Robert E. Ricklefs and Dolph Schluter

Transcription

Robert E. Ricklefs and Dolph Schluter
HISTORICAL AND
GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
EDITED BY
Robert E. Ricklefs and Dolph Schluter
,
Jstitufo Unfversltcrlo Atchltetturo Venezia
RIA
775
Servizlo Bibllograflco Audlovlsivo
e di Documentazlone
'-~~~~~~~--'~..-"~
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Species
Piversity
Ill
Ecological
Communities
HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVES
EDITED BY
Robert E. Ricklefs
and
Dolph Schluter
CENTnO • G. ASi~NGO
iNVENTARIO
THE UNIVERSITY
OF CHICAGO
PRESS
•
CHICAGO AND
LONDON
S 8 36
»
Contents
Preface
vii
Species Diversity: An Introduction to the Problem
Dolph Schluter and Robert E. Ricklefs
1
9
Local and Regional Regulation of Species-Area
Relations: A Patch-Occupancy Model
Hal Caswell and Joel E. Cohen
99
10
Three Explanations of the Positive Relationship
between Distribution and Abundance of Species
Ilkka Hanski, Jari Kouki, and Antti Halkka
108
11
Experimental Biogeography: Interactions between
Stochastic, Historical, and Ecological Processes in
a Model Archipelago
Daniel Haydon, Ray R. Radtkey, and
Eric R. Pianka
PART ONE
LOCAL PATTERNS AND PROCESSES
11
2
The Maintenance of Species Richness in Plant
Communities
David Tilman and Stephen Pacala
13
3
Environment and Trophodiversity
Peter Yodzis
26
4
5
Structure of Intertidal Assemblages in Different
Locations: How Can Local Processes Be
Compared?
A. f. Underwood and Peter S. Petraitis
39
PART THREE
REGIONAL PERSPECTIVES
131
12
How are Diversity and Productivity Related?
Michael L. Rosenzweig and Zvika Abramsky
52
6
117
Energy Supply and Patterns of Species Richness on
Local and Regional Scales
David H. Wright, David J. Currie, and
Brian A. Maurer
135
13
75
7
8
Ecology at the Mesoscale: The Influence of
Regional Processes on Local Communities
Robert D. Holt
77
Bird Diversity Components within and between
Habitats in Australia
Martin L. Cody
147
14
66
PART TWO
COEXISTENCE AT THE MESOSCALE
Space, Time, and Man as Determinants of
Diversity of Birds and Mammals in the
Mediterranean Region
Jacques Blonde! and Jean-Denis Vigne
Determinants of Diversity in Animal Communities
of Arid Australia
Stephen R. Morton
159
15
Biodiversity in Australia Compared with Other
Continents
Mark Westaby
170
16
Species Interactions in Space
John F. McLaughlin and Jonathan Roughgarden
Patterns of Diversity for the Insect Herbivores on
Bracken
John H. Lawton, Thomas M. Lewinsohn, and
Stephen G. Compton
89
178
17
Community Richness in Parasites of Some
Freshwater Fishes from North America
John M. Aho and Albert 0. Bush
24
Historical Ecology: Examining Phylogenetic
Components of Community Evolution
Daniel R. Brooks and Deborah A. McLennan
267
25
Phylogenetic Patterns, Biogeography, and the
Ecological Structure of Neotropical Snake
Assemblages
John E. Cadle and Harry W. Greene
185
18
Evidence for the Influence of Historical Processes
in Co-occurrence and Diversity of Tiger Beetle
Species
David L. Pearson and Steven A. Juliano
281
194
Pelagic Diversity Patterns
John A. McGowan and Patricia W. Walker
Continental Comparisons of Temperate-Zone Tree
Species Diversity
Roger Earl Latham and Robert E. Ricklefs
203
294
26
19
20
Global Patterns of Diversity in Mangrove Floras
Robert E. Ricklefs and Roger Earl Latham
27
315
215
21
Convergence and the Regional Component of
Species Diversity
Dolph Schluter and Robert E. Ricklefs
230
28
22
23
Unsaturated Patterns in Species Assemblages: The
Role of Regional Processes in Setting Local Species
Richness
Howard V. Cornell
Historical Diversity Patterns in North American
Large Herbivores and Carnivores
Blaire Van Valkenburgh and Christine M. Janis
330
29
PART FOUR
HISTORICAL AND PHYLOGENETIC
PERSPECTIVES
241
The Phanerozoic Evolution of Reef Diversity
Erle G. Kauffman and f. A. Fagerstrom
Fossil Communities: Compositional Variation at
Many Time Scales
James W. Valentine and David Jablonski
341
30
Species Diversity: Regional and Historical
Influences
Robert E. Ricklefs and Dolph Schluter
350
References
243
365
Phylogenetic Determinants of Insect/Plant
Community Diversity
Brian D. Farrell and Charles Mitter
405
Index
253
409
List of Contributors
" This book grew out of our conviction that
the discipline of community ecology
would benefit from a broadening of its
paradigms. Ecological studies of the past thirty years have presumed that interactions
among populations within small areas are the
fundamental forces regulating community
structure. However, this paradigm failed to
solve one of the monumental problems of biology: the origin and maintenance of global patterns of diversity. A tenet common to the ecological theories of diversity, which were based
largely on interspecific competition and
enemy-victim interactions, was that coexistence of species would depend predictably on
local environmental conditions. Yet, disparities were often found in the numbers of species
present in similar environments in different
parts of the globe, hinting that larger-scale
processes were also at work and might even
dominate local ones .... Our hopes for Species
Diversity in Ecological Communities are that
the book will1Jrovide a summary statement of
the discipline for researchers actively concerned with diversity issues; that it will serve as
a basis for discussions and seminars for graduate students in ecology; that it will help shift
the collective opinion of ecologists to a more
balanced view of the factors responsible for
global patterns of biodiversity; and that it will
help bring about a reunion between community ecology and evolutionary biology, systematics, biogeography, and paleontology."
From the Preface
do not erase the effects of regional and historical events that occur more slowly and less frequently.
Part I, "Local Patterns and Processes, "
looks at species richness on local and regional
scales, examines the relation between species
diversity and habitat productivity, and compares ecological processes in different locations. Part II, "Coexistence at the Mesoscale,"
considers the influence of regional processes
on local communities, the effects of species
interactions on biodiversity, the regulation of
species-area relations, and the relationship
between distribution and abundance of
species.
Part III, "Regional Perspectives, " offers case
studies of various regions and taxa, including
birds and mammals of the Mediterranean, animal communities in Australia, insects on
bracken, and global patterns of diversity in
mangrove floras. Part IV, "Historical and Phylogenetic Perspectives," provides historical
and phylogenetic approaches to studying the
development of ecological communities, using
research from systematics, biogeography, and
paleontology to reconstruct the history of
diversity within regions.
The contributors have collaborated to
encourage students as well as more senior
researchers to think more broadly about the
foundations of community ecology and to set
the stage for further research using comparative, geographical, and historical data.
Species Diversity in Ecological Communities
uses new theoretical developments, analyses,
and case studies to explore large-scale mechanisms that generate and maintain diversity.
The contributors emphasize the fact that ecological processes acting quickly on a local scale
ROBERT E. RICKLEFS is professor in the
Department of Biology at the University of
Pennsylvania and author of Ecology and The
Economy of Nature. DOLPH St:HLUTER
is associate professor in the Department of
Zoology at the University of British Columbia.
ISBN 0-226-71823-9

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