Democratic Republican Era

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Democratic Republican Era
Democratic Republican Era
•Thomas Jefferson’s Administration
•James Madison’s Administration
•James Monroe’s Administration
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•Also kno
James
Madison’s Adm
•Following
Washington’s
precedent,
Jefferson did not
seek a third term.
•The DemocraticRepublicans
nominated James
Madison as their
candidate for the
presidency.
•The Federalists
nominated Charles
Pinckney.
•Madison won with
142 Electoral
College votes to
Pinckney’s 47.
James and Dolly Madison
Dolly Madison: The
President’s Greatest Asset
James Madison as President
The Non-Intercourse Act
Q
Replaced the Embargo Act. Congress enacted the Non
intercourse Act, which cut off all trade with Great Britain
and France.
Q
The act also carried an offer to Great Britain and France,
whichever country dropped their restrictions on American
neutrality rights, the United States would drop the act.
Q
Unexpected Consequences:

N. Eng. was forced to become self-sufficient again
[old factories reopened].

Laid the groundwork for US industrial power.

Jefferson, a critic of an industrial America, ironically
contributed to Hamilton’s view of the US!!!
Macon’s Bill
•In 1810, Congress replaced the
Non Intercourse Act with Macon’s
Bill Number 2.
•Nathaniel Macon from North
Carolina proposed the bill. He was
the chairman of the House of
Committee of Foreign Affairs.
•This bill restored intercourse
with Great Britain and France.
•Under this bill, when either
Britain or France formally agreed
to respect American neutrality
rights, Congress would cut off
trade with the other nation.
The Cadore Letter
•
•
•
Napoleon, in the Cadore
letter, said France would
drop restrictions on trade
with the United States.
Madison immediately cut
off trade with Great
Britain.
Napoleon fooled Madison
and continued to impress
American ships. Great
Britain continued to seize
American ships as well.
The Western Problem
•As Madison tried to settle
the disputes across the
seas, news had arrived
about problems in the
West.
•Ohio became a state in
1803. Between 1801 and
1810, many Americans
settled the Ohio Valley.
•Americans were moving
westward and taking land
from the Indians.
•British General Brock met
with Tecumseh and
provided military aid to the
Indians in order to prevent
American expansion into
the West and into Canada
Tecumseh
•
•
Where today are the Pequot?
Where are the Narragansett, the
Mochican, the Pocanet, and other
powerful tribes of our people?
They have vanished before the
avarice and oppression of the
white man, as snow before the
summer sun ... Sleep not longer, O
Choctaws and Chickasaws ... Will
not the bones of our dead be
plowed up, and their graves turned
into plowed fields?
Tecumseh, 1811, The Portable
North American Indian Reader
(accessed November 5, 2010).
Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811
Q
General William Henry
Harrison  governor of
the Indiana Territory.
Q
Invited Native Indian
chiefs to Ft. Wayne, IN
to sign away 3 mil. acres
of land to the US
government.
Q
Tecumseh organized a confederacy of
Indian tribes to fight for their
homelands.
Q
Tecumseh’s brother, the Prophet, a
spiritual leader, fought against
Harrison and was defeated at
Tippecanoe.
Q
This made Harrison a national hero!
[1840 election  Tippecanoe & Tyler,
too!]
Tecumseh
William Henry
Harrison
Arm
yourself
men!
Annul the treaty of
Fort Wayne or I will
make an alliance with
the British and
destroy you once and
for all!
Wait,
Tecumseh,
he comes in
Peace!
Little Belt Affair
• A May 16, 1811 engraving shows USS President battling
HMS Little Belt. More impressment leading to the War of
1812!
“War Hawks”
Henry Clay [KY]
John C. Calhoun [SC]
•Congressional elections in 1810 demanded a more aggressive
policy against Great Britain.
•Henry Clay of Kentucky was elected Speaker of the House of
Representatives.
•The Speaker of the House is the officer who presides over
the House of Representatives.
•New England Federalists, who were hurt from the trade
restrictions and impressment, opposed the War Hawks
Presidential Election of 1812
•James Madison was
the DemocraticRepublican
incumbent.
•Dewitt Clinton won
the Federalist
nomination.
•James Madison won
a second term as the
president.
•James Madison, on
June 1, 1812, was
the first president
to ask Congress for
a formal declaration
of war
“Mr. Madison’s War!”
•Causes for the War of 1812
•Americans wanted freedom
on the seas -free trade and
sailor’s rights.
•Americans saw an opportunity
for expansion into Canada and
Florida.
•The War of 1812 stemmed
from American nationalism.
The United States was not
getting enough respect that it
deserved.
Q
Q
American Problems
The US was unprepared militarily:

Incompetent military leaders

Had a 12-ship navy vs. Britain’s
800 ships. The British were
superior on the seas

Did, however had trained sailors
and new warships Constitution

Americans disliked a draft 
preferred to enlist in the
disorganized state militias.
Financially unprepared:

Flood of paper $.

Revenue from import tariffs
declined.
Q
Regional disagreements.
Q
There were communication problems.
Overview of the War of 1812
•American leaders planned to invade Canada with three separate armies
•They expected French Canada to be no problem at all, but the British and
Indian united forces, led by Tecumseh controlled the Great Lakes
U. S. Invasions of 1812
•The War Begins
•Divided against itself and
unprepared for a fight,
the United States fared
badly at the beginning of
the war.
•General William Hull
surrendered an army of
about 2000 to a British
Canadian force near
Detroit.
•Other attempts followed
to reach Canada, but the
United States failed.
Land/Sea Campaigns, 1813
•By 1813, the situation of the
United States had improved.
•Oliver Hazard Perry,
commander of the Lake Erie
naval forces, had defeated
the British at Put-in-Bay, off
Sandusky, Ohio. “We have
met the enemy, and they are
ours, Perry reported.
•Perry was able to ferry
General William Henry
Harrison’s army to Canada.
In 1813, Harrison defeated
the British at the Battle of
Thames. Tecumseh died at
this battle.
•Americans also defeated the
British at the Battle of Lake
Champlain.
Oliver Hazard Perry, victory at
Lake Erie
Jackson’s Florida Campaigns
•In the
Southwest of
the United
States, a
Tennessee
farmer, Andrew
Jackson,
defeated the
Creek Indians
at the Battle of
Horseshoe
Bend.
Napoleon is Defeated
• Napoleon finally was defeated
after his costly invasion of
Russia in 1812.
• The nations of Europe allied
against Napoleon and sent him
to exile on an island in the
Mediterranean Sea.
British Offensive
•
•
The British planned to thrust south from Canada, west from the
Atlantic Ocean to Washington D.C., and through the Gulf of Mexico to
New Orleans.
In August 24, 1814, the British attacked Washington D.C. and
destroyed the President’s mansion and the nation’s Capitol building.
Battle of Fort McHenry
•Much to everyone’s surprise, the British did not try to hold
Washington. They left the city and sailed north to try to capture
Baltimore, Maryland.
•The British were defeated at Ft. McHenry in September 1814.
Francis Scott Key, a young attorney, wrote the poem called “The
Star-Spangled Banner.”
The Star-Spangled Banner
•Oh Say Can You See
By the Dawn’s Early Light …
•Gave proof through the night,
That our flag was still there …
-- Francis Scott Key
Hartford Convention
December, 1814 – January,
1815
•New England Federalists met in Hartford,
Connecticut to oppose the war
•Radical New England Federalists considered
secession, or withdrawal for the United States
•Some moderate Federalists just wanted to increase
the power of states’ rights, ironically enough
(because the Republicans controlled Congress and
the Presidency)
•Interesting “role reversal” because the southern
states will later secede from the United States and
start the Civil War
Treaty of Ghent
•The treaty to end the War of 1812, was signed on December
24, 1814 – Belgium
•Nothing was said of American neutrality rights or the
impressment of sailors.
•Neither side demanded territory.
•Both sides agreed to stop fighting.
•For the United States, the War of 1812 was a narrow
escape from potential disaster
•However, Americans were proud that the young nation stood
up to the mighty British empire
Albert Gallatin
Henry Clay
John Quincy Adams
The Battle of New Orleans
•Before word of the treaty reached the United States, one
final battle was fought.
•In December 1814, a British army under the command of
General Sir Edward Pakenham moved towards New Orleans,
Louisiana.
•Awaiting them was an American army led by General Andrew
Jackson.
The Battle of New Orleans
•On January 8, 1815,
Packenham’s troops
advanced. By days end
more than 2000
redcoats, including
General Packenham, lay
dead on the field.
•Americans achieved a
decisive victory at the
Battle of New Orleans.
Andrew Jackson became
a hero, and his fame
helped him win the
presidency in 1828.

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