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Mishpatim ‫שׁפָּטִים‬
ְ ‫מּ‬
Notes by: Christopher Fredrickson
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‫ לִפְנ ֵיהֶם‬,‫תּשִׂים‬
ָ ‫אשֶׁר‬
ֲ ,‫פּטִים‬
ָ ‫שׁ‬
ְ ‫מּ‬
ִ ‫ה‬
ַ ,‫וְאֵלֶּה‬
“And these are the laws that you should
set before them”
Shemos 21:1 (The Gutnick Chumash)
3 Kinds of Torah Law:
Mishpatim: laws that are obviously essential to the smooth functioning of society.
Simple common sense can see and apply the system and method of mishpatim
Chukim: (opposite of mishpatim law) laws which are beyond human ability to
rationalize into a system. Although we do not know the ultimate reason that G-d
decreed any of the commandments, we can usually posit principles that guide us to
the application of the law in specific situations. Chukim defy formulating such
principles, and hence are difficult to arrange into a methodical system that can be
practiced through the use of guidelines.
Mitzvos: laws that are not as intuitively grasped as mishpatim, but which can be
organized, through analysis and insight by their underlying principles.
Compensation must be paid: The value of
and eye for an eye (injury, the value of) tooth
for tooth (injury, the value of) and hand for a
hand (injury and the value of) a foot for a foot
Shemos 21:24 (The Gutnick Chumash)
You have heard it said, “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a
tooth.” Yet I say to you, do not retaliate against the wicked
person. To the one who strikes you upon the right cheek,
turn the other as well. If someone wants to quarrel with you
and take your tunic give him your cloak as well. If someone
forces you to walk a mil (mile) with him on the road, go with
him two. If one asks of you, give it to him, and if one comes
to borrow from you, do not turn his face away from you.
Matthew 5:38-42 (The Delitzsch Hebrew Gospels)
And unto no man pay back evil for their evil, and neither
insult for insult, but rather, the opposite of these; be
blessing, for, unto this you are called, so that, you might
inherit a blessing. Therefore, they who desire Life, and love
to see good days, keeps their tongue from evil, and their
lips speak no deceit. they turn away from wrong doing,
and do good things, and seek peace, and run after it.
1 Peter 3:9-11 (The Aramaic Scriptures)
G-d said to Moshe, “Come up to me on
the mountain and remain there, and I will
give you the stone tablets which
incorporate the entire Torah and Mitzvah
which I have written to instruct them.”
Shemos 24:12 (The Gutnick Chumash)
ֹ ‫ חֻקּוֹתַי ו ְתוֹ‬,‫מצְו‍ֹתַי‬
ִ ,‫שׁמַרְ תִּי‬
ְ ‫מ‬
ִ ,‫שׁמֹר‬
ְ ִ ‫בּ ֹקלִי; ו ַיּ‬
ְ ‫שׁמַע אַבְרָ הָם‬
ָ -‫אשֶׁר‬
ֲ ,‫ﬠֵקֶב‬
All this is because Avraham listened to My voice when I tested
him; he guarded My secondary prohibitions that protect a
person from transgressing prohibitions, my rational
commandments, My supra-rational commands, and my
instructions in the oral Torah (torot: plural).
Genesis 26:5 (The Gutnick Chumash)
You must obey the words they (the Sanhedrin) will tell
you- from the place G-d will choose. You should
carefully obey everything they instruct you. You
should act in accordance with the teachings that they
instruct you, and according to the judgments they
issue you. You must not divert from the words they
tell you, even if they tell you right is left and left is right.
Devarim 17:10-11 (The Gutnick Chumash)
Then Yeshua spoke to the crowd of people and
to his disciples saying, “The scholars and the
Prushim sit on the seat of Mosheh, so whatever
they tell you, observe and do it.”
Matthew 23:1-2 (The Delitzsch Hebrew Gospels)
Abandoning the mitzvat Hashem
(commandments of G-d), you are holding to
the Masoret HaBnei Adam (tradition of men).
Mark 7:8 (The Orthodox Jewish Bible)
When one washes his hands and recites the blessing of 'al netilat yadayim' (ritual hand
washing), or recites a blessing upon eating fruits or upon the performance of one of the
mitzvos (commandments), blessings in which everyone (fellow jews) is fluent, he should
direct the thoughts of his heart to recite the blessing for the sake of his Creator, Who has
been wonderously kind to him and has given him the fruits or the bread to benefit from, and
who commanded him regarding the mitzvah (commandment) upon which he is reciting the
blessing. And he should not perform the recitation of this blessing in the manner of one who
does something out of habit, and utters words from his mouth without thinking. It was about
this matter that the wrath of Hashem flared, and He sent to us the following prophecy
through Yeshayahu (Isaiah), and Hashem said (Yeshayah 29:13): they recite appropriate
blessing, as the words of the blessing are fluent in their mouths. But when they are reciting
the blessings, they do not have in mind to actually bless Me!" Therefore, due to this great
sin, the anger of Hashem flared and He swore by His Great Name to cause the wise men to
lose their wisdom. These men are those who know Him and are learned in His ways, but
recite blessings to Him by rote, without concentration. This punishment is written in the
prophecy immediately after the above pasuk of rebuke (Yeshayah 29:14)
Therefore behold, I will continue etc. to perform more
wonders against this people, wonder upon wonder;
and the wisdom of it's wise men will be lost etc. and
the understanding of it's sages will become concealed.
(Siman 6:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch)
Make Sure To Check Out These
Informative Websites For Further Study:
Nazarene Media:
The Rabbinic Gospels:
Messianic Online Yeshiva:
First Fruits of Zion:
Jesus Spoke Aramaic:
Aramaic New Testament:
Kehilat Melech Yisrael: