Jul-Sep, 32-3 - MinorPlanet.Info

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Jul-Sep, 32-3 - MinorPlanet.Info
THE MINOR PLANET
BULLETIN
BULLETIN OF THE MINOR PLANETS SECTION OF THE
ASSOCIATION OF LUNAR AND PLANETARY OBSERVERS
VOLUME 32, NUMBER 3, A.D. 2005 JULY-SEPTEMBER
120 LACHESIS – A VERY SLOW ROTATOR
Colin Bembrick
Mt Tarana Observatory
PO Box 1537, Bathurst, NSW, Australia
[email protected]
Bill Allen
Vintage Lane Observatory
83 Vintage Lane, RD3, Blenheim, New Zealand
(Received: 17 January Revised: 12 May)
Minor planet 120 Lachesis appears to belong to the
group of slow rotators, with a synodic period of 45.84 ±
0.07 hours. The amplitude of the lightcurve at this
opposition was just over 0.2 magnitudes.
45.
were light-time corrected. Aspect data are listed in Table I, which
also shows the (small) percentage of the lightcurve observed each
night, due to the long period. Period analysis was carried out
using the “AVE” software (Barbera, 2004). Initial results indicated
a period close to 1.95 days and many trial phase stacks further
refined this to 1.910 days. The composite light curve is shown in
Figure 1, where the assumption has been made that the two
maxima are of approximately equal brightness. The arbitrary zero
phase maximum is at JD 2453077.240.
Due to the long period, even nine nights of observations over two
weeks (less than 8 rotations) have not enabled us to cover the full
phase curve. The period of 45.84 hours is the best fit to the current
data. Further refinement of the period will require (probably) a
combined effort by multiple observers – preferably at several
longitudes. Asteroids of this size commonly have rotation rates of
120 Lachesis
-1.1
Period = 1.910 days
Previous observations (Debehogne et al, 1983) over three nights in
1983 could not determine a period, but did suggest it was “much
longer than 20 hours” and that this asteroid belonged to the slow
rotator group. Observations over two nights in 1990 (HainautRoulle et al., 1995) were also insufficient to determine a period,
but an overall magnitude variation of 0.14 was noted on one night.
Observations were made on three nights in 1995 (Angeli et al.,
1999), but the low time resolution was totally inadequate to assist
in determining the period of this minor planet. Observations by
one of the authors (CB) over four nights in 1999 and six nights in
2001 were also inadequate to resolve the period, although these
data did indicate that the period had to be longer than 20 hours and
the magnitude variation was >0.1.
Observations in 2004 were conducted from two sites – one in
NewZealand and one in Australia. The locations of these sites are
listed in Bembrick et al. (2004). In all, nine nights of observations
were acquired, using unfiltered differential photometry. All data
Mar-14
Mar-15
Mar-18
Mar-19
Mar-21
Mar-24
Mar-25
Mar-26
Mar-28
Mag
-1.0
Delta
Minor planet 120 Lachesis was discovered on 10 April, 1872 from
Marseilles by A. Borrelly. It was independently discovered the
next day by C.H.F. Peters. It is named for one of the three Fates.
Lachesis carries the scroll and determines the length of the thread
of life. This central main-belt asteroid is estimated to be174 km
diameter and belongs to Tholen class C. The albedo is quoted as
0.045 and the B-V= 0.70. The latest list of rotational parameters
(Harris & Warner, 2003) gives the rotation period as greater than
20 hours and the magnitude variability as > 0.14, with a reliability
of only 1.
-0.9
-0.8
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Phase
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Table I. Aspect data for 120 Lachesis observations in 2004.
UT Date
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
Mar
14
15
18
19
21
24
25
26
28
PAB
Long
177.1
177.1
177.1
177.1
177.1
177.0
177.0
177.0
177.0
PAB
Lat
-2.2
-2.2
-2.3
-2.4
-2.4
-2.5
-2.5
-2.6
-2.6
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
Available on line http://www.minorplanetobserver.com/mpb/default.htm
Phase
Angle
1.5
1.2
1.0
1.3
1.9
3.0
3.4
3.8
4.5
%Phase
Coverage
11
14
8
6
3
15
15
11
14
1.0
46
more than 2 rotations per day (Binzel et al., 1989), thus Lachesis is
by comparison a very slow rotator.
Bembrick, C.S., Richards, T., Bolt, G., Pereghy, B., Higgins, D.
and Allen, W.H. (2004). “172 Baucis – A Slow Rotator”. Minor
Planet Bulletin, 31, 51-52.
Acknowledgements
Alan Gilmore of Mt John Observatory is thanked for his critical
comments on an early version of this light curve.
References
Angeli, C. A., Lazzaro, D., Florczak, M.A., Betzler, A.S. and
Carvano, J.M. (1999). “A contribution to the study of asteroids
with long rotational periods.” Planetary & Space Sci., 47, pp 699714.
Barbera, R. (2004). “AVE” Analisis de Variabilidad Estelar,
version
2.51.
Grup
d’Estudis
Astronomics.
http://usuarios.lycos.es/barbera/AVE/AveInternational.htm
2004-2005 WINTER OBSERVING CAMPAIGN AT
ROSE-HULMAN INSTITUTE: RESULTS FOR
1098 HAKONE, 1182 ILONA, 1294 ANTWERPIA,
1450 RAIMONDA, 2251 TIKHOV, AND
2365 INTERKOSMOS
Crystal LeCrone
Don Addleman
Thomas Butler
Erin Hudson
Alex Mulvihill
Chris Reichert
Ian Ross
Harry Starnes
Richard Ditteon
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology CM 171
5500 Wabash Avenue
Terre Haute, IN 47803
[email protected]
(Received: 25 March)
CCD images recorded in November and December 2004
and January and February 2005 using the Tenagra 32inch telescope and three telescopes located at RoseHulman’s Oakley Observatory yielded lightcurves and
periods for six asteroids: 1098 Hakone, 7.14 ± 0.01 h,
0.40 mag; 1182 Ilona, 29.8 ± 0.1 h, 1.20 mag; 1294
Antwerpia, 6.63 ± 0.01 h, 0.40 mag; 1450 Raimonda,
12.66 ± 0.02 h, 0.64 mag; 2251 Tikhov, 5.67 ± 0.01 h,
0.40 mag; and 2365 Interkosmos, 5.78 ± 0.01 h, 0.36
mag. In addition to these results, we found little or no
lightcurve amplitude, possibly indicative of long
periods, for asteroids 1114 Lorraine, 1166 Sakuntala,
and 4332 Milton.
During the winter of 2004-2005 eight Rose-Hulman students
(LeCrone, Addleman, Butler, Hudson, Mulvihill, Reichert, Ross,
and Starnes) and a professor (Ditteon) obtained images with the
32-inc Ritchey-Chretien telescope with a V-filter at the Tenagra
Observatory in Arizona and three 14-inch Celestron telescopes on
Binzel, R.P., Farinella, P., Zappala, V. and Cellino, A. (1989).
“Asteroid Rotation Rates.” In Asteroids II (Binzel, Richard P.,
Gehrels, Tom and Matthews, Mildred Shapley, eds.) pp416-441.
Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.
Debehogne, H., De Sanctis, G. and Zappala, V. (1983).
“Photelectric Photometry of Asteroids 45, 120, 776, 804, 814 and
1982 DV”. Icarus, 55, pp 236-244.
Hainaut-Roulle, M.-C., Hainaut, O.R. and Detal, A. (1995).
“Lightcurves of selected minor planets.” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.
Ser., 112, pp 125-142.
Harris, A.W. and Warner, B.D. (2003). “Minor PLanet Lightcurve
Parameters”.
Updated
Dec.
15
2003.
http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/lists/LightcurveDat.html
Paramount mounts at the Oakley Observatory in Terre Haute,
Indiana. The Tenagra telescope operates at f/7 with a CCD camera
using a 1024x1024x24u SITe chip and the images were binned 2
by 2 (Schwartz, 2004). The Oakley Telescopes operate at f/7 with
two Apogee AP7 and one Apogee AP8 cameras. The AP7s have
512x511x24u SITe chips, one of which uses a V-filter, and the
AP8 has a 1024x1024x24u SITe chip. The exposures were 60
seconds for Tenagra and 240 seconds for Oakley images.
Asteroids were selected for observation by using TheSky,
published by Software Bisque, to locate asteroids that were at an
elevation angle of between 20º and 30º one hour after local sunset.
In addition, TheSky was set to show only asteroids between 14 and
16 mag. Bright asteroids were avoided because we pay for a
minimum 60 second exposure while using the Tenagra telescope.
The asteroids were cross checked with the list of lightcurve
parameters (Harris and Warner 2003). We tried to observe only
asteroids that did not have previously reported measurements or
had very uncertain published results.
Observation requests for the asteroids and Landolt reference stars
were submitted by Ditteon using ASCII text files formatted for the
TAO scheduling program (Schwartz, 2004). The resulting images
were downloaded via ftp along with flat field, dark and bias
frames. Standard image processing was done using MaxImDL,
published by Diffraction Limited. Photometric measurements and
light curves were prepared using MPO Canopus, published by
BDW Publishing.
A total of 9 asteroids were observed during this campaign, but
lightcurves were not found for all of these asteroids. If an asteroid
had a very small variation in brightness or if the signal-to-noise
ratio was too small, that asteroid was dropped from further
observation. This allowed the maximum number of quality
observations with limited funds. The data on two asteroids (1166
Sakuntala and 4332 Milton) turned out to be little more than noise,
while the data on 1114 Lorraine had no observable magnitude
variation.
1098 Hakone. Asteroid 1098 Hakone was discovered on 5
September 1928 by O. Oikawa at Tokyo. It was named for a
composite volcanic mountain about 80 km from the observatory
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
47
where the asteroid was discovered (Schmadel, 1999). A total of 55
images were taken over three nights: 31 January, 3 February, and
4 February 2005. The data reveal a lightcurve with a 7.14 ± 0.01 h
period and 0.40 mag amplitude. All of the images of Hakone were
taken at the Tenagra Observatory.
1182 Ilona. Ilona was discovered on 3 March 1927 by K.
Reinmuth at Heidelberg. Any reference of this name to a person or
occurrence is unknown (Schmadel, 1999). A total of 81 images
were taken over five nights: 31 January, 3, 4, 7, and 8 February
2005. The data reveal a lightcurve with a 29.8 ± 0.1 h period and
1.20 mag amplitude. Ilona had a long period, which would
normally disqualify it from further observation, but because we
happened to catch a minimum and a maximum, additional nights
were acquired to produce an acceptable lightcurve. Poor weather
and equipment problems at Tenagra prevented completing the
lightcurve. All of the images of Ilona were taken at the Tenagra
Observatory.
1294 Antwerpia. Antwerpia was discovered on 24 October 1933
by E. Delporte at Uccle. It was named for the city of Antwerp,
Belgium (Schmadel, 1999). A total of 56 images were taken over
three nights: 31 January, 3 February, and 4 February 2005. The
data reveal a light curve with a 6.63 ± 0.01 h period and 0.40 mag
amplitude. All of the images of Antwerpia were taken at the
Tenagra Observatory.
Acknowledgements
This research was made possible by a grant from Sigma Xi to
Crystal LeCrone and funds from the Indiana Academy of
Sciences. We also want to thank Michael Schwartz and Paulo
Holvorcem for making remote observing with their telescope both
possible and enjoyable.
References
Schwartz, M. (2004). “Tenagra Observatories, Ltd.”
http://www.tenagraobservatories.com/, last referenced 29 April.
Schmadel, Lutz D. (1999). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names.
Springer: Berlin, Germany. 4th Edition.
Harris, A. W. and Warner, B. D (2003). “Minor Planet Lightcurve
Parameters.”
2003
Dec.
15.
http://cfawww.harvard.edu/iau/lists/LightcurveDat.html, last referenced 29
April.
1450 Raimonda. Raimonda was discovered 20 February 1938 by
Y. Väisälä at Turku. It was named in honor of Dr. Jean Jacques
Raimond, president of the Dutch Astronomical Society and
director of the Zeiss planetarium at The Hague (Schmadel, 1999).
A total of 58 images were taken over four nights: 14, 16, and 17
December 2004. The data reveal a lightcurve with a 12.66 ± 0.02 h
period with 0.64 mag amplitude. All of the images of Raimonda
were taken at the Oakley Observatory with a V-filter.
2251 Tikhov. Asteroid 2251 Tikhov was discovered 19
September 1977 by N. S. Chernykh at Nauchnyj. It was named in
memory of Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov, who was active on the
staff of the Pulkovo Observatory and head of the astrobotanical
department of the Kazakh Academy of Sciences (Schmadel,
1999). A total of 37 images were taken over two nights: 10 and 11
December 2004. The data reveal a light curve with a 5.67 ± 0.01 h
period with 0.40 mag amplitude. Images of Tikhov were taken at
the Oakley Observatory and the Tenagra Observatory.
2365 Interkosmos. Asteroid 2365 Interkosmos was discovered on
30 December 1980 by Z. Vávrová at Klet. It was named in honor
of the eastern European organization for space exploration
(Schmadel, 1999). A total of 88 images taken over 3 nights: 11,
15, and 17 December 2004. The data reveal a light curve with a
5.78 ± 0.01 h period and 0.36 mag amplitude. Images of
Interkosmos were taken at the Oakley Observatory and the
Tenagra Observatory.
All of our data is available upon request.
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
48
LIGHTCURVE ANALYSIS OF ASTEROIDS
106, 752, 847, 1057, 1630, 1670, 1927, 1936, 2426, 2612,
2647, 4087, 5635, 5692, AND 6235
Donald P. Pray
Carbuncle Hill Observatory
P.O. Box 946
Coventry, RI 02816
[email protected]
(Received: 21 January
Revised: 28 April)
Lightcurve period and amplitude results are reported for
fifteen asteroids observed at Carbuncle Hill Observatory
during June 2004 - March 2005. The following synodic
periods and amplitudes were determined:
106 Dione,
16.26±0.02h,
0.08±0.02m; 752 Sulamitis, 27.367±0.005h, 0.20±0.03m; 847 Agnia, 14.827±0.001h, 0.45±0.03m; 1057 Wanda, 28.49±0.03h, 0.14±0.02m; 1630 Milet,
32.55±0.03h,
0.37±0.03m; 1670 Minnaert, 3.528±0.001h, 0.23±0.02m; 1927 Suvanto, 8.163±0.003h, 0.60±0.03m; 1936 Lugano, 19.651±0.015h, 0.31±0.04m; 2426 Simonov, 5.811±0.002h, 0.40±0.03m; 2612 Kathryn, 7.700±0.002h, 0.43±0.02m; 2647 Sova,
9.37±0.01h,
0.30±0.02m; 4087 Part,
16.47±0.02h,
0.59±0.03m; 5635 Cole, 5.792±0.001h, 0.33±0.04m; 5692 Shirao, 2.886±0.002h, 0.12±0.03m; (6235) 1987VB, 15.515±0.002h,
0.60±0.04m. Carbuncle Hill Observatory, MPC code I00, is located about
twenty miles west of Providence, RI, in one of the darkest spots in
the state. Observations were made using two telescope/CCD
systems housed in separate buildings. One is an SBIG ST-10XME
CCD camera, binned 3x3, coupled to a 0.35m f/6.5 SCT. The
other consists of an SBIG ST-7ME CCD camera, binned 1x1,
coupled to a 0.32m f/3 Newtonian. These systems produced image
dimensions of 21x14 arc min, and 25x16 arc min, respectively. All
observations were taken through the “clear” filter. Image
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
49
calibration via dark frames, bias frames and flat field frames was
performed using “MaxIm DL”. Lightcurve construction and
analysis was accomplished using “Canopus” developed by Brian
Warner. Differential photometry was used in all cases, and all
measurements were corrected for light travel time.
Nine asteroids, 1936 Lugano, 1927 Suvanto, 752 Sulamitis, 5692
Shirao, 1630 Milet, 5635 Cole, 6235 1987VB, 847 Agnia, and 106
Dione were selected from the “Call” website’s “List of Potential
Lightcurve Targets” (Warner 2005). Five other asteroids, 2612
Kathyrn, 1057 Wanda, 1670 Minnaert, 2647 Sova, and 2426
Simonov were observed as part of Stephen Slivan’s Koronis
family study as members of a control group. One object, 4087
Part, coincidently appeared in the same field as another target, and
became a target in it’s own right. Most of these did not have their
rotation periods published in the list of “Minor Planet Lightcurve
Parameters” maintained by Harris and Warner (2005). The
exceptions were 106 Dione, whose period was listed at 15h, but
with a low quality rating, and 5692 Shirao with a listed period of
2.86h. Lightcurve plots for all objects are shown at the end of the
article. Results are described below.
106 Dione. Discovered in 1868 at Ann Arbor by J. C. Watson, 106
Dione was determined to have a synodic period of 16.26+0.02h,
with a lightcurve amplitude of 0.08+0.02m. 689 images taken in
nine sessions between December 4, 2004 and January 11, 2005
were used to make this determination. The derived period is an
improvement to the15h estimate presented in the list of Minor
Planet Lightcurve Parameters, Harris and Warner (2005). The
IRAS Minor Planet Survey, as appears in the Small Bodies Node
of NASA’s Planetary Data System, (henceforth IRAS V4.0), lists
106 Dione as having an assumed absolute V magnitude of 7.41, a
mean albedo of 0.0893 ± 0.003, and an effective diameter of 146.6
± 2.8 km.
752 Sulamitis. G. Neujmin, and M. Belyavskij discovered 752
Sulamitis in 1913 at Simeis. IRAS V4.0 lists an “H” of 10.10, and
an albedo of 0.0409+0.002, leading to an effective diameter of
62.77+1.4 km. Nineteen observing sessions were performed
between January 11, and March 11, 2005. 708 images were taken
to derive a synodic period of 27.367+0.005h with an amplitude of
0.20+0.03m. The phase angle ranged from 1.9 to 23.4 degrees.
847 Agnia. G. Neujmin discovered this object in 1915 at Simeis.
IRAS V4.0 lists an estimated diameter of 28.04+1.7 km with an
assumed absolute V magnitude of 10.29, and albedo of 0.172
+0.022. During seven sessions between December 14, 2004 and
January 11, 2005, 406 images were taken to derive a synodic
period of 14.827+0.001h with an amplitude of 0.45+0.03m. The
observed phase angle changed from 5.1 to 15.8 degrees.
1057 Wanda. Wanda was discovered on August 18, 1925 at
Simeis by, G. Shajn, although it was independently discovered on
Aug. 19 by K. Reinmuth at Heidelberg, and this discovery was
announced first. (IRAS V4.0). IRAS V4.0 lists an estimated
diameter of 40.47+2.1km. From October 6 to November 16, 2004,
a total of 501 images were taken during eleven sessions. A period
of 28.49+0.03h with an amplitude of 0.14+0.02m was derived.
Wanda was observed at phase angles ranging from 2.7 to 19.0
degrees.
1630 Milet. Discovered in 1952 by L. Boyer at Algiers,
IRAS V4.0 lists an absolute magnitude of 11.20, and an effective
diameter of 20.03+1.3 km. A synodic period of 32.55+0.03h was
found with an amplitude of 0.37+0.03m. Between March 4 and
March 31, 2005, twelve sessions were performed providing 542
images. The phase angle range was from 2.8 to 12.4 degrees.
1670 Minnaert. This object was discovered in 1934 at
Johannesburg (LS) by H. Van Gent. The synodic period was
determined to be 3.528+0.001h with an amplitude of 0.23+0.02m.
124 images were taken in two sessions on December 21 and
December 30, 2004. The assumed absolute V magnitude is 11.38
(IRAS V4.0). This asteroid was observed as part of Stephen
Slivan’s Koronis family study (Slivan 2004).
1927 Suvanto. Discovered in 1936 at Turku by R. Suvanto, IRAS
V4.0 lists the absolute magnitude as 11.60. Five sessions were
performed between February 28 and March 10, 2005, gathering
170 images. The period was found to be 8.163+0.003h, with
amplitude of 0.60+0.03m. The phase angle ranged from 7.2 to 7.4
degrees.
1936 Lugano. With an assumed “H” of 11.10, and albedo of
0.104+0.008, the effective diameter is calculated to be 24.8+0.8
km (IRAS V4.0). From January 19 to February 26, 2005, eleven
sessions were accomplished, netting 325 images. From these, the
synodic period was derived to be 19.651+0.015h, with an
amplitude of 0.31+0.04m. Phase angle ranged from 12.7 to 15.4
degrees.
2426 Simonov. 2426 Simonov has an effective diameter of
24.0+1.8 km, and was discovered in 1976 at Nauchnyj by N.
Chernykh (IRAS V4.0). The derived period was found to be
5.811+0.002h. The lightcurve’s amplitude was 0.40+0.03m.
Between March 6 and March 11, 2005, 93 images were taken.
This asteroid was observed as part of Stephen Slivan’s Koronis
family study (Slivan 2004).
2612 Kathryn. 2612 Kathryn was discovered in 1979 at Flagstaff
(AM) by N. G. Thomas, (IRAS V4.0). 127 images were taken
between June 8, and June 25, 2004, in six sessions. The measured
synodic period was 7.700+0.002h with an amplitude of
0.43+0.02m. It was observed at phase angles varying from 18.4 to
20.2 degrees. This asteroid was observed as part of Stephen
Slivan’s Koronis family study (Slivan 2004).
2647 Sova. This object was discovered in 1980 at Klet by Z.
Vavrova. It is a member of the Flora family, and has a listed
absolute magnitude of 12.50. 157 images were taken in three
sessions between January 11, and January 19, 2005. The synodic
period and amplitude were found to be 9.37+0.01h, and
0.30+0.02m, respectively. This asteroid was observed as part of
Stephen Slivan’s Koronis family study (Slivan 2004).
4087 Part. This asteroid fortuitously appeared in the field of
another measured object on two successive nights, so photometry
was performed on it as well. It was originally discovered by E.
Bowell in 1986 at Flagstaff, and is given an “H” value of 13.30
(IRAS V4.0). A synodic period of 16.47+0.02h was derived with
an amplitude of 0.59+0.03m. 174 images were gathered between
March 15 and March 20, 2005 in four sessions.
5635 Cole. Also known as 1981 ER5, 1986 XC5, and 1988 CO5,
this object was discovered in 1981 at Siding Spring by S. J. Bus,
and has an absolute V magnitude of 13.80 (IRAS V4.0). It was
observed between August 23 and September 11, 2004, with phase
angles ranging between 8.3 and 13.7 degrees. Seven sessions were
conducted to gather 185 data points. The synodic period was
found to be 5.792+0.001h, with an amplitude of 0.33+0.04m.
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
50
5692 Shirao. Shirao was discovered in 1992 at Kitami by Endate
and Watanabe. 102 imaged were taken in three sessions between
March 14-17, 2005 to derive a synodic period of 2.886+0.002h,
with a 0.12+0.03m amplitude. The phase angle varied from 7.8 to
6.3 degrees. The period and amplitude were previously reported as
2.86h and 0.16m respectively (Behrend, 2004).
(6235) 1987VB. This asteroid was discovered in 1987 at Kushiro
by Ueda and Kaneda (IRAS V4.0). 396 images were taken
between December 4, 2004 and January 2, 2005, in eight sessions.
The measured synodic period was 15.515+0.002h with an
amplitude of 0.60+0.04m. It was observed at phase angles varying
from 1.9 to 15.8 degrees. It is a member of the Flora family with
an assumed absolute V magnitude of 13.10 (IRAS V4.0).
Acknowledgements
Thanks are given to Brian Warner for his continued development
and improvement of the program, “Canopus”.
References
Behrend, R. (2004), Observatoire de Geneve web site,
http://obswww.unige.ch/~behrend/page_cou.html.
Harris, Alan W., and Warner, Brian D. (2005). “Minor Planet
Lightcurve Parameters”, found on the Minor Planet Center web
site: http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/lists/LightcurveDat.html.
IRAS V4.0 from NASA Small Bodies Node of the Planetary Data
System,
IRAS
Minor
Planet
Survey
V4.0.
http://pdssbn.astro.umd.edu/nodehtml/sbdb.html
Slivan, S.M., Koronis Family Asteroids Rotation Lightcurve
Observing Program web site. http://www.koronisfamily.com/
Warner, B.D. (2005). Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link
( C A L L )
w e b
s i t e .
http://www.MinorPlanetObserver.com/astlc/default.htm.
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
51
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
52
LIGHTCURVE OF 423 DIOTIMA
Epilogue
Roger Dymock
67 Haslar Crescent, Waterlooville, Hampshire,
England, PO7 6DD (Obs. Code 940)
[email protected]
For those of you reading this article and who have not yet tried
their hand at photometry please give it a go. If I had believed those
who said “If you aren’t doing all-sky photometry to a precision of
0.001 mag it isn’t worth the effort” I would never have got started.
Differential photometry isn’t hard but you do have to be quite
methodical and, once you have devised a procedure that works,
write it down and follow it faithfully.
(Received: 26 January)
Lightcurve observations of 423 Diotima result in a
period and amplitude estimate: 4.825 ± 0.150 hours and
0.19 ± 0.02 mag.
Lightcurve observations of asteroid 423 Diotima are reported from
Hampshire, England. My observatory is located in my back
garden approximately 10 miles north of the city of Portsmouth on
the south coast of England. My telescope is a 25-cm Orion Optics
(UK) Newtonian reflector, equipped with a Starlight Xpress
MX516 CCD camera, on an equatorial mount. The telescope is
operated by a laptop connected to a Skysensor hand controller.
Once set up the telescope can be operated via a wireless network
between a PC in my study and the laptop in the observatory.
423 Diotima was chosen as a target from the list of asteroids on
the ALPO Photometry and Shape Modeling web page. Discovered
on 7th December 1896 by A. Charlois at Nice. Its rotational
properties suggest it belongs to the Large Amplitude Short Period
Asteroid (LASPA) class. This asteroid was well placed for a
lengthy observing session (high in the south east) and of a
magnitude (12.1) that enabled a high signal-to-noise ratio. The
short predicted period (4.8 hours) allowed that I should be able to
observe a complete rotation in a single night weather permitting.
Observatory set up procedure is; switch on laptop, GPS receiver
(for timing purposes) and CCD camera, polar and three point align
telescope, load asteroid elements in to Megastar and plot predicted
path of asteroid and locate target. Test images are then taken
(using Astroart) and checked to ensure that the maximum pixel
intensity is of the order of 50%. In this instance the exposure time
was set at 30 secs but subsequently reduced to 20 secs. All images
were obtained unfiltered.
Imaging commenced at 19:35 UT on 12th January and ended at
02:16 UT the following morning. Calibration frames (5 darks, 5
flatdarks and 5 flats) were then taken, all images saved to CD and
the observatory closed down at 02:45 UT. Images were processed
on 13th January using Canopus. This program has taken a little
getting used to, but I now find it and excellent tool for creating
light curves. Brain Warner’s book ‘A Practical Guide to
Lightcurve Photometry and Analysis’ has also proven helpful.
From analysis of the 337 unfiltered images obtained the period
was estimated to be 4.825 ± 0.150 hours and the amplitude 0.19 ±
0.02 mag. These agree reasonably well with those listed in the
Asteroid Lightcurve Data Files referenced below. The lightcurve
is shown in Figure 1. Lightcurve and data were sent to Richard
Kowalski for inclusion in the ALPO Photometry and Shape
Modeling Program.
More information, which I hope will be of use to those new to
both photometry and NEO imaging, can be found on the Near
Earth Object web site I run on behalf of the British Astronomical
Association, referenced below.
References
ALPO Photometry and Shape
http://www.bitnik.com/mp/alpo/
Modeling
British
Astronomical
Association
http://www.britastro.org/main/index.html
Program.
website,
BAA
Near
Earth
Object
website,
http://homepage.ntlworld.com/roger.dymock/index.htm
C a n o p u s
w e b s i t e ,
http://www.minorplanetobserver.com/htms/mpocanopus.htm
Di Martino, M., Cacciatori, S. (1984). “Rotation periods and light
curves of the large asteroid 409 Aspasia and 423 Diotima.”
Astronomy and Astrophysics 130, 206-207.
Harris, A. Asteroid Lightcurve Data Files revised 23 September
2003.
Ondrejov Observatory. http://sunkl.asu.cas.cz/~ppravec/neo.html
Schrober, H.J. (1983). “The large C-type asteroid 423 Diotima:
rotation period. Lightcurve and implications for a possible
satellite.” Astronomy and Astrophysics 127, 301-303.
Warner, B. D. (2003). A Practical Guide to Lightcurve
Photometry and Analysis. Bdw Publishing, Colorado Springs.
Acknowledgments
My thanks to Richard Miles of the British Astronomical
Association and to Petr Pravec of Ondrejov Observatory for their
guidance with this particular aspect of astronomy.
Figure 1: Lightcurve of 423 Diotima. The 0% Phase is equal to JD
2453383.426184 (corrected for light time).
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
53
THE SPACEWATCH VOLUNTEER SEARCH
FOR FAST MOVING OBJECTS
Robert S. McMillan, Miwa Block, and Anne S. Descour
Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
Kuiper Space Sciences Building
1629 East University Boulevard
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721
[email protected]
(Received: 31 March
Revised: 2 April)
We describe a program in which we welcome amateur
astronomers and the general public to participate in the
search for fast moving near-Earth objects.
A condition of a grant from the Paul G. Allen Charitable
Foundation was to make it possible for the general public to
participate in the search for Near-Earth Objects (NEOs). Our
solution to that challenge was to allow internet access to imagery
from the 0.9m Spacewatch Telescope during the night they are
taken. This allows anyone to discover closely approaching
asteroids that leave trails during the time of the image exposure.
Most asteroids appear as point sources or only slightly trailed
images and are spotted by software. However, trails more than a
few pixels in length are more difficult for our software to
recognize as single moving objects rather than edge-on galaxies or
trails of cosmic ray secondary particles. Furthermore, our mosaic
of CCDs produces images of too much sky area for one observer
to examine for trails while also tending to other chores during the
night. Nevertheless, such candidate objects are moving so fast
that if found, they should be followed up on the same night.
Spacewatch imagery is well suited to spotting Fast-Moving
Objects (FMOs) because the exposures are relatively long (2
minutes) and have a resolution of one arcsecond per pixel. Image
pixel data are transmitted from Kitt Peak to the FMO website in
Tucson in near realtime on every clear night that the mosaic of
CCDs is operational. Applications Systems Analyst Miwa Block
developed and maintains the web site for the volunteer program.
Volunteers self-train on real FMO images as well as other features
that can be confused with FMOs. Only fresh, previously
unreviewed images are presented. Bandwidth limitations require
the images on the web to be in jpeg format, so the observer on the
mountain can see the candidate more clearly on the original
display. Most of the candidates submitted are cosmic rays. If the
candidate is real and seems to be recoverable, the observer
provides the reviewer with Spacewatch’s provisional designation.
Using this, the volunteer can watch for the object to appear on the
Minor Planet Center's NEO Confirmation Page. Some amateurs
have made efforts to recover their own objects.
The average number of images that a volunteer inspects between
discoveries is 940, amounting to about 180 square degrees of sky.
However, the number of images reviewed to discover an FMO is a
matter of luck. One reviewer found an FMO after reviewing only
25 images, while others have reviewed more than 5000 images
before discovering one. As of 2005 March 30, 318 people had
reviewed images. On an average clear night of observing, 35-40
reviewers are examining images. Currently, 25 volunteers have
credit for detections or discoveries.
Recoverable FMOs seen by reviewers are illustrated at
http://fmo.lpl.arizona.edu/FMO_home/news.cfm . The yield of
this program to 2005 March 30 is 20 discoveries of fast-moving
NEOs, 7 recoveries, 5 detections of artificial earth satellites, and 7
unconsolidated discoveries. Angular rates at the time of discovery
range from 2.6 deg/day (2004 MV2) to 11.9 deg/day (2004 MO1).
Absolute magnitudes H range from 29.3 (2004 YD5) to 23.2
(2004 MO1). 2004 YD5 passed Earth within 0.00023 AU, well
inside the geosynchronous radius, on Dec. 19.86 UT. According
to the “Close Approaches To The Earth by Minor Planets” page,
this was the second closest approach by an FMO as of 2005 March
30, and is the closest approach with more than a 24 hour arc of
observations. Six objects discovered by Spacewatch FMO
reviewers have observations spanning only one day; the longest
observed arc is 30 days for 2004 BV18.
While such small objects do not present a significant impact
hazard, their numbers, spin rates and surface properties are of
scientific interest. The smaller the asteroid, the more likely it is a
single solid piece and not a loose aggregate of pieces. The spin
rates of such objects revealed by their lightcurves can show
whether they are solid. Closely approaching asteroids can also be
studied closely by radar, which can reveal information about their
sizes, shapes, spin rates, and dielectric constants. The smallest
asteroids are also unlikely to have regoliths, the blanket of loose
dust or dirt that obscures the bare rock surfaces of larger asteroids.
Thus spectroscopic studies of the smallest asteroids, though
difficult to do, can access the bulk material of the asteroids more
directly. We hope that physical studies of a Spacewatch FMO will
be made sometime soon. Finally, the orbits of the smallest
asteroids are most affected by nongravitational effects on very
long time scales, such as the thermal-radiation-driven Yarkovsky
effect on rotating asteroids.
Those who discover new FMOs receive international recognition
in the official discovery announcements. Some volunteers are
students, some have full-time jobs, and some are retired. At least
one reviewer is the operator of a large professional telescope who
has free time during long integrations on targets. There are wellestablished amateur astronomers as well as those who have just
begun to climb the learning curve. FMO discovery credits are
held by people in five continents and over a dozen countries. We
hope that this program helps fuel curiosity and participation in
science in general, as well as provide a productive outlet for those
eager to apply their skills. The web site for the volunteer program
is http://fmo.lpl.arizona.edu/FMO_home/index.cfm. Good hunting!
Acknowledgements
We appreciate the assistance of Jeffrey A. Larsen during the
development phase of the FMO volunteer program. We also thank
the rest of the Spacewatch team for developing the systems and
making observations.
Much gratitude is also owed to the
worldwide community of followup observers, including amateurs,
who make it possible for these discoveries to be consolidated. The
Spacewatch Project is supported by a grant from The Paul G.
Allen Charitable Foundation, NASA Planetary Astronomy grant
NNG04GK48G, NASA Near-Earth Object Observation grants
NAG5-13328 and NNG05GF15G, U. S. Air Force Office of
Scientific Research grant F49620-03-10107, and contributions
from private individuals.
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
54
ASTEROID LIGHTCURVE ANALYSIS AT THE PALMER
DIVIDE OBSERVATORY – WINTER 2004-2005
Brian D. Warner
Palmer Divide Observatory
17995 Bakers Farm Rd.
Colorado Springs, CO 80908
[email protected]
(Received: 3 April)
Lightcurves for the following asteroids were obtained and
then analyzed to determine the synodic period and
amplitude: 400 Ducrosa, 790 Pretoria, 829 Academia,
1010 Marlene, 1509 Esclangona, 1919 Clemence, 1989
Tatry, 2001 Einstein, 2065 Spicer, 2069 Hubble, 2131
Mayall, 3037 Alku, 3043 San Diego, 3086 Kalbaugh,
4631 Yabu, 4736 Johnwood, 5035 Swift, 6310 Jankonke,
(6382) 1988 EL, 6650 Morimoto, (23200) 2000 SH3,
(21181) 1994 EB2, (30311) 2000 JS10, and (33896) 2000
KL40. Three asteroids were observed previously but not
reported: 1158 Luda, 1930 Lucifer, and 70030
Margaretmiller.
Introduction
The asteroid lightcurve program at the Palmer Divide Observatory
has been previously described in detail (Warner 2003). Targets
#
400
790
829
1010
1158
1509
1919
1930
1989
2001
2065
2069
2131
3037
3043
3086
4631
4736
5035
6310
6382
6650
21181
23200
30311
33896
70030
Name
Date Range
2004-5
Ducrosa
01/14-16
Pretoria
01/24-02/10
Academia
01/02-01/10
Marlene
01/20-03/03
Luda
1999 10/25-30
Esclangona
12/20-25
Clemence
02/18-03/17
Lucifer
2003 10/09-16
Tatry
01/02-11
Einstein
12/20-25
Spicer
01/18-2/03
Hubble
01/17-02/04
Mayall
01/02-11
Alku
12/29-02/04
San Diego
02/20-03/17
Kalbaugh
12/17-19
Yabu
01/17-19
Johnwood
02/18-20
Swift
01/14-16
Jankonke
12/26-01/07
1988 EL
02/04-15
Morimoto
12/03-19
1994 EB2
03/04-16
2000 SH3
01/13-16
2000 JS10
12/26-01/07
2000 KL40
01/20-02/18
Margaretmiller 2003 10/05-07
Sess
3
5
4
8
4
3
11
6
3
3
5
6
3
11
8
3
3
3
3
4
4
6
6
4
4
6
3
Phase
were chosen by comparing the list of known lightcurve periods
maintained by Harris and Warner (Harris 2005) against a list of
well placed asteroids. Asteroid are often selected and then studied
in hopes of removing the observational biases against faint objects
(due to size and/or distance) as well as asteroids with lightcurves
of small amplitudes, long periods, or complex nature.
The images were measured using MPO Canopus, which employs
differential aperture photometry to determine the values used for
analysis. The period analysis was done within Canopus, which
incorporates an algorithm based on the Fourier analysis program
developed by Harris (1989).
Results
The results are summarized in the table below. The individual
plots are presented afterwards. The data and curves are presented
without additional comment except when the circumstances for a
given asteroid require more details.
Column 3 gives the full range of dates of observations while
column 4 gives the number of actual runs made during that time
span. Column 5 is the range of phase angles over the full date
range. If there are three values in the column, this means the phase
angle reached a minimum with the middle value being the
minimum. Columns 6 and 7 give the range of values for the Phase
Angle Bisector (PAB) longitude and latitude respectively. Column
9 gives the period error in hours and column 11 gives the
amplitude error in magnitudes.
LPAB
BPAB
8.0,8.6
92.5
9.8
11.0,13.5
81.4
-6.2
8.3,5.4
116.4
9.3
4.0,16.6
110.7
1.2
13.7,15.7
98.5
6.4
25.2,26.4
50.3
20.4
11.7,5.7,10.5
162.2 10.5,5.1
14.3,16.3
345.0
9.5
9.5,13.4
88.2
9.9
19.2,18.9
97.6
31.7
9.6,15.7
100.4
5.5
7.3,13.5
104.9
10.2
14.1,8.5
122.0
9.8,7.6
9.9,22.6
82.8,87.3 -9.7,-3.9
6.6,5.8,13.5 154.9,154.6
9.9,5.5
13.6,14.0
75.1
18.9
10.6,11.5
104.2
10.7
9.3
155.1
-13.3
12.9,13.6
94.4
13.7
26.7,29.4
50.0,52.9 -9.9,-7.1
14.7,17.1
129.7 18.9,16.8
10.2,10.1,12.1
74.4
17.5
16.6,22.6 140.1,141.7 9.3,11.6
19.4,19.8
96.0
32.7
20.7,26.2
63.5,65.5 -4.1,-6.2
10.6,9.4,17.5
130.4 10.8,17.2
13.2
16.9
20.6
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
Per
(h)
6.87
10.370
7.891
31.06
6.90
3.247
68.5
13.056
39.9
5.487
18.165
32.52
2.572
11.844
30.72
5.180
7.356
6.210
9.50
3.0418
2.895
13.49
33.8
16.22
2.266
23.8
3.98
PE
Amp
AE
0.01
0.62 0.02
0.002
0.08 0.03
0.005
0.44 0.02
0.02
0.32 0.02
0.01
0.14 0.02
0.002
0.17 0.02
0.1
0.60 0.03
0.005
0.43 0.02
0.1 >0.22 0.02
0.002
0.66 0.03
0.005
1.0 0.03
0.02
0.10 0.02
0.002
0.08 0.02
0.002
0.95 0.03
0.02
0.35 0.05
0.005
0.58 0.02
0.005
0.44 0.03
0.005
0.83 0.03
0.01
0.32 0.02
0.003
0.30 0.03
0.002
0.06 0.02
0.01
0.24 0.02
0.1
0.35 0.05
0.02
0.42 0.02
0.001
0.14 0.03
0.10
0.26 0.03
0.01
0.50 0.02
55
Comments
1010 Marlene. Despite the unusual shape of the curve between 0.0
and 0.35, the period seems correct. Forcing a plot to even a small
change in the period causes a severe degradation of the fit.
1919 Clemence. According to Petr Pravec of the Ondrejov
Observatory, Czech Republic, [Pravec, private communication]
there is a chance that this is a tumbling asteroid. The fall required
in the curve at 0.65 phase makes the curve suspect but no other
period provided a reasonable match of all data. If the two sessions
at the minimum near 0.75 are removed from the analysis
completely, the period remains the same and the fit of the curve
requires less imagination to complete.
1989 Tatry. The period is suspect but the slopes of the phased data
are not unreasonable. The period determination was based mostly
on getting the January 2 and 7 sessions to match.
3043 San Diego. This is another of the trio of suspect lightcurves.
The longer runs seem to justify the reported period. Two
additional sessions were removed from the analysis as no amount
of manipulation of zero points or period could bring them into
agreement with the rest of the data.
2069 Hubble. The tri-modal curve is unusual. No period could be
found that produced a realistic bimodal solution.
(21181) 1994 EB2. This is the third lightcurve of a possible but not
firmly established period. The slopes appear reasonable for a
bimodal solution.
(33896) 2000 KL40. The near perfect resonance with the Earth’s
rotation made this a difficult object. Despite the lack of coverage,
the period is very likely correct, based on the extended time span
of the observations.
70030 Margaretmiller. This is named in honor of the author’s
wife. It was embarrassing that the period had been determined but
not reported for more than a year after the fact.
Acknowledgments
Thanks are given to Dr. Alan Harris of the Space Science Institute,
Boulder, CO, and Dr. Petr Pravec of the Astronomical Institute,
Czech Republic, for their ongoing support of all amateur asteroid
photometrists and for their input during the analysis of some of the
lightcurves presented here.
References
Harris, A.W., Young, J.W., Bowell, E., Martin, L.J., Millis, R.L.,
Poutanen, M., Scaltriti, F., Zappala, V., Schober, H.J., Debehogne,
H., and Zeigler, K.W., (1989). “Photoelectric Observations of
Asteroids 3, 24, 60, 261, and 863.” Icarus 77, 171-186.
Harris, Alan W. (2005). “Minor Planet Lightcurve Parameters”
On Minor Planet Center web site: http://cfawww.harvard.edu/iau/lists/LightcurveDat.html
Warner, B. D. (2003), “Lightcurve Analysis for (Several)
Asteroids”, Minor Planet Bulletin 30, 21-24.
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
56
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
57
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
58
GENERAL REPORT OF POSITION OBSERVATIONS
BY THE ALPO MINOR PLANETS SECTION
FOR THE YEAR 2004
Frederick Pilcher
Illinois College
Jacksonville, IL 62650 USA
(Received: 23 April)
Observations of positions of minor planets by members
of the Minor Planets Section in calendar year 2004 are
summarized.
During the year 2004 a total of 841 positions of 322 different
minor planets were reported by members of the Minor Planets
Section. Of these 36 are CCD images (denoted C) and 15 are
precise photographic measurements (denoted P). All the rest are
approximate visual positions. The summary lists minor planets in
numerical order, the observer and telescope aperture (in cm), UT
dates of the observations, and the total number of observations in
that period. The year is 2004 in each case.
Positional observations were contributed by the following
observers:
Observer, Instrument
Arlia, Saverio
15 cm f/6 reflector
Location
Buenos Aires,
Argentina
Planets
1
Bookamer, Richard E.
41 cm reflector,
Micco, Florida
USA
Faure, Gerard
20 cm Celestron
Col de L'Arzelier, 86
France; observations
of 324 Bamberga are
with 9 cm telescope
from Santo Domingo
Island
Garrett, Lawrence
32 cm f/6 reflector
7x35 mm binoculars
20x80 mm binoculars
Fairfax, Vermont,
USA
Harvey, G. Roger
74 cm Newtonian
Concord, North
Carolina, USA
Hudgens, Ben
35 cm Dobsonian
41 cm Dobsonian
Stephenville,
Texas, USA, and
McComb, MS, USA
Jardine, Don, and
Pleasant Plains,
Pilcher, Frederick
Illinois, USA
35 cm Meade Cassegrain + CCD
Watson, William W.
20 cm Celestron
Tonawanda, NY USA
52
14
Positions
15P
202
196
33
51
187
155
318
9
13
36C
54
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
1 Ceres
Watson, 20
Mar 10-22
4
4 Vesta
Garrett, 3.5, 8, 32
Watson, 20
Sep 19-Nov 17
Oct 3-4
5
2
7 Iris
Watson, 20
Mar 14-Apr 16
3
9 Metis
Garrett, 8
Nov 16-17
2
32 Pomona
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 3
3C
40 Harmonia
Hudgens, 41
Oct 15-16
2
50 Virginia
Bookamer, 41
Dec 29
5
62 Erato
Bookamer, 41
Dec 27
3
81 Terpsichore
Watson, 20
Oct 7-Nov 4
3
85 Io
Faure, 20
Dec 12
89 Julia
Arlia, 15
Apr 18-May 15
3
15P
93 Minerva
Watson, 20
Sep 7-20
5
107 Camilla
Watson, 20
Sep 11-20
3
150 Nuwa
Watson, 20
Nov 3-14
4
151 Abundantia
Garrett, 32
Oct 4
2
160 Una
Garrett, 32
Sep 5
2
166 Rhodope
Bookamer, 41
Nov 6
4
187 Lamberta
Watson, 20
Feb 25-26
2
190 Ismene
Bookamer, 41
Nov 28
4
220 Stephania
Bookamer, 41
Nov 29
2
224 Oceana
Watson, 20
Oct 7-12
2
235 Carolina
Hudgens, 35
Jul 8-11
2
244 Sita
Hudgens, 35
Jan 26-28
3
251 Sophia
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
262 Valda
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
263 Dresda
Bookamer, 41
Dec 13
3
280 Philia
Hudgens, 41
Oct 15-16
2
297 Caecilia
Bookamer, 41
Dec 11
4
319 Leona
Bookamer, 41
Dec 4
4
321 Florentina
Bookamer, 41
Nov 20
3
324 Bamberga
Faure, 9
Aug 19
2
325 Heidelberga
Bookamer, 41
Nov 1
3
353 Ruperto-Carola
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
364 Isara
Watson, 20
Dec 16
2
378 Holmia
Bookamer, 41
Nov 20
3
381 Myrrha
Garrett, 32
Jun 13
2
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
59
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
389 Industria
Watson, 20
Mar 29-Apr 16
2
885 Ulrike
Hudgens, 35
Sep 11
2
394 Arduina
Bookamer, 41
Hudgens, 41
Nov 20
Oct 15-16
3
2
890 Waltraut
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
905 Universitas
Bookamer, 41
Dec 31
3
395 Delia
Hudgens, 35
Jun 17
2
913 Otila
Hudgens, 35
Aug 12-16
2
944 Hidalgo
Bookamer, 41
Garrett, 32
Oct 30
Oct 20
5
2
458 Hercynia
463 Lola
Bookamer, 41
Dec 5
3
Bookamer, 41
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Nov 5
Sep 18
Nov 6-7
3
2
2
948 Jucunda
Faure, 20
Dec 13
2
467 Laura
Hudgens, 35
Jun 23
2
952 Caia
Bookamer, 41
Nov 28
3
479 Caprera
Bookamer, 41
Nov 16
3
955 Alstede
Faure, 20
Mar 29
2
495 Eulalia
Bookamer, 41
Dec 9
2
961 Gunnie
Hudgens, 35
Jun 23
2
499 Venusia
Bookamer, 41
Nov 12
6
989 Schwassmannia
Hudgens, 35
Aug 16
2
508 Princetonia
Garrett, 32
Jun 13
2
990 Yerkes
Hudgens, 35
Jul 15
2
512 Taurinensis
Bookamer, 41
Dec 19
3
992 Swasey
Hudgens, 35
May 9
2
517 Edith
Bookamer, 41
Dec 29
5
993 Moultona
Faure, 20
Dec 11
2
518 Halawe
Hudgens, 41
Dec 3
2
995 Sternberga
Bookamer, 41
Oct 14
3
530 Turandot
Bookamer, 41
Dec 11
3
1003 Lilofee
Faure, 20
Mar 17-18
2
539 Pamina
Bookamer, 41
Oct 7
4
1004 Belopolskya
Hudgens, 35
Sep 4-5
2
548 Kressida
Bookamer, 41
Dec 1
3
1027 Aesculapia
Faure, 20
Mar 17-18
2
550 Senta
Bookamer, 41
Nov 29
3
1029 La Plata
Hudgens, 35
Sep 11-12
2
553 Kundry
Faure, 20
Dec 11
2
1057 Wanda
Bookamer, 41
Oct 16
3
561 Ingwelde
Faure, 20
Dec 10
2
1067 Lunaria
Bookamer, 41
Nov 2
3
599 Luisa
Bookamer, 41
Nov 6
3
1075 Helina
Hudgens, 35
Sep 4-5
2
606 Brangäne
Faure, 20
Mar 15-16
2
1082 Pirola
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
610 Valeska
Faure, 20
Dec 12-13
2
1089 Tama
Garrett, 32
Hudgens, 35
Jan 10-24
Jan 23-26
4
2
611 Valeria
Bookamer, 41
Nov 21
3
1090 Sumida
Faure, 20
Mar 15-16
2
625 Xenia
Bookamer, 41
Dec 14
3
1093 Freda
Bookamer, 41
Dec 7
3
634 Ute
Bookamer, 41
Oct 30
4
1107 Lictoria
Hudgens, 35
Jun 23
2
1109 Tata
Hudgens, 35
May 9-24
2
1110 Jaroslawa
Bookamer, 41
Sep 1
5
1122 Neith
Bookamer, 41
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Nov 15
Nov 17-Dec 11
Dec 3-8
3
2
2
1127 Mimi
Bookamer, 41
Jan 13
5
1128 Astrid
Faure, 20
May 15
2
Dec 12
2
636 Erika
Bookamer, 41
Dec 6
3
643 Scheherezade
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
648 Pippa
Bookamer, 41
Dec 1
3
652 Jubilatrix
Hudgens, 35
Jun 16
2
677 Aaltje
Bookamer, 41
Dec 12
4
680 Genoveva
Garrett, 32
Jun 13
2
682 Hagar
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Jul 15
Jun 19-23
2
2
1149 Volga
Hudgens, 41
689 Zita
Bookamer, 41
Aug 20
3
1166 Sakuntala
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 3
3C
747 Winchester
Watson, 20
Aug 23-Sep 11
5
1181 Lilith
Faure, 20
Dec 11
2
750 Oskar
Hudgens, 35
Jan 26
2
1183 Jutta
Hudgens, 35
Jun 17
2
761 Brendelia
Hudgens, 35
May 24
2
1184 Gaea
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
2
762 Pulcova
Bookamer, 41
Dec 29
3
1185 Nikko
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Dec 10
Dec 3-8
2
2
765 Mattiaca
Hudgens, 35
Jan 28
2
1210 Morosovia
Hudgens, 35
May 24
2
787 Moskva
Bookamer, 41
Oct 17
3
1224 Fantasia
Bookamer, 41
Oct 12
4
1233 Kobresia
Hudgens, 35
Aug 16
2
1247 Memoria
Faure, 20
Jul 16
2
1266 Tone
Hudgens, 35
Sep 4-5
2
1267 Geertruida
Hudgens, 35
Jul 11
2
1277 Dolores
Hudgens, 35
May 9-24
2
1278 Kenya
Bookamer, 41
Aug 31
4
1289 Kutaïssi
Faure, 20
Mar 29
2
796 Sarita
Bookamer, 41
Nov 25
4
807 Ceraskia
Faure, 20
Mar 16
2
828 Lindemannia
Hudgens, 35
Jan 28
2
841 Arabella
Faure, 20
Sep 18
2
854 Frostia
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
862 Franzia
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
883 Matterania
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Sep 9
Sep 10
2
2
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
60
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
1312 Vassar
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
1316 Kasan
Faure, 20
Sep 17
1326 Losaka
Bookamer, 41
Faure, 20
Nov 6
Nov 13
1328 Devota
Faure, 20
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
Dec 13
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
2
1928 Summa
Hudgens, 35
Jul 8
2
2
1946 Walraven
Hudgens, 35
Aug 4
2
4
2
2025 Nortia
Hudgens, 35
Aug 4
2
2075 Martinez
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
6
2081 Sázava
Hudgens, 35
Sep 12
2
2085 Henan
Hudgens, 35
Sep 12
2
2088 Sahlia
Faure, 20
Nov 21-22
2
2119 Schwall
Hudgens, 35
Jun 17
2
2138 Swissair
Hudgens, 35
Jul 8-11
3
2151 Hadwiger
Faure, 20
Apr 24-25
2
2185 Guangdong
Hudgens, 35
Jun 21
2
2217 Eltigen
Hudgens, 35
Jun 21
2
2239 Paracelsus
Faure, 20
Mar 18
5
2241 Alcathous
Faure, 20
Dec 11
2
2251 Tikhov
Faure, 20
Nov 22
2
2264 Sabrina
Hudgens, 35
May 24
2
2301 Whitford
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Dec 12
Dec 3
2
2
2312 Duboshin
Faure, 20
Nov 17
2
2315 Czechoslovakia
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Nov 22
Dec 10-12
2
2
Hudgens, 35
May 9
2
1342 Brabantia
Hudgens, 35
Jan 23-26
2
1353 Maartje
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Dec 10-13
May 24
4
2
1375 Alfreda
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Dec 10
Dec 3-8
2
2
1386 Storeria
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Jul 15-16
Jun 21
2
2
1417 Walinskia
Hudgens, 35
Jun 14-17
2
1428 Mombasa
Faure, 20
Dec 13
2
1442 Corvina
Hudgens, 35
NO.
OBS.
2
1341 Edmee
1346 Gotha
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
Sep 10
2
1443 Ruppina
Faure, 20
Mar 17
2
1450 Raimonda
Hudgens, 41
Dec 8-10
2
1452 Hunnia
Harvey, 74
Mar 22
3
1459 Magnya
Bookamer, 41
Hudgens, 41
Oct 31
Nov 6-7
3
2
1464 Armisticia
Faure, 20
Apr 21
2
1466 Mündleria
Hudgens, 35
Jun 21
2
2365 Interkosmos
Hudgens, 41
Dec 12
2
1473 Ounas
Faure, 20
Nov 15-17
2
2378 Pannekoek
Faure, 20
Apr 21
2
1481 Tübingia
Hudgens, 35
Dec 12
2
2460 Mitlincoln
Faure, 20
Dec 12
2
1537 Transylvania
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
2
2468 Repin
Hudgens, 35
Jul 11
2
1541 Estonia
Hudgens, 35
May 9-24
2
2509 Chukotka
Hudgens, 35
Sep 4-5
2
1572 Posnania
Bookamer, 41
Hudgens, 41
Oct 14
Nov 6-7
4
2
2562 Chaliapin
Harvey, 74
Mar 22
3
2571 Geisei
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
2693 Yan'an
Hudgens, 41
Dec 12
2
2747 Ceský Krumlov
Harvey, 74
Sep 10
3
2771 Polzunov
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
2
2887 Krinov
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
2892 Filipenko
Bookamer, 41
Faure, 20
Nov 8
Nov 21
3
2
2906 Caltech
Faure, 20
Nov 22
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 3
2
3C
2957 Tatsuo
Hudgens, 35
Jun 14-17
2
3000 Leonardo
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
Jun 21
2
1587 Kahrstedt
Faure, 20
Sep 18
2
1605 Milankovitch
Faure, 20
Mar 29
2
1614 Goldschmidt
Faure, 20
Mar 29
2
1617 Alschmitt
Faure, 20
Apr 26
2
1621 Druzhba
Hudgens, 35
Jan 27-28
3
1638 Ruanda
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
2
1654 Bojeva
Hudgens, 35
Sep 12
2
1656 Suomi
Faure, 20
Apr 25
2
1657 Roemera
Hudgens, 35
Jan 28
2
1683 Castafiore
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Sep 9
Sep 8
2
2
3018 Godiva
Hudgens, 35
1684 Iguassú
Faure, 20
Apr 21
2
3037 Alku
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 5
3C
1687 Glarona
Faure, 20
Sep 17
2
3054 Strugatskia
Hudgens, 35
Sep 4-5
2
1712 Angola
Faure, 20
Sep 9
2
3089 Oujianquan
Hudgens, 35
Jun 14-17
2
1713 Bancilhon
Hudgens, 35
Sep 23
2
3165 Mikawa
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
1719 Jens
Hudgens, 35
Aug 12-16
2
3200 Phaethon
Harvey, 74
Dec 2
6
1725 CrAO
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Sep 17
Sep 8
2
2
3224 Irkutsk
Hudgens, 35
Jul 20-21
3
3237 Victorplatt
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
2
3270 Dudley
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Jan 23
Jan 28
6
2
1771 Makover
Hudgens, 35
Aug 4
2
1816 Liberia
Faure, 20
Mar 15
2
1839 Ragazza
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 3-5
6C
3277 Aaronson
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
1843 Jarmila
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
2
3326 Agafonikov
Hudgens, 35
Aug 12-16
2
1902 Shaposhnikov
Hudgens, 35
May 24
2
3392 Setouchi
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
61
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
3455 Kristensen
Faure, 20
Mar 17
2
3519 Ambiorix
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
3553 Mera
Harvey, 74
May 15
6
3613 Sigyn
Faure, 20
Apr 21
2
3693 Barringer
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Sep 6
Sep 10
3
2
3702 Trubetskaya
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
2
3722 Urata
Hudgens, 41
Dec 10-12
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 5
2
3C
3749 Balam
Faure, 20
Nov 21
2
3904 Honda
Hudgens, 35
Jan 23-26
2
3908 Nyx
Faure, 20
Nov 17
3
4048 Samwestfall
Harvey, 74
Sep 10
3
4150 Starr
Hudgens, 35
Sep 5-7
4157 Izu
Hudgens, 35
May 24
4179 Toutatis
Bookamer, 41
Garrett, 32
Hudgens, 35, 41
Watson, 20
Aug
Sep
Sep
Sep
4224 Susa
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
4229 Plevitskaya
Faure, 20
Mar 15-16
4265 Kani
Hudgens, 35
Sep 12
4332 Milton
Harvey, 74
4458 Oizumi
Harvey, 74
4482 Frèrebasile
Faure, 20
Harvey, 74
Harvey, 74
Dec 14
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 5
3
3C
5839 GOI
Harvey, 74
Mar 22
3
5917 1991 NG
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Sep 9
Sep 10
2
2
5956 D'Alembert
Faure, 20
Dec 12
2
5990 Panticapaeon
Harvey, 74
Mar 22
3
6000 United Nations
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Nov 22
Dec 3-8
2
2
6017 Sakitama
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
6160 Minakata
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Jul 15
Aug 11-12
3
1
2
6176 1985 BH
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
2
6192 1990 KB1
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Jul 15-16
Jul 8
3
2
6235 1987 VB
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 41
Dec 14
Dec 12
3
2
6239 Minos
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Jan 23
Jan 23-26
6
3
2
6245 Ikufumi
Hudgens, 41
Nov 7-9
2
2
6475 Refugium
Hudgens, 41
Nov 6-7
2
Dec 14
3
6490 1991 NR2
Harvey, 74
Aug 22
6
Dec 17
3
6607 Matsushima
Harvey, 74
Dec 17
3
Sep 18
Aug 25
3
3
6650 Morimoto
Harvey, 74
Dec 14
3
6669 Obi
Hudgens, 35
May 24
2
6823 1988 ED1
Hudgens, 35
Jan 23-26
2
6838 Okuda
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
6907 1990 WE
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
7068 Minowa
Harvey, 74
Dec 17
3
7070 1994 YO2
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
7187 Isobe
Faure, 20
Sep 17
2
7285 Seggewiss
Faure, 20
Sep 9-10
2
7393 Luginbuhl
Hudgens, 35
Sep 18
2
7419 1991 PN13
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
7638 Gladman
Hudgens, 35
Sep 12
2
7757 1990 KO
Harvey, 74
Jul 15
3
7781 Townsend
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Sep 17
Sep 10
4
2
31-Sep 22
5
9-22
11-21
24
2
3
17
2
4522 Britastra
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
2
Apr 10
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
4635 Rimbaud
Faure, 20
Apr 25
2
4725 Milone
Hudgens, 41
Dec 12
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 5
2
3C
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
2
2
Harvey, 74
Jul 16
Jul 21
Dec 17
3
4820 Fay
Hudgens, 35
Sep 8
2
4942 1987 DU6
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
4986 Osipovia
Harvey, 74
5
2
2
3
4631 Yaba
4711 Kathy
Oct 31-Nov 12
Sep 18
Nov 5-6
NO.
OBS.
5822 Masakichi
Apr 25
4649 Sumoto
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
Bookamer, 41
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 41
Faure, 20
Harvey, 74
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
5817 Robertfrazer
4483 Petöfi
4590 Dimashchegolev
PLANET
Dec 16
3
5020 Asimov
Harvey, 74
Sep 10
3
5044 Shestaka
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
2
8356 Wadhwa
Hudgens, 35
Sep 12
2
5064 Tanchozuru
Garrett, 32
Hudgens, 35
Jun 13
Jun 14-17
2
2
9601 1991 UE3
Hudgens, 35
Jun 21
2
9865 Akiraohta
Faure, 20
Sep 17-18
2
5203 Pavarotti
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Sep 6
Sep 10
3
2
10007 1976 YF3
Harvey, 74
Dec 17
3
5405 Neverland
Harvey, 74
Apr 10
3
10046 1986 JC
Hudgens, 35
Jun 23
2
5440 Terao
Hudgens, 35
Jun 23
2
10261 Nikdollezhal'
Faure, 20
Sep 18
2
5518 Mariobotta
Faure, 20
Mar 15
2
11734 1998 KM55
Faure, 20
Dec 12
2
5525 1991 TS4
Hudgens, 35
Sep 4-5
2
12008 Kandrup
5642 Bobbywilliams
Hudgens, 35
Aug 4
2
Faure, 20
Garrett, 32
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Jul
Jun
Jul
Jun
2
4
6
2
5653 Camarillo
Faure, 20
Harvey, 74
Dec 10
Dec 14
2
3
13289 1998 QK75
Harvey, 74
Dec 17
3
5687 Yamamotoshinobu
Hudgens, 35
Aug 11-12
3
13934 1988 XE2
Hudgens, 35
Jun 17
2
14196 1998 XH59
Hudgens, 35
Jul 21
2
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
15
13
7
14-17
62
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
PLANET
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
PLANET
OBSERVER &
APERTURE (cm)
OBSERVING
PERIOD (2004)
NO.
OBS.
14829 1986 TR11
Hudgens, 35
Jul 8
2
87024 2000 JS66
Faure, 20
Harvey, 74
May 16
May 15
4
6
14893 1992 DN6
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
Sep 12
3
2
88188 2000 XH44
Faure, 20
Harvey, 74
Mar 15
Mar 18
4
3
14951 1996 BS2
Hudgens, 35
Sep 5-7
2
89136 2001 US16
15198 1940 GJ
Harvey, 74
Apr 10
3
15784 1993 QZ
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
Sep 12
3
2
17912 1999 FV44
Faure, 20
Sep 17-18
2
27700 1982 SW3
Faure, 20
Hudgens, 35
Sep 9
Sep 10
2
2
27713 1989 AA
Harvey, 74
Dec 16
3
32575 2001 QY78
Hudgens, 35
Sep 20-21
3
32648 3538 P-L
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
2
34155 2000 QJ22
Harvey, 74
Hudgens, 35
Sep 10
Sep 12
3
2
LIGHTCURVES AND PERIODS FOR ASTEROIDS
463 LOLA, 523 ADA, 544 JETTA, 642 CLARA,
883 MATTERANIA, 6475 REFUGIUM
Crystal LeCrone
George Mills
Richard Ditteon
Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology CM 171
5500 Wabash Avenue
Terre Haute, IN 47803
[email protected]
(Received: 16 February
Revised: 7 April)
CCD images recorded in 2004 September, October, and
November using three Celestron C-14 telescopes yielded
lightcurves and periods for six asteroids: 463 Lola has a
period of 6.20 ± 0.01h and an amplitude of 0.28 mag;
523 Ada has a period of 10.03 ± 0.01h and an amplitude
of 0.60 mag: 544 Jetta has a period of 7.75 ± 0.01h and
an amplitude of 0.46 mag; 642 Clara has a period of
8.19 ± 0.01h and an amplitude of 0.29 mag; 883
Matterania has a period of 5.64 ± 0.01h and an
amplitude of 0.45 mag; and 6475 Refugium has a period
of 8.07 ± 0.01h and an amplitude of 0.70 mag.
During the fall of 2004 we obtained images at Oakley
Observatory, which is located in Terre Haute, Indiana at an
altitude of 178 m. The images were captured with three Celestron
C-14 telescopes operating at f/7 on Paramount ME Robotic
Telescope mounts using one AP8 and two AP7 CCD cameras.
Exposures were 120 seconds. Asteroids were selected for
observation by using TheSky, published by Software Bisque, to
locate asteroids that were at an elevation angle of between 20º and
30º, one hour after local sunset. In addition, TheSky was set to
show only asteroids brighter than 15. The asteroids used in TheSky
are imported from the data base ASTORB maintained by Lowell
Observatory (Koehn, 2005). The asteroids were cross checked
with known lightcurve parameters (Harris, 2003). We tried to
observe only asteroids that did not have previously reported
measurements and/or had very uncertain published results. We
used CCDSoft to auto dark our images. Then we median
combined our images to make a flat in MaxImDL, published by
Harvey, 74
Apr 17
4
2001 BE10
Garrett, 32
Jan 24
3
2002 CE26
Garrett, 32
Harvey, 74
Sep 5
Aug 25
3
6
2004 PT42
Hudgens, 35
Aug 16
2004 RZ164
Faure, 20
Dec 10
Harvey, 74
Dec 9
Jardine & Pilcher, 35 Dec 13
2004 VW14
Harvey, 74
Dec 14
3
10
6
9C
6
Diffraction Limited. Photometric measurements and lightcurves
were prepared using MPO Canopus (BDW Publishing).
A total of 12 asteroids were observed during these 3 months, but
lightcurves were not found for all of these asteroids. We dropped 3
asteroids (303 Josephina, 374 Burgundia, and 1473 Ounas)
because they had low signal-to-noise ratio. We did not capture
enough data for 3 asteroids (111 Ate, 343 Ostara, and 514 Armida)
to model their lightcurves as they appear to have long periods.
Below we summarize our successful determinations. All of our
data are available upon request.
463 Lola. Asteroid 463 Lola was discovered on 31 October 1900
by M. Wolf at Heidelberg. It was named conceivably for a
character in the opera Cavalleria Rusticana by Pietro Mascagni
(Schmadel, 1999). A total of 109 images taken over three nights:
2004 November 10, 13, and 14. The data reveal a lightcurve with
a 6.20 ± 0.01h period with 0.28 mag amplitude.
523 Ada. Asteroid 523 Ada was discovered on 27 January 1904
by R. S. Dugan at Heidelberg. It was named in honor of Ada
Helme, a school friend and neighbor of the discoverer (Schmadel,
1999). A total of 202 images were taken over five nights: 2004
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
63
September 20 and 21, October 3, 4, and 5. The data reveal a
lightcurve with a 10.03 ± 0.01h period with 0.60 mag amplitude.
This period is different from the lightcurve published in 1996 by
Stacy Georgilas and Charles Wetterer. They found the period to
be 9.8 ± 0.002h (Georgilas and Wetterer, 1996). We believe their
results contain a cycle ambiguity. Our data are uniquely fit by a
10.03 h period.
883 Matterania. Asteroid 883 Matterania was discovered on 14
September 1917 by M. Wolf at Heidelberg. This asteroid was
independently discovered by R. Schorr at Bergedorf. It was
named for the producer of photographic plates who donated many
photographic plates for the Heidelberg Observatory (Schmadel,
1999). A total of 308 images were taken over three nights: 2004
October 3, 4, and 5. The data reveal a lightcurve with a 5.64 ±
0.01h period with 0.45 mag amplitude.
544 Jetta. Asteroid 544 Jetta was discovered on 11 September
1904 by P. Gotz at Heidelberg. It was named after a legendary
figure of Heidelberg (Schmadel, 1999). A total of 205 images
were taken over five nights: 2004 September 20, 21, October 3, 4,
and 5. The data reveal a lightcurve with a 7.75 ± 0.01h period with
0.46 mag amplitude.
6475 Refugium. Asteroid 6475 Refugium was discovered on 29
September 1987 by P. Wild at Zimmerwald. The name is Latin
for refuge (Schmadel, 1999). A total of 181 images were taken
over two nights: 2004 November 12 and 13. The data reveal a
lightcurve with an 8.07 ± 0.01h period with 0.70 mag amplitude.
642 Clara. Asteroid 642 Clara was discovered on 8 September
1907 by M. Wolf at Heidelberg. It was named after for a
housekeeper of the Wolf family (Schmadel, 1999). A total of 156
images were taken over two nights: 2004 November 12 and 13.
The data reveal a lightcurve with an 8.19 ± 0.01h period with 0.29
mag amplitude.
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
64
References
Koehn, Bruce (2005). The Asteroid Orbital Elements Database.
Lowell Observatory. ftp://ftp.lowell.edu/pub/elgb/astorb.html, last
referenced 9 February.
Schmadel, Lutz D (1999). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names.
Springer: Berlin, Germany. 4th Edition.
Harris, A. W. and Warner, B. D (2004). Minor Planet Lightcurve
Parameters.
2003
Dec.
15.
http://cfawww.harvard.edu/iau/lists/LightcurveDat.html, last referenced 9
February 2005.
Georgilas, S. A., Wetterer, C. J. (1996). “CCD Photometry of 523
Ada.” MPB 23, 41-42.
LIGHTCURVES AND PERIODS FOR ASTEROIDS
471 PAPAGENA, 675 LUDMILLA, 1016 ANITRA,
1127 MIMI, 1165 IMPRINETTA, 1171 RUSTAHAWELIA,
AND 2283 BUNKE
John L. Menke
22500 Old Hundred Rd.
Barnesville, MD 20838 USA
Email: [email protected]
(Received: 1 February Revised: 28 March)
In the 2002-2004 period, lightcurves of nearly two
dozen asteroids were measured. Lightcurve period and
amplitude results reported here include: 471 Papagena,
7.114 ± 0.003 hr, 0.08 mag; 675 Ludmilla, 7.71 ± 0.01
hr, 0.16 mag; 1016 Anitra, 5.9300 ± 0.0003 hr, 0.30
mag; 1127 Mimi , 12.749 ± 0.003 hr, 0.72 mag; 1165
Imprinetta, 8.107 ± 0.010 hr, 0.20 mag; 1171
Rustahawelia, 10.80 ± 0.01 hr, 0.37 mag; 2283 Bunke,
3.96 ± 0.01, 0.06 mag. All are consistent with
previously reported values except 1127 Mimi for which
the new period solution is 3/2 longer. Solutions for
asteroids 1165 and 1171 may be slight refinements.
First results are reported here of a new observing program from
Barnesville, Maryland. The observatory has a Celestron-C11 on
an Astrophysics AP1200 mount. The C11 with a reducer operates
at f6.3 and includes a CFW-8 filter wheel fitted with Shuler
photometric filters. The camera is an ST7E, controlled via
MaximDL. The entire setup is operated remotely, sometimes at
great distance. This allows data taking that takes advantage of
even short periods of usable skies in Maryland. Approximately
two dozen asteroids have been measured since Dec. 2002: this
paper reports the first group.
To obtain the maximum S/N ratio, virtually all asteroid
photometry data are taken using a clear filter (no IR block). We
use a limited V-calibration method as follows. If the sky is
reasonably clear and/or uniform in transparency, when the asteroid
is reasonably close to the meridian we take at least one
asteroid/field image using a V-filter, immediately followed by a V
and Clr image in the nearest Landolt field (the same field is
always used for the same asteroid). Because most asteroid series
are conducted within a few days or weeks, and because most
asteroids are relatively close to the ecliptic, this method provides
reasonable V-calibration and good night-to-night calibration
without spending substantial time on the all-sky photometric
solution. Most clear filter exposures are 180 sec, while the Vfilter exposures are 360 sec. Thus, photometric calibration
activities normally take less than 10-15 minutes per night. In a
few cases, when critical, and when the transparency was highly
variable during the original data taking, we have returned at later
dates to recalibrate the asteroid star image fields against the
Landolt fields.
Using MaximDL with a digital reference star, the raw brightness
levels are measured, with at least 4-5 reference stars in the asteroid
field being measured. The raw data are transferred to a
spreadsheet for inspection and manipulation, and period analysis.
The data are not normally corrected for light travel time. Using
the methods described above to measure the nightly calibrations, it
is found that manual (ad hoc) nightly offsets needed to produce
smooth curves are typically 0.05mag or less. The uncertainty in
the period is set equal to the trial period variation necessary to
display a clearly bad period fit to the data. A search for aliases is
done by data inspection, using a range of trial periods consistent
with the apparent approximate period and the times between the
data sets, and by a correlation analysis over a range of trial
periods. In general, the complete data set is preserved until the
last analysis stage, only deleting outliers and badly cloud-affected
data after completing the period analysis. Details of the overall
procedures are available from the author or the author’s web site
http://menkescientific.com/lightcrv.html. Some of the data
reported here were taken before our measurement and analytical
processes were fully developed. Those early photometry results
are reported as “Relative Mag”, i.e., not referred to a V-standard,
or noted in the text. During the two years of activity, three
reference stars were found to be eclipsing variables (two WWUMa
and one EA type). In each case, we pursued these and have or will
submit the results elsewhere (the 1.3 day EA binary required 14
nights of observation unambiguously to fix the period—a major
competitor for scope/clear night time!).
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
65
471 Papagena. Papagena was discovered at Heidelberg on July 6,
1901 by M.F.Wolf. The data reported here were taken over four
nights between Apr. 2-12, 2003. The period was found to be
7.114 ± 0.003 hours consistent with the period of 7.113 listed by
Harris and Warner (2004). The total amplitude is 0.08 mag. The
present lightcurve is asymmetric with relative phases of 0.57/0.43,
with amplitudes of 0.04 and 0.08 mag.
1171 Rustahawelia. This asteroid was discovered on Mar. 10,
1930 at Uccle by S.J.Arend. The data reported here were taken
over four nights between Nov. 23-Dec 1, 2003. The period was
found to be 10.80 ± 0.01 hours. The total amplitude is 0.37 mag.
The presented lightcurve is asymmetric with relative phases of
0.45/0.55. This reported period may be a refinement to the current
tabulated value of 10.98 hours.
675 Ludmilla. This asteroid was discovered on Aug. 30, 1908 at
Taunton by J.H.Metcalf. The data reported here were taken in two
nights over the period Apr. 24-7, 2003. The period was found to
be 7.71 ± 0.01 hours, which is consistent with the sidereal period
of 0.32155 days found in 1995 by Velichko, et al, and the 7.7172
hours reported in the Harris and Warner (2004) listing. We note,
however, that our data were not themselves sufficient to eliminate
aliases. The amplitude of Ludmilla was 0.16 mag. The present
lightcurve is asymmetric, with relative phase of 0.54/0.46.
2283 Bunke. Bunke was discovered on Mar. 22, 1974 at Cerro El
Roble by C.Torres. The data reported here were taken over three
nights between Apr. 13-20, 2003. The period was found to be
3.96 ± 0.01 hours, with an amplitude of 0.06 mag. Because the
data are very noisy relative to the small amplitude of the asteroid,
it was difficult to eliminate the possibility of an alias to the
apparent period. The next most likely (alias) period was
approximately 4.20 hours. This reported period is consistent with
the Harris and Warner (2004) reference of 3.96 hours.
1016 Anitra. On Jan. 31, 1924 at the Heidelberg Observatory,
Anitra was found by K. Reinmuth. As this was one of the first
asteroids observed in this program: these data are not of the
quality of later work and we did not perform a V-calibration of the
brightness. In addition, the asteroid was in a relatively dense star
field, so that the lightcurves are contaminated by field stars. The
data presented were taken over three nights Dec. 20-26, 2002.
Approximately two months later, on Mar. 3-9, 2003, we took
another series when Anitra was approximately twice the distance
from the earth. Although the data contain substantial scatter, the
period and approximate shape appear unchanged. Both sets of
data fit a period 5.93 ± 0.01 hours, with an amplitude of 0.3 mag.
The presented lightcurve is asymmetric, with relative phases of
0.56/0.44. Knowing that the light travel time difference between
the two data sets introduces a phase change of about 0.022, and
assuming that the curve shapes are the same and that the changing
geometry does not introduce any other phase change, we can
refine the period measurement to 5.9300 ± 0.0003 hours. These
period measurements are closely consistent with the period of
5.964 hours shown in the Harris and Warner (2004) file.
References
Monson, A., Kipp, S. “Rotational periods of asteroids 1165
Imprinetta, 1299 Mertona, 1645 Waterfield, 1833 Shmakova, 2313
Aruna, and (13856) 1999 XZ105.” MPB 31, 71-73.
Maleszewski, C., and Clark, M. (2004). “Bucknell University
Observatory Lightcurve Results for 2003-2004.” MPB 31, 93-94.
Harris, A., Warner, B. (2004). “Minor Planet Light Curve Parameters.” http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/lists/LightcurveDat.html
1127 Mimi. Mimi was discovered on Jan. 13, 1929 at Uccle by S.
Arend. The data reported here were taken over five nights during
Jan. 21-Feb 4, 2004. Although the data were contaminated by
field stars, the lightcurve is well determined, and the period found
was 12.749 ± 0.003 hours with an amplitude of 0.72 mag. The
presented lightcurve is asymmetric, with relative phases of
0.53/0.47. These results disagree with those recently reported in
MPB (31) 2004 by Maleszewski and Clark who found a period of
8.541 hours and an amplitude of 0.95 mag. The Maleszewski data
were rather sparse, and covered only a portion of the curve over
two consecutive nights, and a few data points two months later.
The 8.541 hour period is an alias that is clearly excluded by our
data. The Maleszewski data are consistent with the 12.749 hour
period. Unfortunately, the lack of calibration prevented using it to
improve the period precision given here.
1165 Imprinetta. Imprinetta was discovered on Apr. 24, 1930 at
Johannesburg by H. van Gent.. The data reported here were taken
over three nights between Oct. 15-19, 2003. The period found
was 8.107 ± 0.010 hours with an amplitude of 0.20 mag. The
presented lightcurve is asymmetric, with relative phases of
0.57/0.43. This period is slightly different from the 8.0 hours
shown in the Harris and Warner (2004) list, but that result was not
assigned a high reliability. Our result differs somewhat from the
value of 7.9374 ± 0.0016 reported by Monson and Kipp (2004).
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
66
ASTEROID LIGHTCURVE PHOTOMETRY FROM
SANTANA OBSERVATORY – WINTER 2005
Robert D. Stephens
11355 Mount Johnson Court
Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91737 USA
[email protected]
(Received: 5 April)
Lightcurve period and amplitude results from Santana
Observatory are reported for 2005 January-March.
553 Kundry: 12.605 ± 0.005 hr., 0.58 mag;
1330 Spiridonia: 9.67 ± 0.01 hr., 0.14 mag;
1777 Gehrels: 2.8358 ± 0.0001 hr., 0.27 mag;
1815 Beethoven: 54 ± 1 hr., 0.2 mag;
(17556) 1993 WB: 9.17 ± 0.03 hr., 0.80 mag.
Santana Observatory (MPC Code 646) is located in Rancho
Cucamonga, California at an elevation of 400 meters and is
operated by the author. Details of the equipment used can be
found in Stephens (2003) and at the author’s web site
(http://home.earthlink.net/~rdstephens/default.htm). With the
exception of 1777 Gehrels, all of the asteroids were selected from
the “CALL” web site (Warner 2005). The images were measured
using the program MPO Canopus which uses differential aperture
photometry. The period analysis was done within Canopus, which
incorporates an algorithm based on the Fourier analysis program
developed by Harris (1989).
The results are summarized in the table below. The individual
plots are presented afterwards. The data and lightcurves are
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
67
presented without additional comment, except when the
circumstances for a given asteroid require more details. Column 2
gives the dates over which the observations were made, Column 3
gives the number of actual runs made during that time span and
column 4 gives the number of observations used. Column 5 is the
range of phase angles over the full data range. If there are three
values in the column, this means the phase angle reached a
minimum with the middle valued being the minimum. Columns 6
and 7 give the range of values for the Phase Angle Bisector (PAB)
longitude and latitude respectively. Column 8 gives the period
and column 9 gives the error in hours. Columns 10 and 11 give
the amplitude and error in magnitudes.
1777 Gehrels: Gehrels was on a list of asteroids to monitor for
binary status prepared by Alan Harris. It was previously listed as
having a 2.84 hour period as determined from the Wisniewski data
as analyzed by Harris (1997). The second and third nights of
observations suffered from mediocre observing conditions. On
March 12, an anomalous feature in the lightcurve suggested an
attenuation event. Peter Kusnirak of Ondrejov Observatory and
Brian Warner of Palmer Divide Observatory each contributed
observations while Petr Pravec was the analyzer of the joint
dataset. While these additional observations and remeasuring of
the original images reduced the likelihood of the asteroid having a
satellite, it did provide a unique solution of 2.8358 ± 0.0001 hours
for the rotational period. The lightcurve shown includes the
Stephens and Warner datasets, but not the Kusnirak dataset
because of incompatibility in the software programs.
1815 Beethoven: It was obvious from the shallow slope of the
lightcurve from the first night of data, that this asteroid has a long
period. Unfortunately, a record setting rainy season in Southern
California allowed only four nights of observing in the first three
weeks. No additional observations could be made for the next
month. The four nights obtained do not really lend themselves to
a solution, although a period of 54 hours is the best fit.
(17556) 1993 WB: On two nights, this asteroid was in the same
field of view as 1815 Beethoven. An asteroid with a predicted
Asteroid
553 Kundry
1330 Spiridonia
1777 Gehrels
1815 Beethoven
17556 1993 WB
Dates
2004 12/20 –
2005 01/17
2005 03/31 –
2005 04/03
2005 03/08 – 16
Sess
5
Obs
389
4
303
6
526
2005 01/18 –
2005 02/05
2005 02/05 – 06
4
439
2
169
magnitude of 16.6 would not otherwise have been targeted.
However, since images had already acquired, they were measured
and a useable lightcurve was derived. No further observations
were obtained.
Acknowledgements
Thanks are given to Dr. Alan Harris of the Space Science Institute,
Boulder, CO, and Dr. Petr Pravec of the Astronomical Institute,
Czech Republic, for their ongoing support of all amateur asteroid
photometrists and in particular, for their assistance on 1777
Gehrels. Also, thanks to Brian Warner for his continuing work
and enhancements to the software program “Canopus” which
makes it possible for amateur astronomers to analyze and
collaborate on asteroid rotational period projects and for
maintaining the CALL Web site which helps coordinate
collaborative projects between amateur astronomers.
References
Harris, A.W., Young, J.W., Bowell, E., Martin, L. J., Millis, R. L.,
Poutanen, M., Scaltriti, F., Zappala, V., Schober, H. J.,
Debehogne, H, and Zeigler, K. (1989).
“Photoelectric
Observations of Asteroids 3, 24, 60, 261, and 863.” Icarus 77,
171-186.
Stephens, R. D. (2003). “Photometry of 2134 Dennispalm, 2258
Viipuri, 3678 Mongmanwai, 4024 Ronan, and 6354 Vangelis.”
Minor Planet Bulletin 30, 46-48.
Stephens, R. D. (2005). http://home.earthlink.net/~rdstephens/
default.htm.
Warner, B. (2005). “Potential Lightcurve
http://www.minorplanetobserver.com/astlc.targets.
Targets”.
Wisniewski, W.Z., Michalowski, T.M., Harris, A.W., McMillan,
R. S. (1997). “Photometric Observations of 125 Asteroids.” Icarus
126, 395-449
Phase
1.6,
16.7
6.4, 5.8
LPAB
87.2, 89.4
BPAB
2.0, 3.2
Per
(h)
12.605
PE
0.005
Amp
0.58
AE
0.03
200.4
12.8, 13.0
9.67
0.01
0.14
0.03
0.7,
0.4, 3.1
5.2,
0.5, 3.0
4.1, 4.7
168.9
-0.9, -1.1
2.8358
.0001
0.27
0.01
129.4, 129.8
0.9, 1.2
54
1
0.2
0.1
130.3, 130.4
1.1
9.17
0.03
0.80
0.03
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
68
THE MINOR PLANET OBSERVER:
TIME TO SLEEP – BUT NOT JUST YET
Brian Warner
Palmer Divide Observatory
17995 Bakers Farm Rd.
Colorado Springs, CO 80908
[email protected]
As I write this, I’m also monitoring the three telescopes at the
Palmer Divide Observatory, each one working via automation
software to get images of an asteroid for lightcurve analysis. I’m
sitting inside at my work computer that allows me to peek at the
screens of the three computers outside just to make sure things are
OK. No more sitting outside in the depths of winter when the
temperatures were –30°C at times and I used to guide a single
scope manually for five minutes to capture 14th magnitude
asteroids on film. Now I can reach down to 15-17th magnitude in
less time and have plenty of photons for photometry.
Eventually, I’ll head off to bed – much later than I should – and let
the no longer uncommon marvels of a modern age do all the work.
Being a practicing member of the old school, I often stay up
despite the conveniences and watch the images come through.
Maybe it’s too many years of dealing with computers and
knowing how they seem to find just the right time to do something
strange. I prefer to think that it allows me to remain part of the
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
69
process – that a human is still needed to do the work. Then again,
it could be just be wondering what the next image will show.
I know there are those who like to turn things over to the
computers completely, expecting to get up in the morning and
have a completed lightcurve waiting on the screen, maybe even
with period analysis and a cup of coffee to get the day going right;
not me. I’m not so anachronistic to think computers don’t have
their uses but lightcurve work is more than collecting photons and
making plots. It sometimes becomes a mystery worthy of Sherlock
Holmes. When “the game’s afoot” is when things are most
interesting.
It often seems that all the easy asteroids have been worked and all
that’s left are the hard ones. I say that because of the last six I
chose to pursue, not one has had a simple curve with a period
easily determined. Five had long periods and may not have been
really solved. Another seemed to have a period but it also looked
like someone had sprinkled colored sparkles on the paper and the
eye and analysis software were fooled into finding a period.
I’ve found many times that when I start work on a numbered
asteroid of 1000 or less the period is rarely easily found. I wonder
if someone else once tried to work the asteroid before and gave up
without reporting even meager results – as a warning to future
researchers if nothing else. I’ve committed this sin lately and I
think the gods took revenge on me for doing so by making all my
recent targets difficult ones. I’ve long since learned my lesson that
these difficult asteroids, be they long period or seemingly
“chicken-scratch” are now the ones that deserve the most effort. It
is these targets that might provide something new in the rapidly
growing statistical pool of lightcurve data. Alan Harris ruminates
on the possibilities of what might have been overlooked in the past
in the regular lightcurve opportunities article elsewhere in this
issue. You should make certain to read his comments.
In short, there is often the temptation to abandon hard and easy
targets too soon. Even if you’re able to get 8 hours on a 6-hour
period two nights in a row, a third night – maybe the next or a
couple nights removed – can only improve the solution and may
even produce unexpected results. As for the hard targets – slow
rotators in particular – it may take more work in more ways than
just getting more data. You may have to start taking at least basic
steps to calibrate night-to-night measurements so that the absolute
values can be put somewhat on a standard system. That means
more time before you start collecting asteroid photons and maybe
even a little manual intervention. Automation software can’t
always determine when to shoot the calibration images or, even if
it can, if the conditions are right to do so.
I’ve been asked if all this work is worth doing and will it continue
to be so in the next few years as some large surveys start covering
the sky to unprecedented depths. Of course it is and will be – even
with Mikko Kaasalainen’s work on “sparse sampling” that will
allow finding the period and approximate shape using only 50 or
so calibrated images. First, those images have to be taken over a
large range of viewing aspects. That will take time, years most
likely. Even so, there will always be the need for calibration work
to establish the reliability of initial results. Furthermore, the gross
determinations will not always tell the full story. What they will
do is find the interesting cases and then it will be up to others to
do the follow up work. In many cases, that work can be done by
those with smaller instruments (I refuse to use the term “amateur”
here).
Anyone who studied the history of science knows that not all
discoveries come in sudden moments of epiphany or serendipity.
Many are the result of well-planned and executed programs that
go on for months if not years. I cannot imagine the day when the
call of the asteroid photometrist, “More Data!” will be answered
with, “No More!” What data are needed for which targets may
change, but that’s the way of science. It’s up to any researcher to
adapt to changing knowledge and needs. I have every confidence
that the many so-called “amateurs” who read and contribute to the
Minor Planet Bulletin will meet the challenge and, as they are
doing more and more these days, provide a large part of the
lightcurve data sought by researchers.
If you’re just getting into asteroid photometry, I encourage you to
join the AAVSO newsgroups. Yes, the group is dedicated to
variable stars but “they know photometry”. You’ll find a great
group of helpful people who will guide you as you learn the basics
and nuances of photometry. Regardless of the target involved, the
principles are about the same. You should take advantage of any
available means to improve your technique and learn from others.
I know I’ve learned quite a bit in the last couple of years just
lurking in the background. Another group worth investigating is
the Society for Astronomical Science (http://socastrosci.org). They
hold an annual symposium in Big Bear, CA, at the end of May
that is fast becoming a “must do” meeting for those wanting to do
science with their telescopes.
Well, the scopes are still running. The images are in focus and I’ve
already begun analyzing the data from one asteroid. I don’t have
to worry about a snowstorm moving in and the weather forecasters
say that not even the usual late night clouds will form tonight nor
will there be howling winds to take the roofs off their tracks. I
have no reason to stay up and every reason to turn in early (before
midnight). No reason at all – except curiosity about what the next
image will look like – and the next – and the next – and the next.
Clear Skies!
LIGHTCURVE PHOTOMETRY OPPORTUNITIES
JULY-SEPTEMBER 2005
Brian D. Warner
Palmer Divide Observatory
17995 Bakers Farm Rd.
Colorado Springs, CO 80908
Mikko Kaasalainen
Rolf Nevanlinna Institute
P.O. Box 68 (Gustaf Hallstromin katu 2b, room A422)
FIN-00014 University of Helsinki
Finland
Alan W. Harris
Space Science Institute
4603 Orange Knoll Ave.
La Canada, CA 91011-3364
Petr Pravec
Astronomical Institute
CZ-25165 Ondrejov
Czech Republic
[email protected]
When selecting asteroids for study, it’s not uncommon to see
observers choose those for which there are no known lightcurve
parameters. In “the old days”, this made sense because the
statistical sampling was so small as to distort the overall picture of
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
70
asteroid rotation rate versus any number of other parameters.
Times have changed. The statistical sampling is much better now,
though there are still some gaps, caused at least in part by an
aversion to select faint objects or to stick with otherwise difficult
targets.
We discussed previously the work on binary asteroids being run
by Pravec. Warner is concentrating on inner main-belt asteroids to
see if there are family traits among the Phocaeas and Hungarias
similar to those found in other asteroid groups. This time around,
we’d like to make a case for working some asteroids even though
the lightcurve parameters may have a ‘2’ or even ‘3’ rating. If
nothing else, a ‘2’ can be converted to a ‘3’ and in either case,
another curve becomes available to help Kaasalainen in his spin
axis and shape studies.
In a recent exchange of emails, Harris sent the following to
Warner regarding the possibilities of what might have been
overlooked in the early work on asteroid lightcurves:
“In doing the latest revisions to the lightcurve list, as I look over
all the new oddities, binaries, tumblers, and so forth, I am left
wondering how we could have missed all these fun things for so
long. Looking back, tumblers were only revealed when the radar
observers [could offer no other solution]. Upon looking back from
then, I quickly found several other likely or certain tumblers in my
data files; I had simply overlooked or dismissed the clues to a then
unknown and unexpected phenomenon.”
“The same applies to binaries to some extent. In that case, we
weren’t thinking of asynchronous binaries with two periods, and
so we quit looking. I wonder how many ‘3’ rated asteroids are
actually binaries but we quit looking as soon as we had seen the
full cycle once. I suspect a handful of those fast rotators hanging
right up against the rotation barrier are binaries; if we went back
and hammered long enough, we would see mutual events.”
“In this light, Pravec’s latest [binary] campaign is very well
motivated. We need to look for more than one cycle of coverage
before moving on and assuming everything is settled.”
Given the above, there is ample justification to return to
previously determined asteroids that fit some of the criteria, e.g.,
those near the rotation barrier. If possible, try looking at data plots
of previous work and see if there is something that might give a
clue that the asteroid needs additional work. That might be a
single session that doesn’t quite fit or seemingly highly scattered
data, which might be the result of two periods superimposed in a
complex way – the result of a tumbling asteroid.
This doesn’t mean that every asteroid with a ‘2’ or ‘3’ rating needs
to be worked again out of course. However, by extending the
search criteria to include some of these targets, there is also an
extension of the number of targets that can be reached by the more
modest equipment available to amateurs. One need not be required
to work asteroids of 16th magnitude and fainter to do “new work.”
If nothing else, keep in mind that many of the brighter targets
within reach of the smaller instruments, or those using strictly
standard filters, do not have spin axis or shape models. As always,
some of these are in want of only one or two more curves to allow
models to be constructed. You’ll find some of those in the
Shape/Spin Modeling Opportunities list below.
ones. This is a just short list of those reaching at least 15.0 in the
coming quarter and only those reaching a particularly favorable
apparition. A complete list of targets is available on the CALL
w e b
s i t e
a t
http://www.MinorPlanetObserver.com/astlc/default.htm. This
covers asteroids as faint as 16.0 and regardless if they reach a
favorable apparition or not. Even the short list below should tell
you that there is plenty of work to be done on mostly uncharted
ground. Furthermore, a review of the list of nearly 2000 known
lightcurve parameters, also available on the CALL site, as well as
the low phase angle opportunities list below should dispel any
thoughts that those with humble instruments cannot contribute
effectively to asteroid research.
Lightcurve Opportunities
Brightest
#
Name
Date
Mag Dec U Per Amp
--------------------------------------------------------3483 Svetlov (F)
7 02.2 15.0 -37 0
6742 Biandepei (F)
7 04.1 14.6 -23 0
1321 Majuba (F)
7 05.1 13.5 -32 2 6.78 0.43
1358 Gaika (F)
7 06.3 14.2 -27 0
6790 Pingouin (F)
7 06.2 15.0 + 1 0
4049 Noragal' (F)
7 07.9 14.3 -23 0
1821 Aconcagua (F)
7 07.8 14.5 -23 0
1525 Savonlinna (F)
7 10.6 14.6 -20 0
13914 Galegant (F)
7 10.2 14.7 -26 0
2688 Halley (F)
7 14.1 15.0 -23 0
2375 Radek (F)
7 14.0 14.3 -22 0
1706 Dieckvoss (F)
7 15.1 14.1 -21 0
29769 1999 CE28 (F)
7 16.8 14.2 -28 0
7353 Kazuya (F)
7 18.9 14.5 -31 0
27139 1998 XX46 (F)
7 20.1 14.7 -15 0
49389 1998 XS20 (F)
7 23.7 15.0 -14 0
3152 Jones (F)
7 26.8 14.3 -19 0
6410 Fujiwara (F)
7 26.9 14.7 -31 0
3679 Condruses (F)
7 26.4 15.0 -20 0
5386 1975 TH6 (F)
7 27.5 14.9 -30 0
2972 Niilo (F)
7 28.5 15.0 -17 0
2454 Olaus Magnus (F) 7 28.3 14.7 -10 0
5660 1974 MA (F)
7 28.1 14.5 +39 0
13918 1984 QB (F)
7 28.4 14.4 -21 0
309 Fraternitas (F)
7 29.4 13.2 -24 2 13.2 0.10
13852 Ford (F)
7 29.3 15.0 -18 0
34669 2000 YO5 (F)
7 29.2 15.0 -18 0
5353 1989 YT (F)
7 30.1 14.9 -27 0
498 Tokio (F)
7 30.2 11.2 -27 2 >20. >0.36
11386 1998 TA18 (F)
7 31.7 15.0 - 8 0
5811 Keck (F)
7 31.7 14.7 + 3 2 60. >0.25
6599 Tsuko (F)
7 31.0 15.0 - 8 0
1648 Shajna (F)
7 31.4 13.6 -18 0
32555 2001 QZ29 (F)
7 31.7 14.9 + 1 0
29311 1994 BQ3 (F)
8 01.9 14.6 -14 0
7527 1993 BJ (F)
8 02.9 15.0 -21 0
960 Birgit (F)
8 02.2 14.4 -12 0
13553 1992 JE (F)
8 03.6 15.0 + 4 0
7534 1995 UA7 (F)
8 04.6 14.3 -24 0
4384 1990 AA (F)
8 05.9 14.5 -18 0
2680 Mateo (F)
8 08.6 14.9 -20 0
4768 Hartley (F)
8 11.4 14.3 -16 0
5505 1986 VD1 (F)
8 11.1 14.8 -14 0
6741 Liyuan (F)
8 11.9 14.8 -10 0
1056 Azalea (F)
8 12.6 13.0 -21 2 15.05 0.7
6481 Tenzing (F)
8 14.6 14.7 -15 0
6630 Skepticus (F)
8 14.9 15.0 -27 0
5437 1990 DU3 (F)
8 16.0 14.9 -13 0
810 Atossa (F)
8 17.1 13.6 -13 0
6061 1981 SQ2 (F)
8 17.0 14.8 -20 0
5537 1964 TA2 (F)
8 19.3 14.9 -16 0
2621 Goto (F)
8 20.9 14.4 -28 0
6456 Golombek (F)
8 21.2 15.0 + 1 0
7663 1994 RX1 (F)
8 22.8 14.9 + 5 1 32.3 0.40
6364 1981 ET (F)
8 24.7 14.4 -19 0
14668 1999 CB67 (F)
8 24.7 14.8 + 9 0
8556 Jana (F)
8 27.9 15.0 -18 0
3875 Staehle (F)
8 28.3 13.9 -15 0
1543 Bourgeois (F)
8 31.4 13.7 +12 0
The Lightcurve Opportunities list below does favor those targets
for which there are no known parameters, or poorly established
Minor Planet Bulletin 32 (2005)
continued on next page
71
Lightcurve Opportunities (continued)
Shape/Spin Modeling Opportunities
Brightest
#
Name
Date
Mag Dec U Per Amp
--------------------------------------------------------10518 1990 MC (F)
8 31.5 14.9 + 6 0
1394 Algoa (F)
9 01.3 15.0 - 7 0
7741 Fedoseev (F)
9 01.2 14.9 - 4 0
6074 Bechtereva (F)
9 03.1 14.9 - 5 0
4655 Marjoriika (F)
9 03.9 14.7 - 6 0
4519 Voronezh (F)
9 06.0 15.0 - 7 0
9566 Rykhlova (F)
9 07.8 14.9 + 2 0
28610 2000 EM158 (F)
9 07.2 14.9 +10 0
9716 Severina (F)
9 07.0 14.9 - 5 0
2616 Lesya (F)
9 08.0 14.1 - 7 0
2406 Orelskaya (F)
9 08.0 14.6 - 8 0
7357 1995 UJ7 (F)
9 09.9 14.9 - 8 0
5176 Yoichi (F)
9 10.5 13.9 -20 0
2024 McLaughlin (F)
9 10.9 15.0 -18 0
12331 1992 UH6 (F)
9 10.4 14.9 -18 0
1636 Porter (F)
9 11.0 14.8 - 5 0
14643 Morata (F)
9 13.1 14.7 + 1 0
1490 Limpopo (F)
9 13.6 14.2 +15 0
28017 1997 YV13 (F)
9 14.3 14.3 + 6 0
2139 Makharadze (F)
9 14.8 14.7 + 1 0
1731 Smuts (F)
9 14.7 13.6 - 6 0
4031 Mueller (F)
9 16.9 14.8 - 4 0
49385 1998 XA12 (F)
9 16.2 14.7 +41 0
8290 1992 NP (F)
9 17.4 14.9 +16 0
1500 Jyvaskyla (F)
9 18.6 14.5 - 8 0
2243 Lonnrot (F)
9 18.5 14.1 - 8 0
1438 Wendeline (F)
9 19.3 14.3 + 1 0
3925 Tret'yakov (F)
9 23.2 14.2 - 7 0
6500 Kodaira (F)
9 25.5 14.8 + 5 0
2453 Wabash (F)
9 27.9 14.6 + 0 0
4132 Bartok (F)
9 27.6 13.5 - 7 0
5847 Wakiya (F)
9 28.4 14.0 +15 1 23.95 0.10
Brightest
Per
# Name
Date
Mag
Dec (h)
Amp.
U
--------------------------------------------------------5 Astraea
8 02.5 10.9 -16 16.800 0.10-0.30 4
24 Themis
8 22.2 11.9 -13
8.374 0.09-0.14 3
31 Euphrosyne
9 30.5 11.2 -16
5.531 0.09-0.13 4
36 Atalante
8 05.4 12.3 -41
9.93
0.15-0.17 3
48 Doris
8 12.3 11.4 -09 11.89
0.35 3
76 Freia
7 30.2 13.3 -16
9.972 0.10-0.33 2
276 Adelheid
8 15.9 13.6 +13
6.328 0.07-0.10 3
441 Bathilde
8 09.1 12.7 -05 10.447
0.13 3
471 Papagena
9 13.1 9.9 -29
7.113 0.11-0.13 3
480 Hansa
9 03.5 12.5 +22 16.19
0.58 3
1902 Shaposhnikov 8 16.9 14.0 -31 21.2
0.42 3
Low Phase Angle Opportunities
#
Name
Date
PhA
V
Dec
----------------------------------------------------40 Harmonia
07 01.6
0.14 11.4
+23
21 Lutetia
07 04.0
0.31 12.4
+24
215 Oenone
07 04.1
0.98 13.1
-25
268 Adorea
07 08.0
0.16 13.8
+22
90 Antiope
07 09.3
0.81 11.7
-24
1105 Fragaria
07 11.9
0.83 13.7
-20
49 Pales
07 12.7
0.09 12.9
+22
64 Angelina
07 16.7
0.12 12.2
+21
211 Isolda
07 18.1
0.87 12.6
-18
543 Charlotte
07 18.2
0.09 13.6
-21
863 Benkoela
07 19.2
0.14 13.3
-20
888 Parysatis
07 20.1
0.91 13.4
-18
182 Elsa
07 21.7
0.14 13.3
+21
381 Myrrha
07 22.2
0.69 12.2
-18
106 Dione
07 24.8
0.99 13.1
+23
729 Watsonia
07 25.3
0.46 12.8
-18
317 Roxane
07 30.9
0.66 12.0
-17
1648 Shajna
07 31.5
0.31 13.6
-18
5 Astraea
08 02.5
0.54 10.9
-16
159 Aemilia
08 04.6
0.15 12.7
-17
653 Berenike
08 06.1
0.07 13.3
-17
202 Chryseis
08 07.3
0.11 12.6
+16
739 Mandeville
08 11.7
0.43 12.5
-16
762 Pulcova
08 14.3
0.94 13.6
+12
44 Nysa
08 14.7
0.40 10.4
-15
810 Atossa
08 17.1
0.50 13.6
-13
141 Lumen
08 17.8
0.33 13.6
+12
354 Eleonora
08 20.6
0.71 11.2
+14
282 Clorinde
08 21.7
0.43 13.6
-13
194 Prokne
08 24.5
0.67 13.5
+09
184 Dejopeja
08 26.0
0.02 12.9
-10
192 Nausikaa
08 26.1
0.34 12.3
+11
63 Ausonia
08 26.5
0.15 12.3
+11
172 Baucis
08 27.9
0.12 13.8
+10
27 Euterpe
08 28.7
0.45 11.2
+10
122 Gerda
09 06.5
0.21 12.4
-06
91 Aegina
09 09.3
0.25 13.7
+06
30 Urania
09 09.9
0.38 12.4
+04
101 Helena
09 10.6
0.67 10.6
-03
305 Gordonia
09 13.8
0.71 14.0
+02
59 Elpis
09 13.9
0.04 13.3
+04
66 Maja
09 22.9
0.32 11.8
-01
236 Honoria
09 24.8
0.14 14.0
-01
Note that the amplitude in the table just above could be more, or
less, than what’s given. Use the listing as a guide and doublecheck your work. Also, if the date is ‘1 01.’ Or ’12 31. ‘, i.e., there
is no value after the decimal, it means that the asteroid reaches its
brightest just as the year begins (it gets dimmer all year) or it
reaches its brightest at the end of the year (it gets brighter all
year).
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