Water Electrolysis: Status and Potential for Development

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Water Electrolysis: Status and Potential for Development
Water Electrolysis:
Status and Potential for Development
Tom Smolinka
Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare
Energiesysteme ISE
Joint NOW GmbH – FCH JU
Water Electrolysis Day
Brussels (BE), April 03, 2014
© Fraunhofer ISE
Agenda
 Short introduction to Fraunhofer ISE
 Applications for water electrolysis
 Key features of different EL approaches
 Alkaline electrolysis - AEL
 PEM electrolysis - PEMEL
 High temperature electrolysis - HTEL
 Discussion of technical challenges:
 Performance and efficiency
 High pressure operation
 Part-load and overload capability
 Life-time
 R&D demand and summary
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© Fraunhofer ISE
Photos © Fraunhofer ISE
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE
Performing Research for the Energy Transition
12 Business Areas:

Energy Efficient Buildings

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology

Silicon Photovoltaics


III-V and Concentrator Photovoltaics
System Integration and Grids –
Electricity, Heat, Gas

Dye, Organic and Novel Solar Cells

Energy Efficient Power Electronics

Photovoltaic Modules and Power
Plants

Zero-Emission Mobility

Storage Technologies

Solar Thermal Technology

Energy System Analysis
3
© Fraunhofer ISE
H2 Refueling Station at Fraunhofer ISE
 Publicly accessible refueling station,
located at premises of Fraunhofer ISE
 Main components of the filing station:

(Membran electrolyser
(30 bar / 6 Nm³/h)

Mechanical compressor

Storage tanks

Dispenser units (200/350/700bar)

Filling according to SAE J2600
 Integrated container solution
 Coupled with renewable energies:
©Daimler
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© Fraunhofer ISE

Photovoltaic modules (roof)

Certified green electricity
 Two fuel cell cars from Daimler
Hydrogen Production by Electrolytical Water Splitting
Known for more than 200 years.
 Invention of voltaic pile (1799) enabled
investigations of electrolytic approaches
 Main principle demonstrated around 1800 by J. W.
Ritter, William Nicholson and Anthony Carlise
 Today 3 technologies available:
 Alkaline electrolysis (AEL)
Test set-up of Ritter
 Electrolysis in acid environment
(PEM electrolysis - PEMEL)
(SPE water electrolysis)
 Steam electrolysis
(High temperature electrolysis HTEL or SOEL)
2 H2O  2 H2 + O2
Alkaline electrolyser around 1900
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© Fraunhofer ISE
Johann Wilhelm Ritter (1776-1810)
Picture credits: all www.wikipedia.org
Hydrogen Production by Electrolytical Water Splitting
Today's industrial hydrogen production.
 Global hydrogen production:
600 Bill. Nm³/yr
Industrial application
 Mostly steam reforming
Jewellery, laboratory and medical
engineering
5 - 500 Nl/h
 Less than 1 % by water
electrolysis
Generator cooling in power plants
5 - 20 Nm³/h
Feed Water Inertisation
(BWR water chemistry)
Float glas production
(protective atmosphere)
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© Fraunhofer ISE
10 - 50 Nm³/h
50 - 150 Nm³/h
Electronics industry
100 - 400 Nm³/h
Metallurgy
200 - 750 Nm³/h
Food industry (fat hardening)
100 - 900 Nm³/h
Military und aerospace
Source: DWV brochure (2006 )
Typical size
electrolyser
< 15 Nm³/h
Coupling Renewable Energies and Water Electrolysis
New market opportunies with power to gas (PtG).
Power Generation
Storage and Distribution
-
H2O
H2
Electricity
+
O2
Application
H2
Wind
CNG
CGH2 / LH2 Trailer
Electrolysis
H2
Mobility
Solar
H2
Hydro
H2
O2
Electrical Grid
Heat
LH2
H2
Hydrogen
Pipeline
Hydrogen Storage
Power
Residential
H2O
CH4
Nuclear
Natural Gas CH4
Grid
Power Generation
Methanisation
Fossil
Biomass
CO2
© Fraunhofer ISE (2013‐06)
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© Fraunhofer ISE
CO2 Buffer
Natural
Gas
Storage
Industrial
Coupling Renewable Energies and Water Electrolysis
New market opportunies and …
 New tasks for electrolysers in the PtG concept
 Operating (spinning) reserve for electrical
grid (demand site management, load
balancing)
 Hydrogen production as fuel for FCEV
 Large-scale storage systems by gas injection
to the NG grid or underground storage
 Hydrogen for industrial applications
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© Fraunhofer ISE
Coupling Renewable Energies and Water Electrolysis
New market opportunies and new challenges.
 Large EL plants up to x 100MW
 Scale-up vs. numbering up
 Optimum pressure level
 Small footprint for on-site H2
production
 Compact design
 High-pressure operation
 Highly flexible operation
 Fast start/stop cycling
 Efficient part-load operation and
efficient stand-by mode
 Overload capability
75 MW AEL module, concept EdF (30 bar, 160 °C) [1]
Definition H2
fueling stations
HRS Type XS
H2 fueling
capacity
Required
EL size
80 kg/d
~ 40 Nm³/h
HRS Type S
212 kg/d ~ 100 Nm³/h
HRS Type M
420 kg/d ~ 200 Nm³/h
 Decrease in CAPEX due to less annual
full-load hours  cost pressure!
HRS Type L
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[1] LeRoy 1983, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy)
© Fraunhofer ISE
1.000 kg/d ~ 450 Nm³/h
Definition of HRS size according to H2 Mobility (2012)
Water Electrolysis
Three approaches for hydrogen and oxygen production
Technology
Alkaline
electrolysis
Temp.
Range
Cathodic Reaction (HER)
Charge
Carrier
40 - 90 °C
2H2O  2e   H2  2OH 
OH-
2OH  
2H   2e 
 H2
H+
H2O  12 O2  2H   2e 
H2O  2e   H2  O2
O2-
O 2 
Membrane
20 - 100 °C
electrolysis
High temp.
electrolysis
700 1000 °C
Anodic Reaction (OER)
AEL
PEMEL
10
© Fraunhofer ISE
HTEL
1
2
1
2
O2  H2O  2e 
O2  2e 
Water Electrolysis
Main technical features - overview
Alkaline Electrolysis
Membrane
Electrolysis
Solid Oxide Electrolysis
Electrolyte
Liquid alkaline KOH
Solid acid polymer
Ceramic metal compound
Electrodes
Ni/Fe electrodes (Raney)
Noble metals (Pt, Ir, ..)
Ni doped ceramic
Temperature
50-80 °C
RT - 90 °C
700 - 1,000 °C
Pressure
< 30 bar
< 200 bar
Atm.
Max. 760 Nm³ H2/h
~ 3.2 MWel
Max. 30 Nm³ H2/h
~ 170 kWel
~ 1 Nm³ H2/h
kW range
Modul size
(commercial)
AEL
PEMEL
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© Fraunhofer ISE
HTEL
Development Trends in Water Electrolysis
(Pressurised) alkaline electrolysers (re)enter the MW class
IHT (CH)
McPhy - Enertrag (DE)
NEL Hydrogen (NO)
Suzhou Yingli Hydrogen (CN)
Next Hydrogen (CA)
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© Fraunhofer ISE
H2 Nitidor (IT)
Development Trends in Water Electrolysis
PEM electrolysers entering MW class as well.
ITM Power (GB)
CETH2 (FR)
Hydrogenics (CA)
Proton OnSite (US)
Siemens (DE)
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© Fraunhofer ISE
(1) Performance and Efficiency of Water Electrolysis
Comparison of different EL technologies at stack level.
A
E
L
PEMEL
HTEL
Today
mA/cm²
 Polarisation (V/i) curves with normalised current
14
© Fraunhofer ISE
Future
 Specific energy
consumption as measure for efficiency
 Manufacturer's data
 No standardised
data
 Differernt pressure
and H2 purity
 Specifications for
steady state
operation
Spez.
Energieverbrauch
[kWh/Nm³
H2]
Spec.
Energy
Demand[kWh
el / Nm³ H2]
(1) Performance and Efficiency of Water Electrolysis
Attempt to compare the efficiency at system level.
10,0
9,0
AEL(atmospheric)
(atmosphärisch)
AEL (pressurised)
(Druck)
PEMEL Stack
PEMEL System
8,0
7,0
6,0
5,0
4,0
3,0
Thermodynamik @ STP
© Fraunhofer ISE
2,0
0,010
0,100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Wasserstoffproduktionsrate
Hydrogen
Production Rate [Nm³/h]
[Nm³/h]
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© Fraunhofer ISE
1000,000
 Energy consumption
will not be reduced
significantly in the
future
 Higher operating
pressure
 High power
densities due to
cost pressure
 Dynamic operation
(start/stop, standby)
Spez.
Energieverbrauch
[kWh/Nm³
H2]
Spec.
Energy
Demand[kWh
el / Nm³ H2]
(1) Performance and Efficiency of Water Electrolysis
Attempt to compare the efficiency at system level.
10,0
9,0
AEL(atmospheric)
(atmosphärisch)
AEL (pressurised)
(Druck)
PEMEL Stack
PEMEL System
8,0
7,0
6,0
PEMEL
AEL
5,0
4,0
3,0
Thermodynamik
@@
STPNTP
Thermodynamics
© Fraunhofer ISE
2,0
0,010
0,100
1,000
10,000
100,000
Wasserstoffproduktionsrate
Hydrogen
Production Rate [Nm³/h]
[Nm³/h]
16
© Fraunhofer ISE
1000,000
(2) Do We Need High-Pressure Electrolysis?
PEM electrolysis favours high pressure operation.
© Statoil HT
Pressure [bar]
AEL
PEMEL
HTEL
Typically
4 - 15
30
Atm.
Available
60
207
(Atm.)
~ 345
~ 400
(10)
Demonstrated
30 bar AEL stack in pressure compartment
 AEL (with liquid electrolyte)
 Pressure balanced design and complex system
layout limit HP operation (CAPEX)
 PEMEL
 Differential pressure system, simpler layout and
compact design favour HP operation
© DTU
HTEL compartment
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© Fraunhofer ISE
© Giner
55 bar PEM stack
 HTEL
 Restrictions due to HT and HP in parallel
H2 refueling stations (750 - 950 bar)
Fueling of CGH2 trailer (up to 450 bar)
Underground storage (200 - 300 bar)
102
Pipelines (transportation: 60 - 80 bar)
AEL stack in pressure compartment
Methanisation (30 bar)
Chemical industry (10 - 60 bar)
101
Pipelines (local distribution: 1 - 4 bar)
100
Water electrolysis: H2O  H2 + ½ O2
Piston compressor
18
© Fraunhofer ISE
Pressure
Electrochemical
compression
© Statoil HT
103
[bar]
Mechanical
compressor
(2) Do We Need High-Pressure Electrolysis?
Typical pressure level of different applications
(2) Do We Need High-Pressure Electrolysis?
Electrochemical compression should be the first step!
 Hydrogen needs to be compressed for nearly all
applications
 electrochemical compression is more efficient
© Statoil HT
 mechanical compression is cheaper at higher P
AEL stack in pressure compartment
 Operating pressure of electrolyser is an
economical trade-off (CAPEX)
 today: typically 10 - 40 bar
 In the future: probably up to 60 - 80 bar
 Higher pressures only for niche applications
 Large-scale storage and hydrogen mobility
requires mechanical compressors
Piston compressor
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© Fraunhofer ISE
(3) Part-load and Overload Capability
Modularity enables different applications.
550 x 350 m²
 Decentralised system
 Centralised system
 4 stacks à 2.3 MW -> 9.2 MW
 248 stacks à 2.3 MW -> 578 MW
 Approx. 2,000 Nm³/h H2
 Approx. 120,000 Nm³/h H2
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© Fraunhofer ISE
Source: Fell - NEL Hydrogen, 2011, NOW-Workshop Berlin
(3) Part-load and Overload Capability
Multi-stack configuration facilitates low part-load limit.
 Lower part-load limit is defined by
 Self-consumption of the EL system
 Gas purity H2 in O2 (quality and safety issue)
 New applications in energy sector (PtG)
 Multi-stack configuration for larger installations
 part-load non-critical
 H2 refueling stations with on-site electrolyser
 capacity small enough for system with single stack
 H2 demand and buffer tank allows nearly constant
operation
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© Fraunhofer ISE
(3) Part-load and Overload Capability
High overload could make sence.
 Overload capability has to be discussed separately for
(1) Electrochemical cell/stack
 PEMEL stack has high overload capability
 AEL stack is limited by bubble overpotential
 HTEL stack … ?
(2) Process part (BoP)
 Overload for short time possible (<< 1 hour)
 Thermal management and gas -quality are critical
(3) Power electronics
 Rectifier has NO overload capability
 Overload capability is possible but results in higher CAPEX
for power electronic and partly for BoP
 Could be useful for electrical grid services
22
© Fraunhofer ISE
(4) Life-Time of Electrolysis Cells and Stacks
Durability is given for steady state operation at LT
 AEL life-time
 Older systems have excellent life-time in steadystate operation > 100,000 h / 9-15 years
 Newer concepts : 50-70,000 h
2005 design
 PEMEL life-time
60,000 h
 Comparable to AEL if well designed
Long-term testing of PEMEL stack at Proton [1]
 But mostly < 40,000 h / 5-10 yrs
 Degradation mechanism not fully understood
 HTEL life-time
 Few 1,000 h with decay rate < 1%/1000 h
 But considerable progress in the last years:
40,000 h should be feasible (cell level)
Long-term test of SOEL cells at EiFER [2]
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© Fraunhofer ISE
 Thermal management is essential for dynamic
operation and life-time
[1] Everett / Proton OnSite, Proceedings PEMEL Durability Workshop, 2013-03
[2] Shefold, Brisse / EIFER, Manuscript ICACC 2014
Where Do We Have R&D Demand in the Next Years?
 AEL
 PEMEL
 Increasing current
density
 Increasing life time
of materials/ stack
 (Increasing pressure
tightness)
 Proof of scale up
concepts for stack
 Faster dynamics of
the complete system
(BOP)
 Decreasing costs by
substitution or
reduction of
expensive materials
 Higher part load
range
 Decreasing
production costs
through economies
of scale
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© Fraunhofer ISE
 (Decreasing
production costs
through economies
of scale)
 HTEL
 Development of
adapted electrodes/
electrolyte for SOEL
 Cell and stack
design
 Proof of life time
 Pressure tightness
 Cycling stability
Summary
 The principle of water electrolysis is known for more than 200 years
 Importance of water electrolysis gets larger with growing integration of renewable
energy sources
 New market opportunities (PtG concept, hydrogen FCEV) entail new requirements
for water electrolysis systems
 Alkaline electrolysers are a mature technology in the MW range for industrial use
but needs to be adapted to new markets requirements
 PEM electrolysis is available in the small scale as proven technology with several
advantages but has to enter the MW class
 HT electrolysis is still in the lab scale but has made considerable progress,
substantial R&D is required before systems are on the market
25
© Fraunhofer ISE
Thanks a lot for your kind attention!
Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE
Freiburg / Germany
Dr. Tom Smolinka
[email protected]
www.ise.fraunhofer.de
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© Fraunhofer ISE

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