Medico-botanical survey of Kumar parvatha Kukke Subramanya

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Medico-botanical survey of Kumar parvatha Kukke Subramanya
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge
Vol. 9 (1), January 2010, pp 96-99
Medico-botanical survey of Kumar parvatha Kukke Subramanya, Mangalore,
Karnataka
Shiddamallayya N, Azra Yasmeen & Gopakumar K*
Regional Research Institute (Ay), Ashoka Pillar, Jayanagar I Block, Bangalore 560 011, Karnataka
E-mail: [email protected]
Received 6 March 2007, revised 7 April 2008
A Medico-botanical survey was conducted in Kumar Parvatha, at Kukke Subramanya in Sullia taluk during December
2005. A standard methodology was followed for documentation of 44 plant species being extensively being used for curing
various human ailments.
Keywords: Ethnobotany, Ethnomedicine, Ayurveda, Healthcare, Medicinal plants, Mangalore, Karnataka
IPC Int. Cl.8: A61K36/00, A61P1/08, A61P1/10, A61P1/16, A61P5/00, A61P5/50, A61P9/14, A61P11/00, A61P17/00,
A61P29/00, A61P39/02
India endeavored with many natural blessings in
terms of ecological climate and soil rich for plant
growth possesses different types of climatic
conditions and various tracts of tropical and
temperature plains, hills and valleys. These factors
are favorable for the wealth of medicinal plants. The
herbal raw drugs required for the preparation of
medicines were collected from forests. Recently,
plant based products and pharmaceuticals demand
has increased in the world market. It is difficult to
meet out the demand of raw drugs for
pharmaceuticals Industries from forests. There is a
great demand to explore the available medicinal
plants from the non explored forest regions. Kumar
Parvatha located near the famous shrine of Lord
Subramanya at Kukke Subramanya in Sullia taluk, at
12° 33' 53'' N 75° 23' 11'' E of South Canara district,
Karnataka, is a rich source of medicinal plants
(Figs.1-4). The Kumar Parvata peak is one of the
most beautiful peaks in the Western Ghat. The
climate is of a humid tropical type. The seasons like
monsoon from June to September, spring from
November to January and summer from February to
May were noticed in the study area. Temperature
fluctuations are moderate; the maximum temperature
320C in summer and the minimum in winter is about
120C. The relative humidity is highest in monsoon
and the lowest during winter. The soil in the study
——————
*Corresponding author
area is red soil and has more organic content. The
forest is of deciduous type in which a good number
of medicinal plants used in Ayurveda are abundant.
The study is only a preliminary account and
collections were made during the short visit in the
month of December, 2005, Under the Programme
Projection 2003-2008 of Central Council for
Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, New Delhi.
Methodology
Ayurvedic medicinal plants were collected with
prior permission from The Chief Conservator of
Forests, Department of Forest, Government of
Karnataka. During seasonal Medico-botanical
survey, plants were collected. Plant specimens were
processed, mounted on herbarium sheets and
deposited in RRCBI (Regional Research Centre,
Bangalore, India), RRI (Ay.), Bangalore. Botanical
identification was done and the nomenclature of
each species has been updated1-7. Medicinal
properties and uses of plant species have been
listed8-10.
Results and discussion
A total of 44 plant species have been collected and
efforts were made to survey and compile the
available information on medicinal plants used in
Ayurveda along with their scientific documentation
(Table 1). Of total 43 plant species, belonging to 40
genera and 36 families (all except one belonging to
SHIDDAMALLAYYA et al.: MEDICO-BOTANY OF MANGALORE, KARNATAKA
97
Fig. 1-4—Shola forest and scrub jungle of Subramanya
dicotyledon) were collected. Of collected materials, 8
species whole plant, 14 species root, 2 species root
bark, 9 species stem bark, 7 species leaves, 2 species
flower, 3 species seeds and 2 species oil are used as
Ayurvedic raw drugs to treat various human ailments.
Kumar Parvatha represents a unique flora. Of total
recorded 44 plant species, Ficus hispida, Casuarina
equisitifolia, Piper longum, Trema orientalis,
Nyctanthes arortristis, Vitex negundo, Moringa
oleifera, Ipomoea aquatica, Cassia tora, Jatropha
curcus, Careya arborea, Sida rombifolia (Fig. 4),
Polygonum glabrum, Solanum nigrum, Bauhinia
racemosa,
Odlenlandia
corymbosa,
Maesa
pernottetiana, Buchanania lanzan are found through
out India. Similarly, Nilgiriathus heyneanus is found
in Southwest India; Cyclea peltata and Symplocos
cochinchinensis are found in South India; Hibiscus
lampus in West India; Desmodium gyrans in Eastern
parts of India; Chaselia chartacea in Eastern and
Western parts of India; Homonoia riparia in Eastern,
Central and Western India and Kalanchoe pinnata and
Piper
nigrum
are
found
in
hot
and
moist parts.
Plants like Garcinia indica and Jatropha curcus
are found in Maharashtra; Achyranthes bidentata in
Bihar; Hemidesmus indicus and Hibiscus lampus in
Bengal; Hemidesmus indicus is found in Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh;
Cymbopogon citrata in Punjab & Gujarat while
Chaselia chartacea is found in Andaman. Species
like Strychnos cinnamomifolia is found in Deccan
forest; Bauhinia purpurea in Western Peninsula
and Thottea siliquosa is found in peninsular India.
Plants like Strychnos cinnamomifolia, Achyranthes
bidentata, Hopea ponga, Lobellia nicotinifolia and
Exacum bicolor are fond in Western Ghats.
Similarly, Bauhinia purpurea and Hibiscus lampus
are found in Himalayan tracts; Anacardium
occidentalis, Alstonia scholaris and Sapindus
trifoliatus are found in West coast of India. Some
plants of Kumar Parvatha are distributed and
originated in other countries. Plants like Cyclea
peltata and Thottea siliquosa are also found in
Srilanka. Similarly, Elagnus conferta is recorded in
Indo-Malaysia. Ipomea aquatica and Jatropha
curcus are native to America and Cassia alata is
native of West Indies. Plants like Terminalia
paniculata and Nilgiriathus heyneanus are endemic
species of Karnataka. Plants like Piper longum, Vitex
negundo and Sida rombifolia (Fig.4) are used in
three indigenous systems of medicine and also Piper
longum occur in 135 herbal formulations in India.
98
INDIAN J TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE, VOL 9, NO 1, JANUARY 2010
Table 1—Medicinal plants of Kumar Parvatha Kukke Subramanya, Mangalore
Plant name
Local name
Medicinal uses
Whole plant in diseases of head and ear, worm infestation,
piles and emetic.
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (Apocynaceae)
Maddale
Stem bark as bitter tonic and febrifuge.
Godambi mara
Root, stem bark, fruit and seed in diabetes, ulcers and
Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae)
aphrodiasiac.
Kanchaval
Root as carminative; flower buds as laxative and
Bauhinia purpurea L. (Caesalpinaceae)
anthelmentic.
Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpinaceae).
Vansampige
Stem Bark in dysentery, diarrhoea and as anthelmentic.
Buchanania lanzan Sprengel (Anacardiaceae)
Mukarali
Fruits as tonic, diarrhoea and pain.
Careya arborea Roxb. (Lecythidaceae)
Kavalu mara
Root bark in disease of vata and kapha.
Doddatangadi
Leaves and seed as fungicides, vermifuge and in skin
Cassia alata L. (Caesalpinaceae)
troubles.
Gandu tagache
Leaf and seed in skin diseases, constipation and abdominal
Cassia tora L. (Caesalpinaceae)
disorders.
Casuarina latifolia L. (Casuriniaceae) Tree
Sarvemara
Stem bark in diarrhoea and dysentery.
Padaval balli
Cyclea peltata (Lam.) Hk.f. and Thoms.
Root in coryza, diarrhoea, pain, sprue and burning
(Menispermaceae)
sensation.
Cymbopogan citratus (DC) Stapf (Poaceae)
Majjige hullu
Leaf oil as carminative.
Chasalia chartacea Craib (Rubiaceae)
Nirvish
Root in rheumatism, pneumonia, ear and eye diseases.
Root in cardiac pain, diseases of eye, hemicrania and
Desmodium motorium (Houtt.)Merr. (Fabaceae) Naagathagare
pediatric diseases.
Elaeagnus conferta Roxb. (Eleagnaceae)
Gummamade patte balli Flowers as cardiac ailments and as astringent.
Exacum bicolor Roxb. (Gentinaceae)
Dodda Chirayutha
Whole plant as tonic and stomachic.
Kaadu atti
Stem bark in leprosy, leucoderma, anaemia, jaundice, piles,
Ficus hispida L.f. (Moraceae)
wounds.
Kokam mara
Root bark and fruit oil in thirst, piles, sprue, abdominal
Garcinia indica (Du Petit) Choisy (Clusiaceae)
disorders and worm infestation.
Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (Rubiaceae)
Urki gida
Whole plant in jaundice, liver diseases and as anthelmentic.
Hemidesmus indicus (L.)R.Br. (Periplocaceae)
Sogade beru
Root in polyurea, hemorrhage, gout, wounds and leprosy.
Homonoia riparia Lour. (Euphorbiaceae)
Hole nage
Root as laxative, diuretic and stone in bladder.
Used in piles and snakebite.
Hopea ponga (Dennst.) Mabb. (Dipterocarpaceae) Higa
Ipomoea aquatica Forsskal. (Convolvulaceae)
Gilee hambu
Whole plant as emetic in Poisoning.
Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)
Dodda haralu
Seed oil in sciatica, paralysis and skin trouble.
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. (Crassulaceae)
Kaadu basale
Leaf in dysentery, menorrhagia and wounds.
Lobellia nicotinifolia Rothex Roemer.
Kadu hoge soppu
Whole plant as antiseptic.
(Companulaceae)
Root in joints and body pain.
Mandase
Maesa indica (Rox.) DC. (Myrsinaceae)
Root, stem bark and seeds in amenorrhoea, obesity and eye
Moringa pterygosterm Gaertener (Moringaceae) Nugge mara
disease.
Sahachara
Whole plant in diseases of nervous system, pruritus, gout
Nilgirianthus heyneanus (Nees.) Bramek.
and rheumatoid arthritis.
(Acanthaceae)
Leaf as antibilios and expectorant.
Parijatha
Nyctanthes abror-tristis L. (Oleaceae)
Hippali
Root and fruit - distaste, anorexia, constipation, piles, liver
Piper longum L. (Piperaceae)
disorder, cough and asthma.
Piper nigrum Linn. (Piperaceae)
Karimenashu
Fruits as stimulant in weakness due to fever and stomachic.
Polygonum glabrum Willd. (Polygonaceae)
Neeru kanagilu
Leaves and root as colic, febrifuge; in piles and jaundice.
Sapinduslaurifolia Vahl. (Sapindaceae)
Antuval Kayi
Fruit as tonic, emetic, purgative and nauseant.
Sida rombifolia L. (Malvaceae)
Bolangadale
Root in rheumatism and tuberculosis.
Solanum nigrum L. (Solanaceae)
Karikachi gida
Whole plant in leprosy, piles, polyurea, oedema and fever.
Strychnos cinnamomifolia Thw. (Loganiaceae)
Root in rheumatism, ulcers, elephantiasis and fevers.
Contd.
Achyranthes bidentata Blume. (Amaranthaceae)
Apamarga
SHIDDAMALLAYYA et al.: MEDICO-BOTANY OF MANGALORE, KARNATAKA
Plant name
Local name
Medicinal uses
Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.Moore
(Symplocaceae)
Terminalia paniculata Roth. (Combretaceae)
Thespesia lampus (Cav.) Dalz. & Gibson.
(Malvaceae)
Thottea siliquosa (Lam.) Ding Hou
(Aristolochiaceae)
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume. (Ulmaceae)
Ventilago madrasapatna Gaertner. (Rhamnaceae)
Changa
Stem bark in polyurea, leucoderma and menorrhagia.
Honaal
Kadu bende
Stem bark as cardiotonic and diuretic.
Flower in jaundice.
Chakranike
Root as antidote for poison and food poisoning.
Karuhalle
Popli
Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae)
Lakkigida
Whole plant in epilepsy.
Root, stem bark and oil as stomachic and tonic; in skin
ailments.
Leaf in rheumatism.
Conclusion
The Medico–botanical survey of Kumar Parvatha
was initiated to explore 44 medicinal plants with
10 raw drugs. It focused on available Ayurvedic
medicinal plants, economic value of the forest and
also the need of conservation of bioresources. Further
research in bioactive compounds and Ayurvedic
formulations will benefit to develop low cost
medicine with international standards. It will also help
to establish pharmaceutical, medicinal, perfumery and
essential oil industries.
Acknowledgement
Authors are thankful to the watchers, guards, range
officers and DCF of Forest Department, Udupi district
for their guidance during the survey work. Thanks are
also due to the Director, CCRAS, for providing
facility.
99
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