi MISC Bhd 157300.00 Tiga 123 Bunga Kasturi MISC Bhd 157300.00 Empat 124 Sealink Pacific Sealink Sdn Bhd 6,638,00 330 Sealink Pacific 125 Sealink Sdn Bhd 4,598,00 389 1281377.00 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
DWT NRT 772.00 201.00 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 42.73 12.20 3.05 YEAR OF REGISTRY 2001 2001 573.00 68.12 11.00 2430.00 103.06 18.20 8.95 2002 730.00 129.00 79.60 38.16 13.40 9.22 6.80 2.60 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 ‐
147.00 42.86 299999.00 99493.00 317.69 301.00 90.00 112.00 37.70 39.29 10.50 60.00 7.50 7.34 3.20 29.70 3.60 2.76 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 3.50 21.30 21.30 21.30 21.30 8.80 18.70 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 ‐ 7959.00 2997.83 ‐ ‐ 5.00 2001 2001 2001 2003 537.95 105173.00 105173.00 105173.00 105173.00 155.00 31243.00 31243.00 31243.00 31243.00 41.47 234.88 234.88 234.88 234.88 7744.27 2450.00 99.00 44488.00 11658.00 173.40 8.00 42.00 42.00 42.00 42.00 18.20 32.20 44488.00 11658.00 173.40 32.20 18.70 2004 1000.00 314.00 57.00 10.00 4.50 2004 60.00 29.70 2004 2005 58.00 28.55 2005 2005 298100.00 99808.00 317.69 306997.70 109299.00 318.40 2004 2005 300325.00 99363.00 316.00 60.00 29.70 2006 300325.00 99363.00 317.69 60.00 29.70 2006 1991.00 96.62 34.00 7.31 2006 ‐ 2006 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 55
Table 9 : Bulk Carrier Registered in Malaysia (1996‐2006) NO SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR 18,507.00 DWT NRT 28,260.00 259.00 12,859.00 76,515.00 15,847.00 28,097.00 18,507.00 28,097.00 39,755.00 47,290.00 28,260.00 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH YEAR OF (L) (B) (D) REGISTRY 165.92 26.02 14.20 1996 1997 181.10 165.92 31.00 26.00 16.60 14.00 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 16,311.00 27,272.00 162.77 26.60 13.50 1998 38972.00 27306.00 17,265.00 17,264.00 15,833.00 16,041.00 15,888.00 15,888.00 15,880.00 16,041.00 16,041.00 16,041.00 16,041.00 27986.00 27986.00 555,227.00 73127.00 47301.00 218.70 182.11 32.25 31.00 19.00 16.70 1999 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
1 Selendang Mayang Mayang Navigation Sdn Bhd 2 United Orix Leasing Malaysia Cathay 12 Berhad 3 Eco Champion Ecochamp Shipping Sdn Bhd 4 MMM Diana Ample Remark Sdn Bhd 5 Nerano PNSL Berhad 6 Selendang Intan Intan Navigation Sdn Bhd 7 Selendang Kasa Kasa Navigation Sdn Bhd 8 Selendang Nilam Nilam Navigation Sdn Bhd 9 Selendang Ayu Ayu Navigation Sdn Bhd 10 Palmbase Maritime (M) Sdn Seri Ibonda Bhd 11 Bunga Saga 9 MISC Bhd 12 Alam Aman II Katella Sdn Bhd 13 Eco Vigour Vigour Shipping Sdn Bhd 14 Eco Vision Vision Shipping Sdn Bhd 15 Handy Islander MISC Bhd 16 Pacific Selesa MISC Bhd 17 Sea Maestro MISC Bhd 18 Sea Maiden MISC Bhd 19 Gangga Negara MISC Bhd 20 Handy Gunner MISC Bhd 21 Handy Roseland MISC Bhd 22 Marquisa MISC Bhd 23 Pacific Mattsu MISC Bhd 24 Alam Maju MBC Maju Sdn Bhd 25 Alam Mutiara MBC Mutiara Sdn Bhd GRT MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
56
Table 10: Passenger Ship Registered in Malaysia(1996‐2006) 1 2 3 4 5 Bahagia Baru 96 Ban Hock Soon Bobo Campur Campur Duta Pangkor 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Flying Eagle Husqvarna Sarawak King Soon Balleh 96 Layang Indah Pertama Speed Sing Ann Lai 2020 Srijaya Supersonic No 5 Tinjar No 3 Tuto Express No 10 Tuto No 12 Usahasama Vision 2005 19 20 21 22 Vovo Express Wahwah Speed Zon 1 Zon 2 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Asean 97 Bahagia 2020 Bahagia No 1 Begawan Laju Benuong Beruit No 1 Champur Baru Ekspres Bahagia II 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Good Success 818 Hocksoon Hope King 168 Husqvarna Kita Impian 2 Impian 3 Kawan Express No 1 Lambaian 1 Laris Maju Balleh Nurshah Zamboanga 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Pan Silver 1 Pertama Voyage Pioneer 97 Public Express No 11 Punan Rajah Rasa Sayang 1 Tinjar No 2 Tung Kiong No 7 Wanlee No 1 OWNER/OPERATOR GRT Trillion Leader Sdn Bhd Ling Heng Ang Chiong Wee Kiong Sunrise Entity Sdn Bhd Pangkor‐Lumut Ekspres Feri Sdn Bhd Ling Kong Mou Hock Ghim Enterprise Sdn Bhd Hu Moi Ngiok Sealink Sdn Bhd Ling Kui Sunn Tan Jiak Kean Wong Lang Kiew Law Yong Keng Huong Tuong Siew Tuto Express Shipping Sdn Bhd Tuto Express Shipping Sdn Bhd Syarikat Feri Usahasama Sdn Bhd Miri River Travel Enterprise Sdn Bhd Chiong Chung Hong Swegim Enterprise Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Langkawi Saga Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd Peter Lau Hieng Wung Lim Kuok Chuong Ekspres Bahagia Sdn Bhd Lau Oi Phen Shorewell Shipping Sdn Bhd Kong Kim Sien Debon Enterprise Sdn Bhd Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Thang Nam Hoi Wong Lang Kiew Hock Ghim Enterprise Sdn Bhd Swegim Enterprise Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Kawan Laut Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Rohana Binti Hujil Ting Chuo Won Penang Shipbuilding Corporation Sdn Bhd Pan Silver Ferry Sdn Bhd Ong Bon Chong Kong Shaw Hock Law Yong Keng Tukang Ak Pichang Sanergy Marine Sdn Bhd Mrhuong Tuong Kee Tan Jiak Kean Standrich Sdn Bhd 68 31 31 95 107 44 76 55 95 27 59 44 59 31 26 27 111.69 19 31 34 178.27 178.27 35 60 82 33 198 35 107 178 56 43 61 60 118 60 315 118 41 42 78 56 42 57 30 33 142 29 28 77 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
DWT NRT LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 36.71 3.95 1.83 36.78 4.35 2.1 24.12 19.1 53.17 21.96 33.94 20.4 46.58 40.4 18.69 30.26 35.47 36.04 28.25 24.05 41.7 28.25 34.5 23.06 37.65 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 5.94 9.14 2.84 2.35 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 8.4 2.5 1996 1996 1996 1996 3.23 9.8 5.33 1.74 2.45 2.17 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 3.3 3.21 5.5 5.5 6.1 5.5 3.68 1.71 1.67 3.2 2.1 1.9 3.2 2 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 8.17 3.68 2.15 1.64 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 57
NO SHIP NAME OWNER/OPERATOR 51 52 53 54 Bobo 6 Bon Voyage Concorde 98 Ekspres Bahagia 5 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 Hubungan 1 Kudat Express Lambaian 3 Leisure World 1 Pan Silver 2 Pan Silver 3 Penaga Pertama Rejang Pintas Samudra 2 Salbiah Dua Seagull Express 3 66 67 68 69 70 Tomcat Tomcat 2 Yanmarline Express Angel Ekspress Ekspres Bahagia III Chiong Wee Luk Ling Siew Sung Yong Hie Sieng Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Sun Power Ferry Sdn Bhd Wong Leong Kee & Son Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Luxury Solution Sdn Bhd Pan Silver Ferry Sdn Bhd Pan Silver Ferry Sdn Bhd Penang Port Sdn Bhd Chua Chun Keong Yong Choo Kui Shipyard Sdn Bhd Yiing Hee Ing @ Yung Hee Ing Sea‐Gull Express & Accommodation Sdn Bhd Eksklusif Anggun Sdn Bhd Eksklusif Anggun Sdn Bhd Yanmarline Express Sdn Bhd Rowvest Sdn Bhd Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Fast Ferry Ventures Sdn Bhd Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Belait Shipping Co Sdn Bhd Damai Ferry Service Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Eksklusif Anggun Sdn Bhd Sunrise Energy Sdn Bhd Fast Ferry Ventures Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Chiong Wee Yiing Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Superstar Express Sdn Bhd Syarikat Lista Sdn Bhd Sun Power Ferry Sdn Bhd Superstar Express Sdn Bhd 71 Ekspres Bahagia 6 72 Ekspres Bahagia 8 Feri Wawasan Indomal Express 88 Kenangan 1 Kenangan 2 Kenangan 3 Pelican Weesam Express 5 Alaf Baru 1 Alaf Baru 2 Bo Bo No 2 Ekspres Bahagia 9 84 85 86 87 Jupiter Labuan Express Lima Marine Star 3 Mars DWT 33 28 45 35 82 116 118 4,077 60 60 279 35 136 33 121 41 48 73 111 135 NRT LENGTH BREADTH (L) (B) 26.09 3.41 21.7 34.5 35.48 29.2 4.75 13.56 15.3 36.15 34.04 36.07 92 97 445 90.06 81 144 156 41.39 231 118.71 115 33 111 183 179 82 183 17.22 21.12 24.4 28 29.7 37.4 21.27 29.7 37.72 28.71 29.7 DEPTH (D) 1.24 YEAR OF REGISTRY 1998 1998 1998 1998 4.8 4.12 4.52 4.87 1.9 1.6 2.1 2.8 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 5.7 5.7 3.63 4.12 1.85 1.85 1.9 1.45 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 4.62 5.8 6.25 5.5 5.3 1.95 1.9 1.65 1.85 1.4 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 6.4 4.72 3.66 6.4 2.2 2.05 1.6 2.2 2000 2000 2000 2000 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 GRT MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
58
OWNER/OPERATOR 88 New Frontier Express No 2 89 Pan Silver 5 90 Pluto 91 Putai Jaya 92 Zuhairi 93 Bahagia 2002 94 Bo Bo No 5 95 Cinta Baru 96 Ekspres Bahagia 10 Ling Heng Seek 97 98 99 100 101 Fortune Express 1 Fortune Express 2 Jaya Express Kenangan 6 Langkawi Coral 2 102 Langkawi Coral 3 103 104 105 106 107 108 New Frontiers No 3 Puteri Jentayu RS Express Sejahtera Pertama Sofu Rasa Sayang Soon Hua Hong 109 110 111 112 113 Tawindo No 1 Yieng Hee No 1 Yieng Hee No 2 Yieng Lee No 1 Coral Island 1 114 Ekspres Bahagia 7 115 Excel Express 1 116 Malaysia Express 1 117 118 119 120 Mas Indera Kayangan Mid‐East Express No 1 New Frontiers No 5 Alaf Baru 3 Pan Silver Ferry Sdn Bhd Superstar Express Sdn Bhd Ting Chuo Won Capital Surge Sdn Bhd Lim Kuok Chuong Chiong Wee Yiing Kong Kim Sien Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Jferry Services Sdn Bhd Jferry Services Sdn Bhd Ting Chu Kee Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd Langkawi Saga Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd Langkawi Saga Travel & Tours Sdn Bhd Sunrise Entity Sdn Bhd Salang Indah Resorts Sdn Bhd Yong Choo Kui Jetacorp Sdn Bhd Lee In Jee Soon Hua Hong Enterprise Sdn Bhd Osin Motor Sdn Bhd Tiong Chiong Ming Tiong Chiong Ming Tiong Chiong Ming Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd Tunas Rupat Follow Me Express Sdn Bhd Masindra Shipping (M) Sdn Bhd Mid‐East Transport Sdn Bhd Sunrise Entity Sdn Bhd Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd GRT DWT NRT 87 120 183 56 119.92 51 33 36 91 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH (L) (B) (D) 32.97 3.66 1.34 36.8 29.7 YEAR OF REGISTRY 2000 4.95 6.4 8.3 2.13 2.2 2.85 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 4.12 6.8 6.8 2.13 1.43 1.65 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 53.42 2001 99 74 200 99 51.09 298 5 2.04 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 7.95 3 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 43.82 2002 99 2002 7 3.5 2002 4.22 1.5 2002 2002 2002 2003 99 99 30 170 175 94 29 26 29 332 33.37 29.3 28.85 37.26 35.1 194 1,065 119 99 123.25 MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
23.4 32.5 34.8 | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
NO SHIP NAME 59
NO
SHIP NAME
OWNER/OPERATOR
GRT
DWT
NRT
LENGTH
(L)
BREADTH
(B)
DEPTH
(D)
YEAR OF
REGISTRY
121
Alaf Baru 6
Langkawi Ferry Services Sdn Bhd
123.25
2003
122
Asian Vision
Sri Jaya Shipping Sdn Bhd
42
2003
123
Bahagia 20
Bahagia 2020 Sdn Bhd
56
2003
124
Bahagia No 8
Ekspres Bahagia Sdn Bhd
132
2003
125
Duta Pangkor 1
Pangkor-Lumut Ekspres Feri Sdn Bhd
149
2003
126
Duta Pangkor 2
Pangkor-Lumut Ekspres Feri Sdn Bhd
79
2003
127
Duta Pangkor 3
Pangkor-Lumut Ekspres Feri Sdn Bhd
79
2003
128
Ekspres Nusa Satu
Nusantara Ferry Services Sdn Bhd
106
2003
129
Excel Express 2
Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd
132
2003
130
Excel Express 3
Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd
132
2003
131
Kapit Boleh 168
Swegim Enterprise Sdn Bhd
52
132
Labuan Express Enam
Double Power Sdn Bhd
144
39
4.2
2.3
2003
133
Labuan Express Tujuh
Hwong Lee (M) Sdn Bhd
158
35.8
4.42
1.86
2003
134
Labuan Express Lapan
Hwong Lee (M) Sdn Bhd
99
135
Mid-East Express No 2
Mid-East Transport Sdn Bhd
126
136
Nasuha
Capital Surge Sdn Bhd
137
New Frontiers No 6
Sunrise Entity Sdn Bhd
119
2003
138
Pulau Payar
Penang Port Sdn Bhd
16.47
2003
139
Pulau Pinang
Penang Port Sdn Bhd
16.47
140
Sarawak Boleh 168
Swegim Enterprise Sdn Bhd
87
141
Tawindo No 2
Osin Motor Sdn Bhd
116
2003
142
Tawindo No 3
Osin Motor Sdn Bhd
143
2003
143
Weesam Express 6
Yong Choo Kui Shipyard Sdn Bhd
215
2003
144
Achilles 2
Yong Choo Kui Shipyard Sdn Bhd
63
2004
145
Bo Bo Satu
Chiong Chung Heng
42
146
Coral Island 3
Ekspres Bahagia (Langkawi) Sdn Bhd
133
147
Duta Pangkor 5
Pangkor-Lumut Ekspres Feri Sdn Bhd
124
2004
148
Khai Kiong Express
Sim Meng Hiang
36
2004
149
Lady Yasmin
Yasmin Marine Technology Sdn Bhd
21.94
2004
150
Pintas Samudera 8
Inmiss Shipping Sdn Bhd
92
151
Sejahtera 2
Jetacorp Sdn Bhd
187
152
Sejahtera 3
Jetacorp Sdn Bhd
153
Wawasan Perdana
Labuan Ferry Corporation Sdn Bhd
154
Sri Labuan Lima
Trans-Link Sdn Bhd
119.92
2003
2003
2003
23.4
8.3
2.85
2003
32.94
3.91
1.85
2003
2004
36.74
4.28
1.5
2004
2004
37.7
4.76
1.5
161
2004
2004
1,101
137
2003
2004
36.76
4.28
1.5
20706.94
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MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
60
Table 11: Container Ships Registered in Malaysia (1996‐ 2006) OWNER/OPERATOR 1 Balt Harmoni 2 Able Helmsman 3 Budi Aman 4 Budi Teguh 5 Bunga Mas Lima 6 Bunga Mas Enam 7 Bunga Mas Tujuh 8 Bunga Mas Lapan 9 Bunga Mas 9 10 Bunga mas 10 11 Bougainvilla Balt Orient Lines Sdn Bhd Tauladan Gigih Budi Sukma Aman Sdn Bhd Budi Sukma Teguh Sdn Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd MISC Bhd Chatlink Sdn Bhd GRT 14,135.00 4,337.00 11,982.00 11,982.00 8,957.00 8,957.00 8,957.00 8,957.00 9,380.00 9,380.00 4,226.00 DWT NRT 6,596.00 8,775.00 12,550.00 5,788.00 LENGTH BREADTH DEPTH YEAR OF (L) (B) (D) REGISTRY 1996
98.00 16.50 8.40 1997
1997
1997
121.26 22.70 10.80 1997
1997
1997
1998
134.00 22.00 11.00 1998
1998 99.99 16.00 8.45 1999
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NO SHIP NAME MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
61
Feature Article 4
FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE USAGE OF PALM OIL AS ALTERNATIVE NON PETROLEUM‐BASED HYDRAULIC FLUID IN MARINE APPLICATION AZRI HAMIM AB ADZIS* Department of Advance Science & Advance Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 21 May 2010; Revised: 9 July 2010 ; Accepted: 13 July 2010 ABSTRACT Most hydraulic applications on land or sea utilize petroleum‐based hydraulic fluid as the working fluid. Fluid leakages are quite common and in marine application fluid are easily leaked into sea water causing pollutions. An alternative hydraulic fluid with similar properties as petroleum‐based fluids at lower cost is required to be used in marine applications to mini‐
mize impact on the environment. Water‐based or synthetic fluids such as water‐glycol, phosphate ether and synthetic esters are expensive and have certain disadvantages compared with petroleum‐based fluid such as relatively low operat‐
ing temperature, viscosity changes with temperature fluctuation and corrosive against rubber seal. An alternative fluid may inhibit some of the above weaknesses but can be acceptable if the cost is lower. The purpose of this case study is to determine the suitability of palm oil mixture as hydraulic fluid with similar capabilities with petroleum based fluid. (Data on palm oil properties are to be obtained from literature research and a comparison with petroleum based fluid will be made). Suitability will be determined from the fluids’ suitability to maintain viscosity at very high pressure and varying temperature and also its impact on the environment. Further research on palm oil characteristic in high pressure pumps and hydraulic equipments compatibility is needed. Keyword: Hydraulics fluid, palm oil, marine, alternative Hydraulics always leaks! It may sound like a catchy commercial but most hydraulic users will testify on the truthfulness of the state‐
ment. As the most common hydraulic fluid base is mineral oil or petroleum based oil, any leakage can be considered as a potential envi‐
ronmental disaster related to petroleum products. These petroleum products and other additive in the hydraulic fluids can harm the marine life and wreck havoc to the eco‐
system. Experience from past incidents of petroleum spills shows that irreparable harm to the environment as seen in the Exxon Val‐
dez oil spill where thousands of marine ani‐
mals were killed [1]. While a disaster of such magnitude may not be a suitable comparison *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909055 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
with leaks of hydraulics fluids, the fact re‐
mains that petroleum byproducts are harmful to the environment. The problems with petroleum based hydraulic fluids are the non‐biodegradability of the fluid and the harmful effect it has on the environ‐
ments. Any spills can kill of marine life or con‐
taminate the environments making the spillage site to be inhabitable for a long period. Additionally, the toxicity of most hydraulic fluid additives and the occupational health and safety issue, lead to an environmentally safer alternative of petroleum based fluids in environmental sensitive areas. The New York State Department of Environ‐
mental Conservation, NYSDEC, legally required the reporting of any petroleum products spill‐
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
1. INTRODUCTION 62
In order to make a hydraulic fluid to be safer for the environment the hydraulic fluid must be read‐
ily biodegradable or in other word the fluid must be able to be completely converted to carbon dioxide and water quickly and naturally by diges‐
tion or consumption process by naturally occur‐
ring organism in water, oil and soil systems [2]. Any spillage can then be cleaned up normally without the added cost of hazardous material handlings. To obtain the biodegradable features, previous researches has lead to the application of synthetic base fluid such as synthetic esters and polyglycols (organophosphate and polyalphaolefin). These synthetics base fluids were developed mainly for high temperature and/or fire risk operations and are able to biodegrade easily compared to petro‐
leum based fluids [3]. The synthetics based fluids perform better compared to petroleum based fluids in term of viscosity at low and high tem‐
peratures, volatility, pour point, wear protections and oxidations [3]. However, synthetic esters are expensive to produce and even for their superior lubrication performance, the high costs limit its usage. Polyglycols are less costly but can be quite toxic to living organisms especially when mixed with lubricating additives [3,4]. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Thus, a cheaper non toxic alternative to be used is vegetable oil as the base oil for hydraulic fluids. Among vegetable oils which has been researched and developed as hydraulic fluids are the canola oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil and palm oil. Properties of Hydraulic Fluid Primary purpose of hydraulic fluids is to maintain lubrication and fluid characteristics while in use within the system so as to maintain appropriate pressure to operate hydraulic actuators (cylinders and motors) assemblies in machineries on demand. An ideal hydraulic fluid will have the following char‐
acteristics [3, 5,6]: 1. Constants viscosity at all temperature range 2. High anti‐wear characteristics 3. Thermal stability 4. Hydrolytic stability 5. Low chemical corrosiveness 6. Low cavitation tendencies 7. Long life 8. Fire resistance 9. Readily biodegradable 10. Low toxicity 11. Low cost Viscosity For hydraulic fluids, the temperature effect on viscosity is very important. A good fluid can main‐
tain a minimum required viscosity at high operat‐
ing temperature yet does not become too viscous at lower temperature. Too much viscosity may result in difficulty for the fluid to transmit hydrau‐
lic power at low temperature especially at system start. Anti Wear The ability of the fluid to coat moving metal parts with a thin protective oil film. The oil film will re‐
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
age and appropriate steps must be taken to con‐
tain the spillage from polluting soils or under‐
ground water sources. The seriousness of the regulation can be demonstrated by a spill incident at a site own by the Brookhaven National Labora‐
tory (BNL) in New York. A ruptured hydraulic hose has resulted in the removal of 50 cubic yards of contaminated soil and disposed as toxic material. This incident has led BNL to adopt the usage of environmentally safer hydraulic fluid based from canola oil [2]. 63
Most common anti wear additive for petroleum based fluid is the zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP) which is a highly toxic substance. As it is soluble in water, its introduction to marine environment can be hazardous. Corrosion A good hydraulic fluid has good hydrolytic stabil‐
ity i.e. able to prevent any water which may enter the fluid from causing rust to metal. Usually, a rust inhibitor is added to the fluid to obtain good rust protection. Oxidation The presence of water and oxygen (air) in the fluid may cause fluids to oxidize and further in‐
crease the chance of rust formation. Oxidize fluid will also cause chemical corrosions due to in‐
crease in acidity. Flammability A high flash point (the maximum temperature before ignition) is necessary for hydraulic fluid as most fluid works at high temperatures. Petro‐
leum based fluid have a relatively high flash point of around 150oC. For extreme environ‐
ments, a fire resistant fluid is required to prevent accidental ignitions. Effect of Mineral Based Fluid on Marine Environ‐
ment Hydraulic fluids can enter the environment from spills and leaks in machines and from leaky storage tanks. When these fluids spilled on soil, some of the ingredients in the hydraulic fluids mixture may stay on the top, while others may sink into the groundwater. In water, some in‐
gredients of hydraulic fluids will transfer to the MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
bottom and stay there. Marine organism that live near spillage area may ingest some hydrau‐
lic fluid ingredients. Some organism may die from the poisoning and some will have traces of the hydraulic fluid in their system causing defor‐
mations or poisoning the upper food chains. Eventually, the hydraulic fluids will degrade in the environment, but complete degradation may take more than a year and continue to af‐
fect living organism during the degradation process [7]. Prolong contact with human can increase cancer risk especially on skin [8]. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78) forbid the discharge of oily waste to the sea which cover all petroleum products in any forms [9]. Vegetable‐based Fluid In order to be accepted as a fluid of choice for hydraulic application, vegetable based fluid must have similar characteristics as the commonly used petroleum based hydraulic fluid. As men‐
tioned earlier, the purpose of the hydraulic fluids is to maintain appropriate pressure to operate actuators and at the same time lubricate and protect moving mechanical parts from wear and corrosion. To maintain the pressure, the fluids are constantly pumped thus creating a built up of heat, subjecting the fluid to temperature variations and also constant mechanical stresses [4]. Vegetable oil provides better anti‐wear perform‐
ance and generally exhibit lower friction coeffi‐
cient and are easily biodegradable. These prop‐
erties are due to the composition of the oils which contain unsaturated hydrocarbons and naturally occurring esters. The problems are that there are prone to oxidize rapidly, changes in viscosity at the lower and upper temperature range and low water resistance. Vegetable es‐
ters oils based on polyunsaturated fatty acid | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
duce wear due to metal‐to‐metal contact thus prolonging the life of the equipments. Most hy‐
draulic fluids have anti‐wear additive added to it to obtain anti wear properties. 64
Oxidative stability is dependant on the predomi‐
nant fatty acids present in the vegetable oil. Oils containing mostly saturated fatty acids will have good oxidative stability compared to a vegetable oil containing oleic acid or other monounsatu‐
rated fatty acids. Oils that contain mostly poly‐
unsaturated fatty acids exhibit poor oxidative stability [8]. In other words, the oxidative stabil‐
ity is inversely proportional to the degree of un‐
saturation. The three most cultivated vegetable oils, the palm oil, soybean oil, and the rapeseed oil consist mainly of monounsaturated and poly‐
unsaturated fatty acids. These lead to a general consensus of vegetable oils poor oxidative stabil‐
ity compared with petroleum based oil and also MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
the fully saturated synthetics such as synthetic esters, organophosphate and polyalphaolefin (PAOs) [8]. So as to provide for comparable per‐
formance, vegetable oils formulations generally require higher doses of antioxidants [6]. Due to the oxidative instability of these major vegetable oils, vegetable oils with high saturated acids is to be used due to the high solidification points. On the positive side, vegetable oils offer excel‐
lent lubricity and have a high intrinsic viscosity and extreme‐pressure properties. Well‐
formulated vegetable oil‐based hydraulic fluids can pass the demanding Vickers 35VQ25 or Deni‐
son T5D‐42 vane pump wear tests. Vegetable oil can perform satisfactorily for years under mild climate and operating conditions, provided the oil are kept free of water contamination [10]. Klein et al suggested that vegetable oil used as hydraulic fluid base oil can exhibit better low‐
temperature stability without the need for the addition of pour point depressant or synthetic esters by adding ethylene oxide and/or propyl‐
ene oxide into the base oil. Among the base oil tested for this process are the coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil, cotton oil, soy‐
bean oil, sunflower oil and rapeseed oil. The resultant mixture produced ethoxylated and/or propoxylated base oil has been proven to have better pour point characteristic. This develop‐
ment can result in inexpensive base oil for hy‐
draulic fluid as fewer additives are needed to make the fluid suitable for hydraulics applica‐
tions [7]. Aside from chemical processes to increase the sta‐
bility of the vegetable oils, there is an alternative method where genetic modifications is employ on oil producing crops. Recent advances in genetic | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
tends to oxidize rapidly, even at a moderately increased operating temperature. As the tem‐
perature increases, the oils thicken due to its tendency to enter into viscosity‐increasing reac‐
tions in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. Similar reaction occurs when the temperature drops as the oil will begin to solidify. Rapeseed oil, corn oil, and sunflower oil have a solidifica‐
tion point of ‐16oC, ‐20oC and ‐17oC respectively [4, 7, 10]. Palm oil is even worst, solidifying at a relatively high temperature of 34.1oC [11]. Even as the temperatures drop and approaching the solidification temperatures, the oils will experi‐
enced a marked increase in viscosity and may cause problem in cold weather [8]. These prob‐
lems however can be easily fixed by mixing the vegetable oil with synthetic esters and/or by adding additives to improve its anti oxidant and pour point properties [7]. While the cost of syn‐
thetic ester is very high, by mixing it with vegeta‐
ble oil base will bring the total cost of the base oil down compared to a fully synthetic solution. New antioxidants that are suitable for vegetable oil yet harmless to the environment are also needed as current antioxidants are designed for mineral oils and some are quite toxic. 65
engineering and hybrid breeding technology have made it possible to alter the physical prop‐
erties of vegetable oils by changing their fatty acid profiles. This has allowed an improvement of the oxidation stability by increasing the oleic content of the oil. The resulting high oleic base stock oils with additional antioxidants have been shown to be as good as or better than petroleum oils in oxidation stability trials [10]. Examples of the usage of vegetable oil based hydraulic fluids are the Sawfish logging robot deployed by the Triton Logging, a Canadian company, in Lois Lake, British Columbia. The underwater robot harvested submerged trees using a hydraulic grappling pincer and electric chain saw. The hydraulic grappler is powered with vegetable oil instead of petroleum based or synthetic based hydraulic fluids. The com‐
pany aim is to harvest the dead but well pre‐
served submerged forest thus eliminating the need to cut down living trees onshore and at the same time did not pollute the aquatic envi‐
ronment of the lake [12]. imports and transportation. Further with the region own petroleum reserves especially in Ma‐
laysia, it is more economic to continue using pe‐
troleum based hydraulic fluids rather than im‐
porting the bio fluids from overseas. As one of the world top vegetable oil, palm oil can be a possible choice for further development as a base oil for hydraulic fluids especially since palm oil can be found in abundance in Malaysia. Palm oil contains over 40% oleic acid and around 35% palmitic acid. Almost 60% of fatty acids of the oil are unsaturated while stearic, palmitic and myristic are saturated [13]. The suitability of palm oil as hydraulic fluid base oil is compared with other vegetable oil through the melting point and iodine values as shown in table 1 be‐
low. Many research and developments of hydraulic fluids made from vegetable oils has been done in Europe and the United States focusing on rape‐
seed, soybean and canola oils by various inde‐
pendence and government sponsored laborato‐
ries such as the New York’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, Albuquerque’s Sandia National Labo‐
ratory and the University of Iowa as early as 1991 [2,6]. These researches and the subsequent commercial products show that rapeseed and soybeans oils are suitable for hydraulic fluids base oils and with its additives, able to perform almost equally with petroleum based and syn‐
thetic fluids. However, these oils are sources and processes in Europe or the United States and to utilize these environmentally friendly oils in the South East Asia region will be costly in term of MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Feasibility of Palm‐Oil Based Fluid Table 1: Common vegetable oil melting points and iodine values [11] The iodine value is a measure of unsaturation of vegetable oil. The saturated property of the oil imparts a strong resistance to oxidative rancid‐
ity. Thus the thermal and oxidative of the oil can be improved if the oil has lower iodine value. A high iodine value indicates that the oil needs to be mix with ethylene oxide and/or propylene 66
Researchers from Universiti Malaysia Tereng‐
ganu have experimented crude palm oil mixed with Irgalube 343 additive for a hydraulic test rig using the mixed fluid to actuate hydraulics linear and rotary cylinders. It is reported that after more than 100 hours of continuous testing, the fluid mixture demonstrate an increased of vis‐
cosity. Obviously, further experiments with other types of additives are necessary to obtain palm oil mixture which is capable to sustain its viscosity after hours of usage [13]. Another palm oil based hydraulic fluid research was done by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) under the Ministry of Plantation Indus‐
tries and Commodities. The result was a success‐
ful production of a hydraulic fluid with viscosity grade ISO 46 with good viscosity index and mod‐
erately low pour point. The properties of the palm based hydraulic fluid developed by MPOB compared with typical petroleum based fluid are given in table 2 [14] . MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Table 2: Properties of the MPOB Palm Based Hydraulic Fluid, Hy‐Gard Petroleum Based Fluid and AMSOIL Synthetics [14] Based from the researches of MPOB, palm oil based hydraulic fluid is reported feasible espe‐
cially for use in temperate climate i.e. in tropical countries. Comparing palm oil based hydraulic fluid with petroleum based hydraulic fluid and AMSOIL synthetic esters hydraulic fluid for com‐
mon hydraulic applications, palm based fluid have similar properties except for its low pour point. Conclusion The feasibility of using vegetable oil based hy‐
draulic fluids has already been proven with the development and commercial availability of rapeseed oil and soybean oil based hydraulic fluids in Europe and the United State. Comparing the properties of raw, unprocessed palm oil with other major vegetable oil indicates the possibil‐
ity of utilizing palm oil as base oil for hydraulics fluid for temperate climate due to the high melt‐
ing point and pour point of palm oil compared with other vegetable oils (rapeseed, canola, soy‐
beans etc). Several researches has been done by Malaysian researchers on the palm based hy‐
draulic fluid and its suitable additive. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
oxide or other anti‐oxidant additives [8]. The melting point indicates at which temperature the oil will start to solidify thus making it useless as hydraulic fluid base oil. A high melting point will require the oil to be treated with more addi‐
tives to reduce its melting point to practical val‐
ues. Table 1 showed that the palm kernel oil and palm oil have relatively low iodine values com‐
pared to other vegetable oils. This indicates that palm kernel oil and palm oil have better anti‐
oxidant properties compared to rapeseed oil and soybean oil hence require less anti‐oxidant addi‐
tive. The downside is that the melting points are relatively high at 24oC for the kernel oil and 35oC for the palm oil. More additives are required to bring down the melting points of palm oils to be comparable with rapeseed oil and soybean oil. 67
The technology to produce hydraulic fluid from palm oil is already available. What is needed is the capability to manufacture the fluid in size‐
able quantities at an acceptable cost to pro‐
mote usage especially in the maritime field. Fur‐
ther step to be taken is the will of the Malaysian government to regulate the usage of environ‐
mentally unsafe hydraulic fluids in Malaysian waters. Legislation has played a major role in Europe in promoting vegetable oil based fluid in high risk area. Germany for example mandated the use of environmentally friendly fluid in its waterways by prohibiting the use of petroleum based fluid on its inland waters. The legislation resulted in Germany having 45% market share of vegetable based fluids and lubricants in Europe mainly produced from rapeseed oil [10]. If similar legislation can be applied in Malaysia, more interest can be expected in producing palm based hydraulic fluids for use in Malaysian waters. References: State Department of Energy. http://www.er.doe.gov/epic/docs/
soypaper.htm 7. Klein et al. “Triglyceride‐Based Base Oil for Hydraulic Oils.” United States Patent Number 5,618,779. 8 April 1997 8. Rudnick, R.L. “Synthetics, Mineral Oil, and Bio‐Based Lubri‐
cants: Chemistry and Technology.” CRC Press. 2005 9. IMO (1997). “MARPOL 73/78, Consolidated Edition 1997.” London. International Maritime Organization. 10. Nelson, J. “Harvesting Lubricants.” The Carbohydrate Econ‐
omy. Vol 3, Issue No. 1. Fall 2000 11. Calais, P. and Clark, A.R. “Waste Vegetable Oil as Diesel Replacement Fuel.” (2004) Murdoch University and Western Australia Renweable Fuels Association, Western Australia 12. Tenenbaum, J.D. “Underwater Logging: Submarines Redis‐
covers Lost Woods.” Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol‐
ume 112, Number 15. November 2004. 13. Wan Nik, W.B, Ani F.N., and Masjuki, H.H. “Rheology of Environmental Friendly Hydraulic Fluid: Effect of Aging Period, Temperature and Shear.” Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Natural Resources Engineering & Technology 2006 24‐25th July 2006, Putrajaya, Malaysia. 14. Yeong, S.K; Ooi, TL and Salmiah A. “Palm‐Based Hydraulic Fluid.” MPOB TT No. 281. MPOB Information Series, June 2005 2. Brookhaven National Laboratory. “Biobased Hydraulic Fluid Use at Brookhaven National Laboratory.” (online) http://www.bnl.gov/esd/pollutionpreve/docs/P2%
20Award%20Nominations/Biobased%20Hydraulics.pdf (Accessed March 9, 2008) 3. Honary, Lou A. T. “Soybean Based Hydraulic Fluid.” United States Patent Number 5,972,855. 26 Oct 1999 4. Isbell, A. T. “Agricultural Research Series: Biodegradable Plant‐Based Hydraulic Fluid.” USDA News and Event. Nov 1998. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/nov98/oil1198.htm United State Department of Agriculture (1998) 5. Johnson, Glenn. Ed. “Environmentally Safe Hydraulic Oils Part 1 & 2. Articles posted on Feb 20, 2008. http://
www.processonline.com.au/articles/749‐Environmentally‐safe‐
hydraulic‐oils‐Part‐1 6. Rose, B and Rivera P. “Replacement of Petroleum Based Hydraulic Fluids with a Soybean Based Alternative.” United MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
1. Skinner, Samuel K; Reilly, William K. (May 1989) (PDF). The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. National Response Team. (online) http://www.akrrt.org/Archives/Response_Reports/
ExxonValdez_NRT_1989.pdf (Accessed March 9, 2008). 68
Feature Article 5
JOINING OF DISSIMILAR MATERIALS BY DIFFUSION BONDING/ DIFFUSION WELDING FOR SHIP APPLICATION FAUZUDDIN AYOB* Department of Marine Design Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 20 September 2010; Revised: 27 October 2010 ; Accepted: 28 October 2010 ABSTRACT The diffusion bonding process is normally used to fabricate parts that require high quality and strong welds, involving intricate parts that are costly or impossible to manufacture by conventional means or when the materials used are not suitable in a conventional fabrication process. This specialized welding process has found considerable acceptance in the manufacturing of aerospace, nuclear and electronics components. Explosion bonding/ welding is being applied in the mass production of ‘triclad’ of aluminum and steel joining which used as transition joints for ship of steel hull and aluminum superstructure and other ship applications. Some disadvantages of this process are it requires high energy explosive materials to be used and have to be conducted remotely as it produces incredible noise. Diffusion bonding shall be explored as the alternative process to the production of these transition joints. Keywords: Diffusion, bonding, welding, explosion bonding *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909002 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
DEFINITION AND PRINCIPLE OF DIFFUSION relationship between diffusion bonding/ diffu‐
sion welding with other solid state welding BONDING processes as well as other available welding Referring to the “AWS Master Chart of Weld‐
processes was derived as in Fig. 1 ing Processes” of American Welding Society, a 69
Diffusion bonding is a joining process between materials wherein the principal mechanism for joint formation is solid state diffusion. Coales‐
cence of the faying surface is accomplished through the application of pressure at evevated temperature. No melting and only limited macro‐
scopic deformation or relative motion of the parts occurs during bonding. Microscopic deformation followed by recrystallization occurs. Near the bond zone, self diffusion in the same materials and inter diffusion between the materials takes place simultaneously. New crystalline forms of the original elements and inter‐metallic compounds may grow during the process (Paulonis, “Diffusion Welding and Brazing”). Other terms which are sometimes used synony‐
mously with diffusion bonding include diffusion welding, solid state bonding, pressure bonding, isostatic bonding , and hot press bonding. A three‐stage mechanistic model, as de‐
scribed by Paulonis (“Advanced Diffusion Weld‐
ing Process”), shows the weld formation by diffu‐
sion bonding. See Fig. 2 OBJECTIVE welding on the joining of dissimilar materials such as aluminum alloy and steel of various car‐
bon contents for ship applications. OUTCOMES The expected outcomes of this brief paper are: The influences of the bonding process parame‐
ters such as bonding pressure, temperatures, holding time (duration of pressure), vacuuming and the effect of the post‐bond heat treatment on the mechanical and metallographic proper‐
ties of aluminum and steel joining would be able to be analyzed, discussed and established. The effect of various carbon contents in steel and aluminum alloys on the joints properties will also be able to be analyzed, discussed and established. Optimum conditions and parameters of diffusion bonding that would result in ultimate strength and quality characteristics of diffusion bonded steel to aluminum alloy are able to be determined. The above expected outcomes would make possi‐
ble for the industrial production of aluminum and steel joining by diffusion bonding for ship applica‐
tions | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
To describe the concept of diffusion bonding/ MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
70
Description of Apparatus To achieve the desired outcomes, various apparatus are required, namely for diffusion bonding and post‐bond heat treatment. Apparatus for Diffusion Bonding The apparatus for diffusion bonding is de‐
signed to provide compressive loading (pressing) and heating in a vacuum at the interface of a specimen to be joined. The configuration of the working part of the apparatus is shown at Fig. 3. Apparatus for Post‐Bond Heat Treatment This apparatus is designed to carry out post‐
bond heat treatment for further diffusion processes to takes place in the diffusion cou‐
ples obtained by diffusion bonding. A sche‐
matic drawing of the annealing furnace, vac‐
uum chamber, specimen and its mounting is shown in Fig. 5. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Materials and Specimen Preparation for Diffu‐
sion Bonding. Materials used in this study as parent metals are commercial grade aluminum and steel with various carbon contents. These materials are cut in a lathe to cylindrical specimen of sizes; 12 mm diameter by 10 mm length, and 14 mm diameter by 20 mm length for metallographic observation and tensile test specimens respec‐
tively. This specimen and their assembly are shown in Fig. 6 and Fig.7 respectively. 4.3 Bonding Procedure The specimens are positioned in the apparatus as shown in Fig. 3. The temperature used for the metallographic specimens is 600°C and for tensile specimen are 500°C, 550°C and 600°C. The bonding of these specimens is conducted under a dynamic vacuum pressure of the order of 10‐2 Torr for 30 minute with bonding pressure of 0.5 kgf/mm. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
METHODOLOGY 71
Metallographic Preparation and Examinations Specimens for metallographic observations, after diffusional bonded, are sectioned axially into two halves and each half is mounted in the apparatus for post‐bond heat treatment, as shown in Fig 5. After diffusion heat treatment, the speci‐
mens are prepared for metallography. Photo‐
graphs of the prepared metallographic speci‐
mens, in the vicinity of diffusion zones, along the bonding interface are then taken by optical microscope. From the microphoto‐
graphs the microstructures of the diffusion zone are examined and the diffusion layer thickness measured directly. Electron probe analysis (EPMA) is also per‐
formed on some of these specimens to determine composition. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Heat Treatment Procedure 72
Tensile test are carried out at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min at room temperature. The ultimate strength and location of fracture are determined. The fractured surfaces are analyzed by X‐ray diffractometer using Cu‐k radiation. Fractured surfaces are observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and fractographs ex‐
amined. SEM photographs of these interface fractured specimens are also taken. The metallographic specimens are also used for hardness testing. In this test, the microhard‐
ness tester of the Vickers hardness testing ma‐
chine is employed with loads of 5 and 10 grams. The hardness is measured across the bonding interface. BENEFITS OF DIFFUSION BONDING/ WELDING The diffusion bonding process is normally used to fabricate parts, when highly‐quality and high‐
strength welds are required, where part shapes are intricate and would be costly or impossible to manufacture by conventional means or when the materials used possess unique properties that interfere with, or area difficult to maintain during conventional fabrication processing. This specialized welding process has found consider‐
able acceptance in the manufacturing of aero‐
space, nuclear and electronics components. Further research of this concept would be beneficial at University level as it will focus on the development and validation of new joining techniques specifically for the dissimilar materi‐
als such as between steel and aluminum alloy. The potential success of a possible research will contribute enormously to the development of a new welding technology and scientific knowl‐
edge to the university and as an alternative fab‐
rication and production methods in the marine and other related industries. Joining of alumin‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
ium superstructure to steel deck and aluminium decks (or even bulkheads) to steel hulls and other ship’s components fabrication, fitting and mounting are examples of possibility of utilizing diffusion bonding technique in marine construc‐
tion. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Realizing the important and benefits of the diffu‐
sion bonding/ welding as mentioned above, it is recommended that further research to be con‐
ducted at UniKL MIMET that would benefit the aca‐
demic fraternity in particular and the related indus‐
tries in general. REFERENCES 1.AWS. 1938. “The AWS Master Chart of Welding Process”. AWS Welding Handbook American Welding Society, Miami, Florida 2.D.F. Paulonis, “Diffusion Welding and Brazing”, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Group, United Technologies, USA. 3. D.F. Paulonis, “Advanced Diffusion Welding Process”, Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Group, United Technologies, USA. 4.Tadashi Momono, 1990. “Diffusion Bonding of Cast Iron to Steel under Atmospheric Pressure”, Casting Science and Tech‐
nology, The Japan Foundrymen Society, Japan. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Preparation and procedure for Mechanical Properties Testing 73
Feature Article 6
DEVELOPMENT OF LEGAL FRAMEWORK GOVERNING THE CARRIAGE OF LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) WITHIN COASTAL WATER FROM CARRIER ASPECT (OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE) ASMAWI BIN ABDUL MALIK* Department of Marine Construction & Maintenance Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 12 July 2010; Revised: 2 August 2010 ; Accepted: 18 August 2010 ABSTRACT The inevitable LNG evolution into coastal waters had reflected the lack and absence of clear guidelines on legal frame‐
work for governing the carriage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) within coastal water. IMO (Agenda item 21, MSC 83/
INF.3/2007) does not pay much attention to sustainable coastal water transport development due to the novelty of such industry and the traditional procedures of UN developmental bodies, that normally needs sufficient time to consider new and emerging phenomenon in their agenda of work. Thus it is a major source of inefficiency and unsafe operation of the LNG carriage along the coast line. To date, there is no extension for LNG carriage within coastal waters on every estab‐
lished rules and regulation. The main purpose of this study is to develop a legal framework model for the LNG transporta‐
tion and carriage by using the IDEF0 structured modeling technique. The modeling process is divided into three phases, (i) the information gathering, (ii) the model development and (ii) the experts’ evaluation and validation. In the first phase, information on existing current legal practices were obtained through the literature study from applicable rules, regula‐
tions, conventions, procedures, policies, research papers and accident cases. In the second phase, a process model was drafted through an iterative process using the IDEF0 and the questionnaire is developed. From the questionnaire pilot test, each question blocks has shown an acceptable Cronbach’s Alpha value which is above 0.70. In the third phase, the preliminary of legal framework model is tested through forty five (45) potential respondents from various fields in legal practices and thirty eight (38) responded. A promising result was obtained where data exhibit normal distribution trend, even though every group has their own stand on the legal framework. The ANOVA output has generated P‐values of 0.000. If P is less than or equal to the a‐level, one or more mean value are significantly different. Through data correla‐
tion test, the correlated element blocks show a range of 0.0 to 0.4. A legal framework model for the LNG carriage within coastal water was constructed in the stand alone mode covering each aspect. INTRODUCTION In tandem with the increasing Liquefied Natu‐
ral Gas (LNG) production in the emerging mar‐
ket, the LNG is depleting fast and will be re‐
quired on a major scale to feed the world’s biggest gas market. Therefore, attention is needed to focus largely on the safety and secu‐
rity of LNG transported by marine transporta‐
tion at commercial facilities near populated areas. As the nation’s LNG facility become de‐
veloped, there is no special framework for the *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909051 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
LNG coastal transportation. In response to the overall safety and security environment re‐
quirement, it is wise to seek a coastal water legal framework covering a broader under‐
standing of hazardous chemical marine ship‐
ments and efforts to secure them. Recognizing these fatal factors is important in promoting for a legal framework for LNG transportation in coastal water. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Keywords: Legal framework model, LNG carriage, structured modelling technique definition, Cronbach’s Alpha, ANOVA and Correlation. 74
Objective of the Research Methodology The research on development of legal frame‐
work governing the carriage of LNG within coastal water is expected to derive: 
3.0 relevant element(s) for a legal framework on the carriage of LNG within coastal water Research Statement 
Liberalization of importers power and gas market. 
Number of receiving or discharging 
Geographical topography that reduces the ability of LNG transportation. 
The high cost of pipeline network and de‐
gasification area development and invest‐
ment. 
As people keep pace with the development, energy plans faces high resistance of NIMBY and BANANA which stand for Not In My Backyard (NIMBY) and Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything (BANANA), are being highlighted from the end user perspective where people per‐
ceive the LNG storage as a time bomb. 
Imbalance in demand and supply of the LNG. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
In order to create relevant legal framework ele‐
ment (s), several situations identified are to in‐
fluence factors for safe transportation. The situations are as follows: 75
the carriage of this particular dangerous goods carriage. Hence, a special attention on the de‐
velopment of the Legal Framework on the Coastal Water for LNG transportation and appli‐
cation is required. Background and Problem Statement The paper (Industries Energy, Utilities & Mining, 2007) has highlighted as the following:
“Many companies are struggling to optimize
their LNG portfolio of assets and contracts in
a way that maximizes value. Opportunities
for ‘arbitrage’ profits require ever more
clever valuation and modeling. The companies that identify, assess and manage the
increasingly complex interdependencies and
uncertainties in the evolving LNG market will
be the ones who take the profits. LNG relies
on two vital ingredients – infrastructure and
gas”
The immediate sign of market demand is the clear indication that LNG transportation will centre on the downstream activities as compared to the upstream. Product distribution which cover the following aspects: Overcoming problems associated with the trans‐
portation of LNG by land. The situation has indirectly rerouted the existing LNG system into a new market regime especially on its facilities from onshore to the coastal trend. It has induced the market player to get into this particular regime as it requires no land requisition. Thus a real ‘new world gas market’ began to emerge. However a ‘world gas market’ should not be confused with the much more flexible world oil market (Jensen, 2004). The Industries Energy, Utilities & Mining (2007) also highlighted on the regulatory aspects fol‐
lows: Towards cost effective LNG transportation in downstream market activities. Provision of a healthy, safe and secure environ‐
ment of LNG transportation /carriage within coastal water. “Taking account of regulatory risk “LNG operations are spreading to many new locations. The maturity and format of regulatory
frameworks vary considerably. The economic
viability of an LNG chain can be influenced
significantly by national or regional regulation, particularly on regasification facilities.”
Although several frameworks have been developed by the LNG players such as Ball et al, (2006), who proposed a legal framework for the Taiwanese government it is specifically for procurement activities in Taiwan. As in Not‐
teboom et al (2004), the only focused area in Snøhvit project Norway is on LNG port manage‐
ment. There is no formal framework to govern MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Morimoto (2006) estimated the world LNG consumption exponentially rises from 139 m/tons to 286 m/tons in his JGC Fiscal Interim Result. The above prediction is supported by Nilsen (2007), research on LNG Trade Volume, where momen‐
tous growth of short‐term trade from 1998 to 2006 as shown in Figure 2.1. Thus, existing facili‐
ties need to be tripled by 2020 by all means and sizes as in Figure 2.2. 76
Figure 2.2: Outlook for World LNG Demand (Morimoto 2006) The future LNG export terminals will be larger as to cater the needs and supply, based in remote locations with no infrastructure and subjected to extreme weather conditions. Therefore, conventional construction ap‐
proaches will no longer be cost and time effec‐
tive. The direction for future development has been reinforced by the few inventions of sub‐
players of the Oil & Gas Company such as the following and in Figure 2.3. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
 Proposed development of smaller scale re‐
gasification terminals.  Proposed development of Liquefaction hubs.  Alternative source and uses of LNG.  Gas storage for peak sharing.  Proposed development of Shipboard regasi‐
fication. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Figure 2.1: LNG Trade Volume 1998, 2002 & 2006 (Nilsen, 2007) 77

Improvements in ship and termi‐
nal safety/security systems, 
Modifications to improve effec‐
tiveness of LNG tanker escorts, vessel movement control zones, and safety operations near ports and terminals,  Improved searches, and surveillance and 
Figure 2.3 Illustration of Future Expansion in Coastal Water (Kaalstad, 2006). Traditionally, the regulation of maritime transport operations by seafaring countries has been motivated by the desire to establish and maintain: 
Standards as regards maritime safety and the protection of the marine environment; 
Participation of national fleets in the trans‐
port of its trade (although by and large in the OECD there exists unrestricted market ac‐
cess); 
Commercial regulations aimed at facilitat‐
ing the orderly conduct of business; and 
The ability of sea carriers to operate tradi‐
tional co‐operative liner services despite the presence of laws in many countries aimed at preventing anti‐competitive be‐
haviors. As mentioned by Luketa, A. et al (2008); such, the risk mitigation and risk management ap‐
proaches suggested in the 2004 report are still appropriate for use with the larger capacity ships. Proactive risk management approaches can reduce both the potential and the hazards of such events. The approaches could include: MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
In this particular project research, the quanti‐
tative survey technique is being applied. The result from the quantitative input, will be tested through descriptive statistic and the interference statistic. The descriptive statistic will interrogate the sample characteristic and the interference will drill into sample popula‐
tion. Results on Carrier Aspect – Operational Proce‐
dure Table 3.1 shows the analysis on the sur‐
vey data obtained from the block of question‐
naires aimed at confirming ‘Operational Proce‐
dure’ as an element of the legal framework. The table shows an overall mean of 4.0683 and an overall standard deviation of 0.3869. Question 1, 2, 8, 9 and 10 return with individual means above 4.0. Question 10 “LNG ships handling procedures while in harbour and restricted ba‐
sin are more stringent” scores the highest mean 4.526 with standard deviation of 0.647. The rest of the questions (question 3, 4, 5, & 7) return with individual means lower than 4.0. Question 6 “Coastal LNG ships require more crew than deep sea LNG ships” returns with the lowest mean of 3.368 and with standard deviation of 1.207. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Improved emergency response coordination and communications with first responders and public safety officials. 78
Table 3.1: Carrier Aspect – Operational Procedure dence intervals at 95% confident level are: S u m m a r y fo r B 1 A v e r a g e o f Q u e s tio n
A n d e r s o n - D a r lin g N o r m a lit y
3 .4
3 .6
3 .8
4 .0
4 .2
4 .4
ean
tD e v
a r ia n c e
k e w ne ss
u rt o s is
M in im u m
1 s t Q u a r t ile
M e d ia n
3 r d Q u a r t ile
M a x im u m
4 .6
95%
9 5 %
C o n f id e n c e
I n te r v a ls
.3
.7
.1
.4
.5
8
6
9
9
3
1
3
9
7
0
7
0
6
6
1
2
2
8
3
8
6
6
4
2
4
8
3
4 .3 4 5 1
C o n f id e n c e I n t e r v a l f o r M e d ia n
3 .7 5 3 4
95%
3
3
4
4
4
6
8
4
2
5
C o n f id e n c e I n t e rv a l f o r M e a n
3 .7 9 1 5
95%
4 .0
0 .3
0 .1
-0 . 4 9 9
-0 . 8 8 1
4 .4 2 9 4
C o n f id e n c e I n t e r v a l f o r S t D e v
0 .2 6 6 1
0 .7 0 6 3
M ean
M e d ia n
3 .8
3 .9
4 .0
4 .1
4 .2
Figure 3.1: B1 Graphical Summary Figure 3.1 shows the graphic plot of the analysis on this block of data. It shows p‐value is 0.378. As the level of significance is above 0.05, the data is in normal distribution. The variance is 0.1497. The skewness is ‐0.499290 indicating that the distribution is left‐skewed. The confi‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
4 .3
4 .4

µ (mean) is between 3.7915 and 4.3451. 
σ (standard deviation) is between 0.2661 and 0.7063. 
the median is between 3.7534 and 4.4294. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
M
S
V
S
K
N
T e st
0 .3 6
0 .3 7 8
A -S q u a re d
P - V a lu e
79
P r o b a b ility P lo t o f B 1 A v e r a g e o f Q u e s tio n
Norm al
99
M ean
S tD e v
N
RJ
P - V a lu e
95
90
4 .0 6 8
0 .3 8 6 9
10
0 .9 6 7
> 0 .1 0 0
Percent
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5
3 .0
3 .5
4 .0
4 .5
B 1 A v e r a g e o f Q u e s t io n
Figure 3.2: Probability Plot of B1 Data Discussion on Result The result discussion will cover on demo‐
graphic of the respondents, data distribution and ANOVA and also correlation. The raw data is exe‐
cuted by using Minitab Software and SPSS Statis‐
tical Software Demographic Significantly, the majority of the feed‐
back by the respondents are on the ‘positive mode or positive inclination’ toward the re‐
search hypothesis. The returned status of the questionnaire is 84.4%. The respondents are 92.1% men which reflect oil and gas industry practice where they usually prefer male em‐
ployees. The 81.6% respondents are over 30 years of age, which indicates the respondents have enough experience to be involved in this survey and all of the respondents have formal education. It means that they have been equipped with relevant knowledge on the oil and gas operation. Above 75% said that they are well aware of the LNG business development. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
5 .0
Distribution To expand the idea of a drawn up legal framework, every legal aspect needs to be veri‐
fied through the survey. Questionnaires need to be developed from the hypothesis legal frame‐
work, then each of it need to be correlated. Be‐
fore proceeding into the data collection, the questionnaires need to be subjected through pilot test so that only effective questionnaires are sent out. Selective target groups who have legal knowledge will be taken into considera‐
tion. Based on Kreijie and Morgan,(1970), De‐
termine Sample Size for Research Education and Physiological Measurement, the author has selected the 45 number of sample size. Then as referred to Nazila (2007), she quoted Abdul Ghafar (1999), when samples came from one population it is categorized as case study sam‐
ple. In relation with current project, selected group is being considered which have know how knowledge on the LNG carriage. The data collection and compilation is needed during the second phase of project. The data is collected according to requirement of the application where it is able to represent to the situation required. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
1
80
From the result in Table 3.1, it shows that the mean value have ‘Relevant’ status. The differ‐
ence between mean and variance is ± 0.3869 which is 9.51%. The result is way above the alpha value (5%) is mainly due to Q3 to Q6. These questions are about ‘Manning’ issue. It is under‐
standable because there are 84.21% not directly involved on the operation. They may not truly understand the basic requirement of LNG crew task. From the highest mean of question 10, it shows the majority of the respondents agreed on the coastal LNG operation demands for detail LNG ship operation procedure and handling. Closing Remarks Figure 8.1 Legal Framework for Coastal LNG Carriage | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
The legal framework on the LNG car‐
riage within coastal water is the extended ver‐
sion of the current legal guide. As it is a new revolution that LNG carriage will inevitable come to the coastal zones, there is no literature of what have been done previously. This is high‐
lighting the new milestone of the legal develop‐
ment. Hence, this study was conducted to iden‐
tify the legal framework component as to en‐
sure safe and secure coastal water operation. This study shows that legal framework is re‐
quired in term of carrier aspect as identified at Figure 8.1. However, from this study we also know that the most important factor is safe handling. The legal framework is expected to reduce the implication and impact to the sur‐
rounding in the event of mishandling or any mishaps. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
81
Recommendations and Suggestions Based on the finding of the study, here are some recommendation and suggestion in the hope to assist future researcher and for the benefit of all LNG group of people. Based on the intended set‐
ting of the study, it would be fruitful for future researcher to get more elements included in the framework. It can be done with further research and conference involvement. Collaboration with oil and gas companies such as MISC, PETRONAS and SHELL would bring about greater point of view. Experience in admiralty cases would pro‐
duce greater impact on the legal framework de‐
velopment. Future researchers have to look into the possibility to expand the components. 1. Industries Energy, Utilities & Mining, (2007), Value and Growth in the liquefied natural gas market. [Brochure]. Price Water House Coopers 2. Kaalstad, J.,P., (2006), Offshore LNG Terminals Capital Mar‐
kets Day, APL Incorporation 3. Krejcie, R., V., and Morgan, D., W., (1970), Determining Sample Sizes for Research Activities: Educational and Psy‐
hological Measurement, 30(3): 607 – 610 4. Koji Morita (2003), “LNG: Falling Prices and Increasing Flexibility of Supply—Risk Redistribution Creates Contract Diversity,” International Institute of Energy Economics, Japan. 5. Luketa, A., M., and Michael, H., Steve A., (2008), Breach and Safety Analysis of Spills Over Water from Large Lique‐
fied Natural Gas Carriers, Sandia Report 6. Maritime Safety Committee, (2007), Formal Safety Assess‐
ment of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Carriers, Interna‐
tional Maritime Organization (IMO) 7. Morimoto, S., (2006), Fiscal 2006 Interim Result Briefing, JGC Corporation 8. Nazila Abdullah (2007), Kajian Terhadap Kaedah Mengajar, Kefahaman, dan Pandangan Guru Terhadap Konsep Seko‐
lah Bestari di Sebuah Sekolah di Daerah Kulai, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia 9. Revised Draft EIR (2006), Cabrillo Port Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
References 82
Feature Article 7
OBSERVATION ON VARIOUS TECHNIQUES OF NETWORK RECONFIGURATION WARDIAH DAHALAN* Department of Marine Electric and Electronics Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 27 May 2010; Revised: 2 August 2010 ; Accepted: 12 October 2010 ABSTRACT The shipboard power system supplies energy to sophisticated systems for weapons, communications, navigation, and operation. After a fault is encountered, reconfiguration of a shipboard power system becomes a critical activity that is required to either restore service to a lost load or to meet some operational requirements of the ship. Reconfiguration refers to changing the topology of the power system in order to isolate system damage and/or optimize certain charac‐
teristics of the system related to power efficiency. When finding the optimal state, it is important to have a method that finds the desired state within a short amount of time, in order to allow fast response for the system. Since the reconfigu‐
ration problem is highly nonlinear over a domain of discrete variables, various techniques have been proposed by the researchers. The main tasks of this thesis include reviewing the shipboard power system characteristics, studying and reviewing shipboard power system integrated protection, shipboard power distribution systems and typical loads of ship‐
board power system. A variety of techniques used in previous works have been explained in methodologies review. Many criteria and concepts are used as the basis for consideration in order to achieve the desired objectives. INTRODUCTION The Navy ship electric power system supplies energy to the weapons, communication sys‐
tems, navigation systems, and operation sys‐
tems. The reliability and survivability of a Ship‐
board Power Systems (SPS) are critical to the mission of a ship, especially under battle condi‐
tions. SPS are geographically spread all along the ship. They consist of various components such as generators, cables, switchboards, load centres, circuit breakers, bus transfer switches, fuse and load. The generators in SPS are connected in ring configuration through generator switchboards [1]. Bus tie circuit breakers interconnect the generator switchboards which allow for the transfer of power from one switchboard to another. Load centers and some loads are *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909018 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
supplied from generator switchboards. Load centers in turn supply power to power panels to which different loads are connected. Feed‐
ers then supply power to load centers and power panels. The distribution of loads is ra‐
dial in nature. For vital loads, two sources of power (normal and alternate) are provided from separate sources via automatic bus transfers (ABTs) or manual bus transfers (MBTs). Further, vital loads are isolated from non‐vital loads to accommodate load shed‐
ding during an electrical system causality. Circuit breakers(CBs) and fuses are provided at different locations in order to remove faulted loads, generators or distribution systems from unfaulted portions of the system. These faults could be due to material causalities of individual loads or cables or due to widespread system | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Keyword: Reconfiguration, Fault Location, Service restoration, Distribution Power System 83
loss and voltage drop as copared to terrestrial power systems. 
There is a large portion of nonlinear loads rela‐
tive to the power generation capability. 
In SPS, a large number of electric components are tightly coupled in a small space. 
A fault happens in one part of the SPS may af‐
fect other parts of the SPS. 
A large number of electronic loads, such as combat, control and communication 
sensors, radiators, and computers are sensitive to power interruptions and power quality. 
Some electrical components, which affect the reconfiguration process, are unique to SPS such as Automatic Bus Transfers (ABT), Manual Bus Transfers (MBT), Low Voltage Protection de‐
vices (LVPs), and Low Voltage Release devices (LVRs). Shipboard Power System Characteristics Today’s SPS generally use three‐phase power generated and distributed in an ungrounded configuration. The ungrounded systems can keep equipment in continued operations in the event of the single‐phase ground fault. Un‐
grounded systems mean all cabling are insulated from the ship hull. Thus, it optimizes continuity of power (increase equipment reliability). SPS have different characteristics from typical utility power systems in overall configuration and load characteristics. Some of the unique characteristics of the SPSs are as follows: [38] 
There is very little rotational inertia relative to load in SPS. 
SPS are geographically smaller than utility power systems. 
SPS is an isolated system with no power supply from outside power system. 
SPS has a wider frequency range compared to the terrestrial power system. 
Shipboard prime movers typically have shorter time constant than prime movers in 
terrestrial power systems. 
Due to the limited space on shipboard, SPS does not have a transmission system. 
The electric power in SPS is transmitted through short cables. It leads to less power MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Due to these unique characteristics of the SPS, some of the mathematical expediencies used in terrestrial power system analysis may not be appli‐
cable to SPS accordingly. For example, infinite buses and slack buses do not have manifestations in SPSs. Constant voltage, constant frequency, and constant power simplifications are usually invalid in SPS. Also, the SPSs are tightly coupled both electri‐
cally and mechanically, requiring integrated model‐
ling of both systems [44]. A brief overview of the loads in the SPS is explained in the following sec‐
tion. Loads in the SPS The loads in the SPS provide various services to the ship. According to the importance of the ser‐
vices being provided, the loads in the SPS can be classified into non‐vital, semi‐vital, and vital‐loads in increasing priority order as follows: Non‐vital (Non‐essential) ‐ Readily sheddable loads that can be immediately secured without | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
fault due to battle damage. Because of the faults and after isolating the fault, there are unfaulted sections which are left without sup‐
ply. It is required to quickly restore supply to these unfaulted sections of the SPS. This is ac‐
complished by changing the configuration of the system by opening and/or closing some switches (CBsMBTs/ABTs) to restore supply to maximum load in the unfaulted section of SPS to continue the present mission [28]. 84
Semi‐vital (Semi‐essential) ‐ Loads important to the ship but that can be shut down or switched to the alternate plant in order to prevent total loss of ship’s electrical power. Examples include aircraft and cargo elevators, assault systems, some radar, communications, and seawater ser‐
vice pumps. Vital (Essential) – Non‐sheddable loads that af‐
fects the survivability of ship or life. Power to these loads is not intentionally interrupted as part of a load shedding scheme. Examples of vi‐
tal loads are generators, boilers, and their auxil‐
iaries; close‐in weapon systems; electronic coun‐
termeasures; tactical data system equipments with volatile memories; medical and dental op‐
erating rooms; and primary air search radar. The vital loads are required to be connected to two independent power sources in the SPS. If a load is classified as vital load at any major mis‐
sion of the ship, such as propulsion system, it has to be connected to the SPS through Automatic Bus Transfer (ABT). ABT is a device that can sense the loss of power from normal power source. When normal power is absent, ABT can automatically disconnect the load from the nor‐
mal power and switch the load’s power flow from an alternate power source. ABTs are de‐
signed to transfer loads very quickly. If a load is classified as a vital load in some missions and a non‐vital load in other missions, such as the lighting system, the load is connected to its SPS through a Manual Bus Transfer (MBT). MBT is a device, like an ABT, that can connect loads either to a normal power source or to an alternate MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
power source. But unlike the ABT, the MBT must be shifted manually by an operator when the operator notices that the load’s primary source of power becomes unavailable. Loads that are classified as non‐vital loads in any missions are connected to only one power source in the SPS. The electric loads are hard wired to their source
(s) at the time of ship construction. How “vital” they are is determined at that time and does not change unless the power system hardware is modified [36]. One of the important aspects in considering loads in SPS is Protection and inte‐
grated power system is one type of protection in SPS. Integrated Power System (IPS) The IPS design is applied because it is simpler and cheaper, and better to centrally produce a commodity such as electricity, than to locally produce it with the user of commodity. In the IPS, the ship service and the propulsion loads are provided by a common set of generators. The integrated power systems are currently used for a wide range of ship applications. The primary advantage of using integrated power systems is the flexibility to shift power between the propul‐
sion and mission‐critical loads as needed. The integrated power system can also improve the survivability and reliability of the SPS. It has been identified as the next generation technology for SPS platform and an important step to achieve the all‐electric ship initiative [44]. In SPSs, different faults may occur because of equipment insulation failures, over voltages caused by switching surges, or battle damage. Shipboard power protection systems are re‐
quired to detect faults and undesirable condi‐
tions and quickly remove the faults from the power system. Shipboard power protection systems are also required to maintain power balance for the re‐
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
adversely affecting ship operations, survivability, or life. Examples are hotel loads such as heating and galley; ship, avionics, and ground support equipment shops; aircraft fueling systems; refrig‐
eration systems; and other loads that can be shut down for a short time until full electric power capability is restored. 85
The integrated power system has two essential functions: fault detection and post‐fault recon‐
figuration. Currently, there are three available fault detection schemes including over‐current, distance, and differential schemes. The over‐
current fault detection scheme is difficult to co‐
ordinate for minimizing the fault isolation of power systems having multiple sources at differ‐
ent locations, such as shipboard power systems. The distance fault detection scheme is also not suitable for a shipboard power system with short transmission and distribution lines. On the other hand, the differential fault detection scheme is faster and more reliable for shipboard power systems with system level measurements. Ship‐
board power system fast fault detection can be implemented by the dynamic‐zone‐selection based differential protection scheme, which trips only the required circuit breakers to isolate the fault. Shipboard power post‐fault reconfigura‐
tion function, also called fast reconfiguration function, will evaluate the outcome of the fault and reconfigure the unfaulted part of the power system to minimize the loss‐of‐load. The main objective of Shipboard power distribu‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
tion systems are designed to minimize the size and weight, save money, and improve the surviv‐
ability of the vessel. Additionally, shipboard power distribution systems are desired to pos‐
sess the ability to continually transfer power to vital systems during and after fault conditions. There are two possible types of shipboard power distribution architecture radial and zonal. Radial electric Power Distribution Distribution lines are usually radial and operate at low‐level voltages in a radial shipboard power system. Current shipboard radial electric power distribution systems have multiple generators (typically three or four), which are connected to switchboards. The generators could be steam turbine, gas turbines, or diesel engines. The gen‐
erators are operated either in a split plant or a parallel configuration. The 450V, 60Hz three phase ac power is then distributed to load cen‐
ters. Each load is classified as being nonessential, semi‐essential, or essential . If there is any gen‐
eration capacity loss, a load shedding algorithm will be initiated based on load priority In a current navy ship power system, three‐
phase step‐down power transformers are nor‐
mally used. Both the transformer primary and secondary windings are connected in a delta, resulting in no reliable current path from the power lines to the ship’s hull. Therefore, the sys‐
tem has a high impedance ground and will not be affected by single phase grounded fault. Zonal electric power distribution The zonal power distribution system consists of two main power distribution buses running lon‐
gitudinally along the port and starboard side of the ship. One main bus would be positioned well above the waterline while the other would be located below the waterline, which maximizes the distance between buses and improves the survivability [47]. The effects of damage to the | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
maining part of the power system automatically and quickly. Therefore, an integrated power pro‐
tection system is necessary for SPSs to maximize service continuity and minimize loss‐of‐load caused by accidental system abnormal behaviour or hostile damage. Special characteristics of the shipboard power system, such as short cable length, high impedance grounding, and multiple possible system operation configurations, im‐
pose unique challenges on designing the protec‐
tion system for shipboard power systems. A well
‐designed protection system should protect the overall power system from the effect of system components that have been faulted and should adapt to the power system reconfiguration prac‐
tices without any human intervention [39]. 86
Need for Reconfiguration Faults in a shipboard power system may occur due to material casualties of individual loads or widespread fault due to battle damage. In addi‐
tion to load faults, casualties can happen to ca‐
bles, power generating equipment, or power distribution buses. If the fault is severe, such as a generator fault, it may cause a power deficiency to the remaining power system, system load generation unbalance, and even an entire sys‐
tem collapse. After the fault has occurred, pro‐
tective devices operate to isolate the faulted section. But, this may lead to unfaulted sections that are not getting supplied. Therefore, it is re‐
quired to restore supply automatically and quickly to these un‐faulted sections of the ship‐
board power system to improve the system sur‐
vivability. This can be achieved by changing the configuration of the system by opening and/or closing switches to restore supply to maximum load in the un‐faulted sections of the shipboard power system. Reconfiguration can be aimed at supplying power to high priority loads and/or supplying power to maximum amount of loads depending upon the situation. The need recon‐
figuration is also proposed to maintain power balance of the remaining power system parts after fault detection and isolation. Fast recon‐
figuration is necessary for a shipboard power system considering the unique shipboard power system characteristics. Methodologies Reviews In recent years, several reconfiguration method‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
ologies have been proposed for power systems. With the advancement in the power system, the topology of power systems has become more complicated. However, in previous reconfigura‐
tion methodologies, no generic methodology was proposed for the reconfiguration of a power sys‐
tem with a complicated topology. Most of the previous reconfiguration methodologies are to‐
pology dependent. New reconfiguration method‐
ologies need to be researched and developed for power systems with large scale and complicated topologies [44]. There are slight differences between reconfigu‐
ration of terrestrial power system and shipboard power system. Reconfiguration of terrestrial power system The reconfiguration approach for power system can be implemented in centralized manner or in decentralized manner. In centralized approach, various methods are applied to the reconfigura‐
tion approach, such as evolutionary program‐
ming, heuristic method, artificial intelligent method, etc. The main advantage of the centralized ap‐
proaches for power system reconfiguration is that it is easy for the central controller to access re‐
quired information for reconfiguration reasoning. The central controller in a centralized approach can directly gather data from the sensors throughout the entire system. When there are changes in the system, the central controller can easily update its database for reconfigura‐
tion. The disadvantage of the centralized ap‐
proach for reconfiguration is that it may lead to the single point of failure in the system if the system lacks redundancy. The main advantage of the decentralized ap‐
proach for power system reconfiguration is the robustness. The decentralized approach is im‐
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
distributed system and other equipment should not disturb generators. The zonal architecture is flexible and saves the cost for short switchboard feeder cables and elimination of distribution transformers. A zonal distribution system also allows for equipment installation and testing prior to zone assembly [46]. 87
Many of the proposed automatic reconfiguration methodologies are developed for distribution system reconfiguration. The distribution system is usually reconfigured for restoring the loads in the distribution system, decreasing the power loss in the distribution system, stabilizing the distribution system, etc. Schmidt et al [3] put forward a fast integer pro‐
gramming based reconfiguration methodology to minimize the power loss in a distribution sys‐
tem. The power loss in the distribution system is the electric power that is consumed by transmis‐
sion equipments, such as transformers, cables, wires, etc. This methodology is only applicable to radial power systems. Tzeng et al [4] proposed a feeder reconfiguration methodology for the distribution system. In that particular research, dynamic programming is used to find the optimal switching actions for load balancing in a distribution system. In a power system, the loads get electric power sup‐
ply from load feeders. The load feeders that sup‐
plies more loads need more current injections than those load feeder supplying lesser loads. This will cause the imbalanced current distribu‐
tion in the power system. With the same loads supplied in the power system, the imbalanced current distribution in the power system leads to more power loss than balanced current distribu‐
tion in the power system. The imbalanced cur‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
rent in the power system also leads to the over current problem and stability problem. The load feeders in the power system need to be bal‐
anced by switching the circuit breakers and other switching devices so that the current dis‐
tribution in the power system can be balanced.. Gomes et al [5] proposed a heuristic reconfigura‐
tion methodology to reduce the power loss in a distribution system. In this work, the optimal power flow and sensitivity analysis are used to find the reconfiguration solution. This reconfigu‐
ration methodology is only applicable to radial power systems. Hsu et al [6] proposed a reconfiguration method‐
ology for transformer and feeder load balancing in a distribution system. When the number of loads that are supplied through a load feeder increases, the current injection to the load feeder increases. The current that flows through the transformer is connected to the load feeder increases, too. It may lead to the risk of over cur‐
rent on the transformers and the transmission lines in the system. The proposed reconfigura‐
tion methodology is based on heuristic search. Another heuristic search based reconfiguration algorithm was proposed by Wu et al [51]. In the research, the reconfiguration methodology was applied to the radial power system for service restoration, load balancing, and maintenance of the power system. Zhou, et al [7] put forward a heuristic reconfiguration methodology for distri‐
bution system to reduce the operating cost in a real time operation environment. The operation cost in the power system is the power loss in the distribution system. The operation cost reduc‐
tion is based on the long term operation of the power system. The knowledge based systems, such as expert systems, have also been applied to the recon‐
figuration of power systems for a long time. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
mune to the single point of failure because there is no central controller in the approach. Also the decentralized approach has more flexi‐
bility and scalability compared to the central‐
ized approach. However, the controllers in the decentralized system have limited access to the information of the system for control decisions. So, compared to the centralized approach, it is harder for the decentralized system to achieve the global optimal solution based on the limited information each controller has. 88
Wu et al [9] proposed a Petri net based recon‐
figuration methodology for restoration of the power system. A token passing and a backward search processes are used to identify the se‐
quence of restoration actions and their time. This method can help to estimate the time re‐
quired to restore a subsystem and obtain a sys‐
tematical method for identification of the se‐
quence of actions. Y.L.Ke [10] proposed a Petri net base approach for reconfiguring a distribu‐
tion system to enhance the performance of the power system by considering the daily load char‐
acteristics and the variations among customers due to the temperature increase in the power system. Jiang and Baldick [11] proposed a comprehen‐
sive reconfiguration algorithm for distribution system reconfiguration. They employed simu‐
lated annealing to optimize the switch configura‐
tion of a distribution system. The objective of the reconfiguration is to decrease the power loss in the distribution system. Matos and Melo [12] put forward a simulated annealing based multi objective reconfiguration for power system for loss reduction and service restoration. A recon‐
figuration for enhancing the reliability of the power system was proposed by Brown [13]. A predictive reliability model is used to compute reliability indices for the distribution system and a simulated annealing algorithm is used to find a MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
reconfiguration solution. Shu and Sun [14] proposed a reconfiguration methodology to maintain the load and genera‐
tion balance during the restoration of a power system. An ant colony optimization algorithm was used to search the proper reconfiguration sequence based on the Petri net model. Daniel et al [16] proposed an ant colony based recon‐
figuration for a distribution system. The objec‐
tive of the reconfiguration was to reduce the power loss in the power system. Salazar et al [16] proposed a feeder reconfigura‐
tion methodology for distribution system to minimize the power loss. A reconfiguration algo‐
rithm was proposed based on the artificial neu‐
ral network theory. Clustering techniques to de‐
termine the best training set for a single neural network with generalization ability are also pre‐
sented in that work. Hsu and Huang [17] put for‐
ward another artificial neural network based reconfiguration for a distribution system. The reconfiguration can achieve service restoration by using artificial neural network and pattern recognition method. Wang and Zhang [18] proposed a particle swarm optimization algorithm based reconfiguration methodology for distribution system. A modified particle swarm algorithm has been presented to solve the complex optimization problem. The objective of the methodology was to minimize the power loss in the power system. Jin et al [19] introduced a binary particle swam optimization based reconfiguration methodology for distribu‐
tion system. The objective of the reconfiguration was load balancing. The reconfiguration method‐
ology proposed in that work can only be applied in the power system with radial configuration. Heo and Lee [20] proposed MAS based intelli‐
gent identification system for power plant con‐
trol and fault diagnosis. The proposed methodol‐
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Knowledge based system is a computer system that is programmed to imitate human problem‐
solving by means of artificial intelligence and reference to a database of knowledge on a par‐
ticular subject .Jung et al [8] proposed an artifi‐
cial intelligent based reconfiguration methodol‐
ogy for load balancing in a distribution system. An expert system was applied to the heuristic search in order to reduce the search space and reduce the computational time for the recon‐
figuration. 89
Nagata et al [22] proposed MAS based restora‐
tion methodology for power systems. The MAS proposed was composed of bus agents and a single facilitator agent. The bus agent decides a suboptimal target configuration after faults oc‐
cur. A facilitator agent was developed to act as a manager for the decision process. The existence of the facilitator agents make the methodology centralized. Liu et al [37] put forward another restoration method for the power system. How‐
ever, this method is also centralized because the restoration decision is made with the help of coordinating agents that have global information in the MAS. Nagata et al [50] improved the method proposed in [22]. In the MAS proposed in [50], the coordi‐
nation functions were distributed to several fa‐
cilitator agents instead of one facilitator agent. The facilitator agents coordinate with each other autonomously. However, each facilitator agent works as centralized coordinator in the local area. So the MAS proposed in that work is not completely decentralized. The proposed restora‐
tion can only be applied to a radial power sys‐
tem. Also, the reconfiguration method was tested on a small power system simulated on a PC. The agents’ performance in the restoration for a large power system was not provided. Wang et al [24] proposed a fuzzy logic and evolu‐
tionary programming based reconfiguration methodology for distribution systems. In this MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
research, a fuzzy mutation controller is imple‐
mented to adaptively update the mutation rate during the evolutionary process. The objective of the reconfiguration is to reduce the power loss in the distribution system. Zhou et al [25] put forward another fuzzy logic based reconfigura‐
tion methodology for distribution system. A fuzzy logic based reconfiguration was developed for the purpose of restoration and load balanc‐
ing in a real‐time operation environment. Kuo and Hsu [26] proposed a service restoration methodology using fuzzy logic approach. In this research, the fuzzy logic based approach was estimated the loads in a distribution system and devised a proper service restoration plan follow‐
ing a fault. Various methods have been applied to the re‐
configuration process of the terrestrial power system. However, most of the reconfiguration methodologies are centralized. A central control‐
ler is a requirement to gather data from the power system, make reconfiguration decisions after calculation and analysis. Shipboard Power System Reconfiguration Compared to the terrestrial power systems, the SPS has its unique characteristics. Based on the unique characteristics of the SPS, some recon‐
figuration methods have been proposed. Some of the significant literature of the SPS reconfigu‐
ration process of the SPS is reviewed below. Butler and Sarma [27] propose a heuristics based general reconfiguration methodology for AC radial SPSs. The reconfiguration process is applied to the SPS for service restoration. The reconfiguration process is based on the initial configuration and desired configuration details of the system, such as the list of load con‐
nected /disconnected to the SPS, list of available component (cables, circuit breakers, etc) in the SPS, etc. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
ogy can achieve the online adaptive identifica‐
tion for control in real time power plant opera‐
tion and offline identification for fault diagnosis. Enacheanu et al [21] proposed a distribution sys‐
tem architecture that can make the reconfigura‐
tion in the power easy to achieve. The reconfigu‐
ration in that work is to locate and isolate the faults in the power system. A remote agent is used in that work as a central controller for the reconfiguration of power systems. 90
Srivastava and Butler [32] proposed an auto‐
matic rule based expert system for the recon‐
figuration process of an SPS. The objective of the reconfiguration process is to supply the de‐
energized loads after battle damage or cascading faults. In the event of battle damage or cascad‐
ing faults, a failure assessment (FAST) system detects faults, identifies faulted components in damaged sections, and determines de‐energized loads. The reconfiguration method uses the out‐
put of a FAST system, real time data, topology information and electrical parameters of various components to perform reconfiguration for load restoration of an SPS. Again Srivastava and Butler [33] proposed a probability based pre‐hit reconfiguration method. In this research, the reconfiguration actions are determined on the estimation of the damage that a weapon hit may cause before the weapon hit happens. The objective of the recon‐
figuration in this work is to restore the service in SPS and reduce the damage caused by weapon hit. This probabilistic reconfiguration methodol‐
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
ogy has two major modules: weapon damage assessment (WDA) module and pre‐hit recon‐
figuration module. The main goal of the WDA is to compute the expected probability of damage (EPOD) value for each electrical component in an SPS. The pre‐hit reconfiguration module takes the EPOD calculated by WDA as the input, and determines the reconfiguration actions to re‐
duce the damage to the SPS that may be caused by the weapon hit. Again the same author, Butler and Sarma [34] pro‐
posed automated self‐healing strategy for recon‐
figuration for service restoration in Naval SPS. A model of the 3‐D layout of the electrical network of shipboard power system using a geographical infor‐
mation system was explained. A self‐healing system is a system that when subjected to a contingency (or threat) is able to access the impact of the contin‐
gency, contain it and then automatically perform corrective action to restore the system to the best possible (normal) state to perform its basic func‐
tionality. In recent years, Multi Agent System (MAS) tech‐
nologies have been applied to the reconfigura‐
tion process in SPS. Srivastava et al [30] pro‐
posed MAS based reconfiguration methodology for automatic service restoration in the SPS. In this work, the overall function of the MAS is to detect and locate the fault(s), determine faulted equipments, determine de‐energized loads, and perform an automated service restoration on the SPS to restore de‐energized loads. The MAS also gives an output list of restorable loads and switching actions required to restore each load. The restoration methodology proposed in this research work is not completely decentralized. Feliachi et al [35] proposed a new scheme for an energy management system in the form of the distributed control agents for the reconfigura‐
tion of the SPS. The control agents’ task is to en‐
sure supply of the various load demands while | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Again Butler and Sarma [28] put forward an opti‐
mization method that can be applied to the re‐
configuration of SPS. The objective for reconfigu‐
ration is to maximize the load restored in the SPS. A commercial software package is used for solving the optimization problem in the recon‐
figuration process. Butler and Sarma [29] im‐
prove the reconfiguration methodology pro‐
posed in [28]. The reconfiguration methodology is similar to the reconfiguration methodology proposed in [28]. However, in this work, more constraints, such as voltage constraints for buses in the SPS, are applied to the reconfiguration compared to the work in [28]. In [27] and [28], the reconfiguration methodology is imple‐
mented by using a commercial optimization soft‐
ware, which cannot provide a real time perform‐
ance. 91
Solanki et al [34] proposed an MAS reconfigura‐
tion methodology for SPS. In this work the re‐
configuration process can isolate the fault and restore the power supply quickly and autono‐
mously. Also, this reconfiguration methodology can be applied only to radial SPS. Solanki and Schulz [36] demonstrated the MAS for the re‐
configuration of the SPS and the implementa‐
tion of the MAS. In the simulation of the recon‐
figuration process in [36] and [34], the MAS and SPS are implemented on the same PC. The com‐
munication bandwidth of the MAS cannot be researched by using this simulation platform. Sun et al [37] put forward a complete reconfigu‐
ration methodology for the reconfiguration of the SPS. The objective of the reconfiguration is to restore the loads in the SPS. The research is no central controller in the MAS. Each agent works independently and autonomously. The reconfiguration methodology proposed in this research, cannot be applied to SPSs with ring and mesh structure. E.J. William [48] proposed an Artificial Neural Network Algorithm (ANN) to determine fault locations on shipboard Electrical Distribution System (EDS). It traces the location of the fault on SPS. The EDS is protected when faults are lo‐
cated and isolated as quickly as possible. The goal is to increase the availability of shipboard EDS by locating and isolating faults by using MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Power system CAD (PSCAD) and ANN analysis. However the only problem with this is that the fault path accuracy is unpredictable and require sensitive current measurement device. Kai Huang and Srivastava [42] proposed a novel Algorithm for agent Based Reconfiguration of Ring‐structured Shipboard Power System. The goal of this research is to avoid the redundant information accumulation (RIA) problem in a multi‐agent system during the reconfiguration process of SPS. The RIA problem is like a posi‐
tive feedbacks loop and makes the information flow in the system unstable. Thus, the authors use the spanning tree protocol to detect and break the ring structure in an agent system. Discussion The literature review has revealed some impor‐
tant points which most of the reconfiguration methodologies for terrestrial power system and SPS are centralized solutions. Also, the simula‐
tion scenarios in these researches are not in real time and cannot provide the bandwidth require‐
ment latency performance of the system. From the analysis, the number of the researcher for terrestrial power system is greater than ship‐
board power system (SPS). There are only a few numbers of researchers who explore in the area of shipboard power system. Most of the cases are studied by the same researchers like Sarma, Buttler and Sarasvarti. The number of researches which focus on reconfiguration on fault location for shipboard power system is very few as com‐
pared to the terrestrial power system. From the literature, several approaches and methods have been proposed in the reconfigura‐
tion process for SPS. They vary in term of func‐
tions and applications. Many classical techniques have been employed for the solution of the re‐
configuration problem such as genetic algo‐
rithms (GA)[44,45], simulated annealing [12], | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
taking into account of system constraints and load priorities. A graph theoretic self‐stabilizing maximum flow algorithm for the implementation of the agents’ strategies has been developed to find a global solution using load information and a minimum amount of communication. Although a simulation platform is developed to implement parts of the reconfiguration system, the simula‐
tion platform proposed in [35] is not a real time solution and cannot provide bandwidth require‐
ment and latency performance of the system. 92
More recently, a new evolutionary computation technique, called Differential Evolutionary (DE) algorithm has been proposed and introduced [8]. The algorithm is inspired by biological and socio‐
logical motivations and can take care of optimal‐
ity on rough, discontinuous and multi‐modal sur‐
faces. The DE has three main advantages: it can find near optimal solution regardless the initial parameter values, its convergence is fast and it uses few number of control parameter. In addi‐
tion, DE is simple in coding, easy to use and it can handle integer and discrete optimization. The performance of DE algorithm was compared to that of different heuristic techniques. It is found that the convergence speed of DE is sig‐
nificantly better than GA[10]. Meanwhile in [12], the performance of DE was compared to PSO. The comparison was performed on suite of 34 widely used benchmark problems. It was found that, DE is the best performing algorithm as it finds the lowest fitness value for most of the problems considered in that study. Also, DE is robust: it is able to reproduce the same results consistently over many trials, whereas the per‐
formance of PSO is far more dependent on the randomized initialization of the individuals [12]. In addition, the DE algorithm has been used to solve high dimensional function optimization (up to 1000 dimensions) [12]. It is found that, it has superior performance on a set of widely used benchmark functions. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Conclusion From the observation of the previous works, most of the reconfiguration objectives in meth‐
odology are almost similar even the methods utilized are different. Among the most familiar objectives are minimizing the fuel cost, maximize the load restored, improving the voltage profile and enhancing power system voltage stability in both normal and contingency conditions. The results are compared to those reported in the literature. Among the methods proposed, DE algorithm seems to be promising approach for engineering problem due to the great character‐
istics and its advantages. A novel DE‐based ap‐
proach is proposed to solve the reconfiguration for service restoration problem in shipboard power system in recent year. However, GA algo‐
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sity of Idaho, Moscow. [49] T. Nagata, H. Fujita, H. Sasaki, Nov. 2005. “Decentralized Approach to Normal Operations for Power System Network”, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems. [50] Wu, J.S.; Tomsovic, K.L. and Chen, C.S., Oct. 1991. “A Heuristic Search Approach to Feeder Switching Operations for Overload, Faults, Unbalanced Flow and Maintenance”, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 1579‐
1586. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
[27] Butler, K. L, Sarma, N.D.R., Jan. 2000. “General Recon‐
figuration Methodology for AC Radial Shipboard Power Systems”, IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, 2000, vol. 2, pp.23‐27. 95
Feature Article 8
MOVING FORWARD TO BE A HIGH PERFORMANCE CULTURE ORGANIZATION: A CASE OF UNIVERSITY KUALA LUMPUR AZIZ ABDULLAH* Department of Marine Construction and Maintenance Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 6 September 2010; Revised: 28 September 2010; Accepted: 28 September 2010 ABSTRACT This brief paper seeks to expound the move forward undertaken by University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) to be a high perform‐
ance culture organization within a significant short period of time since its inception in early 2002. It further explores organizational sharing of shared core values held by members that help distinguish it from other similar organizations that offer a wide range of engineering technology courses in the higher education sector. It seeks to show that high per‐
formance culture of UniKL is made possible through a strong commitment by all members to excel in whatever they aspire to achieve. Keyword: Core Values, High Performance Culture, Commitment, Integrity, Innovation, Teamwork, Excellence University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL) was estab‐
lished in 2002 with the vision to make it a leading technical entrepreneurial university in Malaysia and the region. To realize this vision it focuses on the ‘hands on’ that stresses more on the application of knowledge. Its mission, thus, is to produce enterprising global technical entrepreneurs in specific technical areas of specialization namely, Com‐
puter Engineering and Telecommunication, Aviation, Automotive, Product Design and Manufacturing, Chemical and Bioengineering Technology, Medical Sciences and Marine Engineering Technology. UniKL is wholly owned by MARA under the Ministry of Rural and Regional Development and mandated by the government to upgrade the status of technical education in Malaysia. It has ten (10) branch campuses offering vari‐
ous diplomas, foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, that focus on *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909048 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
providing strong technological knowledge and entrepreneurial skills to fulfill the de‐
mands of industries. It practices the concept of ‘One Campus, One Specialization’, eg UniKL MIMET (Lumut branch campus) spe‐
cializes in marine engineering technology with focus on ship design and construction, while UniKL MIAT (Sepang branch campus) specializes in aviation technology. In ensuring the knowledge and capabilities of its graduates meet local industry needs it ac‐
tively collaborates with various ministries and agencies such as the Ministry of Entrepre‐
neur and Co‐operative Development (MECD); marine, civil aviation and transport depart‐
ments, as well as other related local and in‐
ternational relevant organizations that deal, among others, in aviation and maritime ac‐
tivities to help ensure standards of gradu‐
ates’ proficiency and skills match the indus‐
try’s specific needs. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
INTRODUCTION 96
LITERATURE REVIEW In transforming UniKL’s traditional culture to‐
wards a performance ‐ driven culture the need to understand organizational structure and man‐
agement styles across cultures was further ex‐
plored (Dimitrov, 2005). Issues on culture, dif‐
ferences, motivation, and diversity were ex‐
plored in order to gain further understanding with regards to similar issues at UniKL. Exploring of culture dimensions (Hofstede, 1980a) that identified dimensions along which organizational cultures differ, namely individual‐
ism, uncertainty avoidance, power distance and masculinity help provide a glimpse of how those dimensions fit into UniKL’s culture transforma‐
tional drive. It was observed that the cultural dimensions as expounded by Hofstede were pre‐
sent within the organizational culture of UniKL but they were within a positive context namely, there is a high degree of collectivism, low uncer‐
tainty avoidance, low power distance and equal balance of gender responsibility. These observa‐
tions would help inculcate stronger bonding among organizational members of UniKL. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Examining the relationship between organiza‐
tional culture and transformational leadership (Xenikou and Simosi, 2006) revealed that trans‐
formational leadership of organizational culture influences organizational performance. The group further explored the findings to help it rationalize UniKL’s transformation from its tradi‐
tional culture towards one that extols a perform‐
ance driven organizational culture. UniKL’s organizational culture is uniquely differ‐
ent from other institutions of higher learning because it focuses more on application of knowl‐
edge (the hands‐on), without reducing the im‐
portance of knowledge acquisition itself. Thus, further review (Rchildress and Esenn, 2006) on findings concerning the combination of knowl‐
edge and skill that can be shared along the same parallels with UniKL’s transformation towards a performance‐driven culture was sought. It re‐
vealed, among other things, a finding that in or‐
der to achieve high performance, the secret lies in developing personal core values and behaviors that can help unlock the potential power of high‐
performance teams through individuals, which in turn, can help produce winning organizations. SIGNIFICANCE OF PAPER This paper is significantly important be‐
cause it involves, among others, a specific study on the organizational culture of a local university that collectively bears part of a crucial common responsibility with other universities in helping to sustain Malaysia as a competitive nation in producing qualified and capable professionals through its training and educational system to meet the increasing demands of Malaysia’s busi‐
ness and industrial growth. In exploring further on how organizational culture may influence to help achieve competitive advantage in an educa‐
tional organization that produces qualified and | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Positive transformation from its traditional or‐
ganizational culture towards a performance‐
driven culture helps UniKL’s success in remaining competitive and excelling in the areas of techni‐
cal entrepreneurship. This success was mani‐
fested through the Ministry of Higher Educa‐
tion’s announcement on July 12, 2010 with re‐
spect to the rating for Institutions of Higher Learning (Setara) that extolled UniKL as one of the top 18 universities of Malaysia to attain the ‘Excellent’ rating. This high rating is attributable to its entrepreneurial achievements driven by a strong organizational performance–driven cul‐
ture. This culture refers to an accepted set of organizational core values that serve as the foun‐
dation for the transformation process. 97
UNDERSTANDING OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CULTURE (HPC) Organizational Culture, in simple term, is the way organizational members do things in their or‐
ganization. It is a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations (Robbins and Judge, 2009). Culture drives an organization, its actions and results. It guides how employees think, act and feel. It is the "operating system" of the company, the organizational DNA. A perform‐
ance culture is based on discipline. This disci‐
pline promotes decisiveness and standards of excellence and ensures direct accountability. Such discipline is a main reason why commit‐
ments and expectations are always clear. As such, high performance organization is one that gives more focus and commitment to achieve better results through a performance ‐ driven culture. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
MAKING HIGH PERFORMANCE CULTURE WORK Four basic factors that contribute towards making high performance culture works at UniKL have been identified. Although these factors are commonly found in most organizations, it is appropriate that they are further elaborated for better understand‐
ing. The factors are as follows; Openness and trust: When there is openness and trust, frankness prevails. Frankness is encouraged because it implies a willingness to speak the unspeakable. An environment of trust reduces defensiveness when issues are raised. People react more hon‐
estly, ask questions more frequently, and are more spontaneous with their comments and ideas. The organization derives greater value from its talent, and employees get to develop their competence and contribute to success. Managed differences: Interpersonal differences result in conflicts. Con‐
flicts are addressed and unfulfilled commitments are exposed. This results in better ability to learn from the conflicts and take proactive action to correct potential differences. Alternatives and options are looked at without a pre‐determined outcome when people become less presumptu‐
ous. People express real opinions and move be‐
yond the perceived "safe talk." Issues can then be resolved more effectively. Simplicity and focus: Making things simple, less complex and being more focused ensures precise focus is directed towards implementation of objectives with clar‐
ity and precision that define what needs to be accomplished and how to accomplish it. There is a commitment at all levels to remove, not add, complexity from the way of doing business. Be‐
ing result‐driven and having fun are not seen as | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
capable professionals to meet Malaysia’s indus‐
try needs, it has been decided that the focus should be on a local technical university. Uni‐
versity Kuala Lumpur (UniKL), that was founded through a national agenda to upgrade the status of technical education in Malaysia to a level that can help meet the needs of local industries and sustain Malaysia’s economic growth towards a developed‐nation status by year 2020 is consid‐
ered suitable for this study. A study of the or‐
ganizational culture of UniKL was chosen be‐
cause it is a good example of an educational or‐
ganization that has managed to go through an organizational culture transformation from a traditional to a performance‐driven culture. It is therefore most appropriate that lessons learnt from this transformation be shared for the bene‐
fit of everyone. 98
Playing to people's strengths: Leaders know their people and effectively match talent and task. Matching talent and task helps reduce wasted talent. Overly talented people may however complement those less talented to help in the smooth running of departments within UniKL. Leaders understand their people's strengths and how best to elicit these strengths from them. These organizational members focus more on building synergies, learning and build‐
ing on strengths and opportunities that help re‐
duce internal weaknesses and neutralizing exter‐
nal threats rather than on merely closing gaps that may only help address current problems, not potential or future problems. of organizational members with respect to the Key Performance Index (KPI) of UniKL. Under each core value UniKL further itemizes three (3) sub‐performance dimensions known as Stan‐
dards Behavior of Excellence (SBE) that provides a measurement on a Scale of 1 to 5. Thus, the performance of every organizational member of UniKL can be measured and weaknesses cor‐
rected to ensure that UniKL’s quest for high per‐
formance culture organization can be achieved and maintained by its organizational members. The core values and their sub‐performance di‐
mensions are as listed below; 

Punctual. Gets things done  Delivers results  Integrity  Honest.  Honors promises.  Complies with rules and regula‐
tions.  Teamwork  Cooperative.  Provides support.  Puts organization first  Innovation  Competitive.  Generates and shares ideas.  Makes things better  Excellence  Passionate.  Performs beyond expectation.  Strives to be the best 
CORE VALUES AND STANDARDS BEHAVIOR OF EXCELLENCE (SBE) Core values are the primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organi‐
zation. In striving for high performance culture, UniKL had chosen a strong culture that has a greater impact on employee behavior. It is ob‐
served that UniKL’s strong culture results in the organization’s core values being both intensely held and widely shared by organizational mem‐
bers. Consistently, a strong culture can have a great influence on the behavior of its members because its high degree of sharing and intensity creates an internal climate of high behavioral control. The five (5) primary or dominant core values that are intensely held and widely shared by organ‐
izational members throughout the organization are identified as commitment, integrity, team‐
work, innovation and excellence. These core val‐
ues form the basis for the performance appraisal MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Commitment | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
mutually exclusive, but rather compatible and dependent on one another. Changes occur, as do positive results. 99
Table 1. Measurements for Commitment Commitment This core value refers to the willingness to do or act beyond the normal call of duty. Objectives are pursued until they are achieved. Organiza‐
tional members shall never give up and shall overcome all obstacles or challenges to achieve the organizational objectives. Nothing less than success is acceptable. In other words, commit‐
ment is not just the willingness to work due to some form of motivation but rather the willing‐
ness to do something for the love of doing it, for the joy and fun of doing it. The reward or satisfaction is when the job is completed with MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
the highest quality. Table 1 shows the meas‐
urements for ‘Commitment’. Integrity This is a trait in us which makes us completely trust‐
worthy in all situations, at all times and everywhere. A person with integrity will not succumb to tempta‐
tions, carnal desires, self‐gratification or personal ambition. He values his honour more than anything else. Integrity is higher than ethics in that one may be ethical in office or home but not so outside the office or home. A person of integrity on the other hand will be ethical all the time, in all situations and everywhere. Table 2 shows the measurements for ‘Integrity’. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
100
Table 3. Measurements for Teamwork MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Table 2. Measurements for Integrity 101
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
Innovation Innovative spirit refers to a readiness to look for better ways of doing things. A better way could be a faster way or a cheaper way or more effi‐
cient way of doing things. An innovative person is never satisfied with the status quo. He is not complacent and will always feel that the room for improvement is the largest in the world. One of Matsushita’s engineers told him that he could no longer improve the design of the face of the TV they were producing. Matsushita told him, “how come the human face can have billions of different features on much smaller size than the face of a TV. I am sure you can create new de‐
signs given that the face of the TV is much bigger than the face of a human being”. Table 4 below shows the measurements for ‘Innovation’. Table 4. Measurements for Innovation | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Teamwork This trait refers to the “I” versus “We”. A team player is selfless and is always concerned about the whole team rather than his own self. In‐
deed, others are looked upon as either equals or even more important than his own self. A team player is usually more open‐minded, ready to acknowledge his own weaknesses in order to turn them into strengths. One who cannot admit mistakes are either foolish, igno‐
rant, arrogant or egoistic. Such people cannot be a team player, unless he or she is prepared to change. Table 3 shows the measurements for ‘Teamwork’. 102
Table 5. Measurements for Excellence Excellence Excellence is the highest or the best quality one can achieve. According to a Hadith, the Holy Prophet was reported to have said, “Whatever you do, you must do well”. In other words, a Muslim cannot be doing anything that is not of high quality. Unfortunately, most often the qual‐
ity of our work is always low. The Qur’an uses the word “al‐ihsan” to mean excellence which is higher than that required to be “just” or “fair”. Indeed, justice or fairness is the minimum stan‐
dard that is required by the Qur’an. This is be‐
cause Islam does not allow us to be unfair or un‐
just. “To excel” means to extol the virtues of “al‐
ihsan” which in one definition “to do something as though you see Allah, and since you cannot see Allah, know that He sees you”. Table 5 be‐
low shows the measurements for ‘Excellence’. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
SUCCESS FACTOR OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CULTURE Success of High Performance Culture is attrib‐
uted to the fact that when an organization has clearly articulated strategic intent and core val‐
ues, along with disciplined people, it needs less hierarchy. When organizational members have disciplined thought, they need less bureaucracy. When they have disciplined action and strong leadership capability, they need less excessive controls. This is especially true with a reduced hierarchy within the organization of UniKL. The top management is easily reachable by all organ‐
izational members, more so in this era of im‐
proved means of communication that brought about advances in Information and Communica‐
tion technology. Although the organizational structure of UniKL is far from the flattened or contemporary structure commonly found in typical dynamic organiza‐
tions, the structure itself creates less bureauc‐
racy that requires less excessive controls. It is observed that the main factor contributing to‐
wards the success of UniKL becoming a high per | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
103
formance culture organization is the transforma‐
tion from its traditional culture towards a per‐
formance‐driven culture organization as charac‐
terized by the following Figure 1. Looking at the attributes of a performance–
driven culture a critical point that can be ob‐
served is the focus on the external. Focusing on the external includes external stakeholders such as the customers as well as own family mem‐
bers. UniKL’s most important customer, namely the students, is the actual drivers who drive or‐
ganizational members to become high perform‐
ance workers through the embrace of a positive work culture. The role of high‐performance workers would not be sustainable without balancing work and fam‐
ily lives. Proper balancing of work and family lives by organizational members that is well sup‐
ported by management helps sustain high per‐
formance‐driven culture in the organization. On MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
the contrary, traditional organizational work cul‐
ture would have focused on the internal, which is directed more towards own self, while neglect‐
ing important external stakeholders. Sourcing on issues concerning balancing work and family (Peter Berg et al., 2003) revealed that the culture of the workplace can have a signifi‐
cant impact on the ability of workers to balance their work and family lives. The article further examined the effects of high‐performance work practices on workers’ views about whether the company helps them balance work and family. Based on previous surveys the article managed to show that a high‐commitment work environ‐
ment characterized by high‐performance work practices and intrinsically rewarding jobs posi‐
tively influences workers’ perceptions that the organization is helping them achieve this work and family balance. This finding is in line with what exists at UniKL with regards to work life balance, rewards and recognition. Like in any other organizational culture, making it succeed and maintaining its success would | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Figure 1. UniKL transforming its traditional culture to a per‐
formance‐driven culture 104
overall performance measurements as trans‐
lated through annual organizational KPI that results in fair rewards and benefits. have become a major issue without manage‐
ment’s commitment with regards to rewards and recognition, and UniKL is no exception. Con‐
versely, high performance culture comes with a conviction that without management’s commit‐
ment with regards to rewards and recognition UniKL may not be able to sustain its high per‐
formance‐driven culture.  The change from UniKL’s traditional organ‐
izational culture to a performance ‐ driven culture helps transform the university to be‐
come a high performance culture organiza‐
tion within a short period of time since in‐
ception in 2002. members who extol the virtues of “al‐ihsan” which means “to do something as though you see Allah, and since you cannot see Al‐
lah, know that He sees you” it implies that they are taking their commitment towards their work to a spiritual level beyond nor‐
mal ethical dimensions. REFERENCES 1. Berg, P., Kalleberg, A., and Appelbaum, E. (2003). Balanc‐
ing Work and Family: The Role of High‐Commitment Envi‐
ronments, Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol 42 Issue 2, Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2. Dimitrov, D. (2005). Cultural Differences for Organizational Learning and Training. International Journal of the Diver‐
sity, Vol 5, No 4, Common Ground Publishing. 3. Hofstede, G (1980a). Culture’s Consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage 4. Robbins, S.P and Judge, T.A.(2009). Organizational Behav‐
ior. 13th Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, USA. 5. Rchildress, J and Esenn, D. (2006). Secret of A Wining Cul‐
ture: Building High‐Performance Teams. Prentice Hall, India. Xenikou, A and Simosi, M, (2006). Organizational Culture and Transformational Leadership as Predictors of Business Unit Performance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol 21 Issue 6, Emerald Group Publishing Ltd. 6.  Organizational sharing of shared values held by members helps distinguish it from other similar organizations that offer a wide range of engineering technology courses in the higher education sector.  High performance culture of UniKL is made possible by a strong commitment by mem‐
bers to excel in whatever they aspire to achieve. Strong commitment is reinforced through effective and transparent evaluation of organizational members’ core values and MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Evaluation of organizational members’ core val‐
ues and overall performance measurements as translated through the organizational KPI results in the following rewards and benefits;  Annual Increment  Promotion  Recognition & Awards  Merit Increment  Merit Performance Reward/Bonus  Special Incentives , that include Umrah, Vacation, Training  Retirement Benefits, that include golden handshake, gratuity, higher employer contribution of EPF CONCLUSION  Within the context of UniKL’s organizational 105
Feature Article 9
TIME‐DOMAIN SIMULATION OF PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION LINE MOHD YUZRI MOHD YUSOP* Deputy Dean Academic & Technology Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 28 October 2010; Revised: 2 November 2010; Accepted: 2 November 2010 ABSTRACT Pneumatic equipment is widely used in industries for transferring energy or signal. Efficient modelling and simulation in time domain for gas filled transmission line is of great importance that will provide the foundation for complex pneu‐
matic systems. The basic physical relationships in pneumatics are well established. In this paper, the finite difference model combined with the lumped model is used to simulate the dynamics of air filled polyurethane pneumatic transmis‐
sion line in time domain. Compared with the experimental data, the simulation results show certain consistency, espe‐
cially in the response frequency. The radial expansion of the transmission line due to high working pressure is also con‐
sidered in the simulation algorithm. INTRODUCTION In recent decade, there has been great devel‐
opments and interest in utilising pneumatic system as a transmission medium. Advan‐
tages of pneumatic systems are that pneu‐
matic components are relatively cheap reli‐
able and can be easily and cheaply main‐
tained. It is also much cleaner than hydraulic systems. However, the elastic nature of the compressed air will pose difficulties in achiev‐
ing high accuracy control. There are mature theories on steady state analysis of pneumatic systems but the dy‐
namic analysis of pneumatic systems still re‐
quires further research. Manning (1968) used the method of characteristics for pneumatic line flows. The perfect gas state equation and the isentropic relations, together with the perfect gas relation for sonic velocity are used to replace the density and pressure in the continuity and momentum equations by using *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909004 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
the velocity terms. For simplicity, the heat transfer, viscosity, three‐dimensional effects and local changes in entropy across travelling pressure waves are neglected. The determi‐
nation of characteristic lines is the key point of this method. Separating the transmission line into sections and treating each of them as a volume in time‐domain simulation has pre‐
viously been investigated by Krus (1999) and (Xue and Yusop, 2005). Krus (1999) established the distributed model according to the state principle of thermody‐
namics. (Xue and Yusop, 2005) meanwhile utilise the equation of flow passing through an orifice to calculate the mass flow rate. Considering the transmission line as an elec‐
tric circuit, the time domain models were established by Franco (2004). This paper in‐
vestigates the time domain simulation of a pneumatic transmission line. The one‐
dimensional Navier‐Stokes equations are | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Keywords: Pneumatic, transmission line, time‐domain simulation, finite‐difference, lumped modelling. 106
MATHEMATICAL MODEL For a general three‐dimensional Navier‐Stokes equation, the following assumptions are made: 1. The swirl of the working fluid in each cross sec‐
Figure 1: Experiment Set‐Up The valve is opened until the transmission line reaches a steady state. The valve is then closed and the system is allowed to reach a different steady state. Pressure transducers are used to record the pressure during this process. At the same time a mass flow meter is used to record the steady state mass flow rate. The simulation is then performed to verify the transient proc‐
ess of the fluid in the transmission line after the valve is fully closed. The blocked transmission line is considered to have N number of segments. Hence N numbers of pressure transducers are needed to capture the changes in air pressures along a 4m polyure‐
thane pneumatic transmission line which has an internal diameter of 5.0mm and a thickness of 1.5mm. The change in system temperature is not considered in this study and the temperature is assumed to be constant at an ambient tempera‐
ture of 20°C. The change in transmission line di‐
ameter due to high system pressure is consid‐
ered during the simulation. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
tion along the transmission line is omitted. 2. The change in fluid properties along the radial direction is omitted. 3. Perfect gas is considered p   RT
‐ The equations are then reduced to one‐dimensional format as follows: For continuity equation:  
 u x   0 (1) t x
and for momentum equation: | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
used to model the pneumatic transmission line Tannehill et al. (1997), which combines the lumped model (Xue and Yusop, 2005) to simulate the air dynamics in the transmission line. The experiment set‐up is shown in Figure 1. (2) where ρ is the density, ux being the velocity along the axial direction, p is the pressure, R is the gas constant, T is the system temperature and μ is the dynamic viscosity. 107
In order to update the boundary conditions, the first and the last segments are considered as two volumes (Xue and Yuzri, 2005). The equation used to calculate the mass flow rate passing through the orifice is used, which is: M d  C d  C m  A  Pu
Tu diameter changes can then be determined. Ex‐
periment results are listed in Table 1. Pressure [bar]
Liquid Height [mm]
0
95.82
1
94.46
2
93.72
3
92.32
4
91.59
5
90.85
6
89.27
7
88.37
(3) where the mass flow parameter is as shown below in equation (4). Cm 
 P  2   P
2
  vc    vc
R   1   Pu 
 Pu




 1  

 (4) 
M d is the mass flow rate passing the orifice while Cd is the discharge coefficient. A is the ori‐
fice cross‐sectional area, Pu is the upstream stag‐
nation pressure (absolute), Tu is the upstream stagnation temperature (absolute), γ is the spe‐
cific heat ratio and Pvc is the static pressure at the vena contracta or throat. Pvc
 0 . 528
Ps
Equation 4 is only valid when Cm will be constant at a value of 0.0405. Note that the ratio of specific heats g for air is 1.4. Table 1: Transmission Line Diameter Calibrations It is assumed that the high pressure applied only ex‐
EXPERIMENT AND SIMULATION The transmission line diameter is first calibrated by experiment to determine the influence of the system pressure onto changes in its radial dimen‐
sion. Highly incompressible liquid (water) is in‐
jected into a polyurethane transmission line which is blocked at one end. Different pressures are then applied to the other end. By recording changes in the liquid height, the transmission line MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
pands the transmission line along the radial direction and do not influence the dimension along the axial direction. The initial volume occupied by the water is 3
1 . 88  10  6 m . Based on the assumption above, the relationship between the applied pressure and the internal diameter of the transmission line is as shown in Figure 2. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Otherwise the flow is considered to be choked and 108
Figure 2: Transmission Line Diameter Calibrations The relationship between the transmission line di‐
5
ameter and the d  3 10 p  0.005 applied pres‐
ducers are used to record pressures corre‐
sponding to the N segments, and a mass flow meter is used to record air mass flow rate under the steady state condition. All these recorded values are then used as the system initial condi‐
tions for the simulation. The transient pressure values recorded by the pressure transducers at different positions along the transmission line Figure 3: Experiment Results for Blocked Transmission sure is as shown in equation (5). (5) The valve is first opened until the transmission line reaches a steady state. N pressure trans‐
Line (PT=Measured Pressure by Pressure Transducer) when the valve is closed are as shown in Figure 3. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
109
  
The dynamic viscosity in equa‐
tion (2) can be presented as shown below: (6) where ν is the kinematic viscosity. 128 M d l  p 
Before the simulation is 4
d
(7) Note that is the pressure drop along a segment, and l is the segment length. By means of measured steady state pressure values, the calculated kinematic viscosity ν is identified as 0.00011m2/s. For solving the partial differential equations (1) and conducted, the kinematic viscosity needs to be determined and this is done by utilising equation (7) as shown below: MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
(2), the rational numerical discrete method is used. Here, upwind method is used to discretize the | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
p
110
Figure 4: Comparisons between Simulation and Experiment Results (PS=Simulated Pressure) DISCUSSION The transmission line diameter calibration experi‐
ment shows that the relationship between the di‐
ameter and the exerted pressure is close to linear. This is then applied to the simulation algorithm to investigate the influence of the working pressure on the transmission line diameter expansion as shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 shows the pressure response in the transmission line after the valve is closed. When the valve is fully closed, the air will continue to flow downstream of the transmission line due to the presence of higher pressure and momentum at the upstream of the transmission line. There‐
fore the pressure downstream of the transmis‐
sion line will continue to increase until it reaches a peak value at which the velocity downstream is close to zero. The fluid then starts to flow in the opposite direction in the transmission line since the pressure downstream is larger than the pres‐
sure upstream. When the upstream pressure reaches new peak value, the fluid flows down‐
stream again. This process repeats itself though the peak pressure values reached as the time progresses at different transmission line posi‐
tions will gradually decreases due to the viscosity effect imposed on the travelling air. Finally, the system reaches a new steady state in which all the pressures along the transmission line arrived at a same constant value. A combined transmission line model is proposed in this paper. The simulation is based on the com‐
bination of finite difference model McCloy (1980) and lumped model (Xue and Yusop, 2005). The lumped model is used to update the boundary MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
conditions, which is then applied to the first and the last segments. The parameters for the other segments are updated by means of finite differ‐
ence model in the simulation algorithm. Simulation results show good consistency com‐
pared with the experiment data especially in the pressure frequency response. The simulation re‐
sults also show that the air in the transmission line took a longer time to reach a new steady state compared with the experiment results. This is due to the fact that perfect gas is assumed. Per‐
fect gas assumes that the force between the at‐
oms or molecules in the gas is negligible. The oc‐
cupied volume of the atoms or molecules in the gas is also omitted under perfect gas conditions. On the other hand, under real gas conditions, due to the existence of the aforementioned factors, the influence of friction on the working fluid is larger. Furthermore when the atoms or molecules in the air hit the blocked end of the transmission line with a certain momentum, some of these at‐
oms or molecules are bounced back from the blocked end of the transmission line which is in the opposite direction of the air flow. The direct influence of this is a reduction in the total air en‐
ergy and this result in an earlier dissipation of the pressure wave in the captured data compared to the simulated results. CONCLUSION A time domain model describing the dynamics of air in a pneumatic transmission line is presented by con‐
sidering changes in air density, pressure and mass flow rate. The combined models are proposed to simulate the dynamics of trapped air in a blocked transmission line. In order to update the boundary conditions, the first and the last segments are consid‐
ered as two lumped volumes and these are then con‐
nected to the transmission line segments using an orifice model. The transmission line segments are expressed by means of finite difference model. The effectiveness of the proposed model is depicted | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
PDE equations (1) and (2). Comparisons between simulation and experiment results are as shown in Figure 4.
111
through comparisons of simulated pressure re‐
sponses against pressures measured by practical ex‐
periments. The simulated results can be concluded to be successful since it does match well with the cap‐
tured experimental data though the simulated results show longer system transient state. REFERENCES 1. Franco, W. and Sorli, M. (2004). Time‐domain Models for Pneumatic Transmission Lines. Power Transmission and Motion Control (PTMC 2004). 257‐269. Krus, P. (1999). Distributed Modelling for Simulation of Pneumatic Systems. 4th JHPS International Sympo‐
sium. 443‐452. Manning, J.R. (1968). Computerized Method of Char‐
acteristics Calculations for Unsteady Pneumatic Line Flows. Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Basic Engineering. 231‐240. McCloy, D. (1980). Control of Fluid Power: Analysis and Design. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons. Tannehill, J.C., Anderson, D.A. and Pletcher, R.H. (1997). Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer. 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francis. Xue Y. and Yusop M.Y.M. (2005). Time Domain Simula‐
tion of Air Transmission Lines. 8th International Sympo‐
sium on Fluid Control, Measurement and Visualization (FLUCOME). Paper 277. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
112
Feature Article 10
REQUIREMENTS OF INTERNATIONAL MARITIME LAWS IN THE DESIGN AND CON‐
STRUCTION OF A CHEMICAL TANKER AMINUDDIN MD AROF*, FIRDAUS TASNIM CHE PA, ISMAIL FAHMI JAMHURI, A’DLIN RAJA YAHYA Department of Marine & Design Technology BET Naval Architecture & Shipbuilding Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Received: 28 October 2010; Revised: 2 November 2010; Accepted: 2 November 2010 ABSTRACT A Chemical tanker is a ship that carries chemical products with a high degree of purity and corrosiveness. These types of cargoes are different from other cargoes in that they have a lot more potential for danger to men and the environment. Such dangers could include flammability, toxicity and corrosive properties of extreme nature. In order to reduce the risk of accident, adherence to safety regulations and practices is extremely important. In ensuring safety of chemical tankers at sea, ship builders and ship owners need to observe all legal requirements through various international conventions and codes that have been introduced by IMO to enable their ships meet the qualification for the award of a Certificate of Class for Hull and Machinery issued by recognized Classification Societies on behalf of their flag states. Keywords: IMO, SOLAS, MARPOL The industrial use of chemical grew massively as the wings of globalisation and trade spread over the past several decades. Since the sea surface is the only avenue for transporting goods in bulk quantities across the oceans, the trade of chemicals via the wa‐
ter‐route is of vital importance for the indus‐
try and global trade. Apart from the different types of ships, there are ships which special‐
ize in carrying dangerous chemicals and they are commonly known as chemical tankers. A Chemical tanker is a ship that carries chemical products with a high degree of purity and cor‐
rosiveness. It is generally smaller than prod‐
uct carriers and has many compartments within the cargo tank to enable the simulta‐
neous transportation of various chemical products. Each cargo tank is composed of separate pipelines to prevent pollution of the cargo. These types of cargoes are different *Corresponding Author: Tel.: +605‐6909021 Email address: [email protected] MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
from other cargoes in that they have a lot more potential for danger to men and the environment as compared to other cargoes. Such dangers could include flammability, tox‐
icity and corrosive properties of extreme na‐
ture. Hence, in order to reduce the risk of ac‐
cident, a strict adherence to safety regula‐
tions and practices is extremely important. Safety is the state or condition of being protected against physical, social, psychological, technical, economical or other types of conse‐
quences of failure, damage, error or harm that may either affect human, things or the environ‐
ment. Excellent safety of the ship, her crew and the marine environment starts with a good ship’s structural design. Different ships are sub‐
jected to different risks and for a chemical tanker, the risk is very high. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
INTRODUCTION 113
In ensuring safety of chemical tankers at sea, ship builders and ship owners need to ob‐
serve all legal requirements imposed through various conventions and codes by the Interna‐
tional Maritime Organization (IMO). This will en‐
able their ships meet the qualification for the award of a certificate of Class for Hull and Ma‐
chinery issued by designated classification socie‐
ties. The IMO divides chemical tanker into three (3) groups namely vessels designed to carry the most hazardous cargo; vessels designed to carry less hazardous cargo than the first; and the ves‐
sels designed to carry the least hazardous chemi‐
cals (ICS, 2002). Among IMO’s conventions, the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 (MARPOL) and the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS) are the most important trea‐
ties implemented to ensure the safety of chemi‐
cal tankers. The main criterion for the safety of a chemical tanker is the ship needs to be con‐
structed in double hull. MARPOL was amended in 1992 to make mandatory for tankers of 5,000 dead‐weight‐tonnes (DWT) and above to be fit‐
ted with a double hull after July 1993. Double hull is a hull design and construction method where the bottom and sides of the ship have two complete layers of watertight hull surface. The outer layer acts as the normal hull of the ship, and the inner hull forms a redundant barrier to seawater in case the outer hull is damaged. The space in between the two hull layers is often used as storage tanks for fuel or ballast water. Double hulls are a more extensive safety measure than double bottoms, which have two hull layers only at the bottom of the ship and not the sides. In low energy casualties, double hulls can prevent flooding beyond the penetrated compartment. MARPOL Annex 1 Chapter 4 Regulation 14 had in‐
troduced the requirement to have segregated bal‐
last tanks for all tankers. This means that the ballast tanks which are empty when carrying the cargo and only loaded with ballast water for the return leg must be positioned where the impact of collision likely to be the greatest. The ship should also be included with cofferdam type segregation or bulk‐
head of the sandwich type. The sandwich type bulk‐
head between two adjoining tanks must be at least 760 mm but are usually broader to make it practical for human entry. Class 1 vessels need to be constructed with the emphasis on the prevention of cargo escaping as a result of collision or stranding. The construction specification requires all cargo tanks to be shielded by ballast tank, double bottom and cofferdams. As a result, actual cargo tank bulkheads are protected by void spaces or other tanks. Stability is also taken into account as a result of flooding of one or more wing tanks or void spaces as a result or standing. Vessels in Class 2 must be designed along similar lines, but the criterion is less stringent in some ar‐
eas. Vessels in Class 3 are judged to carry cargo which is less hazardous and are currently not re‐
quired to have an inner and outer skin as in Class 1 and 2. The main restriction appears to be the limited dimensions of any one cargo tank. New vessels over 5000 DWT are required to have double hulls. Figure 1: Different types of Hull MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
LEGAL REQUIREMENTS AND CONSTRAINTS 114
Since chemical products have high pu‐
rity and corrosiveness, corrosion protection and prevention is very important. The popular types of chemical tanker plate material is made from special types of stainless steel with a high resis‐
tant to corrosion from acid. Stainless steel used for bulkheads can be solid stainless steel or mild steel clad with stainless steel. Rubber is some‐
times used to line tanks carrying products mainly acids, which are unsuitable for use with stainless steel or coating. Zinc silicate is fre‐
quently used in tanks designed to carry alcohol as well as some types of solvents and other chemicals. It is necessary to inspect zinc coated bulkhead after they have been dried to ensure the coating has not been softened or otherwise damaged. The sequence of coating application also plays an important rule. If we consider a coating system of two parts (2 coatings), then we should apply the first coating to all tank surfaces for a specific dry film thickness. At this stage, as we approach the ceiling we must cover the tank bottom to avoid any overspray. The requirement for coating application is under MARPOL Annex II (Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Sub‐
stances). Before coating application, the steel temperature and relative air humidity in the tank are two basic factors to observe in ensuring the correct coating application. The application of coating starts from the bottom of the tank to the ceiling, because during application the evapo‐
rated solvents may flow to the bottom of the tank. Hence, the air in the tank is both renewed and dehumidified to keep clean atmosphere and steady temperature and humidity conditions. Some cargoes are required to be carried at certain temperatures. For that reason, heating coils are installed in the cargo tanks to keep the cargo at the required temperature. The heating substance is oil or water coming from a heat exchanger, so en‐
able the cargo to be carried at a desired range of temperatures (ExxonMobil, 2002). Chemical tankers must have a system for tank heating in order to maintain the viscosity of certain cargoes. Typically this system consists of a boiler which pumps pres‐
surized steam through so‐called “heating coils” made from stainless steel pipes in the cargo tanks, thus transferring heat into the cargo, which circu‐
lates in the tank by convection. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
In SOLAS Chapter II‐2, Regulation 4 Para‐
graph 5.5, tankers are also required to be fitted with an inert gas system. With the inert gas system, the protection against a tank explosion is achieved by keeping the oxygen content low. It will reduce the hydrocarbon gas concentration of tank atmosphere to a safe proportion. The problem is that impurities such as carbon and moisture are normally present in flue gases and it is difficult to use a conventional inert gas system with some chemical. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Figure 2: Application of coating Figure 3: Coating application sequence 115
Besides that, IMO also introduced emer‐
gency towing arrangement to enable vessels to be operated and controlled in cases of mechani‐
cal failures. Under SOLAS Chapter II‐1, Regulation 3‐4, as for any other ships, navigational equip‐
ment of tankers needs to be duplicated. All new tankers of 20,000 DWT and above have to be fitted with an emergency towing arrangement fitted at both end of the ships. Figure 5: Emergency towing arrangements
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
In ensuring the safety of personnel and navigation, personal life saving appliances and radio communication system are very important. Under SOLAS Chapter 3 Part B, there is a requirement for at least one lifebuoy on each side of the ship to be fitted with a buoyant lifeline equal in length to not less than twice the height at which it is stowed above the waterline at any time or 30 meters, whichever is greater. Not less than half of the life‐
buoys must have self‐igniting lights, not less than two of which must be provided with self activat‐
ing smoke signals which must be capable of quick release from navi‐
gating bridge. Besides that, a suf‐
ficient number of survival craft shall be carried for persons on‐
board and must be placed at areas that are readily accessible. En‐
closed lifeboat must be provided and for all chemical tanker. Life‐
boats must be equipped with self‐
contained air support system (if the cargo emits toxic gases). In addition, these life‐
boats must afford protection against fire for at least eight minutes (where the cargo is flammable). | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Figure 4 : Typical arrangement of Inert Gas System 116
For safety of navigation, installation of radio communication equipment is important. At least three (3) two‐way VHF radiotelephone apparatus shall be provided on every cargo ship of 500 gross tonnage and upwards. Furthermore, ships also need to be fitted with a Global Mari‐
time Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) for the purpose of providing a maritime mobile service identity. In this case, INMARSAT identity and ship’s serial number may be transmitted by the ship’s equipment and used to identify the ship in emergency situation (SOLAS Regulation 2). Figure 7: Layout cargo pump‐room with carbon dioxide fire‐
extinguishing system MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
Figure 6: Enclosed life boat with self contained air support system A chemical tanker is a vessel that has high risk of explosion. Chemical tanker Kemal Ka suffered explosion on board on 13th June 2010, 13 nautical miles off Almedina, near Chipiona and on 29th Feb‐
ruary 2004, a chemical tanker The Bow Mariner sinks after an explosion off the coast of Virginia. As a result, under SOLAS Chapter II‐2 Regulation 7, fire detection and alarm system must be installed in the tanker especially at places periodically unattended such as machinery spaces, the main propulsion and associated machinery. Smoke detector should be fitted at all stairways, corridors and escape routes. Under regulation 10, ships constructed on or after 1st July 2002, are required to be fitted with suitable fire fighting systems that can be operated from a readily accessible position outside the pump‐room. Cargo pump‐rooms shall be provided with a system suitable for machinery spaces for ships in category A. In this case, a carbon dioxide (CO2) fire‐
extinguishing system complying with the provisions of the Fire Safety Systems Code, such as the alarms giving audible warning of the release of fire extin‐
guishing medium shall be safe for use in a flamma‐
ble cargo vapour/air mixture. A notice shall be ex‐
hibited at the controls stating that, due to the elec‐
trostatic ignition hazard, the system is to be used only for fire extinguishing and not for inerting pur‐
poses. The extin‐
guishing method of CO2 gas is based on the reduction of the oxygen level in air to a certain level of CO2 concentration. Com‐
bustion cannot be sustained in an at‐
mosphere containing a minimum of 34% of CO2. 117
CONCLUSION In a nutshell, each class of vessel needs special requirements due to its unique opera‐
tion. All safety requirements are very important in the process of designing any ship. This is to ensure the vessels to be in seaworthy condition and safe for navigation as well as to avoid any threat either to the crew or goods being carried. The rules and regulations are made after de‐
tailed examinations on the causes of previous accidents at sea. However, these conventions are soft laws and only impose minimum require‐
ments. Flag states, port states, ship classification societies and other law enforcement bodies will then enforce their regulations after adopting the conventions into their own laws or standards. Shipowners will strive to minimize cost and maxi‐
mise profit in the operation of chemical tankers and other vessels. The various legal require‐
ments imposed by IMO will inherently result in higher acquisition and operating costs. Neverthe‐
less, the safety assurance provided by the imple‐
mentation of the various provisions from the IMO conventions should never be underesti‐
mated. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
REFERENCES 1. Baptist, C. (2000), Tanker Handbook for Deck Officers, 8th Edition, Brown, Son & Ferguson Ltd, Glasgow. 2. ExxonMobil (2002), Marine Environmental & Safety Criteria for Industry Vessels in Exxonmobil Service, Exxonmobil. 3. IMO (2004), SOLAS, Consolidated Edition, IMO Publication, London. 4. IMO (2006), MARPOL, Consolidated Edition, IMOPublication, London. 5. ICS (2002), Tanker Safety Guide Chemicals, Third Edition, International Chamber of Shipping, London. | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
When transporting a bulk cargo which is liable to emit a toxic or flammable gas, or cause oxygen depletion in the cargo space, an appro‐
priate instrument for measuring the concentra‐
tion of gas or oxygen in the air shall be provided together with detailed instructions for its use (SOLAS Chapter 6, Regulation 3). In Chapter VII of SOLAS (Carriage of Dangerous Goods) the chemi‐
cal tanker which carries dangerous and hazard‐
ous cargoes are required to carry an appropriate document as evidence of such compliance. The document of compliance is normally issued by a classification society at the same time as the safety equipment certificate is issued. 118
R & D ACTIVITIES
UNIKL MIMET AND ALAM SHIP MANAGEMENT SDN BHD (ASMSB) RESEARCH COLLABORATION STEERING COMMITTEE MEETING
21ST JUNE 2010
UniKL MIMET and Alam Ship Management Sdn Bhd (ASMSB) Collaboration lead to the first Steering Committee Meeting that was attended by nine UniKL MIMET representatives and seven from ASMSB. Two project titles were proposed: Ship Control and Monitoring System (SCAMS) and Testing and Commissioning (T&C) System. Project Technical Team was formed and the MOU contents were reviewed during the meeting. Progress follow up was done through the Project Meeting on the 1st August 2010 whereby UniKL MIMET validated the SCAMS system and on the 18th August 2010 UniKL MIMET reviewed the documents | MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
provided by ASMSB. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
119
R & D ACTIVITIES
PLASTIC TECHNOLOGY CENTER, SIRIM HEADQUARTERS, S.ALAM
10TH AUGUST 2010
Industrial visit to Plastic Technology Centre, SIRIM Head Quarters in Shah Alam on the 10th August 2010 is to discuss the possibilities of utilizing Rice Husk Bio‐Composite material as an alternative to natural wood for marine application. UniKL MIMET delegations consist of Deputy Dean, Dr. Mohd. YuzriMohdYusop, R&D Coordinator, Mrs. NurshahnawalYaacob and three other lecturers, Mr. Asmawi Abdul Malik, Mr. ZulzamriSalleh and Mrs. SyajaratunnurYaakup given the opportunity to observe the production of the Rice Husk Bio‐Composite material and made a conclusion on ex‐
ploring further of the bio panel (in terms of capability and durability) in marine application espe‐
cially on wooden boat building and composite boat building. MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
INDUSTRIAL VISIT
120
CALL FOR PAPERS
To inculcate the research culture amongst academics, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Institute of Marine Engineering Technology (UniKL MIMET) is publishing the Marine [email protected] Research Bulletin. For a start, the bulletin will
be published four times a year, in January, April, July and October. Original research papers, which have not been published or currently being considered for publication elsewhere, will be considered.
Accepted Types of Research
The papers accepted for the bulletins must be based on any of the following types of research:

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Basic research (pure basic research and strategic basic research)
Applied research
Experimental development
Critical review
Pure basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for
long-terms benefits other than advancement of knowledge.
Strategic basic research is experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge directed into
specified broad areas in the expectation of useful discoveries. It provides the broad base of knowledge necessary for
the solution of recognised practical problems.
Applied research is original work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge with a specific application in view. It
is undertaken either to determine possible use for the findings of basic research or to determine new ways of achieving
some specific and predetermined objectives.
Experimental development is systematic work, using existing knowledge gained from research or practical experience
that is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or
to improving substantially those already produced or installed.
Critical review is a comprehensive preview and critical analysis of existing literature. It must also propose a unique
lens, framework or model that helps understand specific body of knowledge or address specific research issues.
Condition of Acceptance
The editorial board considers all papers on the condition that:
They are original
The authors hold the property or copyright of the paper
They have not been published already
They are not under consideration for publication elsewhere, nor in press elsewhere
They use non-discriminatory language
The use of proper English (except for manuscripts written in Bahasa Melayu-applicable for selective only)
All papers must be typed on A4 size page using Microsoft Words. The complete paper must be approximately 3, 000 to
7, 000 words long (excluding references and appendixes). The format is described in detail in the next section.
All papers are reviewed by the editorial board and evaluated according to:
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Originality
Significance in contributing new knowledge
Technical adequacy
Appropriateness for the bulletin
Clarity of presentation
All papers will be directed to the appropriate team and/or track. The papers will be reviewed by reviewer(s) and/or
editor. All review comments and suggestions should be addressed in the final submission if the paper is accepted for
publication, copyright is transferred to the bulletin.
Please submit your paper directly to the Chief Editor- [email protected] or the Executive [email protected] for publication in the next issue of the Marine [email protected]
MIMET Technical Bulletin Volume 1 (2) 2010
| MARINE FRONTIER @ UniKL
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