Small `ive 6eetle A 8rowing Problem in The Mid*Atlantic Region

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Small `ive 6eetle A 8rowing Problem in The Mid*Atlantic Region
Small &ive *eetle
A -rowing Problem in
The Mid9Atlantic
Region
Michael <mbrey
>niversity of Maryland
<xtension Apiculture
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Demales are the first to
emerge in the spring.
*eetles attract other
beetles. They can fly up to
1G miles in one day.
*eetles are also attracted
to hives where there is
stress.
*eetles are attracted to
the alarm pheremones of
bees.
Demales will lay between
G009500 eggs every three
days for 2 months.
Life stages
<ggs 1L92M hours
Larvae 591M days is
normal
Pupae 59M5 days.
Need soil
temperatures of O0 9
P0 degrees to
survive.
Average life span of
adult beetles is L0 to
5M0 days
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S&* Adults and
larvae will eat
beebread and pollen
substitutes.
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*eetles and larvae
like protein best.
Rill seek out and
eat bee eggs and
young larvae.
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Larvae will feed on
honey but also will
defecate in honey
causing honey to
ferment and leak
from combs.
!
It is necessary to
extract honey
supers within G
days after removal
from colony.
! S&*
larvae will congregate in
bottom of colony before
exiting in mass to pupate in
soil.
S&* are possible disease vectors like
Varroa mites
Twisted wing virus (DRV) has been found
in the gut of beetles and in their fecal
matter
Adult beetles will mimic
honeybee larvae feeding
behavior
In strong colonies bee will seek out and
try to isolate beetles with propolis
chambers.
The problem is when we open to examine
the colony we re-release the beetles back
into the colony.
Basic Cultural Practices
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Eliminate all extra space that the bees cannot
protect.
Consolidate all frames of honey in the fall on
one or two of your strongest colonies
In the fall consolidate all weak hives.
If possible move your bees to another location.
Remove frame spacers from your colonies.
Try using hygienic stock in your colonies.
Seal all cracks and crevices in your wooden
ware.
Honey Houses and Storage
Areas
! Temperature
and humidity do make a
difference.
! Extract honey rapidly.
! Start with comb that has had brood reared
in it, then do comb that virgin wax.
! Keep humidity levels in honey house
below 49%. (Controls SHB egg hatching)
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In stored eXuipment
S&* can be controlled
with Rax Moth crystals
but need more in dose.
! S&* does not like cold
and dry storage places.
! Do not put extracted
supers back on colonies.
! !"#$%&'#()'*+*,-#.+//#
keep S&* out of
colonies.
! <ntrance reduction
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Nematodes
! Two
different nematodes, &. indica and
S. riobravo, have been tested at the
>SDA lab in Reslaco.
! Problem with low parasitism and timing
of application.
! Nematode control could be regional
specific.
Survey Said!
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In fall of 2009 a MARREC survey was conducted
in MD, DE, PA, VA, and NJ to see the extent of
the SHB problem. A total of 154 beekeepers
responded.
69% had infestations in 2009 or in past years.
56% light, 38% medium, 6% heavy
46% used some kind of control methods.
42% said they experienced SHB for first time in
last 3 years.
50% of infestations were most stressful in over
wintering colonies
Evaluation of SHB traps
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In 2009 we evaluated three types of the trapping
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control. Replicated 4 times.
Visual counts of active beetles on frames and
inner covers and number of beetles caught in
traps were recorded every week.
By mid-July two of the control colonies were lost
to high levels of infestation.
Boric acid did not work and suffered same fate
as the controls.
The Freeman trap out performed the AJ trap by
50%
1Z colonies
M replicates of
G in9hive traps
plus control

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