Övning om Lincoln



Övning om Lincoln
APRIL 1865
Övning om Lincoln
En experimentell övning
Lincoln besöker Richmond
Bakgrunden handlar om det amerikanska inbördeskriget.
Tavla målad 1866 av Dennis Malone Carter
Två medlemmar i nordstatsarmén skriver om Lincolns besök.
Foto och etsningar från
Richmond april 1865
Etsning på nordstaternas intåg i
staden från 1865
En journalist skriver
En etsnings om beskriver Lincolns intåg i Richmond
Tre moderna tolkningar
en konfederation, vars huvudstad
Denna övning handlar om att
värdera information, och om att
värdera hur mycket information
man behöver.
Du ska samla information så
att du har tillräckligt på fötterna för
att kunna kortfattat, cirka 1-2 minuter, muntligt presentera hur det
gick till när Lincoln besökte Richmond,(söderns huvudstad) omedelbart efter det att staden hade kapitulerat i det amerikanska inbördeskriget.
Det finns en rad olika källor.
Till att börja med får du, utöver en
bakgrund, bara en enda källa. Om
du anser att du behöver ytterligare
en källa så säger du till så får du
källa nummer två. Om du fortfarande inte är nöjd så säger du till så
får du en till och så vidare.
Jag tror att det är lämpligt att
arbeta två och två med denna övning men om du vill kan du få arbeta ensam.
blev Richmond i Virginia.
Strax därefter bröt ett blodigt
inbördeskrig ut som varade mellan
1861 och 1865. Kriget tog slut först
när Söderns alla resurser var uttömda och nordstaternas arméer
hade härjat och förstört stora delar
av landet.
I krigets slutskede var Richmond utsatt för en belägring. Sydstaternas ÖB, Robert E. Lee, sade
den 2.4 1865 att han inte kunde
försvara staden längre. En brådstörtad evakuering inleddes, och
sydstaterna brände lager med bomull och krigsmaterial. Bränderna
spred sig till delar av den övriga
staden. Nordstaterna hade under
belägringen beskjutit delar av staden med artilleri.
Mot slutet av kriget stod svarta
förband, s.k. negerinfanteri, för
stora delar av nordstaternas krigföring. Den första enhet som rörde
sig mot Richmond , då sydstatarna
övergav staden,var också ett ne-
Källa 1
Bakg rund
Abraham Lincoln vann det
amerikanska presidentvalet 1860.
Han vann valet då den amerikanska nationen var djupt splittrad.
1861 bröt sig flera stater ur den
amerikanska unionen och bildade
Sidan 1
gerinfanteriförband. De fick emellertid order om att avbryta sin
framryckning i förstäderna, och
själva centrum av Richmond intogs
av ett ”vitt” förband.
Dagen efter erövringen besökte
president Lincoln staden. Hur detta besök gick till ska du nu ta reda
APRIL 1865
Källa 2
Lincoln’ s Drive Through Richmond, 1865
Tavlan är från 1866
Sidan 2
Källa 3a
Ögonvittne 1
APRIL 1865
is ought to be obtained in the line
At the Davis house, he was
of reliable news. He was in Peters-
shown into the reception-room,
lem i medicinalkåren) to
burg this morning and now he is in
Richmond. But I have not time to
with the remark that the housekeeper had said that the room was Pre-
Rugg, April 5, 1865)
"Having a few leisure moments
write more this morning. I told you
I would write you from Richmond
sident Davis's office. As he seated
himself he remarked, 'This must
this morning I will use them up by
troubling you with a few lines from
before I returned home - and here
have been President Davis's chair,"
this portion of Uncle Sam's Do-
is the best that I have time to do.
We are all in the A. No. 1 tip topest
and, crossing his legs, he looked far
off with a serious, dreamy expres-
main, which at this time is an object of no small amount of atten-
of spirits while the down-in-themouth representatives of Jeff and
sion. At length he asked me if the
housekeeper was in the house.
tion The cry of on to Richmond is
now played by the occupation of
his ignoble supporters the northern
Upon learning that she had left he
the late residence of the arch trai-
copperheads are on the double
jumped up and said, with a boyish
manner, 'Come, let's look at the
tor Jeff [Davis] by the Uncle Sam's
brave boys in blue. You ought to
Letter from A.R. Lord
(medlem i medicinalkåren) to
house!' We went pretty much over
it; I retailed all that the housekee-
have been with us when we entered
the city [Richmond]. The citizens
Rugg, April 5, 1865)
per had told me, and he seemed
were out in goodly numbers, and
Källa 3b
Ögonvittne 2
Letter from A.R. Lord (med-
were not at all offended by the sight
of Old Glory [Stars & Stripes]. On
the contrary they cheered the flag
most heartily though it was born in
the hands of the darker hued of the
Uncle Sam's brave defenders. The
first troops that put into practical
effect the long continued cry of on
to Richmond was those portions of
the 24 (white) and 25 (Col[ore]d)
Corps (Army of the James) that
were left on the right of the James
when the other portion of the Army of the James moved across the
James and joined with the Army of
the Potomac in castigating the minions of Lee, which the boys done
in fine style. The fighting at the left
of Petersburg and vicinity was very
severe, and of course our loss was
quite large, though much smaller
than that of the rebs. It is hardly
worth while for me to write you the
particulars as you will doubtless
have learned them through the columns of the Boston Journal as lines reach you as Carleton is here,
there and everywhere where there
T.T Graves tjänstgjorde i
staben hos general Weitzel
"The next day after our entry
into the city, on passing out from
Clay Street, from Jefferson Davis's
house, I saw a crowd coming, headed by President Lincoln, who was
walking with his usual long, careless
stride, and looking about with an
interested air and taking in everything. Upon my saluting he said: 'Is
it far to President Davis's house?' I
accompanied him to the house,
which was occupied by General
Weitzal as headquarters. The President had arrived about 9 o'clock,
at the landing called Rocketts, upon
Admiral Porter's flag-ship, the Malvern, and as soon as the boat was
made fast, without ceremony, he
walked on shore, and started uptown. As soon as Admiral Porter
was informed of it he ordered a
guard of marines to follow as
escort; but in he walk of about two
miles they never saw him, and he
was directed by negroes.
Sidan 3
interested in everything. As we came down the staircase General Weitzel came, in breathless haste, and
at once President Lincoln's face lost
its boyish expression as he realized
that duty must be resumed. Soon
afterward Judge Campbell, General
Anderson (Confederates), and others called and asked for an interview with the President. It was
granted, and took place in the parlor with closed doors.
I accompanied President Lincoln and General Weitzel to Libby
Prison and Castle Thunder, and
heard General Weitzel ask President Lincoln what he (General Weitzel) should do in regard to the
conquered people. President Lincoln replied that he did not wish to
give any orders on that subject, but,
as he expressed it, 'If I were in your
place I'd let 'em up easy, let 'em up
easy. "
APRIL 1865
Källa 4a
Fotot är taget från den sida av floden James som Nordstaterna ockuperade
Fotot är från april 1865
Källa 4b
Etsningen är från 1865
Sidan 4
APRIL 1865
Källa 5
Federal army enters Richmond
Jag har supit bort varifrån jag fick denna bild, men den är troligen från 1865
Sidan 5
APRIL 1865
Källa 6
shaken or presented the soldiers
hours, ignoring the furnacelike
En tidningsartikel
skriven av en nordstatsjournalist
with offerings: gifts of fruit, flo-
heat and the smoke-choked air,
wers, even jugs of whiskey. Fede-
they lingered in the dusty streets
ral officers riding alongside
as Federal soldiers passed, bowing
promptly reached for the liquor
and giving thanks ('de Yankees at
ted behind shutters and blinds,
bottles and smashed them with
last has gone and cum!'). In the
black Richmond spontaneously
their swords. But the crowd was
late morning, when black troops
took to the streets. From the moment Union troops entered the
undaunted. Just a day earlier, they
had been prohibited from smo-
“marched in lockstep ('majestically and proudly defiant,' in the
city - 'Richmond at last!' Black
king, publicly swearing, carrying
words of an onlooker), the dan-
Union cavalrymen shouted -
canes, purchasing weapons, or
ced with unimpeded joy. And
crowds, the skilled and the unskilled, household servants and hou-
procuring 'ardent spirits.' Yet now,
most of all, they praised God,
to the sounds of 'John Brown's
shouting 'hallelujah.' Recalled on
sehold cooks, rented maids and
Body,' they jubilantly waved ma-
Connecticut soldier, 'Our recep-
hired millworkers, jammed the
keshift rag banners; to the tune of
tion was grander and more exul-
sidewalks to catch a glimpse of
the 'Battle Hymn of the Re-
tant than even a Roman
the spectacle. No longer enslaved,
public,' they enthusiastically hug-
emperor...could ever know.”
they thrust out their hands to be
ged and kissed the bluecoats. For
“As white Richmond retrea-
Sidan 6
APRIL 1865
Källa 7
Bildtexten (sannolikt i en tidning) "Abraham Lincoln Entering Richmond April
3, 1865." I verkligheten besökte ju inte Lincoln staden förrän den 4 april.
Ritad av L. Hollis and etsad av J. C . Buttre.
Etsning och skiss är från 5 april 1865
Sidan 7
Källa 8
Nutida skrifter
8a Bildtext
APRIL 1865
desk, symbolically saying to the
nation that the President of the
United States held authority over
Bildtexten handlar om källa
the entire land. He was greeted at
2, och finns i en bok som he-
the city as a conquering hero by
ter The Civil War in Art skri-
freed slaves, whose sentiments
ven av Doranne Jacobson
were epitomized by one admirer's
In this romantic, Nother-
quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abra-
ner’sview, Lincoln rides through
conquered Richmond with
ham and have felt him." When a
throngs welcoming him on every
general asked Lincoln how the
side. Actually, while freed slaves
were enthusiastic, most white con-
defeated Confederates should be
treated, Lincoln replied, "Let 'em
federates turned away with revul-
up easy." Lincoln arrived back in
sion from Lincoln’s entourage.
Washington on the evening of
The ruins of the city frame the
April 9, 1865, the day Lee sur-
imagined scene.
rendered at Appomattox Court
8b Ur Wikipedia
House in Virginia. The war was
effectively over. The other rebel
Near the end of the war, Lin-
armies surrendered soon after,
coln made an extended visit to
and there was no subsequent
Grant's headquarters at City Po-
guerrilla warfare.
int, Virginia. This allowed the
8c En webbsida som
kallar sig Son of the
At about 11:00 AM, Mr. Lincoln entered the city of Richmond on foot, accompanied by
Admiral Porter, Captain Bell, and
a small protective force of about a
half dozen soldiers. Crowds
thronged the streets, and chief
and eager among them were the
emancipated, wishing to pay homage, and give thanks to their
Great Emancipator.
As Lincoln walked the streets
of Richmond that day, a small
boy clutched his hand, and walked by his side. The small boy was
Tad Lincoln, the President's own
son, whom the President had taken with him to the fallen rebel
city. This day, April 4, 1865 was
Tad's 12th Birthday. This day was
one of Mr. Lincoln's last. He fell
president to visit Richmond after
it was taken by the Union forces
victim to the Assassin John Wilkes
Booth a short 10 days after this
and to make a public gesture of
sitting at Jefferson Davis own
Sidan 8
APRIL 1865
Hur många källor behövde du använda?
Vilken eller vilka av källorna fann du mest användbara? Varför? Hade det räckt med dessa källor
dvs vilka källor behövdes inte för att lösa uppgiften?
Hur såg Richmond ut?
Hur färdades Lincoln i Richmond?
Vilka omgav honom? Hur var stämningen när han var i Richmond?Fanns det någon skillnad mellan svarta och vita?
Vad gjorde Lincoln i Richmond?
Är du nöjd med din presentation?
Är denna övning bra? Vad var syftet med övningen tror du?
Sidan 9

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