Lagring av Solenergi

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Lagring av Solenergi
“Lagring av Solenergi”
Kasper Moth-Poulsen, PhD, FoAss
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
“With the relatively small reserves of coal that the past geological
epoch have stored for us, it will never be desirable to produce
from coal what nature generously offers us through solar energy.”
Giacomo Ciamician “ The Photochemistry of the Future” Science 1912
Okonventionel
Solenergilagring
•
We have limited resources, for a growing population
• The resources we have will run out
during the next 50-100 years
• If we use the fossil fuels we have, we
will see major climate, health and
ecological effects on earth
• We need to invest in renewable energy…
• We need to develop renewable energy
https://www.mm.dk/guide-to-sustain
“With the relatively small reserves of coal that the past geological
epoch have stored for us, it will never be desirable to produce
from coal what nature generously offers us through solar energy.”
Giacomo Ciamician “ The Photochemistry of the Future” Science 1912
Fornybar Energy mix Tyskland 1990-2011
Vad är problemen?
V-164
I dagsläget installers 36 MW sol panel värje månad I Danmark.
1000 MW förväntas installerad i 2020 (5 gånge urspungligt mål)
Målet för hålbar energiproduktion är 35 percent renewable power
production (2020) and 100 percent (i 2050). I dagsläget blir 20% av
Danmarks el producerad från fornybar energikäl.
Vi behöver utvekla effektiva energi lagringsmetoder
för att kunna producera energi när vinden inte bläser eller
solen inte skinner
Kemisk Solenergilagring
Biological Systems Water Splitting
(photosynthesis)
CO2 and H2O to
C6H12O6
H2O to H2 and O2
Artificial
Photosynthesis
Molecular Solar
Thermal (MOST)
CO2 and H2O to
Molecule to
Molecule*
CH3OH
Molecular Solar Thermal
•
•
•
•
Solar Energy Storage
“closed cycle” = 0 emission
Long Term Energy Storage (months-years)
Energy Density Comparable to that of Batteries (but heat)
MOST: basic concepts
Molecular Solar Thermal Device
Moth-Poulsen, K., Ćoso, D., Börjesson, K., Vinokurov, N., Meier, S., Majumdar, A., Vollhardt, K.P.C.,
Segalman, R. A., Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 8534-8537, 2012.
Solar Collector Device
Inlet
Syrringe pump
Solar Lamp (AM
1.5)
Liquid Collection
Outlet
Microfluidic
Moth-Poulsen, K., Ćoso, D., Börjesson, K., Vinokurov, N., Meier, S., Majumdar, A., Vollhardt, K.P.C.,
Segalman, R. A., Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 8534-8537, 2012.
Irradiated area ≈ 6.51 cm2
Moth-Poulsen, K., Ćoso, D., Börjesson, K., Vinokurov, N., Meier, S., Majumdar, A., Vollhardt, K.P.C.,
Segalman, R. A., Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 8534-8537, 2012.
UHV chamber
Temperatur rise / K
Thermocoupl
e
Thermocouple
Catalyst
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
100
200
300
Run gram scale,
Temperature rise limited by turn over
number (TON) of catalyst, ≈ 15-20
Time / s
1
Problem: Solar Spectrum Match
Photon up-conversion
Energy increase
Out
In
The benchmark system
Sensitizer (S): PdOEP
(Palladium porphirin)
Annihilator (A): DPA
(9,10-diphenylanthracene)
S + hν1
1 S*
3 S*
TET
A
3A*
S + hν1
1 S*
3 S*
TET
A
3A*
TTA
A
+
1A*
TTA
hν1 < hν2
A + hν2
2 hν1
1 hν2
TET = Triplet Energy Transfer
TTA = Triplet-Triplet Annihilation
Haefele, A., Blumhoff, J., Khnayzer, R. S. & Castellano, F. N. Getting to the (Square) Root of the Problem: How to Make
Noncoherent Pumped Upconversion Linear. J. of Phys. Chem. Let. 3, 299–303 (2012).
Photon up-conversion vi tripletriplet annihilation
Since the process is dependent on the population of triplets,
the typical thing to do is to hit it with a big fat LASER
Pd Porphine
TTA up-conversion device for solar fuel production
400 mm2 irradiated area
Device Performance: 130% energy conversion improvement (for λ >495 nm )
With up-conversion
Without up-conversion
Börjesson, Dzebo, Albinsson, Moth-Poulsen „Photon Upconversion Facilitated Molecular Solar Thermal
Energy Storage” (submitted)
Summary of MOST work 2012
•
•
Constructed first full-cycle demonstration device
Constructed device that utilizes photon up-conversion
Chalmers
Berkeley
Peter Vollhardt
Rachel Segalman
Dusan Coso
Nikolai Vinokurov
Zongrui Hou
Charles. B. Harris
Justin Lomont
Arun Majumdar
MIT
Kasper Moth-Poulsen
Karl Börjesson
Anders Lennartsson
Victor Gray
Bo Albinsson
Damir Dzebo
Per-Ola Norrby
Argonne
Jeff Grossman
Yosuke Kanai
(now Univ N. Carolina)
Lin X. Chen
Son Nguyen
Di-Jia Liu
Michael Harpham
Funding:
Post doc grant Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation
Chalmers Materials, Nano and Energy Area of Advance
Swedish Research Council (VR)
Alireza Movahedi
Anders Lennartsson
Karl Börjesson
Yuri Diaz-Fernandez
Tina Gschneidtner
Victor Gray
Amaia Diaz de Zerio
Funding:
Chalmers Materials, Energy and Nano AoA’s
Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet)
Thank you!