Final Project sketchbook - Ealing


Final Project sketchbook - Ealing
Final major project
Planning my idea of working
The first thing I want to do is RESEARCH about flight
• history about flight and birds.
• when was the first flight?
• who made the first flight and how?
Second thing I want to do is SKETCHING• different wings
• birds
• planes and birds the connection between them.
The third thing I want to do is PLANNING
• how will I make my idea For example
• what kind of materials or software will I use?
Mind Map
This is the sketching I have
done it before doing the
The illustrator one I put
the names of flying things.
In 1868- Around 400 BC in Greece,
Archytas was reputed to have designed
and built the first artificial, self-propelled flying device, a bird-shaped
model propelled by a jet of what was
probably steam, said to have flown
some 200 m (660 ft). This machine may
have been suspended for its flight.
Air plane history
12/17/1903- This is the day the
In the 1890s- Lawrence Har-
grave conducted research on wing
structures and developed a box kite
that lifted the weight of a man.
first airplane flies in the air. Wilbur
and Orville Wright made four brief
flights at Kitty Hawk with their first
powered aircraft.
The Spitfire was the only British fighter
in continuous production throughout the
entire Second World War. It became the
backbone of the Royal Air Force Fighter
Command and was most noted for beating
back the German Luftwaffe during the Battle of Britain. The distinct elliptical wings
were designed to have the thinnest possible cross section, which resulted in higher
speeds than many other fighters of the day.
The Blackbird last flew in 1999, it still
holds the world record for the fastest air-breathing manned airplane
in history, which it first achieved in
1976. That mark has stood for nearly
40 years, and there doesn’t seem to be
a challenger rising anytime soon. The
Blackbird’s basic stealth characteristics and ability to operate at ridiculous speeds and altitudes allowed the
SR-71 to perform dangerous reconnaissance missions.
Lockhead SR-71 Black bird
B eo
The Dreamliner is Boeing’s first ever
airliner constructed primarily out of
composite materials. The fuselage is
assembled by joining large composite barrel sections, as opposed to the
traditional method of attaching multiple aluminum sections with thousands
of fasteners. Composites were used to
build parts of the interior, doors, and
tail, too, and to give the all-new wing
design a dramatic flex under load.
The SR22 took the general aviation world by storm in 2001, and
has been the best-selling single-engine four-seat aircraft for more
than a decade. With its composite construction and armed with
an airframe ballistic parachute, this sleek Cirrus gave even new
pilots the confidence to take the controls of such a high-performance machine. Ryan Campbell flew the SR22 in 2013 when he
became the youngest pilot to circle the globe solo. Meanwhile,
the parachute system is credited with saving more than 100 lives.
Learjet 23
Back in 1960, Bill Lear moved to Switzerland from his home in California to form the Swiss American Aviation Corporation, with the intention of redesigning the FFA P-16 ground attack fighter prototype.
which marked the dawn of a new world of fast and efficient business
The plane could carry eight passengers at 560 mph and became the first
mass-produced business jet. It was so popular that the term Learjet became synonymous with the idea of a biz jet.
This four-engine turboprop military transport built by Lockheed Martin
has been in continuous production longer than any other military aircraft. In its 50 years of service it has earned the reputation at being the
most flexible and versatile workhorse of the armed forces.
Originally designed as a troop and cargo transport aircraft that could
operate on unimproved runways, the C-130 has found its way into serving as gunship as well as a platform for research, search and rescue,
aerial refueling, and many other roles. More than 40 variations of the
venerable plane have been delivered to more than 70 nations since its
first flight in 1954. In sum, the C-130 has logged more than 1.2 million
hours in the air.
The DC-3 revolutionized the way Americans think about air travel. Of any
single aircraft, Douglas's may have had the most dramatic impact on the
way we get around.
Douglas's innovations included supercharged engines, cantilevered metal
wings, and retractable landing gear, all of which culminated in a passenger
experience like no other. The military variant was used extensively during
World War II, including for the delivery of troops via airdrop. More than
1,000 flew on the eve of D-Day, dropping troops behind the beaches of Normandy.
Aviation pioneer Louis Blériot was so inspired by the Wright Brothers' ability to use wing warping to fly an airplane that he modified his
one-of-a-kind monoplane and set off to become the first person to
cross the English Channel in a heavier-than-air aircraft. His success
resulted ,but could be a valuable tool to shrink the world.
Demand for his design exploded and many aviation pioneers of
the day flew variations of his craft. That included Clyde Cessna, the
founder of the Cessna Aircraft Corporation, the company that has
sold more single-engine aircraft than any other company.
More Cessna 172 Skyhawks have been sold than any other aircraft.
First released in 1956, this four-seat, single-engine, high wing personal aircraft has been sold more than 43,000 times and is still in
production today.
Reliable, affordable, and stable, the Skyhawk is the staple plane of
flight training schools everywhere. Its modest performance and
longevity creates the ideal mode of transportation for private pilots
across the globe. Skyhawk's success drove the Cessna Aircraft Company to domination in the light aircraft market.
The B-29 because it delivered the final blow to Japan in WWII when it dropped the
atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This bomber featured some amazing
technological advancements well ahead of its time—specifically, a clever remote
firing system for the turret machine guns, dual-wheeled tricycle landing gear, and
a pressurized cabin.
Years later, after new engines were added and the plane was designated the B-50,
this became the first aircraft to fly around the world nonstop.
Having held the passenger capacity record
for 37 years, the original jumbo jet is easily
distinguished by the hump created by the
upper deck that's usually reserved for first
class passengers.
The 747 was more than twice the size of
any existing airliner of the day. Back before
computer-aided design, engineers handsketched 75,000 technical drawings and
built a full-scale plywood mockup to ensure
the pieces would fit.
The plane was a masterpiece of industrial
The 747 has moved more than 3.5 billion
people—the equivalent of half the world's
This private business jet, announced alongside
its sister ship the G600 in fall 2014, features
fly-by-wire active side-stick that provides
visual and tactile feedback for the flight
crew—technology previously available only for
military aircraft. This feedback through the
flight control stick allows both the pilot and
copilot to track and feel the controls of each
other and the autopilot.
There are 10 touchscreen controllers providing pilots with a tremendous amount of flight
information. The integrated touchscreens will
give crew access to system controls, flight management, communications, checklists, and
monitoring weather and flight information.
Bell X-1
This supersonic research aircraft is famous
for being the first manned airplane to break
the sound barrier, in 1947. It was also the first
X-plane, ushering in a series of rocket-powered
aircraft. These experimental aircraft were used to
test advanced systems and aerodynamics, and the
lessons learned would propel the United States
into space.
Many modern fighters currently in active military roles began
production in the 1970's. As many of these aircraft are reaching
the end of their service life, the F-35 program is the key to replacing the Pentagon's aging warplanes with what is supposed to
be an affordable alternative. The F-35 represents an entirely new
class of fifth-generation fighter aircraft. Three variations of the
fighter (the F-35A, B, and C) were developed to replace the U.S.
military's aging fleet of F-16s, F/A-18s, A-10s, and AV-8B Harrier
jump jets.
The Ryan NYP, known as the "Spirit of St. Louis,"
carried Charles Lindbergh on his landmark 33hour, 30-minute non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean from New York to Paris. Lindbergh,
who was relatively unknown in the aviation
community at the time, was unable to procure
the funds to acquire a suitable existing aircraft
design. Eventually the fabric-covered, single-seat,
single-engine aircraft was designed jointly between Lindbergh and the Ryan Aircraft Company.
Spirit of St. Louis
Rutan VariEze
Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II
Designed by famed aerospace engineer Burt Rutan,
this unique composite aircraft became wildly popular among amateur aircraft builders because of its
aerodynamic resistance to spins, its exotic looks,
and its simplicity of design. In a departure from
the traditional vertical and horizontal tail configuration similar to the tail feathers of an arrow,
the VariEze received a Rutan hallmark: a smaller
forewing or canard and large winglets at the tips of
the larger main rear wing. Thousands of plans were
sold and this became the most built kit plane of its
The success of this aircraft launched Rutan's career,
resulting in the construction of dozens of aircraft,
five of which reside in the Smithsonian National
Air And Space Museum.
Airbus A320 To catch up to its biggest competitor, Boeing, Airbus took a leap forward in technology in the late 1980s by widely adopting the use of fly-by-wire flight controls and
implementing side-sticks for improved ergonomics for the flight crew. The result is
less arm fatigue and more precise control inputs that allow the crew to sit closer to
larger integrated flight control instrumentation.
The first A320 was delivered in 1988 and the plane became one of the best-selling
airliners of all time. The fly-by-wire technology went on to be included in Airbus's
complete range of products, including the double-decker wide-body A380 and the
next-generation A350 XWB.
Lockheed Constellation
The Connie is known for being the first pressurized airliner in widespread use. Built between
1943 and 1958, the Constellation ushered in an
era of affordable and comfortable air travel.
Lockheed went above and beyond Hughes' demands and included new technology like hydraulically boosted flight control systems.
Lockhead became the second largest air carrier
after Pan Am.
One of the biggest appeals of this aircraft, its
iconic form, ultimately led to its obsolescence.
The continuously fluid shape meant that no two
bulkheads were the same. While this made for a
beautiful plane, it made construction expensive.
The tubular shape of most modern airliners is
easier to make.
The Predator was the first military "drone".
It became famous famous for its role in
fighting the Taliban in Afghanistan. The
Predator can be remotely piloted to fly over
a 400-nautical-mile course, circle its target
for up to 14 hours, and return to base. The
extensive use of the Predator not only to
gather intel.
General Atomics MQ-1 Predator
Scaled Composites Voyager
This high endurance one-of-a-kind aircraft
was originally sketched on a napkin by Burt
Rutan. It went on to be piloted by Burt's
brother Dick and Jeana Yeager, to become
the first aircraft to circumnavigate the globe
without the need to stop or refuel. Powered
by one forward and one rear-facing propellor attached to separate engines, the aircraft
would average an altitude of 11,000 feet and
a speed of 116 mph during its nine-day nonstop journey from Edwards Air Force base in
Piper J-3 Cub
The first bright yellow J-3 went for
sale in 1938 pumping out a whopping 40 hp and costing a mere
$1,000 dollars. With war looming
in Europe, the little Cub became a
primary trainer for the Civilian Pilot
Training Program. By the end of the
Second World War, 80 percent of all
U.S. military pilots received their
primary training in a J-3.
Messerschmitt Me 262
The engine problems delayed its
operational status with the German
Luftwaffe, in 1942 the Schwalbe
became the world's first jet-powered
fighter aircraft. It was late to the fight
in WWII, and its effectiveness was
hampered by engine reliability issues
and Allied attacks on German fuel
Richard VanGrunsven quietly began the
most successful aircraft kit-building company in history.
His first attempt at aircraft design was a
modified Sitts Playboy which he affectionately label RV-1. Hitting a plateau on performance, he tried a clean sheet design, but
the RV-2 never reached completion. Still
yearning for a fast and affordable aerobatic
platform that could operate from very short
runways, he headed back to the drawing
board and created the RV-3. Able to reach
200 mph with only 150 horsepower, the single-seat taildragger was an instant success.
Designed by American aeronautical
engineer Paul B. MacCready and flown
by amateur cyclist and pilot Bryan Allen,
this human-powered aircraft won the
second Kremer prize when it was successfully flown across the English Channel on June 12, 1979. Allen completed
the 22.2-mile crossing in 2 hours and 49
minutes, reaching a top speed of 18 mph
at an average altitude of 5 ft above the
The aircraft was constructed using a carbon fiber frame with long tapered wings
wrapped in a thin plastic mylar. The
Albatross weighed in at a mere 71 lbs.
Gossamer Albatross
A top of speed twice the speed of
sound, a ceiling of 50,000 feet, and an
ability to pull nine times the force of
gravity with just a single engine—all
these features rocket the F-16 to its status as one of the most important planes
ever built.
The F-16 was the first fighter designed
to be aerodynamically unstable. A sidestick is connected to a computer-augmented fly-by-wire system that accepts
input from the pilot. This system
manipulates the aircraft to attain the
desired results without loss of control.
More than 4,500 of these aircraft have
been built since 1976, and today the
F-16 is a staple in the military fleets of
more than 25 nations.
General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon
Despite its very dangerous development period,
which killed two top aces and broke the back
of another test pilot, the United States' first
turbo-jet powered combat aircraft helped to
bring about the jet age. Beginning its service at
the close of World War II, the aircraft was used
extensively during operations in the Korean
War. But its straight wing design was no match
for the swept-wing transonic MiG-15. The jet
fighter went on to perform ground attack missions and serve as an advance trainer until it was
replaced by the swept-wing F-86 Sabre
This French-built business jet used
a fly-by-wire flight control system
adapted from Dassault's Mirage military fighter jet. Also borrowed from
the Mirage was the extensive use of
three-dimensional visualization software for all phases of design. It was so
extensive, in fact, that Dassault claims
to have created the first aircraft to be
designed on a virtual platform.
Bell Boeing cruise at high speed and long
ranges like a turboprop became an important
need for the United State military in the early
1980s. Boeing and Bell were jointly contracted to develop such a craft to replace the aging
fleet of CH-46 Sea Knights. Their creation was
the now-famous Osprey.
Despite controversy about cost overruns and
allegations that the V-22 was unsafe and inadequate for the mission, the Osprey survived
and even flourished in active service with
both the U.S. Marine Corps and the U.S. Air
Force while deployed in transportation and
medevac operations over Iraq, Afghanistan,
Libya, and Kuwait.
Dassault Falcon 7X
Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey
Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star
When the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation came up
with the brilliant idea to turn its robust line of warplanes into
a fleet of scaled-down airliners to accommodate the post-war
economic boom, the business jet was born.
In the GI, the twin turboprop engines were mounted on a low
wing that expanded cabin height and allowed passengers to
completely stand up while inside the plane. Where the plane
was designed to carry up to 24 passengers, it could transport 12
comfortably when in an executive configuration.
Gulfstream I
History of diffirent birds
The birds are highly visible and common animals, humans have had a relationship with
them since the dawn of man. History shows
that birds played an important role in human
life. They helped human in several way with
the passage of time. On the basis of their specific actions they got a lot of fame and become
a part of history. This article featured a list of
10 most famous historical birds. Among many
others, Pigeons have a specific place.
Commando was a pigeon used in service
with the British armed forces during
the Second World War to carry crucial
intelligence. The pigeon carried out
more than ninety missions during the
war, and received the Dickin Medal (the
animal equivalent of the Victoria Cross)
for three particularly notable missions
in 1942.
G.I. Joe
cher ami
Cher Ami (dear friend), A British-bred
homing pigeon who in the Autumn of
1918 delivered twelve messages for the
U.S. Army during World War I. She
helped save the Lost Battalion of the
77th Division in the battle of the Argonne.
G.I. Joe was a pigeon noted for his service
in the United States Army Pigeon Service.
On 18 October 1943, the village of Calvi
Vecchia, Italy was scheduled to be bombed
by the Allies. He carried the message that
British forces had captured the village, thus
averting the attack and saving the lives of
over a thousand people, both the local Italians and the British occupying troops.
Gertie the Duck
Gertie, a mallard duck who
nested on some pilings under
a bridge in Milwaukee in 1945.
She (and her brood) are immortalized in RiverSculpture!
Challenger is a non-releasable
Bald Eagle in the care of the
non-profit American Eagle Foundation. He is the first Bald Eagle
in history trained to free fly into
major sporting events during the
National Anthem.
Pale male
The ravens of the Tower of
London, whose continuing
presence there is said to maintain the general safety of the
kingdom. At least six ravens
are kept at the Tower at all
times, in accordance with the
belief that if they are absent,
the kingdom will fall.
Pale Male is a famous Red-tailed Hawk who has resided since
the 1990s near New York City’s Central Park. He was given his
name because of the unusually light coloring of his head. He
is one of the first Red-tailed Hawks known to have nested on a
building rather than in a tree and is known for establishing a
dynasty of urban-dwelling Red-tailed Hawks.
London Tower Ravens
Types of birds
African Grey
The best talkers of the bird
world! The African Grey
makes a wonderful pet bird
that are easily tamed and
very sociable.
Cockatiels are gentle endearing pets
with so many positive traits, its hard
to choose what makes them great!
Social, playful, talkers, love people.
The world is inhabited with over 9000
species of birds. They are natural wonders of song, color, flight and display.
With so many diverse types of birds.
Canaries are some of the most
colorful birds and a favorite pet.
These little birds have a beautiful song and are ideal for small
homes or apartments.
Amazon Parrot bird guides
for all types of Amazon birds.
Parrot pictures, information
and bird care for keepimg pet
Amazon parrots.
canary varieties
Amazon parrots
Caiques...a lot of intelligence and energy in a small
package! These clowns of
the parrot world are constantly playing and on the
Conure parrots are always playful and full of antics. All types
of conures can be noisy, but
they are loved for their beauty
and good dispositions.
Cockatoos is the lovers of
the bird world! The friendliest birds, but with an incredible need for attention.
Lories lorikeets are very playful birds. They love to play with
people, toys, and whatever else
they can get their “beaks” onto!
Lorikeets like to be very active
and love to perform lots of antics, from just showing off in
general to swinging upside down
on bars, perches and swings.
Universal symbols of peace,
love, and tranquility! They
are great companions and
easy to keep.
The most colorful parrots are
the beautiful exotic macaws;
large macaws, mini macaws,
and hybrid macaws are favorite pet birds and intelligent show birds.
Lovebirds are delightful little parrots! Found in a rainbow of colors, they love to
be playful and mischievous.
Parrot species
Types of finches
Finches are very neat, they are
also quiet and easy to care for.
A perfect pet for people with
limited space and time. Unlike a
parrot, a finch does not require
daily interactive attention.
All Types of Parakeets are flock
birds, very social with each
other and with people. They
are colorful, active, love attention and make wonderful pets.
They are so many unique parrot?
There are so many different types
of parrots... Eclectus, Hawk-Headed, Senegal, Red-Bellied, Parrotlets,
Meyers and more.
Pionus parrot
Great choice for beginners!
Usually quiet, undemanding, affectionate... and they
seldom bite.
A variety of diffirent birds
street artists who love to paint birds
I loved these artists so much. They are street
artists who love to draw the freedom of bird. I
inspire them their work. They are different artist
who came from around the world.
Every single of these birds picture has something
meaning to it .
Birds Artist - by Diana Beltran Herrera
Colombian artist Diana Beltran Herrera has used paper to create
these intricate models of tropical birds.
Diana hand-makes the paper birds by building up layers to form
the base structure, then glues on delicate feathers that are curled
and splayed once attached.
First she do a structure in paper. She has groups of feathers for the
main body, tail, wings and head,” Herrera told Dezeen. She start to
paste piece by piece. Final details are always the beak and eyes.
To finish, wire legs are added and feathers are
painted to make the models as realistic as possible.
My inspiration artist - by Michael Alm
Michael Alm is a Seattle based mixed media
sculptor. His life like and intricate animal
anatomy studies address wildness, native nature,
and the dynamics of animal movement. Each
sculpture is imbued with the passion he has for
wildlife and anatomy. Alm’s understanding of
materials and techniques is unique and has been
distilled from years of development in his studio.
This artist inspire me so much I like the way
he use a wood to make a sculpture.
Birds Artist - by -Eron
Eron is Italian artist who drew 3D birds on the
on the streets.
Eron is never going to stop loving street art.
These are amazing pieces of work from the Italian artist Eron. He creates birds seemingly flying off the wall. Talk about can-control and he
really does use spray paint.
Each spray painted mural shows a sequence of
birds that transition from embossed black and
white silhouettes to figures that appear almost
completely realistic.
Half bird half machine
Tom Fisher
London, United Kingdom
Tom Fisher is a London-based designer.
The Pobblepong Hero
by Aleksei Bitskoff
Lynsey Lehmann
Half bird, half machine.
Jason Lenox Illustrator
Jason Lenox inspired by
Hajime Sorayama
Jeff Krete Artist
The picture I took when I was Science Museum
These are the
pictures I took
when I went
to the science
This is the
history of planes.
There was a lot of
different planes.
These were hand
made models and
the sizes vary.
Real planes
The below images are parts of real
life airplane that were once used.
They were a lot of different planes.
Every single one of these had
their on history.
This is the engine of the
airplane. The engine was
so large I wasn’t able to fit
it all in one picture.
These pictures show the
recreation of wings of
the bird using wood and
others materials.
There was a lot of
different experiments
in the way they were
recreating the wing.
History meseum
I took these picture when I went to
History museum.
I was just focusing on the birds so I
took those pictures.
This is history of birds, they were
look realistic.
My sketching drawing
This is the
sketch that I
used for my first
mind map that I
have drew.
This is the
This is the sketching
of my illustrator. I
have done the sketching first then I make
as illustrator.
experimentation of
different bird heads. I
have sketched the front
head of the airplane as
This sketch is about
comparing the
similarities between
the two.
This sketch is my
traditional drawing.
Under the wings I
have drawn some
This sketch is for
developing ideas for
the bird element
This sketch shows
how this bird
lands on ( side
This sketch is experimental and
shows how will I make my final
piece outcome.
This is the wing
experimentation that
I did in illustrator
when I was doing the
wing bird.
I was trying to make
a suitable wing on my
illustrated bird.
This is development
work trying different
elements that make up
my image
I was trying to make
a suitable things on
my final out come in
The art work of this bird with the
wings of the airplane. The image is
from The Rolling Stones · From The
Vault – L.A. Forum – Live In 1975
album cover.
This is final illustration cut out.
I was inspired by the Rolling
Stones album over which has the
same concept.