What`s coral reef

Transcription

What`s coral reef
How coral reef are formed?
http://www.coexploration.org/bbsr/coral/assets/images/a_darwins_reef.jpg
Where you can find them?
General biology of coral
Colonial organism : polyp and colony
Reproduction: gonochoric & hermaphroditic;
asexual and sexual
Nutrient uptake
heterotrophic & autotrophic
Polyp
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyp#mediaviewer/File:Coral_polyp.jpg
Colony
Reproduction:
coral spawning
Reproduction: Sexual
Gonochoric:
Broadcaster
Male colonies release sperm
Female colonies release eggs
Brooder
Internal fertilization
Hermaphroditic:
Broadcaster
Colonies release egg and sperm bundles
Brooder
Internal fertilization
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coral#mediaviewer/File:Coral_Life_Cycles_ZP.svg
Reproduction: Asexual
Fragmentation
Fission
Bailout
Budding
Fragmentation
Fission
http://www.marinelifephotography.com/corals/mushroom/fungia-granulosa.htm
Bailout
http://www.reeffrontiers.com/threads/43448-Polyp-bail-out
Budding
http://www.coralhub.info/terms/extra-tentacular-budding/
Nutrient uptake
Heterotrophic:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KuFLUzrcfQ
Nematocyte
Nutrient uptake
Autotrophic:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_WUbYbRtiwA
How about their taxonomy ?
Anthozoa
Octocorallia
blue coral, soft corals, sea pens, and
gorgonians
Hexacorallia
Scleratinia, Antipatharia, Zoantharia, Actiniaria and
Corallimorpharia
Octocorallia
Most of them don’t have calcium
carbonate skeletons, however, they
have spiny skeletal elements called
sclerites.
http://museum.wa.gov.au/kimberley/diaries/dr-merrick-ekins
Octocorallia
Some of them have calcium carbonate skeletons such as Heliopora
coerulea (Blue coral) and Corallium sp. (precious coral)
http://www.messersmith.name/wordpress/tag/heliopora-coerulea/
Hexacorallia
Scleratinia: ~700 species, dominate reef
building coral.
Base on morphology and ability to face
disturbance, three different functional
groups are suggested.
$ Massive
$ Branching
$ Encrusting
Massive coral
Difficult to break down
thru intensive waves.
Sensitive to high
sedimentation
environment.
Hi-resist to breach in hitemperature
Porites sp.
Encrusting coral
Easy to break down
thru intensive waves.
Sensitive to high
sedimentation
environment.
Mycedium elephantotus
Median-resist to
breaching in hitemperature
Branching coral
Vulnerable to intensive
waves.
Non-sensitive to high
sedimentation
environment.
Acropora sp. Pocillopora sp.
Sensitive to hitemperature, breaching
easily
Zoantharia
Zoanthids can be
distinguished from other
colonial anthozoans and
soft coral by their
characteristic of
incorporating sand and
other small pieces of
material into their tissue
to help make their
structure.
Jamie is currently one
of the best scientists
who work on
taxonomy, biodiversity
and phylogeny of
zoanthids.
Corallimorpharia
http://www.wetwebmedia.com/pix%20of%20the%20day%20marine/pot
d%20sw%20arch%201-10/swpodarch6.htm
Actiniaria
Sea anemone:
Threats
Global warming
Acidification
Anthropogenic effects
Rising of SST
http://bobtisdale.blogspot.tw/2009/03/has-global-warming-accelerated.html
What will happen to coral
if the SST is toooo high ?
2010 Phuket severe bleaching even
Phuket marine biological center,
Department of Marie and Coastal
Research
Acidification
http://www.quora.com/What-really-can-cause-global-warming
Formula of calcification
Ca2+ + 2HCO3- → CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O
http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/154989/
SO AS CORALS~
Coral reefs in Taiwan
West coast: Sandy or mud
East coast: Rocky shore
Well developed coral
reefs
Coral reef face-shift and
resilience
Resilience refers to the ability of
biological or social systems to
overcome pressures and stresses
by maintaining key functions
through resisting or adapting to
change. Reef resistance measures
how well coral reefs tolerate
changes in ocean chemistry, sea
level, and sea surface temperature
The interaction between functional group of different
component of coral reefs may determine how fast coral
can recover from face-shift.
Algae feeders may reverse
the face-shift under certain
circumstance
What can we do for the
future coral reefs ???
Education
Like what I am doing now!
Behalf ourselves
Saving energy, reduce the usage of plastic product,
decrease your own demand (Shark fin: if there is no
demand, fishmen wont catch them for fins)
(Marine protected areas) MPEs or no take

Similar documents