Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forest By: Ryan Santero Sami Khan Climate ● ● ● ● Temperate Deciduous Forest locations Temp: -30°C to 30°C ○ Average 10°C Rainfall: 75-150 cm/30 to 60 inches annually Latitude: ranges from 23 ° north to 38 ° south. Four Main Seasons: winter, spring, summer and fall Unique Abiotic Factors ● ● ● Most deciduous forests get to see 4 seasons each year and each season typically lasts about 3 months ○ This is due to the biome being in mid-latitude regions, receiving both warm and cold air masses. The only biome that receives more precipitation is the rainforest Very fertile soil Typical Species Plants: ● ● ● ● oak, maple, beech, chestnut, hickory, elm, basswood, linden, walnut, sweet gum trees. short tree species and young trees. shrubs such as rhododendrons, azaleas, mountain laurels, and huckleberries lichens, clubmosses, and true mosses. Plant Adaptations: ● Deciduous forests have trees that lose their leaves as fall rolls around. The trees stay bare through the winter and grow back in the spring. ● Many of the trees contain a sap used to help protect the roots of the trees from freezing if temperatures drop far enough down to create cold conditions. Animals: Ant, Bald Eagle, Beaver, Black Bear, Brown Bear, Cardinal, Collared Peccary, Deer, Dhole, Earthworm, Fox, Frog, Mallard Duck, Muskrat, Newt, Nightingale, Opossum, Porcupine, Rabbit, Raccoon, Red Fox, Red-Tailed Hawk, Scorpion, Skunk, Squirrel, Turkey, Weasel, White Tailed Deer Animal Adaptations: A large majority of deciduous forest animals use camouflage to hide from predators. Most of the insects of the deciduous forest are unable to survive the changing seasons. When temperatures begin to get colder, the insects will lay eggs before dying. When Spring arrives, their children will hatch. Human Impact on the Forests pre-Great Smoky Mountains National Park ● ● ● ● ● In the Great Smoky Mountains during the 18th and 19th, century, European settlers took Native-American land and began to develop the area. Due to their lack of genuine care for the environment, many areas were clear cutted for farmland since the soil was very fertile and for wood for fires, constructing houses, etc. The speedy and swift clearing of the land lead to many animals species losing their original homes, causing them to adapt or go extinct. This also contributed to the loss of biodiversity in the area, as it then later became engulfed with settlers. The park was later protected by the United States Congress in 1934. It was officially dedicated by President Franklin Roosevelt two years later. Current Status ● This is biome is vulnerable to human use (agriculture, logging, etc.), change in climate or atmosphere, introduction of non-native species, and fire suppression. ● Almost all temperate deciduous forests have been severely impacted by human use. In Europe and North America, less than 1% of all temperate deciduous forests remain in an undisturbed state, free of logging, grazing, deforestation, or other intensive use. ● The human activity with the biggest effect on these forests is the conversion of the forest to other land uses, mainly agriculture. ● To this day, Temperate Deciduous Forests have one of the most diverse system of plants and animals in the world ● To increase the stability of this biome, governments can protect areas of forests from those who would exploit it for resources. Creating preservation areas and national parks are crucial for keeping the biological cogs allowing this biome to function and flourish.