# 3 Rotation

## Transcription

3 Rotation

3 Rotation So far 1 have concentrated your attention on the analysis of translational motion Tbc analysis of rotation, whm it is important, prooads in a similar way. Position Translation X Rotation e Velocity (magnitude) Acceleration (nuylnitude) de o,8ordt The rotation is analogous, naturally, became it is still truc that angular aoccIcmtion is the time derivative of angular velocity, which ite8U is the time derivative of angular position. So, you do not really have,much new to learn for basic rotation analds u c e ~ tto get u d to usinn- the notations theta (B), omega (U) and alpha 6). S i r diagrams an used, so for exampk, Figure 7 shows the way that the poaition of a weathervane varies with time. This give8 us information about the wind The shape of the curve is an matic one becauae of the turbulent nature of wind. However, you could thd the angular wlocity of the ~ e a t h e ~ a nbye finding the dopc of the CU'Ve paphi~allyat the appropriate time By doing this at enough points you could plot a cunc of o against time, which could then be used to thd the angular aocclcration of the vane if needed. BA0 18 Find the angular velocity of the vane at t = 10 S. Figure 8 shows how the angular speed of a grinding wheel build8 up to its Mvalue of 188.5 rad S-' (1800 rev min-l) after it is switched on at t = 0. Position and accekration curve8 could also be found from this graphically but it is usually cssirr to treat a smooth curve like this with an alsebraic rather than a graphical method. In practice, the position of the wheel is not likely to be of much i n t m t in this particular csae, but its speed is important became of its uae - grinding - and the aocclemtim is of interest to the designer who will be thiiing about the motor driving it. Note that the wheel has a terminal velocity - in this case it is a terminal angular velocity. Find graphically the angular acceleration of the grinding wheel at t = 0.2 s and 4 S. Sketch the acceleration curve. (Show scales on your graph.) This sort of motion, translation or rotation, where the velocity incream up to a steady terminal valuc, can o h be modelled algebraically rather nialy with an expression of the exponential form v=vo[l-exp(-t/T)] or o=cu,[l-exp(-t/T)] which can be written in the alternative notation v = vo(l - e-'lT) or - e-'lr) W = oO(l The symbol e represents the base of natural logarithms and is approximately 2.718. I shall apply this to our grinding wheel example. Whcn t beoomcs very large dlTis very large, so e-lIT = I/(&/T)is very small. Figure 9 shows the curve of o = oo(l - e-"'). For large t, o gets very close to o o ,so wo is the terminal velocity. Now, how soon does the velocity get up close to its terminal value? The diierena between a, and its final value oois ooe-llT. For every increase in t of the constant T seconds, the power of e changes by one, so the velocity differena is divided (approximately) by e = 2.72. The velocity difference between the speed now and the 6 1 4 speed is said to decay exponentially. It is divided by 272 every T aamnds. Looking back to Figure 8, we can find a value for T. The terminal speed is CD,,,so T aamnds after switching on, the speed dilkma will be ode, and the actual sped willbc ((U, - oo/e) = ( l - I/e)ru, = 0.632 X 188.5 rad S-' = l19 rad S-' From the graph you can set that this occurs at 1.5 S, so T = 1.5 S. Our algebraic model of the whal motion is therefore a,= oo(l - e-'lT) where wo = 188.5 rads-' and T- 1.5 S. With this algebraic model I can easily find the acceleration by algebraic differentiation How about the units? T and tare both in seconds, so t/T is just a number, and so is e-'lT. For oothe units are rad S-', which divided by T seconds is rad S-', the correct units for angular acceleration. (a) Sketch a graph of the algebraic model of angular aca1eration of the wheel (showing scalcs on the axes). (b) When d o g the maximum acceleration occur, and what is its magnitude? (c) What is the acceleration at the terminal speed? (d) Use your calculator to cstimate the wheel's angular acceleration when t = I s , t=28,t=3s. I hope you will agree that it is much quicker to find the acceleration from an algebraic model with a calculator, than to do it graphically. However, this does depend upon your being able to handle algebraic expressions comfortably, to use differentiation and integration, and also to manipulate your calculator. - &" ~bu o l ( Figure 9 L& @ @: 4.; -. - - - --. -- y< < . cloolmlw accehmtlon F t p e I0 anticlockwise acsslsrNion SA0 l8 The orientation of a satellite is wntroued by firing vny small jets to make it turn (Figure 10). Whilst the jets operate, thc satellite has an angular aoaleration ofa =10-3 iad S-=. At time t = 0 when thcjetsstart6ringthe angular velocity is 7.3 X 10-' rad S-' antidockwk. (a) Sketoh the curves of angular acceleration, velocity and position with the jets giving constant clockwise ~cotkration. (b) When is the angular velocity zero? The jets are stopped when a, = 0. Later it is requid to move to a new position 1.6 rad do~hvise from the present position. TOdo this as quickly as possible the jets will to give constant dockwise angular ~ ~ ~ ~ l e r a t i o n , and w i l l keep firing until the position has changed 0.8 sac], when the equally eflective reverse jets take over to atop the satellite rotation by wnstant dealeration. (c) Sketch the motion curves, (d) Find the time taken for tho manoeuvm. (e) what was the maximum angular velocity? When an object has a rotational motion, the satellite for example-, then the points on it will have translational motions. For example, a point on the psriphery ofthe grinding wheel has a translational velocity. If you imagine a very small rotational movement of the wheel you can sze that the displacement is perpendicular to the radius line (Figure 11). Hcaa the velocity is at evcry instant tangential to the circular path (Figun 12). Henex it is called a t ~ g e n f k dwlocity. Figure 11 Figure I2 Ifo is constant, the tangential speed, v,,, for a given point is constant, but the direction of the velocity changes, so even at constant o there is an acalcration of the point. I shall look at this in more detail later. For the time being I want you to note the relationship between tangential velocity and angular velocity. You are already familiar with the idea that the circumferential path length s = Or, provided O is in radians. Diflemtiating with respect to time, 9 = h,that is v, = or,where o is in radians per second. Direntiating again, fi- = hr,that is There is a tangential acceleration equal to r times the angular acceleration. If there is an angular ~ ~ ~ ~ I e r athen t i o nthere is always a tangential acceleration component (Figure 14). The units of a must be rad S-' in this equation, not degrees S-'. Figure 13 v, = or Figure 14 & = m A good example of this is a lifting hoist or lift. A pulley of radius r is driven by an electric motor. A rope around the pulley holds the lift cage (Figure IS). The 'output' of this system is the height of the lift cage, which I shall call X. The velocity V and aaxleration I of the lift are naturally of p a t importance. How are these related to the angular motion of the pulley and motor? I shall call the pulley angular displacement B, and make O zero when X is zero. I shall neglect any stretching of the cable here, so if the li is at a height X, then an extra X metres of cable must be wound onto the pulley. Therefore X = Or. If this happens in a time t then dividing by C,xlt = (&)/C so v = o r when v is the average cable speed and a, is the pulley angular speed. Alternatively you could see this result by differentiating the equation X = Or. By a similar argument you should agrce that the acceleration of the lift is the angular acceleration of the pulley, multiplied by its radius, a = ar. SA0 17 An elactric motor drives a pulley, A, of 0.1 m diameter, which drives a belt, which in turn drives a pulley, B, of 0.2 m diameter (Figure 16). The motor has an angular velocity of M rad S-' clockwise and an angular deeeleration of 5 rad S-'. Figure 16 (a) Find the velocity and acceleration of the upper part of the belt. (b) Find the angular velocity and acceleration of the pulley B. Another example is a wheel rolling on a horizontal, plane surface. We can understand this better if we look Grst at a gear wheel rotating about a fixed axis and driving a toothed strip, or rack (Figure 17). If the wheel has clockwise angular speed, o, the rack will move to the left with the same speed as point A on the gear. This is v = o r , as the previous example has shown. In passing, observe that points B, C and D on the wheel also have velocities of magnitude v = o r but with the directions shown in the figure. Now suppose that the rack is fixed to the horizontal surface and the gear wheel rolls along it with the same angular speedo (Figure 18).You should be able to see that the centre, 0,of the wheel will now have the same speed v. = o r as that of the rack in Figure 17, but in the opposite direction, as shown. (The radius OA rotates through the same angle O in the same time in each case;in the tint case,point A moves a distance rO, in the second, point 0 moves through the same distance, but in the opposite direction). The velocities of points B, C and D are not quite so obvious in this case. First, I will look at point C: when the wheel was rotating with angular speed, o, about the fixed axis (Figure 17) the velocity of C was v = or,to the right. This velocity is now only part of the whole, because the centre of the wheel has a velocity v, =or,to the right too. The new velocity of point C is the vector sum of these component velocities. Sict both components have the same direction, to the right, the vector sum, or resultant is VC = 2wr -+. ~i~~ 15 And now for point B, look first at Figure 17. With the wheel axis 6 x 4 point B has p velocity o = or, vertically upwards. FoUowing the same method as for polnt C, we must add this vcctorially to the velocity of the centre, 0. It is helpful to make a sketch in this case (Figure 19). This shows that G has a magnitude v. = wr/cos 45' = @ wr, and a direction at 45' to the horizontal, so 8. = 1.41wr h 45". Figure 19 SA0 16 (a) Show that the velocity of point A in Figwe 18 is 3, = 0. (b) What is the velocity of point D? C I have chosen to look at a toothed or gear wheel because it makes clear that, with the rack fixed, the velocity of point A is inevitably zero, due to the interlocking teeth. However, for a plain wheel rolling along a horizontal surface (Figure 20), the results we have obtained will be equally true, provided that the wheel does not slip at the point of contact with the surf=. This is the condition that we normally expect with either steel wheels on steel rails or pneumatic tyres on concrm or tarmac s u r f a s . When there is insufficient friction to prevent slip the results are no longer wmct and the analysis becomes more complex. What about the accelerations of these points? Returning to Figure 17, if the gear wheel has clockwise angular acceleration, a, the rack will have a linear acceleration I I = ar, to the left. When the rack is fmed (Figure 18) the centre of the wheel will have an acceleration &, = ar, to the right. The accelerations of other points on the wheel are less easy to understand and I will defer these to the next section. A car with wheel diameter 0.52 m has travelled 1.25 km, and at this instant has a spced of 30.8 m S-' and an acceleration of 1.8 m S-'. Estimate (a) the number of revolutions completed by each wheel (b) the angular speed of a wheel (c) the angular acceleration of a wheel. \W) A bulldozer drives at 1.2 m S-' (Figure 21). The diameter of the wheel inside the track is 1.0 m. (a) Find the angular speed of the wheel. (b) Find the speed of the top point of the wheel. (c) Find the speed of the top part of the track.