Ask - Scsk12.org

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Ask - Scsk12.org
oxygen
(OK∙suh∙juhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
2
Photograph by Steve Bloom/Alamy Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
1
(SEL)
cell
animal cell
plant cell
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The smallest unit of living matter.
Example: The basic plant cell has a similar
construction to the animal cell, but does not
have centrioles, lysosomes, cilia, or flagella.
Ask: What are some differences between plant
and animal cells?
Ask: Where is oxygen found?
Example: Animals need oxygen to survive.
Define: A gas found in air and water that most
plants and animals need to live.
Vocabulary Routine
tissue
(TISH∙yew)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
4
Photograph by Cosmos Blank/Photo Researchers
Photograph by Tom Brakefield/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
3
(OR∙guh∙niz∙uhm)
organism
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A group of similar cells that work together
to carry out a job.
Example: The cells that make up a type of tissue are
usually similar to each other.
Ask: What kind of human-made structure could
be used to model a tissue?
organism carry out on its own?
Ask: How many basic life functions does an
Example: All plants and animals are organisms.
functions on its own.
Define: A living thing that carries out five basic life
Vocabulary Routine
organ
(OR∙guhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
5
Photograph by Jim Craigmyle/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(OR∙guhn SIS∙tuhm)
organ system
6
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A group of organs that work together to
carry on life functions.
Example: The heart, blood, and blood vessels form the
organ system that moves blood around the
body.
Ask: What life function is an organ system
performing when it pumps blood through
the heart?
Ask: How do organs perfom their tasks?
cardiac muscle.
Example: Your heart is a powerful organ made of
a certain job.
Define: A group of tissues that work together to do
Vocabulary Routine
trait
(TRAYT)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
7
Photograph by Jim Brandenburg/Minden Pictures
Photograph by blickwinkel/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(KING∙duhm)
kingdom
8
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The largest group into which an organism
can be classified.
Example: Squirrels are part of the animal kingdom.
Ask: Into how many kingdoms do scientists
classify living things?
Ask: Why do scientists study traits?
make food.
Example: One trait of mushrooms is their inability to
Define: A characteristic of a living thing.
Vocabulary Routine
root hair
(REWT HAYR)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
10
Photograph by AGStockUSA/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
9
(REWT)
root
Vocabulary Routine
Define: One of the threadlike cells on a root that
take in water and minerals from the soil.
Example: The root hair helps take in water and
minerals from the soil.
Ask: What are the functions of root hair?
Ask: What roots are edible?
Example: A carrot is actually the root of a plant.
minerals from the soil.
Define: The part of a plant that takes in water and
Vocabulary Routine
photosynthesis
(foh∙tuh∙SIN∙thuh∙sis)
12
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
11
(STEM)
stem
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The process in green plants and certain
other organisms that uses energy from
sunlight to make food from water and
carbon dioxide.
Example: Through photosynthesis plants use sunlight
to produce their own food.
Ask: In which part of a plant does most
photosynthesis take place?
life functions?
Ask: How does the stem help carry out a plant’s
leaves to the rest of the plant.
Example: Plant stems allow for food to move from the
and carries food, water and other materials
to and from the roots and leaves.
Define: The part of a plant that holds up the plant
Vocabulary Routine
stoma
stomata
(STOH∙muh∙tuh) pl. n., sing. stoma (STOH∙muh)
13
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(trans∙puh∙RAY∙shuhn)
transpiration
vein
epidermis
stoma
14
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A plant’s release of excess water vapor
through the stomata on the underside of its
leaves.
Example: Leaves release water vapor through the
process known as transpiration.
Ask: In which biome may transpiration be most
common?
Ask: Where are the stomata located?
vapor out.
Example: The stomata of leaves allow air in and water
close to let in air or give off water vapor.
Define: Pores in the bottom of leaves that open and
Vocabulary Routine
stoma
epidermis
vein
respiration
(resp∙puh∙RAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
15
Photograph by Wolfgang Kaehler/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(SPOR)
spore
16
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The using and releasing of energy in a cell.
Example: Respiration takes place in the plant’s cells,
using oxygen to produce energy and giving
off carbon dioxide as a waste product.
Ask: What do cells take in and give off during
respiration?
Ask: How do spores grow?
Example: Plants like ferns reproduce by forming
spores that can grow into new plants.
Define: One of the cells in a seedless plant that
grows into a new organism.
Vocabulary Routine
reproduction
(ree∙pruh∙DUHK∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
18
Photographed by Ed Reschke/Peter Arnold, Inc.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
17
(SEED)
seed
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An undeveloped plant with stored food
sealed in a protective covering.
Example: With the right amount of water, warmth
and air, a watermelon seed will begin to
germinate in 3 to 5 days.
Ask: Can plants reproduce without seeds?
Ask: How do plants reproduce?
Example: Organisms create offspring through
reproduction.
Define: The making of offspring.
Vocabulary Routine
pollination
(pol∙uh∙NAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
20
Photograph by Ingram Publishing/SuperStock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
19
(OH∙vuh∙ree)
ovary
ovary
stamen
pistil
anther with pollen
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The transfer of a flower’s pollen from anther
to pistil.
Example: Insects, wind and other animals play a very
important role in the pollination of plants.
Ask: Which insects and animals can play a role in
pollination?
Ask: What is stored in the ovary?
contains the egg cells that develop into
seeds.
Example: The ovary is the part of the pistil that
Define: A structure containing egg cells.
Vocabulary Routine
fertilization
(fur∙tuh∙luh∙ZAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
21
Photograph by Florida Images/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(jur∙mi∙NAY∙shuhn)
germination
22
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The beginning of growth, as when a seed
sprouts into a new plant.
Example: The final stage in the life cycle of the
flowering plant is the germination of the
seed into the new sporophyte plant.
Ask: What happens during germination?
Ask: How does fertilization occur?
and male sex cells.
Example: Fertilization is the process of joining female
and a male sex cell, the sperm, to produce a
fertilized egg.
Define: The joining of a female sex cell, the egg,
Vocabulary Routine
invertebrate
(in∙VUR∙tuh∙brayt)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
24
Photograph by Pete Atkinson/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
23
(LIFE SYE∙kuhl)
life cycle
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The stages of growth and change an
organism goes through.
Example: Scientists study an organism by observing
its entire life cycle.
Ask: How many life cycles can an organism have?
Ask: Are you an invertebrate?
Example: Mollusks are the second largest number
of species of invertebrates after the
arthropods.
Define: An animal without a backbone.
Vocabulary Routine
cnidarian
(nye∙DAHR∙ee∙uhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
26
Photograph by Pete Atkinson/Getty Images
Photograph by Juan Carlos Calvin/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
25
(SPUHNJ)
sponge
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A simple invertebrate that has a hollow
body with a single opening and lives in
water.
Example: A sponge usually has a non-symmetrical
hollow body, with an opening on top.
Ask: In what biome are sponges found?
Ask: Name a cnidarian that isn’t a jellyfish.
Example: Jellyfish, like all cnidarians, have poison
stingers on their tentacles.
Define: An invertebrate with stinging cells on the
ends of tentacles.
Vocabulary Routine
echinoderm
(i∙KYE∙nuh∙durm)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
28
Photograph by ImageState/PunchStock
Photograph by blickwinkel/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
27
(MOL∙uhsk)
mollusk
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An invertebrate that has a soft body and a
shell.
Example: An octopus is a mollusk that has an internal
shell-like structure.
Ask: Is a hermit crab a mollusk?
Ask: Where do echinoderns live?
Example: Most echinoderns can be identified by their
star design and spiny skin.
Define: A spiny-skinned invertebrate.
Vocabulary Routine
endoskeleton
(en∙doh∙SKEL∙i∙tuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
29
Photograph by Jeff Rotman/Photo Researchers
Photograph by Georgette Douwma/Science Photo Library
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(ARTH∙uh pod)
arthropod
30
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An invertebrate with jointed legs and a body
that is divided into sections.
Example: Arthropods live almost everywhere on
Earth.
Ask: Can some arthropods fly?
Ask: Can a vertebrate have an endoskeleton?
Example: Octopuses have a shell-like endoskeleton.
Define: An internal supporting structure.
Vocabulary Routine
exoskeleton
(ex∙soh∙SKEL∙i∙tuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
31
Photograph by Georgette Douwma/Science Photo Library
Photograph by Leonard Lessin/Peter Arnold, Inc./Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(VER∙tuh∙brayt)
vertebrate
32
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A hard covering that protects the bodies of
some invertebrates.
Example: A crab has an exoskeleton that protects it
and keeps it from drying out.
Ask: Why do some organisms have
exoskeletons?
Ask: What does every vertebrate have?
Example: All fish are vertebrates that have gills for
breathing.
Define: An animal with a backbone.
Vocabulary Routine
cold-blooded
(KOHLD BLUD∙uhd)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
34
Photograph by Digital Vision/Getty Images
Photograph by Darrell Gulin/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
33
(WORM BLUD∙uhd)
warm-blooded
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Said of an animal that cannot control its
body temperature.
Example: Like other fishes, sharks are cold-blooded,
have fins, live in the water, and breathe with
gills.
Ask: How do some cold-blooded animals raise
their body temperature?
Ask: Are you warm-blooded?
warm-blooded.
Example: Birds, horses, and mammals are
does not change much.
Define: Said of an animal whose body temperature
Vocabulary Routine
amphibian
(am∙FIB∙ee∙uhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
35
Photograph by Creatas/PunchStock
Photograph by Mike Randolph/Masterfile
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(REP∙tile)
reptile
36
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A cold-blooded vertebrate that has scaly,
waterproof skin, breaths air with lungs, and
lays eggs.
Example: With over 3000 known species, lizards
make up the largest group of reptiles, and
can be found on every continent other than
Antarctica.
Ask: Can reptiles live under water?
Ask: Do all amphibians have lungs?
the water.
Example: An amphibian, such as a frog, starts life in
of its life in water and part of its life on land.
Define: A cold-blooded vertebrate that spends part
Vocabulary Routine
mammal
(MAM∙uhl)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
38
Photograph by Darrell Gulin/CORBIS
Photograph by Goodshoot/PunchStock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
37
(BURD)
bird
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A warm-blooded vertebrate with hair or fur;
female mammals produce milk to feed their
young.
Example: The kangaroo is a marsupial mammal from
the islands of Australia, Tasmania and New
Guinea.
Ask: Do any mammals live in the ocean?
Ask: Can all birds fly?
lays eggs.
Example: A bird is a warm-blooded vertebrate that
wings, and two legs.
Define: A vertebrate that has a beak, feathers, two
Vocabulary Routine
skeletal system
(SKEL∙uh∙tuhl SIS∙tuhm)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
39
Photograph by Steve Bloom/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(MUS∙kyuh∙luhr SIS∙tuhm)
muscular system
40
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The organ system made up of bones that
support the body.
Example: The skeletal system provides shape,
support, and protection for our bodies, in
addition to storing minerals and allowing
bodily movement.
Ask: Do jellyfish have a skeletal system?
Ask: Are bones a part of the muscular system?
Example: The muscular system allows the frog to
jump by shortening muscles and pulling on
bones.
Define: The organ system made up of muscles that
help the body move.
Vocabulary Routine
respiratory system
(RES∙pur∙uh∙tor∙ee SIS∙tuhm)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
42
Photograph by Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by James Urbach/SuperStock/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
41
(NUR∙vuhs SIS∙tuhm)
nervous system
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The set of organs that uses information from
the senses to control other body systems.
Example: The owl’s nervous system stores learned
information, and coordinates bodily
functions and movements.
Ask: Is the brain a part of the nervous system?
Ask: Name an organ in the respiratory system.
Example: The primary function of the respiratory
system is to supply the blood with oxygen.
Define: The organ system that brings oxygen to
body cells and removes waste gas.
Vocabulary Routine
excretory system
(EKS∙kruh∙tor∙ee SIS∙tuhm)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
44
Photograph by Angelo Cavalli/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
43
(SIRK kyuh∙luh∙tor∙ee SIS∙tuhm)
circulatory system
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The organ system that moves blood through
the body.
Example: The heart is the main organ that makes up
the circulatory system.
Ask: What does the circulatory system move
through the body?
Ask: What excretory system organ removes
liquid wastes from the blood?
Example: The kidneys are part of the excretory
system.
Define: The organ system that removes wastes from
the body.
Vocabulary Routine
life span
(LIFE SPAN)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
46
Photograph by (l) Neil Fletcher/DK Images; (cl) DK Limited/CORBIS; (cr)
Neil Fletcher/DK Limited/CORBIS; (r) Robert Dowling/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
45
(duh∙GES∙tiv SIS∙tuhm)
digestive system
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The organ system that breaks down food for
fuel.
Example: It is critical that the digestive system be
empty when a turtle enters hibernation
since the undigested food can result in
severe illness.
Ask: What is one organ of the digestive system?
Ask: What does an organism’s life span describe?
Example: The average life span of a penguin is 15 to
20 years.
Define: How long an organism can be expected to
live.
Vocabulary Routine
complete
metamorphosis
(kuhm∙PLEET met∙uh∙MOR∙fuh∙sis)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
47
Photograph by Jim Zipp/Science Photo Library
Photograph by Kim Taylor/naturepl.com
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(KLOHN)
clone
48
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A life cycle including four stages of growth:
egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
Example: Butterflies, wasps, ants, and bees are some
of the insects that go through a complete
metamorphosis.
Ask: What are the four stages of complete
metamorphosis?
Ask: What is a clone?
Example: Scientists produce clones of single-celled
organisms in laboratories.
Define: An offspring that is an exact copy of its
parent.
Vocabulary Routine
inherited behavior
(in∙HAYR∙i∙tuhd bi∙HAYV∙yuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
50
Photograph by F. Stuart Westmorland/Photo Researchers
Photograph by Howard Rice/DK Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
49
(huh∙RED∙i∙tee)
heredity
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A set of actions that a living thing is born
with and does not need to learn.
Example: The way that dolphins speak is inherited
behavior.
Ask: How does a living thing gain an inherited
behavior?
Ask: What is an example of heredity?
of heredity.
Example: The striped pattern of a zebra is an example
offspring.
Define: The passing of traits from parents to
Vocabulary Routine
learned behavior
(luhrnd bi∙HAYV∙yuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
52
Photograph by Masterfile
Photograph by Jeff Foott/naturepl.com
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
51
(IN∙stingkt)
instinct
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A pattern of behavior that requires no
thinking because it is programmed into an
animal’s brain.
Example: Fish lay eggs in one place by instinct.
Ask: What is an example of an instinct?
Ask: What is an example of a learned behavior?
Example: The way some animals find food is learned
behavior.
Define: Behavior that is not inborn.
Vocabulary Routine
biotic factor
(bye∙OT∙ik FAK∙tuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
53
Photograph by David Fleetham/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(ay∙bye∙OT∙ik FAK∙tuhr)
abiotic factor
54
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
Example: Abiotic factors include soil, weather, and
the availability of water.
Ask: What are some abiotic factors of an
ecosystem?
ecosystem?
Ask: What are some biotic factors of an
factors in a pond.
Example: Plants and fish are examples of the biotic
Define: A living part of an ecosystem.
Vocabulary Routine
habitat
(HAB∙uh∙tat)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
56
Photograph by Steve Kaufman/Peter Arnold, Inc.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
55
(EE koh∙ sis∙tuhm)
ecosystem
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The living and nonliving things in an
environment, and all their interactions.
Example: The largest predator in a pond ecosystem
will normally be a fish and in-between range
smaller insects and microorganisms.
Ask: What would you find in a pond ecosystem?
Ask: What is an alligator’s habitat?
Example: Swamps and wetlands are the alligator’s
habitat.
Define: The home of an organism.
Vocabulary Routine
community
(kuh∙MYEW∙ni∙tee)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
58
Photograph by Tui De Roy/Minden Pictures
Photograph by Kennan Ward/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
57
(pop∙yuh∙LAY∙shuhn)
population
Vocabulary Routine
Define: All of the members of a single type of
organism in an ecosystem.
Example: There are many different populations of
bears all over the world.
Ask: What animal populations live in a pond
ecosystem?
Ask: What populations of animals are found in a
desert community?
Example: Macaws are part of the rainforest
community.
Define: All the populations in an ecosystem.
Vocabulary Routine
grassland
(gras∙land)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
60
Photograph by Werner Bollmann/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
59
(BYE∙ohm)
biome
Vocabulary Routine
Define: One of Earth’s large ecosystems, with its
own kind of climate, soil, and living things.
Example: The climate and geography of a region
determines what type of biome can exist in
that region.
Ask: What is the climate of a rainforest biome?
Ask: What plants and animals live in a grassland?
Example: A grassland is a region where the average
annual rainfall is great enough to support
grasses, and in some areas a few trees.
Define: A biome where grasses are the main plant
life.
Vocabulary Routine
tropical rain forest
(TROP∙uh∙cuhl RAYN FOR∙ist)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
62
Photograph by Wendy Dennis/Visuals Unlimited
Photograph by John Foster/Masterfile
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
61
(di∙SIJ∙ew∙uhs FOR∙ist)
deciduous forest
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A hot, humid biome near the equator, with
much rainfall and a wide variety of life.
Example: There are a variety of plants and animals
living in the tropical rain forest.
Ask: Where on Earth are most tropical rain
forests found?
Ask: What trees are found in a deciduous forest?
seasons; spring, summer, autumn, and
winter.
Example: A deciduous forest has four distinct
lose their leaves each autumn.
Define: A forest biome with many kinds of trees that
Vocabulary Routine
desert
(DEZ∙urt)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
63
Photograph by Michael & Patricia Fogden/Minden Pictures
Photograph by Isifa Image Service/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(TI∙guh)
taiga
64
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A cool, forest biome of conifers found in the
upper northern hemisphere.
Example: The main seasons in the taiga are winter
and summer.
Ask: Where on Earth are most taigas found?
Ask: Deserts have what type of soil?
surface.
Example: Deserts cover about one fifth of Earth’s land
rainfall.
Define: A sandy or rocky biome with very little
Vocabulary Routine
producer
(pruh∙dew∙suhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
66
Photograph by Tony Wharton/Frank Lane Picture Agency/CORBIS
Photograph by Bryan & Cherry Alexander/NHPA
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
65
(TUHN∙druh)
tundra
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An organism, such as a plant, that makes its
own food.
Example: Spear thistle is a seed producer that can
spread rapidly.
Ask: What is an example of a producer?
Ask: What is the climate of a tundra?
biome.
Example: The tundra is the world’s coldest and driest
frozen all year.
Define: A large, treeless biome where the ground is
Vocabulary Routine
consumer
(kuhn∙SEW∙muhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
67
Photograph by AGE Fotostock/SuperStock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(dee∙kuhm∙POH∙zuhr)
decomposer
68
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An organism that breaks down wastes and
the remains of other organisms into simpler
substances.
Example: Decomposers and scavengers break down
dead plants and animals.
Ask: What are some decomposers in a forest
environment?
environment?
Ask: What are some consumers in a grassland
ecosystem.
Example: A frog is one of the consumers in a pond
Define: An organism that cannot make its own food.
Vocabulary Routine
food chain
(FEWD CHAYN)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
69
Photograph by (l) Tony Wharton/Frank Lane Picture Agency/CORBIS; (cl) Patti Murray/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes;
(c) Joe McDonald/Visuals Unlimited; (cr) David Davis Photoproductions/Alamy; (r) John Cancalosi/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(FEWD WEB)
food web
70
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The pattern that shows how food chains are
related.
Example: When several consumers eat the same kind
of plant or animal a food web is formed.
Ask: What is the difference between a food web
and a food chain?
Ask: What is at the top of every food chain?
chain.
Example: Producers are at the beginning of any food
organism to another in the form of food.
Define: The path that energy takes from one
Vocabulary Routine
energy pyramid
(EN∙uhr∙jee PIR∙uh∙mid)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
72
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
71
(kom∙puh∙TISH∙uhn)
competition
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A diagram that shows the amount of energy
available at each level of a food web in an
ecosystem.
Example: The amount of energy available decreases
through the energy pyramid.
Ask: In an energy pyramid, which level shows the
greatest amount of enegy present?
types of animal in the ocean?
Ask: Competition may occur between which two
the consumers who eat the same kind of
plant or animal.
Example: In a food web there is competition between
food, or other needs.
Define: The struggle among organisms for water,
Vocabulary Routine
adaptation
(ad∙uhp∙TAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
73
Photograph by Jim Brandenburg/Minden Pictures
Photograph by George McCarthy/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(HYE∙buhr∙nayt)
hibernate
74
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A special trait that helps one kind of living
thing survive.
Example: Special adaptations make the camel
uniquely suited to desert life, they do not
pant, and they perspire very little.
Ask: What is an adaptation that helps a polar
bear live in cold weather?
Ask: Why do bears hibernate through the
winter?
Example: In winter, dormice hibernate in a small nest
on the woodland floor.
Define: To rest or sleep through the cold winter.
Vocabulary Routine
mimicry
(MIM∙uh∙kree)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
76
Photograph by Martin Siepmann/AGE Fotostock
Photograph by F. Lukasseck/Masterfile
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
75
(KAM∙uh∙flahzh)
camouflage
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An adaptation by which an animal can hide
by blending in with its surroundings.
Example: Snow leopards have white, yellowish, or
smoky-gray fur to camouflage them against
the rocky slopes, helping them sneak up on
prey.
Ask: How can camouflage help predators catch
their prey ?
Ask: How can animals use mimacry to their
advantage?
Example: Many hover flies resemble bees and wasps
as a result of mimicry.
Define: An adapatation in which one kind of
organism has similar traits to another.
Vocabulary Routine
stimulus
(STIM∙ye∙luhs) n. pl. stimuli (STIM∙ye∙lye)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
77
Photograph by M. LOUP/Peter Arnold, Inc.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(TROHP∙iz∙uhm)
tropism
78
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Something in the environment that causes a
living thing to react.
Example: Sunlight serves as a stimulus to water lilies,
causing them to grow toward the Sun.
Ask: What may be a stimulus in a desert
environment?
Ask: What may cause a plant’s tropism?
Example: A plant’s responses to gravity, moisture, and
light are called tropisms.
Define: The reaction of a plant to a stimulus in its
environment.
Vocabulary Routine
accommodation
(uh∙kom∙uh∙DAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
79
Photograph by Arco Images/Alamy
Photograph by Lynn M. Stone/naturepl.com
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(en∙DAYN∙juhrd)
endangered
80
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Close to becoming extinct; having very few
of its kind left.
Example: Panda bears are an endangered species
because humans are using their natural
environment to build cities and roads
leaving them little space to live.
Ask: How can people help an endangered
species?
it from dying?
Ask: How can an animal’s accommodation keep
eating tree bark instead of leaves, when a
fire has destroyed the supply of available
leaves.
Example: An example of accommodation is deer
changes in their ecosystem.
Define: An individual organism’s response to
Vocabulary Routine
extinct
(ek∙STINGKT)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
81
Photograph by Dave Watts/naturepl.com
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(KRUHST)
crust
crust
82
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Said of an organism no longer alive on
Earth.
Example: The Tasmanian tiger-wolf became extinct on
the mainland of Australia long ago because
it could not compete for food with the
dingo, a kind of wild dog.
Ask: What does it mean when an animal is said to
be extinct?
Ask: What is Earth’s crust made out of?
Example: Mountains and lakes can be found on Earth’s
crust.
Define: Solid rock that makes up the Moon’s and
Earth’s outermost layers.
Vocabulary Routine
property
(PROP∙uhr∙tee)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
185
Photograph by Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(MAS)
mass
186
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Any characteristic of matter that can be
observed.
Example: Size and color are two properties of matter
that can be useful in classification.
Ask: What are some other properties that can
help you classify matter?
Ask: What do scientists use to determine an
object’s mass?
Example: Every solid object has mass.
Define: The amount of matter making up an object.
Vocabulary Routine
buoyancy
(BOY∙uhn∙see)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
188
Photograph by Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by Ken Karp for The McGraw-Hill Companies
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
187
(VOL∙yewm)
volume
Vocabulary Routine
Define: 1. A measure of how much space the matter
of an object takes up. 2. The loudness or
softness of a sound.
Example: 1. The truck has a much greater volume
than the bicycle. 2. Michael turned down the
volume on his stereo so he could hear his
mother talk.
Ask: 1. How can you measure the volume of a
solid object? 2. Is it dangerous to listen to
music at a very high volume?
Ask: Which do you think has greater bouyancy:
water or oil?
Example: The buoyancy of cork keeps it afloat in a
glass while the stone sinks.
Define: The upward force of water, another liquid, or
air that keeps things afloat.
Vocabulary Routine
liquid
(LIK∙wid)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
190
Photograph by Ian O’Leary/Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images
Photograph by C Squared Studios/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
189
(SOL∙id)
solid
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A state of matter that takes up a definite
amount of space but has no definite shape.
Example: When Jerome dropped his cup, the liquid
splashed all over the floor.
Ask: What determines the shape that a liquid
takes?
solids?
Ask: Can you name some natural objects that are
float in water.
Example: You can test different solids to see if they
and takes up a definite amount of space.
Define: A state of matter that has a definite shape
Vocabulary Routine
Metric
Metric Units
unit
Amount
10 cm
1 decimeter
(dm)
1
100 of a meter
1 centimeter
(cm)
1
10 of a meter
1,000 m
100,000 cm
1 kilometer
(km)
10 dm
100 cm
1 meter
(m)
Estimated Length
the width of your
thumbnail
the length of a
crayon
the length of a
baseball bat
the distance you walk
in 10 to 15 minutes
metric system
(MET∙rik SIS∙tuhm)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
192
Photograph by Douglas Pulsipher/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
191
(GAS)
gas
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A system of measurement based on units of
10. Metric units such as the meter, kilogram,
and liter are used in most countries and in
all scientific work.
Example: The metric system was adopted so that all
scientists could easily share their data.
Ask: Why doesn’t the United States use the
metric system?
breathe?
Ask: What gas do humans and animals need to
Example: Carbon dioxide is a colorless gas.
definite amount of space and has no definite
shape.
Define: A state of matter that does not take up a
Vocabulary Routine
length
(LENGTH)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
193
Photograph by Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by Fulvio Roiter/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(AYR∙ee∙uh)
area
194
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The number of unit squares that fit inside a
surface.
Example: The area of a rectangle is found by
multiplying height times width.
Ask: How do you determine the area of a circle?
of notebook paper?
Ask: What is the most common length of a piece
Example: Length is commonly measured with a ruler.
of an object.
Define: The number of units that fit along one edge
Vocabulary Routine
density
(DEN∙suh∙tee)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Photograph by (t) Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies; (c)
Doug Martin/Photo Researchers; (b) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
Grade 4
195
Photograph by Mike Powell/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(WAYT)
weight
196
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The amount of matter in a given space. In
scientific terms, density is the mass per unit
of volume.
Example: Density is calculated by dividing an object’s
mass by its volume.
Ask: What happens to an object’s density if the
object’s volume is increased?
Ask: How is weight different from mass?
Example: An object’s weight depends on the force of
gravity that pulls down on that object.
Define: The measure of the pull of gravity between
an object and the Earth.
Vocabulary Routine
element
(EL∙uh∙muhnt)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
197
Photograph by Mark A. Schneider/Visuals Unlimited
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(AT∙uhm)
atom
198
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The smallest particle of an element. Atoms
of one element are all alike but are different
from those of any other element.
Example: Every atom of iron on Earth is identical.
Ask: Can a person see atoms with the naked eye?
found in?
Ask: What states of matter can elements be
elements on Earth.
Example: The periodic table is a list of all the known
type of matter.
Define: A substance that is made up of only one
Vocabulary Routine
metal
(MET∙uhl)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
199
Photograph by (t) Edward Kinsman/Photo
Researchers; (b) Peter Casolino/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(peer∙ee∙OD∙ik TAY∙buhl)
periodic table
State at room temperature:
Liquid
Gas
Solid
200
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A special chart that shows the elements
classified by properties.
Example: The main value of the periodic table is the
ability to predict the chemical properties
of an element based on its location on the
table.
Ask: What can you tell about an element that you
find on the right hand side of the periodic
table?
metals?
Ask: What do you call a combination of two
used in electrical equipment and computer
chips.
Example: Copper is one of the most important metals,
ground that conducts heat and electricity.
Define: Any of a group of elements found in the
Vocabulary Routine
physical change
(FIZ∙i∙kuhl CHAYNJ)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
201
Photograph by (l) Simon Colmer & Abby Rex/Alamy; (r) Jupiter Images
Photograph by Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(CHAYNJ UV STAYT)
change of state
202
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A physical change of matter from one
state—solid, liquid, or gas—to another state
because of a change in the energy of the
substance.
Example: The most common way of inducing a
change of state is by adding or removing
heat energy from matter.
Ask: When water boils, it is actually going
through a change of state, from liquid to
water vapor.
Ask: Can you reverse a physical change?
physical change.
Example: Wool spun into yarn is an example of a
same type of matter.
Define: A change that begins and ends with the
Vocabulary Routine
evaporation
(i∙vap∙uh∙RAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
203
Photograph by Mark Hamblin/AGE Fotostock
Photograph by Royalty-Free/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(RUHST)
rust
204
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Soft, orange or brown flakes and dust
produced by a chemical reaction between
iron and oxygen.
Example: The formation of rust on iron requires both
oxygen and water to be present.
Ask: What type of change occurs when rust
forms on iron?
evaporates?
Ask: Where does ocean water go when it
water cycle.
Example: Evaporation is an important part of the
Define: The process of a liquid changing into a gas.
Vocabulary Routine
chemical
change
(KEM∙uh∙kuhl CHAYNJ)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
205
Photograph by Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
Photograph by DPA/Dembinsky Photo Associates
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(TAR∙nish)
tarnish
206
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A change that produces new matter with
different properties from the original matter.
Example: When you fry an egg, you are causing a
chemical change.
Ask: What is the difference between a chemical
change and a physical change?
Ask: Why might people want to prevent tarnish
on their metals?
Example: When metal is exposed to oxygen for long
periods of time, it often becomes tarnished.
Define: Discoloration of metal by exposure to air.
Vocabulary Routine
mixture
(MIKS∙chur)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Photograph by Alison Miksch/Jupiter Images
Grade 4
207
Photograph by Carin Krasner/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(suh∙LEW∙shuhn)
solution
208
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A mixture in which one or more types of
matter are mixed evenly in another kind of
matter.
Example: Solutions are formed when two types of
matter are mixed together so thoroughly
that you cannot tell them apart.
Ask: What foods that you eat are solutions?
mixture?
Ask: What is the most important quality of a
substances can be separated from the
group.
Example: Salad is a mixture because each of the
together but keep their own properties.
Define: Two or more types of matter that are mixed
Vocabulary Routine
filter
(FIL∙tuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
210
Photograph by Zila Photography/Stockfood America
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
209
(AL∙oy)
alloy
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A tool used to separate things by size. It
works by means of a mesh or screen that
retains the bigger pieces but allows smaller
pieces to fall through the holes of the filter.
Example: A filter is useful for sorting small objects by
size.
Ask: Why do people use water filters in their
homes?
alloys in construction?
Ask: What might be some benefits of using
alloys.
Example: Stainless steel is one of the most common
metals or substances.
Define: A mixture of one metal with one or more
Vocabulary Routine
The water heats,
and vapor forms.
The vapor cools
and condenses.
cold water out
cold water in
thermometer
water
distilled
water
distillation
(dis∙tuh∙LAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
212
Photograph by Zila Photography/Stockfood America
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
211
(fil∙TRAY∙shuhn)
filtration
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A method of separating a mixture using a
filter.
Example: Water filtration plants are large buildings
that remove dirt and impurities from our
drinking water.
Ask: What are some ways that a scientist might
use filtration?
Ask: How can distillation help remove impurities
from water?
Example: Distillation is an important part of the
process of purifying water.
Define: The use of evaporation and condensation to
separate the parts of a mixture.
Vocabulary Routine
+
Sodium is
a metal.
Table salt is a
safe, nonmetal
solid.
Chlorine is a
dangerous gas.
compound
(KOM∙pownd)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
213
Photograph by Royalty-Free/CORBIS
Photograph by Goodshoot/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(AS∙id)
acid
214
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A substance made when two or more
elements are joined together and lose their
own properties.
Example: Water is one of the most important
compounds on Earth.
Ask: How is a compound different from a
mixture?
Ask: How might acid be useful in a laboratory
situation?
Example: Citric acid is found in many of your favorite
fruits.
Define: A substance that tastes sour and turns blue
litmus paper red.
Vocabulary Routine
speed
(SPEED)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
216
Photograph by Digital Vision/PunchStock
Photograph by Andy Crawford/DK Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
215
(BAYS)
base
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A substance that tastes bitter and turns red
litmus paper blue.
Example: Most bases leave a bitter taste in your
mouth.
Ask: Why do scientists need to know which
substances are bases?
Ask: What is the speed limit in your
neighborhood?
Example: A cheetah can travel at high speeds.
Define: The distance traveled in an amount of time.
Vocabulary Routine
east
velocity
(vuh∙LOS∙i∙tee)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
217
Photograph by Charles O’Rear/CORBIS
Photograph by Duomo/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(FORS)
force
218
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The speed and direction of a moving object.
Example: The train traveled at a velocity of 300
kilometers an hour to the east.
Ask: How is velocity different from speed?
Ask: What force causes apples to fall from trees?
Example: The force applied by the baseball bat
launched the baseball over the outfield wall.
Define: A push or pull.
Vocabulary Routine
acceleration
(ak∙sel∙uh∙RAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
219
Photograph by Dmitriy Gusarin/ITAR-TASS/CORBIS
Photograph by WireImageStock/Masterfile
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(i∙NUR∙shuh)
inertia
220
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The tendency of an object to remain in
motion or to stay at rest unless acted upon
by an outside force.
Example: Inertia caused the skateboarder to remain
in motion even though he had stopped
applying force to his board.
Ask: Can an object be inert if it is not moving?
accelerate?
Ask: Name two ways that a moving object can
as she went around the curve.
Example: The speed skater’s acceleration increased
moving object.
Define: Any change in the speed or direction of a
Vocabulary Routine
balanced forces
(BAL∙uhnst FOR∙suhz)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
222
Photograph by Jane Burton/DK Images
Photograph by Niehoff/imagebroker/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
221
(FRIK∙shuhn)
friction
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Forces that cancel each other out when
acting together on a single object.
Example: The two puppies tugged at the ring with
balanced forces.
Ask: If two teams playing tug of war are unable
to get more rope on their respective sides,
have they created balanced forces?
do you want more or less friction working
on your bicycle?
Ask: If you want to travel quickly on your bicycle,
Example: Friction slowed down the bicycle’s motion.
down or stops them from moving.
Define: A force between surfaces that slows objects
Vocabulary Routine
unbalanced forces
(un·BAL∙uhnst FOR∙suhz)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
223
Photograph by Janette Beckman for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by Ken Karp for The McGraw-Hill Companies
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(NEW∙tuhn)
newton
This empty backpack
weighs 5 N.
224
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Forces that do not cancel each other out
when acting together on a single object.
Example: Unbalanced forces cause a change in
motion.
Ask: How is a balanced force different from an
unbalanced force?
Ask: What does a newton measure?
Example: It took five newtons to lift the backpack.
Define: A metric unit for weight, measuring an
amount of force.
Vocabulary Routine
energy
(EN∙uhr∙jee)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
226
Photograph by Alan Thornton/Stone/Getty Images
Photograph by Mike Powell/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
225
(WURK)
work
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The use of force to move an object a certain
distance.
Example: The weightlifter worked as she lifted the
weights.
Ask: Is reading a book considered work?
Ask: How is energy used?
Example: He used energy as he skated down the road.
Define: The ability to do work.
Vocabulary Routine
potential energy
(puh∙TEN∙shuhl EN∙uhr∙jee)
228
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
227
(ki∙NET∙ik EN∙uhr∙jee)
kinetic energy
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The energy an object has because it is
moving.
Example: As the rollercoaster moved down the ramp,
it had a lot of kinetic energy.
Ask: When does an object have kinetic energy?
Ask: What is another name for potential energy?
Example: At the top of the ramp, the roller coaster
had a lot of potential energy.
Define: The energy that is stored inside an object.
Vocabulary Routine
load
effort
force
fulcrum
effort force
(EF∙urt fors)
230
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
229
(SIM∙puhl muh∙SHEEN)
simple machine
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Anything that has few parts and makes it
easier to do a task.
Example: Simple machines lower the force needed to
move and lift heavy objects and loads.
Ask: What are the parts of a simple machine?
Ask: Why is an effort force used?
Example: He applied effort force to crack the nut with
a lever.
Define: The amount of force needed to move a load.
Vocabulary Routine
lever
(LEV∙uhr)
231
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(lohd)
load
232
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A simple machine made of a solid bar or
plank and a fixed point, called a fulcrum.
Example: Many basic tools use levers, including
scissors, pliers and hammer claws.
Ask: Why is a lever classified as a simple
machine?
Ask: What is the definition of a load?
Example: The lever made it much easier to lift the
load.
Define: The object being lifted or moved by a
machine.
Vocabulary Routine
inclined plane
(in∙KLIND playn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
233
Photograph by Steve Cole/Photodisc/Getty Images
Photograph by Thinkstock/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(KOM∙pound mah∙SHEEN)
compound machine
234
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A combination of two or more simple
machines.
Example: A bicycle is a compound machine made of
screws, wheel and axle and levers.
Ask: Why is a bicycle an example of a compound
machine?
Ask: Why is an inclined plane a simple machine?
Example: A ramp is an inclined plane.
simple machine.
Define: A flat, slanted surface, that is used as a
Vocabulary Routine
Heat is transferred from
the flame to the pot by
conduction.
conduction
(kuhn∙DUK∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
236
Photograph by David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit
Photograph by Judd Pilossof/Jupiter Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
235
(heet)
heat
Direction of
Energy Flow
warmer
cooler
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The transfer of energy between two objects
that are touching.
Example: Conduction occurs when a pan is placed on
a stove.
Ask: What is transferred between two objects
during conduction?
Ask: What kind of energy moves in heat?
bread.
Example: The heat from the toaster warmed the
warmer to cooler objects.
Define: The movement of thermal energy from
Vocabulary Routine
Heat is transferred through
the water by convection.
convection
(kuhn∙VEK∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
237
Photograph by David Young-Wolff/PhotoEdit
Photograph by foodfolio/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(kuhn∙DUHK∙tuhr)
conductor
A copper kettle is a
good conductor for
hot liquids. ▶
238
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The transfer of energy by flowing gases or
liquids, such as the rising of warm air from a
heater.
Example: Convection spreads the heat of boiling
water in a pot.
Ask: What is transferred between liquids or gases
during convection?
Ask: What substances can easily flow through a
conductor?
Example: A copper kettle is a good conductor.
Define: A material through which heat or electricity
flows easily.
Vocabulary Routine
The Sun’s energy
is transferred
through space by
radiation.
radiation
(ray∙dee∙AY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
240
Photograph by J. Luke/Photolink/Getty Images
Photograph by Siede Preis/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
239
(IN∙suh∙lay∙tuhrz)
insulator
Wool mittens
are good
insulators for
your hands.
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A material that slows or stops the flow of
energy, such as heat, electricity, and sound.
Example: A jacket is a good insulator.
Ask: What substances are restricted from flowing
by an insulator?
Ask: What is transferred during radiation?
Example: The Sunªs energy is transferred by radiation.
Define: The transfer of energy through space.
Vocabulary Routine
vibration
(vye∙BRAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
241
Photograph by Sean Justice/Getty Images
Photograph by Image Source/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(sound wÂv)
sound wave
242
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An area of bunched-up and spread-out
air particles that moves outward in all
directions from a vibration.
Example: Sound waves move outwards in all
directions.
Ask: How do air particles move in a sound wave?
vibration?
Ask: What is the motion of an object during
sound waves.
Example: The vibration of the guitar strings created
Define: A back-and-forth motion.
Vocabulary Routine
echo
(EK∙oh)
▲ Dolphins use echoes to
locate underwater objects.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
243
Photograph by Stuart Westmoreland/age fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(FREE∙kwuhn∙see)
frequency
244
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The number of wavelengths that pass a
reference point in a given amount of time.
Example: Striking a tiny bell produces a vibration with
high frequency.
Ask: What does frequency measure in one
second?
Ask: How is an echo produced?
Example: Dolphins use echoes to aid in navigation.
reflection of a sound wave from a surface.
Define: A repetition of a sound produced by
Vocabulary Routine
The size of each bell
determines the pitch
of the sound.. ▼
pitch
(pich)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
245
Photograph by Jens Wolf/dap/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(WAYV∙lengkth)
wavelength
wavelength
246
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The distance from the top of one wave to
the top of the next.
Example: The sound wave had a long wavelength.
Ask: What distance is described by the term
wavelength?
Ask: What does pitch describe?
Example: Toads croak at a low pitch.
determined by its frequency.
Define: The highness or lowness of a sound as
Vocabulary Routine
volume
(VOL∙yewm)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
248
Photograph by Joe Raedle/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
247
(AM∙pli∙tewd)
amplitude
amplitude
Vocabulary Routine
Define: 1. A measure of how much space matter
takes up; 2. The loudness or softness of a
sound.
Example: The volume of a whisper is very low, making
it hard to hear.
Ask: What does volume measure?
Ask: What is measured by a wavelength?
produced a loud sound.
Example: The wave had a high amplitude and
Define: The energy in a sound wave.
Vocabulary Routine
prism
(PRIZ∙uhm)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
249
Photograph by Alfred Pasieka/Photo Researchers
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(i∙LEK∙troh∙mag∙net∙ik SPEK∙trohm)
electromagnetic
spectrum
250
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A thick piece of glass that bends light,
separating white light into bands of colored
light.
Example: The colors produced by white light passing
through a prism are arranged in a spectrum
from red through orange, yellow, green,
blue, indigo and into violet.
Ask: What colors are seen on the front and back
of a prism?
Ask: Are all of the waves in the electromagnetic
spectrum the same size?
Example: The electromagnetic spectrum is a
continuum of all electromagnetic waves
arranged according to frequency and
wavelength.
Define: A range of all light waves of varying
wavelengths, including the visible spectrum.
Vocabulary Routine
reflection
(ri∙FLEK∙shuhn)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
252
Photograph by Walter Bibikow/age fotostock
Photograph by Stockbyte/Punchstock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
251
(ri∙FRAK∙shuhn)
refraction
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The bending of light as it passes from one
transparent material into another.
Example: Refraction ocurrs when light passes
through glass, water, light, plastic, and other
transparent materials.
Ask: What kinds of materials demonstrate
refraction of light?
Ask: Where do you see the reflection of light
waves?
Example: The reflection of light was due to the waves
bouncing off of a surface.
Define: The bouncing of light waves off a surface.
Vocabulary Routine
translucent
(trans∙LEW∙suhnt)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
254
Photograph by Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs
Photograph by Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
253
(oh∙PAKE)
opaque
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Completely blocking light from passing
through.
Example: Opaque objects such as wood, do not allow
light to pass through.
Ask: How do you know that an object is opaque?
What term is used to describe objects that
do not allow light to pass through them?
Ask: How can you tell that you are looking at an
object through a translucent surface?
Example: Frosted glass and waxed paper are
examples of translucent objects.
Define: Letting only some light through, so that
objects on the other side appear blurry.
Vocabulary Routine
transparent
(trans∙PAYR∙uhnt)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
255
Photograph by Richard Megna/Fundamental Photographs
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(STAT∙ik i∙lek∙TRIS∙i∙tee)
static electricity
256
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The buildup of electrical charge on an
object or material.
Example: Static electricity is usually caused when
certain materials are rubbed against each
other, like wool on plastic or the soles of
your shoes on the carpet.
Ask: How could you create static electricity
between a balloon and curtains?
Ask: What passes through transparent objects?
objects.
Example: The water, air and glass are all transparent
on the other side can be seen clearly.
Define: Letting all the light through so that objects
Vocabulary Routine
discharge
(DIS∙charj)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
257
Photograph by R. Morely/PhotoLink/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(SUR∙kuht)
circuit
258
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The sudden movement of an electric charge
from one object to another.
Example: During a storm, static electricity is
discharged as lightning.
Ask: What is the movement of charge after it has
been discharged?
Ask: What travels along the path of a circuit?
Example: Electric current runs through circuits.
Define: A path through which electric current can
flow.
Vocabulary Routine
current electricity
(KUR∙uhnt i∙lek∙TRIS∙i∙tee)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
259
Photograph by Penny Adams/age fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(SEER∙eez SUR∙kuht)
series circuit
260
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A circuit in which electric current flows in
the same direction along a single path.
Example: In a series circuit, electricity can flow in only
one way.
Ask: How does electric current flow in a series
circuit?
Ask: How does current electricity move?
Example: Flashlights run on current electricity.
Define: The flow of electrical charges.
Vocabulary Routine
parallel circuit
(PAR∙uh∙lel SUR∙kit)
261
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(uh∙TRAKT)
attract
262
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A circuit in which electric current flows
through more than one path.
Example: Parallel circuits are found in most
household electrical wiring.
Ask: How does electric currecnt flow in a parallel
circuit?
Ask: Which poles of a magnet attract each
other?
Example: Unlike poles of magnets attract each other.
Define: To pull.
Vocabulary Routine
pole
(pohl)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
264
Photograph by Yoáv Levy/Phototake
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
263
(ri∙PEL)
repel
Vocabulary Routine
Define: One of two ends of a magnet, where the
magnetic force is strongest.
Example: The south and north poles of a magnet
attract each other.
Ask: What are the two poles of a magnet called?
Ask: Which poles of magnets repel each other?
Example: Like poles of magnets repel each other.
Define: To push away.
Vocabulary Routine
Earth’s Magnetic
Field
magnetic North Pole
geographic South Pole
geographic North Pole
magnetic South Pole
magnetic field
(MAG∙net∙ik feeld)
265
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(i∙LEK∙troh∙mag∙nit)
electromagnet
A simple
electromagnet
uses a wire coiled
around an iron bar.
N
S
266
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A magnet formed when electric current
flows through wire wrapped in coils around
an iron bar.
Example: An electromagnet can attract all items
made of iron, steel, nickel, and cobalt.
Ask: What kinds of materials are used to create
an electromagnet?
create around a magnet?
Ask: What kind of area does a magnetic field
magnetic field.
Example: A compass needle lines up with Earthªs
attracts or repels.
Define: The region around a magnet where its force
Vocabulary Routine
generator
(GEN∙uh∙ray∙tuhr)
268
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
267
(MOH∙tuhr)
motor
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A device that produces alternating current
by spinning an electric coil between the
poles of a magnet. It changes motion into
electrical energy.
Example: A generator changes mechanical energy
into electrical energy.
Ask: How does a generator change energy?
Ask: How does a motor change energy?
a pump the expands gas, causing it to
become cold.
Example: In a refrigerator an electric motor operates
forms of energy into mechanical energy.
Define: A device that changes electricity or other
Vocabulary Routine
outer core
outer core
(OW∙tuhr
KOR)
84
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
83
(MAN∙tuhl)
mantle
mantle
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The layer of rock lying below Earth’s crust.
Example: If subjected to high pressure or temperature,
rock in Earth’s mantle can change shape.
Ask: What is needed for the rock in Earth’s
mantle to change shape?
Ask: What is Earth’s outer core made out of?
Example: Earth’s outer core is liquid and made mostly
from melted iron.
Define: The liquid layer below Earth’s mantle.
Vocabulary Routine
inner core
inner core
(IN∙uhr
KOR)
85
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(FAWLT)
fault
86
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A long, narrow crack in Earth’s crust.
Example: The place where plates in Earth rub against
each other is a fault.
Ask: How can a fault in Earth’s crust be
dangerous?
Ask: Where is the Moon’s inner core located?
Example: The hottest part of earth is its inner core.
the Moon or Earth.
Define: A sphere of solid material at the center of
Vocabulary Routine
plateau
(pla∙TOH)
87
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(FOHLD)
fold
88
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A bend in layers of rock.
Example: A fold forms when land scrunches up
between plates that meet at the edge of
continents.
Ask: How does a fold form on land?
Ask: What is the top of a plateau like?
Example: A plateau is caused by rising plates.
Define: A high landform with a flat top.
Vocabulary Routine
mountain
(MOWN∙tuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
89
Photograph by Chris Lisle/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(IRTH∙kwayk)
earthquake
90
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A sudden shaking of the rock that makes up
Earth’s crust.
Example: An earthquake can bring much destruction
to cities and towns, causing buildings and
bridges to collapse.
Ask: What part of Earth shakes when an
earthquake happens?
Ask: What is the top of a mountain called?
that is found in many parts of the world.
Example: A mountain is an example of a landform
Define: A tall landform that rises to a peak.
Vocabulary Routine
seismograph
(SIZE∙muh∙graf )
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
92
Photograph by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(SIZE∙mik
91
WAYV)
seismic wave
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An instrument that detects and records
earthquakes. It shows seismic waves as
curvy lines along a graph.
Example: Scientists use a network of seismographs
around the world to collect and coordinate
information about earthquakes.
Ask: How does a seismograph show seismic
waves?
direction of in different directions?
Ask: Do seismic waves move in the same
at many speeds.
Example: Seismic waves move in many directions and
Define: A vibration caused by an earthquake.
Vocabulary Routine
volcano
(vol∙KAY∙noh)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
93
Photograph by Weatherstock/Peter Arnold, Inc.
Photograph by Bill Bachman/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(WETH∙uhr∙ing)
weathering
94
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The breaking down of rocks into smaller
pieces.
Example: The shape of a cliff can change over time
because of weathering caused by waves
crashing into it.
Ask: How can weathering change the shape of
a rock?
Pompeii?
Ask: How did a volcano affect the town of
before erupting again.
Example: A volcano can be inactive for a long time
opening in Earth’s crust.
Define: A mountain that builds up around an
Vocabulary Routine
erosion
(i∙ROZH∙uhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
95
Photograph by Lanz Von Horsten/Gallo Images/CORBIS
Photograph by Royalty-Free/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(dee∙puh∙ZISH∙uhn)
deposition
96
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The removing of weathered rock.
Example: The Grand Canyon in Arizona is an example
of the effect of erosion caused by a river.
Ask: What are some causes of erosion?
Ask: How does wind cause deposition?
Example: A desert is shaped by the deposition of
materials on land by wind.
Define: The dropping off of eroded soil and bits of
rock.
Vocabulary Routine
terminus
terminus
(TURM∙i∙nuhs)
98
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
97
(muh∙RAYN)
moraine
moraine
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The downhill edge of a glacier where glacial
till and other debris are deposited.
Example: One can see the terminus of a glacier at the
bottom of the glacier.
Ask: In what part of a glacier can one find the
terminus?
Ask: Where on a glacier can a moraine be found?
Canada.
Example: One can see an example of a moraine in
the edge of a glacier.
Define: A large body of rocky materials deposited at
Vocabulary Routine
hurricane
(HUR∙uh∙cayn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
100
Photograph by NOAA/Science Photo Library
Photograph by Andrea Merola/epa/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
99
(FLUHD)
flood
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A great flow of water over land that is
usually dry.
Example: A positive result of a flood is the deposition
of new soil containing nutrients on land,
enabling plants to grow.
Ask: How can a city be protected from a flood?
Ask: How can you protect your house from a
hurricane?
Example: A hurricane can create much damage,
causing floods and destroying trees and
houses.
Define: A very large, swirling storm with strong
winds and heavy rains.
Vocabulary Routine
avalanche
(AV∙uh∙lanch)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
102
Photograph by Galen Rowell/CORBIS
Photograph by Jim Zuckerman/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
101
(tor∙NAY∙doh)
tornado
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A large, sudden movement of ice and snow
down a hill or mountain.
Example: It is important to watch out for signs of an
avalanche when skiing in the mountains.
Ask: What natural disaster is a sudden movement
of ice and snow down a mountain? What
damage can an avalanche cause?
Ask: What does a tornado look like?
region of the United States that one section
is called “Tornado Alley”.
Example: So many tornadoes occur in the Great Plains
the ground in a narrow path.
Define: A swirling column of wind that moves across
Vocabulary Routine
mineral
(MIN∙uh∙ruhl)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
104
Photograph by Siede Preis/Getty Images
Photograph by Paul A. Souders/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
103
(LAND∙slide)
landslide
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A solid, nonliving substance found in nature.
Example: The mineral quartz can be one of a few
colors.
Ask: What mineral would be a good material to
use in jewelry?
Ask: What are the possible causes of a landslide?
way.
Example: A large landslide can destroy towns in its
a slope.
Define: A sudden movement of rock and soil down
Vocabulary Routine
relative age
(REL∙uh∙tiv
AYJ)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
106
Photograph by Jacques Cornell for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by Richard Cummins/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(IG∙nee∙uhs
105
ROK)
igneous rock
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The age of one rock or fossil as compared to
another.
Example: Scientists can determine the relative age
of fossils depending on the rock layers they
find them in.
Ask: How is relative age useful to scientists?
rock?
Ask: What is the best way to identify igneous
how fast or slow the melted rock cooled.
Example: The texture of igneous rock is affected by
material cools.
Define: “Fire-made” rock formed when melted rock
Vocabulary Routine
sedimentary rock
(sed∙uh∙MEN∙tuh∙ree
ROK)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
107
Photograph by Jacques Cornell for The McGraw-Hill Companies
Photograph by Wally Eberhart/Visuals Unlimited
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(met∙uh∙MOR∙fik
ROK)
metamorphic rock
108
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A rock that is formed when small bits of
matter are pressed together in layers.
Example: Sandstone is an example of sedimentary
rock whose layers of sediment can be seen
in its striped appearance.
Ask: What causes the formation of sedimentary
rock?
Ask: What is metamorphic rock made from?
Example: Marble is an example of metamorphic rock
formed from limestone.
Define: Rock formed from another kind of rock
under heat and pressure.
Vocabulary Routine
resource
(REE∙sors)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
110
Photograph by Breck P. Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
109
(ROK SYE∙kuhl)
rock cycle
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A material or object that has useful
properties.
Example: One of the building materials used to build
your school may be a natural resource
called granite.
Ask: What is an example of a natural resource in
your home?
time?
Ask: Why does the rock cycle take such a long
Example: The rock cycle occurs over millions of years.
change from one type to another.
Define: The process in which rocks continuously
Vocabulary Routine
humus
(HYEW∙muhs)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Photograph by Oxford Scientific/PictureQuest
111
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(huh∙RYE∙zuhn)
horizon
112
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A layer of soil that is different from the
layers above and below it.
Example: Topsoil is an example of a horizon found in
soil.
Ask: In which horizon do plants grow?
Ask: Where is humus found?
because it has nutrients that help plants
grow.
Example: A farmer would want humus in his soil
Define: Decayed plant and animal matter in soil.
Vocabulary Routine
A horizon (topsoil)
B horizon (subsoil)
soil profile
C horizon (weathered bedrock)
(SOYL PROH∙file)
bedrock
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
113
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(SUB∙soyl)
subsoil
B horizon (subsoil)
114
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A view of the different horizons in a soil
sample, from the surface down to bedrock.
Example: A soil profile helps us understand how soil
is constructed.
Ask: How might a soil profile be helpful to a
farmer?
Ask: What kind of minerals can be found in
subsoil?
Example: Subsoil contains materials that reach it
through the topsoil, such as minerals.
Define: A hard layer of clay and minerals that lies
beneath topsoil.
Vocabulary Routine
A horizon (topsoil)
topsoil
(TOP∙soyl)
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
115
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(POR
SPAYS)
pore space
116
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The dark, top layer of soil, rich in humus and
minerals, in which many tiny organisms live
and most plants grow.
Example: The layer of soil that is easiest to reach is
the topsoil.
Ask: Why do small organisms live in topsoil?
Ask: What are some of the uses of pore space in
soil?
Example: Pore space helps to clean the water that
runs through soil by catching some of the
harmful materials in it.
Define: The space between particles of soil.
Vocabulary Routine
permeability
(pur∙mee∙uh∙BIL∙i∙tee)
118
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
117
(POR∙uhs)
porous
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A measure of how fast water can pass
through a porous material.
Example: Fine soil has lower permeability than coarse
soil.
Ask: How can the permeability of soil be
measured?
Ask: What is the advantage of porous soil?
therefore very porous.
Example: Sandy soil has large pore spaces and is
and air can pass.
Define: Having pore spaces through which water
Vocabulary Routine
amber
(AM∙buhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
119
Photograph by Noah Poritz/Science Photo Library
Photograph by Adrian Davies/naturepl.com
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(FOS∙uhl)
fossil
120
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Hardened tree sap, yellow to brown in color,
often a source of insect fossils.
Example: Whole insects are preserved in amber
because they are caught in the sticky sap
before it hardens.
Ask: How does amber help scientists study
fossils?
Ask: What kind of evidence do you get from a
fossil?
Example: The area in which a fossil is found gives
scientists clues to understanding it.
Define: Any evidence of an organism that lived in
the past.
Vocabulary Routine
imprint
(IM∙print)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
122
Photograph by Scott Berner/Visuals Unlimited
Photograph by Siede Preis/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
121
(KAST)
cast
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A fossil made by a print or an impression.
Example: A foot imprint can give scientists
information about the size of an animal.
Ask: What kind of fossil is an imprint?
cast?
Ask: What kinds of minerals might be found in a
within a mold.
Example: A cast is made up of minerals that formed
Define: A fossil formed or shaped within a mold.
Vocabulary Routine
mold
(MOHLD)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
123
Photograph by Carlos Goldin/Science Photo Library
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(FOS∙uhl FYEW∙uhl)
fossil fuel
fossil fuel
124
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A source of energy made from the remains
of ancient, once-living things.
Example: It is best to find other energy sources than
fossil fuels because fossil fuels cannot be
replaced.
Ask: How do people use fossil fuels?
Ask: What can a mold of an animal tell scientists?
by a shell.
Example: A mold often forms in the space left behind
remains of a living thing.
Define: An empty space in a rock that once held the
Vocabulary Routine
nonrenewable
resource
(non∙ri∙NEW∙i∙buhl REE∙sors)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
125
Photograph by Royalty-Free/CORBIS
Photograph by Glen Allison/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(ri∙NEW∙i∙buhl REE∙sors)
renewable resource
126
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A natural material or source of energy that
is useful to people and cannot be replaced
easily.
Example: Coal is an example of a nonrenewable
resource.
Ask: What kinds of nonrenewable resources do
you use every day?
Ask: What kinds of renewable resources do you
use on a daily basis?
Example: Wind is a renewable resource that can be
used to generate energy.
Define: A useful material replaced quickly in nature.
Vocabulary Routine
groundwater
(GROUND∙waw∙tuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
128
Photograph by Javier Larrea/AGE Fotostock
Photograph by Javier Larrea/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
127
(soyl waw∙tuhr)
soil water
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Water stored in the cracks and spaces of
underground rock.
Example: Some of the water we use everyday is
groundwater.
Ask: Where does groundwater go?
Ask: How is soil water used?
Example: A mixture of water and soil is soil water.
Define: Water that soaks into and collects in soil.
Vocabulary Routine
reservoir
(REZ∙uhr∙vwahr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
130
Photograph by George Steinmetz/CORBIS
Photograph by Sami Sarkis/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
129
(WAW∙tuhr∙shed)
watershed
Vocabulary Routine
Define: An area of land where water flows downhill
to a common stream, lake, or river.
Example: Rivers, lakes, ponds, and the land around
them make up a watershed.
Ask: What animals might be found in a
watershed?
Ask: Is there a reservoir in or near your town?
Example: A reservoir is the body of water behind a
dam.
Define: A storage area for holding and managing
fresh water.
Vocabulary Routine
runoff
(RUN∙awf)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
132
Photograph by Javier Larrea/AGE Fotostock
Photograph by George Steinmetz/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
131
(WEL)
well
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Water that flows over the surface of the
land but does not evaporate or soak into the
ground.
Example: Runoff collects in streams, rivers, and lakes.
Ask: How might runoff be useful to the
environment?
water instead of a well?
Ask: Why do most poeple today use running
Example: To reach groundwater, you must dig a well.
reach groundwater.
Define: A hole dug below the ground in order to
Vocabulary Routine
irrigation
(eer∙uh∙GAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
133
Photograph by Michael Ventura/PhotoEdit
Photograph by Jim Wark/Airphoto
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(en·VYE·ruhn·muhnt)
environment
134
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The bringing of water to soil through pipes
or ditches.
Example: Farmers use irrigation to water their crops.
Ask: Why is irrigation important for plants?
Ask: How would you describe your environment?
Example: The environment includes many animals and
plants.
Define: All the living and nonliving things in an area.
Vocabulary Routine
acid rain
(AS·id RAYN)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
136
Photograph by Joseph Sohm/ChromoSohm Media/Photo Researchers
Photograph by Juan Carlos Calvin/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
135
(puh·LEW·shuhn)
pollution
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Harmful materials that contaminate the
environment.
Example: Pollution is often caused by the action of
humans.
Ask: How can people reduce the amount of
pollution in the environment?
Ask: How does acid rain affect the environment?
Example: The gases from burning fossil fuels can
cause acid rain.
Define: Harmful rain caused by the burning of fossil
fuels.
Vocabulary Routine
conservation
(kon·sur·VAY·shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
137
Photograph by ART on FILE/CORBIS
Photograph by Assunta Del Buono/AGE Fotostock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(KOM·pohst)
compost
138
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A mixture of decaying matter that helps
plants grow in soil.
Example: Compost recycles material that used to be
living.
Ask: What kiinds of materials can be used to
make a compost?
future?
Ask: How might conserving now affect the
longer.
Example: Conservation of materials makes them last
wisely.
Define: Saving, protecting, or using our resources
Vocabulary Routine
reduce
(ri∙dyews)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
139
Photograph by Dynamic Graphics/Jupiter Images
Photograph by Adrian Sherratt/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(ree∙uz)
reuse
140
Vocabulary Routine
Define: To use less of something.
Example: When you reduce the amount of a material
you use, there is more for others to use.
Ask: How can you reduce the amount of
electricity you use?
Ask: What items could you reuse?
Example: Reusing an item reduces the amount of
garbage produced.
Define: To use something again.
Vocabulary Routine
recycle
(ree∙SYE∙kuhl)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
141
Photograph by Photodisc Collection/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(AT∙muhs∙feer)
atmosphere
142
Vocabulary Routine
Define: To make new objects or materials from old
objects or materials.
Example: We recycle unwanted materials into useful
products.
Ask: How can you recycle old newspapers?
Ask: Can you see Earth’s atmosphere?
Example: The gases that surround Earth make up the
atmosphere.
Define: The blanket of gases that surrounds Earth.
Vocabulary Routine
temperature
(TEM∙puhr∙uh∙chuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
143
Photograph by Mike Dobel/Masterfile
Photograph by Mike Dobel/Masterfile
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(hyew∙MID∙i∙tee)
humidity
144
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A measurement of how much water vapor is
in air.
Example: Low humidity is when there is a small
amount of moisture in the air.
Ask: Would laundry on a clothes line dry quicker
if there was high or low humidity?
its temperature be high or low?
Ask: When a cake comes out of the oven, would
hot or cold it is in that area.
Example: The temperature in a place measures how
something is.
Define: A measurement of how hot or cold
Vocabulary Routine
thermometer
(thur∙MOM∙i∙tuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
146
Photograph by TRBfoto/Getty Images
Photograph by Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
145
(AYR PRESH∙uhr)
air pressure
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The force of air pushing down on an area.
Example: The force of the air pushing down is called
air pressure.
Ask: What is the air pressure like on an airplane?
Ask: How can a thermometer let you know if you
are sick?
Example: A thermometer can measure how hot or
cold a substance is.
Define: A tool used to measure temperature.
Vocabulary Routine
barometer
(buh∙RAH∙muh∙tuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
148
Photograph by Leonard Lessin/Photo Researchers
Photograph by Jim Sugar/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
147
(WIND VAYN)
wind vane
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A device that moves to show which way the
wind is blowing.
Example: A wind vane points in the direction the wind
is blowing.
Ask: How does a wind vane show the direction in
which the wind is blowing?
Ask: How does a barometer measure air
pressure?
Example: A barometer is a useful tool that measures
air pressure.
Define: A device for measuring air pressure.
Vocabulary Routine
rain gauge
(RAYN GAYJ)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
149
Photograph by DK Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(i∙vap∙uh∙RAY∙shuhn)
evaporation
150
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A device that measures how much
precipitation has fallen.
Example: A rain gauge measures the amount of rain
that falls over a period of time.
Ask: How do you use a rain gauge to measure
the amount of rain that falls?
Ask: How can you tell that evaporation has
occurred?
Example: A liquid such as water changes into its
gaseous state through evaporation.
Define: The process of a liquid changing into a gas.
Vocabulary Routine
condensation
(kon∙den∙SAY∙shuhn)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
152
Photograph by Mitch Diamond/Alamy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
151
(WAW∙tuhr VAY∙puhr)
water vapor
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The process of a gas changing into a liquid.
Example: Water in its gaseous state changes into a
liquid through condensation, sometimes
creating drops of water that collect on
plants.
Ask: What are some examples of condensation
of water?
Ask: Can you see water vapor?
Example: The gaseous state of water is water vapor.
atmosphere.
Define: Water in the form of a gas in Earth’s
Vocabulary Routine
freeze
(FREEZ)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
154
Photograph by Quilla Ulmer/Jim Reed Photography/CORBIS
Photograph by John Mead/Photo Researchers
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
153
(KLOUD)
cloud
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A collection of tiny water droplets or ice
crystals in the atmosphere.
Example: There are many different kinds of clouds,
such as cumulus clouds.
Ask: What kind of weather might occur if one
sees stratus clouds?
Ask: How can one freeze water to form ice?
Example: A liquid such as water can freeze into a solid
such as ice.
Define: To change state from a liquid to a solid.
Vocabulary Routine
precipitation
(pri∙sip∙i∙TAY∙shuhn)
155
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(WAW∙tuhr SYE∙kuhl)
water cycle
156
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Water in the atmosphere that falls to Earth
as rain, snow, hail, or sleet.
Example: Water falling to Earth’s surface from high in
the atmosphere is precipitation.
Ask: What kind of precipitation is good for
skiing?
Ask: How does the water cycle help Earth
maintain itself?
Example: The water cycle constantly repeats itself.
Define: The constant movement of water between
Earth’s surface and the atmosphere.
Vocabulary Routine
air mass
(AYR MAS)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
158
Photograph by Tom Van Sant/Geosphere Project/
Planetary Visions/Science Photo Library
Photograph by Stephen Dalton/Minden Pictures
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
157
(MELT)
melt
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A large region of the atmosphere where the
air has similar properties throughout.
Example: An air mass is a large body of air that has
similar properties throughout.
Ask: Can you find an air mass around you?
Ask: What can cause a solid to melt?
Example: Solid ice can melt into liquid water.
Define: To change state from a solid to a liquid.
Vocabulary Routine
warm
cold
warm front
(WORM FRUNT)
160
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
159
(FRUNT)
front
cold
warm
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A boundary between air masses that allows
the warm air mass slides up and over the
cold air mass.
Example: A warm air mass that slides up and over a
cold air mass is a warm front.
Ask: What kind of weather might there be when
there is a warm front?
Ask: What kinds of fronts are there?
front.
Example: The boundary between two air masses is a
different temperatures.
Define: A boundary between air masses with
Vocabulary Routine
cold
warm
stationary front
(STAY∙shuh∙ner∙ee FRUNT)
162
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
161
(KOHLD FRUNT)
cold front
cold
warm
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A boundary where a cold air mass slides
under a warm air mass.
Example: A cool air mass that slides under a warm air
mass is a cold front.
Ask: Does your region of the country often have
cold fronts?
Ask: What causes a stationary front to form?
Example: A stationary front is a boundary between
two air masses that are not moving.
Define: A boundary between air masses that are not
moving.
Vocabulary Routine
climate
(KLYE∙mit)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
164
Photograph by Freeman Patterson/Masterfile
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
163
(FOR∙kast)
forecast
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The average weather pattern of a region
over time.
Example: The climate in some areas of the world is
moderate and does not get too hot or cold.
Ask: What is the climate where you live?
Ask: What is the forecast for tomorrow?
if it may rain.
Example: A forecast is a prediction that lets you know
making such a prediction.
Define: A prediction about the weather; the act of
Vocabulary Routine
North Pole
equator
rotation
(roh∙TAY∙shuhn)
166
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
165
(KUR∙uhnt)
current
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The directed flow of a gas or liquid.
Example: A current in a river is a directed flow of
water.
Ask: Would it be easier to swim against or with a
current?
Ask: Does the direction of Earth’s rotation ever
change?
Example: Earth makes a rotation every 24 hours.
Define: The act of spinning around an axis.
Vocabulary Routine
revolution
(rev∙uh∙LYEW∙shuhn)
168
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
167
(AK∙sis)
axis
axis
North Pole
Vocabulary Routine
Define: One complete trip around the Sun. Earth
completes one revolution in 365 days.
Example: It takes Earth 365 days to make one
revolution around the Sun.
Ask: How many revolutions does Earth complete
in one year?
seasons?
Ask: Does the tilt of Earth’s axis change with the
degrees.
Example: Earth’s axis is tilted at an angle of 23
object turns around.
Define: A real or imaginary line that a spinning
Vocabulary Routine
crater
(KRAY∙tuhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
170
Photograph by Robert Gendler/Science Photo Library
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
169
(OR∙bit)
orbit
Vocabulary Routine
Define: The path an object takes as it travels around
another object.
Example: Earth’s orbit is shaped like an ellipse.
Ask: How many planets are in orbit around our
Sun?
Ask: What are some things that create a crater?
Example: When a meteorite strikes the Earth, it leaves
a crater.
Define: A hollow area or pit in the ground.
Vocabulary Routine
lunar eclipse
(LEW∙nuhr i∙KLIPS)
172
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
171
(FAYZ)
phase
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A blocking of the Moon’s light when the
Moon passes into Earth’s shadow. This
happens when Earth is directly between the
Sun and the Moon.
Example: During a lunar eclipse, it seems as if the
Moon disappears.
Ask: What comes between the Moon and the Sun
during a lunar eclipse?
small sliver of the Moon?
Ask: During which phase can you only see a
the Moon.
Example: A full-moon is just one of many phases of
describe a change in the appearance of the
Moon.
Define: A temporary state of being, often used to
Vocabulary Routine
solar eclipse
(SOL∙uhr i∙KLIPS)
173
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
(SOL∙uhr SIS∙tuhm)
solar system
174
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A blocking of the Sun’s light that happens
when Earth passes through the Moon’s
shadow. At that time the Moon is between
Earth and the Sun.
Example: During a solar eclipse, the Moon looks
almost as big as the Sun.
Ask: What is the difference between a solar
eclipse and a lunar eclipse?
Ask: What one thing does every solar system
have in common?
Example: Our solar system has a Sun, eight planets,
and many other smaller objects.
Define: The Sun and all the objects that orbit
around it.
Vocabulary Routine
planet
(PLAN∙it)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
175
Photograph by NASA/Photo Researchers
Photograph by NASA
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(GRAV∙i∙tee)
gravity
176
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A force of attraction, or pull, between
objects.
Example: The pull of gravity on Earth is much
stronger than its pull on the Moon.
Ask: Who discovered the force of gravity?
Ask: How many planets are in our solar system?
are made of gas.
Example: Some planets are made of rock, and some
Define: A large sphere in space that orbits a star.
Vocabulary Routine
telescope
(TEL∙uh∙skohp)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
177
Photograph by Chuck Pefley/Alamy
Photograph by Aaron Horowitz/CORBIS
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(KOM∙it)
comet
178
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A device that collects light and makes
distant objects appear closer and larger.
Example: Astronomists use powerful telescopes to
look at planets and stars that are light-years
away.
Ask: Would you use a telescope to look at a star
or a blade of grass?
Ask: What is a comet’s tail made from?
Example: Some comets, like Halley’s Comet, have
orbited the Earth for tens of thousands of
years.
Define: A chunk of ice, rock, and dust that orbits the
Sun.
Vocabulary Routine
meteor
(MEE∙tee∙uhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
180
Photograph by Shigemi Numazawa/
Atlas Photo Bank/Photo Researchers
Photograph by NASA/Photo Researchers
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
179
(AS∙tuh∙roid)
asteroid
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A piece of rock, ice, or metal that burns up
in Earth’s atmosphere, causing a streak of
light to appear in the sky.
Example: Meteors enter Earth’s atmosphere so fast
that they burn up before they reach the
ground.
Ask: What do you call a meteor that hits the
Earth’s surface?
Ask: What are asteroids made of?
are in a belt beyond Neptune.
Example: Many of the asteroids in our solar system
orbit the Sun.
Define: One of the chunks of rock and metal that
Vocabulary Routine
meteorite
(MEE∙tee∙uh∙rite)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
181
Photograph by Charles O’Rear/CORBIS
Photograph by Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
(STAHR)
star
182
Vocabulary Routine
Define: A chunk of rock from space that hit Earth.
Example: A meteorite is a meteor that strikes Earth’s
surface.
Ask: Why do most meteors fail to become
meteorites?
Ask: Why do some stars appear brighter than
others?
Example: Our Sun is the closest star to Earth.
Define: A hot sphere of gases that gives off energy.
Vocabulary Routine
matter
(MAT∙uhr)
Grade 4
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
184
Photograph by Nicholas Eveleigh/Getty Images
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Grade 4
183
(kon∙stuh∙LAY∙shuhn)
constellation
Vocabulary Routine
Define: Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Example: Everything that you can see in your
classroom is made of matter.
Ask: What are some types of matter in your
home?
Ask: What constellations do you know about?
constellation.
Example: The Big Dipper is the most well-known
pattern.
Define: A number of stars that appears to form a
Vocabulary Routine
Vocab Card #
Vocabulary
Word
Photo credit(s)
89
MOUNTAIN Chris Lisle/CORBIS
92
SEISMOGRAPH
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
93
VOLCANO Weatherstock/Peter Arnold, Inc.
94
WEATHERING
Bill Bachman/Alamy
95
EROSION
Lanz Von Horsten/Gallo Images/CORBIS
96
DEPOSITION Royalty-Free/CORBIS
99
FLOOD
Andrea Merola/epa/CORBIS
100
HURRICANE NOAA/Science Photo Library
101
TORNADO Jim Zuckerman/CORBIS
102
AVALANCHE Galen Rowell/CORBIS
103
LANDSLIDE Paul A. Souders/CORBIS
104
MINERAL
Siede Preis/Getty Images
105
IGNEOUS ROCK
Richard Cummins/CORBIS
106
RELATIVE AGE
Jacques Cornell for The McGraw-Hill Companies
107
SEDIMENTARY ROCK
Jacques Cornell for The McGraw-Hill Companies
108
METAMORPHIC ROCK
Wally Eberhart/Visuals Unlimited
110
RESOURCE Breck P. Kent/Animals Animals/Earth Scenes
111
HUMUS
Oxford Scientific/PictureQuest
119
AMBER
Noah Poritz/Science Photo Library
120
FOSSIL
Adrian Davies/naturepl.com
121
CAST
Siede Preis/Getty Images
122
IMPRINT
Scott Berner/Visuals Unlimited
123
MOLD
Carlos Goldin/Science Photo Library
125
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCE
Royalty-Free/CORBIS
126
RENEWABLE RESOURCE Glen Allison/Getty Images
127
SOIL WATER Javier Larrea/AGE Fotostock
128
GROUNDWATER
Javier Larrea/AGE Fotostock
129
WATERSHED
Sami Sarkis/Alamy
130
RESERVOIR George Steinmetz/CORBIS
131
WELL
George Steinmetz/CORBIS
132
RUNOFF
Javier Larrea/AGE Fotostock
133
IRRIGATION Michael Ventura/PhotoEdit
134
ENVIRONMENT
Jim Wark/Airphoto
135
POLLUTION Juan Carlos Calvin/AGE Fotostock
136
ACID RAIN Joseph Sohm/ChromoSohm Media/Photo Researchers
137
CONSERVATION
ART on FILE/CORBIS
138
COMPOST Assunta Del Buono/AGE Fotostock
139
REDUCE
Dynamic Graphics/Jupiter Images
140
REUSE
Adrian Sherratt/Alamy
141
RECYCLE
Photodisc Collection/Getty Images
143
TEMPERATURE
Mike Dobel/Masterfile
144
HUMIDITY Mike Dobel/Masterfile
145
AIR PRESSURE
Getty Images
146
THERMOMETER
TRBfoto/Getty Images
147
WIND VANE Jim Sugar/CORBIS
148
BAROMETER
Leonard Lessin/Photo Researchers
149
RAIN GAUGE
DK Images
152
CONDENSATION
Mitch Diamond/Alamy
153
CLOUD
John Mead/Photo Researchers
154
FREEZE
Quilla Ulmer/Jim Reed Photography/CORBIS
157
MELT
Stephen Dalton/Minden Pictures
158
AIR MASS
Tom Van Sant/Geosphere Project/Planetary Visions/Science Photo Library
164
CLIMATE
Freeman Patterson/Masterfile
170
CRATER
Robert Gendler/Science Photo Library
175
PLANET
NASA/Photo Researchers
176
GRAVITY
NASA
177
TELESCOPE Chuck Pefley/Alamy
178
COMET
Aaron Horowitz/CORBIS
179
ASTEROID NASA/Photo Researchers
180
METEOR
Shigemi Numazawa/Atlas Photo Bank/Photo Researchers
181
METEORITE Charles O’Rear/CORBIS
182
STAR
Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
184
MATTER
Nicholas Eveleigh/Getty Images
185
PROPERTY Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
186
MASS
Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
187
VOLUME
Ken Karp for The McGraw-Hill Companies
188
BUOYANCY Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
189
SOLID
C Squared Studios/Getty Images
190
LIQUID
Ian O’Leary/Dorling Kindersley/Getty Images
191
GAS
Douglas Pulsipher/Alamy
193
LENGTH
Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies
194
AREA
Fulvio Roiter/CORBIS
195
DENSITY
(t) Ken Cavanagh for The McGraw-Hill Companies; (c) Doug Martin/Photo Researchers; (b) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
196
WEIGHT
Mike Powell/Getty Images
197
ELEMENT
Mark A. Schneider/Visuals Unlimited
199
METAL
(t) Edward Kinsman/Photo Researchers; (b) Peter Casolino/Alamy
201
PHYSICAL CHANGE
(l) Simon Colmer & Abby Rex/Alamy; (r) Jupiter Images
202
CHANGE OF STATE
Tony Freeman/PhotoEdit
203
EVAPORATION
Mark Hamblin/AGE Fotostock
204
RUST
Royalty-Free/Corbis
205
CHEMICAL CHANGE
Brand X Pictures/PunchStock
206
TARNISH
DPA/Dembinsky Photo Associates
207
MIXTURE
Alison Miksch/Jupiter Images
208
SOLUTION Carin Krasner/CORBIS
210
FILTER
Zila Photography/Stockfood America
211
FILTRATION Zila Photography/Stockfood America
213
COMPOUND Royalty-Free/CORBIS

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