Christian Magallon, Fhaiza Raza, Carla N. Saldana, and Rahul Ragu


Christian Magallon, Fhaiza Raza, Carla N. Saldana, and Rahul Ragu
Christian Magallon, Fhaiza Raza, Carla N. Saldana, and
Rahul Ragu
WRITING 101, University of California, Merced
 Our main focus in this study is: bias in the workplace
concerning leadership, power, and perception.
By Definition:
 Bias
 Leadership
 Power
 Perception
Fact or Fiction
Men & Women are Equal?
 In 2006 men held 98% of the CEO positions in large
corporations with only 2% women CEOs (Eli, 2006).
 Our research was obtained through many searches on
the University of California, Merced’s library data base.
Over 278 studies preceded using key descriptive words:
women, power, perceptions, gender bias, sexual
discrimination and leadership.
Leadership & Power
 Characteristics more male oriented (Koch, Loft, and Kruse, 2005).
 Men perceive appropriate characteristics to male
oriented (Brenner , Tomkiewicz and Schein, 1989).
 Employers prefer masculine gender characteristics to
feminine characteristics (Goktepe & Craig, 1989).
Leadership & Power contd.
 Idea of an accepted gender bias
 This lack of stimuli results in a reduction in chances of
women to take on a leadership role (Carbonell & Castro, 2008).
 Intimidation and feeling of doubt or inadequacy
Leadership & Power contd.
 Occupational Climate (Katz, 1987).
 Applied pressures
 People follow trends
 Top down (Trentham, & Larwood 1998)
 Manager’s qualities (Prime, Jonsen,Carter, & Maznevski 2008)
 Management ratings (Shore 1992)
Perceptions contd.
 Gender role (Wolf, & Flingstein 2009)
 Gender qualities (Johanson 2008)
 Past/future measures (Tougas, & Beaton 1993)
Best Perceived Candidate
& Ryan, 2008)
 Despite the belief that men and women are equal, statistics
and research show otherwise.
 Shows that biases contribute to perceptions of leadership, and
power that keep men and women from reaching equality.
 The extensive data collection through research are
 However, results of studies and interpretation are
subject to biases.
 Biased interpretations of results of supporting
research articles.
Biased interpretations of results of supporting
research articles.
False belief in glass ceiling hypothesis.
Women who are surveyed will give socially acceptable
Organizations may not want to be studied.
Future Studies & Implications
 Studies today focus only on negative stereotypes (Hoyt &
Blalscovich, 2007).
 New research should include: early intervention,
mentoring, programs to increase early exposure and
support for effected individuals
 Leadership development
 Improving the situation at the lower levels of
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