Mayan civilization

Transcription

Mayan civilization
Drin Krasniqi
Art Grubi
Nderim Xhemajli
Njomza Beqiri
Enxhi Abazi
Fatos Dobroshi
Lis Berishaj
THE MAYAN CIVILIZATION
The history
…
The Maya civilization was a very old culture in
Mesoamerica. It is famous because people there
knew about writing, art, advanced mathematics,
and advanced astronomical (star) systems. Other
pre-Columbian American civilizations did not have
these.
…
In the 8th and 9th century, the cities in the southern
lowlands had problems, and declined. At the same
time, the Maya stopped making big monuments and
inscriptions. Shortly afterwards, these cities were
abandoned. Currently, archaeologists are not sure
why this happened. There are different theories.
Some think ecological factors played a role in this.
Social Structure
…
…
The Maya civilization was certainly
never an "empire", inasmuch as one
person never ruled the entire region.
Kings were hereditary positions, and, at least after
they were dead, the kings were sometimes
considered gods.
Gender differences
…
Ancient Maya women had an important role in
society: beyond just propagating culture through
the bearing and raising of children, Maya women
involved themselves in economic, governmental and
farming activities.
…
…
Although the Maya preferred that rulership pass to
sons and not daughters, the eighth ruler of Palenque
was a woman.
Men and women performed separate but equal
tasks: “males produced food by agricultural labor,
but females processed the products of the field to
make them edible.”
Science
…
Mayan Astrology was a form of Mesoamerican form of
astrology that was one of the most advanced forms of
astrology of its time.
Numerical System
Astronomy
…
…
…
Astronomy was a very important factor of Mayan
culture.
They had two calendars the ritual one called “ Tzolk’in ”
that was used for calculating religious ceremonies and
festivals and predicting the destiny of people.
The second calendar was the solar calendar called “
Haab “ containing 18 months of 20 days each plus 5
unlucky days called “ Uayeb ”. The two calendars were
used on conjunction and the Maya calculations were so
accurate that they were able to make exact reckonigs
predict eclipses and plot the orbit of the planet Venus.
H
No.
Seq.
Name of
month
meaning
No.
Seq.
Name of
month
1
Pop
mat
10
Yax
green storm
2
Wo'
black
conjunction
11
Sak'
white storm
3
Sip
red
conjunction
12
Keh
red storm
4
Sotz'
bat
13
Mak
enclosed
5
Sek
?
14
K'ank'in
yellow sun
6
Xul
dog
15
Muwan'
owl
7
Yaxk'in'
new sun
16
Pax
planting time
8
Mol
water
17
K'ayab
turtle
9
Ch'en
black storm
18
Kumk'u
granary
19
Wayeb'
five unlucky
days
’
b
a
a
Glyph
example
Glyph
example
meaning
Tzolk’in
Glyph
16th C.
3
example Yucatec 4
reconstruct
ed
Seq.
Classic
No. 1
Maya 5
Day
Name 2
Glyph
16th C.
3
example Yucatec 4
reconstruct
ed
Classic
Maya 5
Seq.
No. 1
Day
Name 2
01
Imix'
Imix
Imix (?) /
Ha' (?)
11
Chuwen
Chuen
(unknown)
02
Ik'
Ik
Ik'
12
Eb'
Eb
(unknown)
03
Ak'b'al
Akbal
Ak'b'al (?) 13
B'en
Ben
(unknown)
04
K'an
Kan
K'an (?)
14
Ix
Ix
Hix (?)
05
Chikchan
Chicchan
(unknown)
15
Men
Men
(unknown)
06
Kimi
Cimi
Cham (?)
16
K'ib'
Cib
(unknown)
07
Manik'
Manik
Manich' (?) 17
Kab'an
Caban
Chab' (?)
08
Lamat
Lamat
Ek' (?)
18
Etz'nab'
Etznab
(unknown)
09
Muluk
Muluc
(unknown)
19
Kawak
Cauac
(unknown)
10
Ok
Oc
(unknown)
20
Ajaw
Ahau
Ajaw
Religion
…
…
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The Mayans were very religious people. Their religion regulated
almost everything in their life. Priests were the most important
people in the tribes. The Mayans believed their gods had destroyed
and recreated their earth several times that is why they always tried
to please their gods with sacrifices.
They believed that if they sacrifice their slaves than their lives will
improve by having more rain and sun for their corn and other
harvest.
They thought that their king is God and at the moment that their lost
faith in him everything will go wrong with their lives. Maybe this is
the reason was most of the biggest towns were abandoned by the
Mayan population.
Ruins
…
…
There were a lot Mayan cities, but unfortunately the
were all extinct . However all the people were not
extinct ! Now they are only old temples left.
The Chichen Itza
Mayan Ruins, Tulum, Mexico
pictures
The Mayan city
Survivors
There are a lot of Mayans, some
of them are pure Mayans, and some of them are
mixed with Spaniards and some other cultures. So
they aren’t extinct. The Maya have a long history of
traditions and beliefs using natural sources for food,
medicine, clothing and ceremonies; today, the Maya
continue to follow tradition.
The Mayan language exists, and is spoken in some
places.
…