IPM and IRM of Lepidoptera: the American experience of the


IPM and IRM of Lepidoptera: the American experience of the
IPM and IRM of Lepidoptera: the American experience of the
interaction between research, industry and government
T. E. Hunt1, R. L. Hellmich2, T. W. Sappington2, and S. Paula-Moraes3.
1University of Nebraska Haskell Agricultural Laboratory, Concord, NE 68723, USA
2United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Corn Insects and Crop
Genetics Research Unit and Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA
3Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina-DF, Brasil
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Multi-State Regional
Research Committee NC-205 Ecology and Management of European Corn Borer
and Other Lepidopteran Pests of Corn was established in the 1950s to bring
scientists from the USDA and US universities together to collaboratively address
lepidopteran pests of corn. Initially focusing on European corn borer, the committee
eventually expanded its scope to address IPM of all corn Lepidoptera. In the 1990s
when Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic corn was on the path of registration and
commercialization, the NC205 committee fostered dialogue between industry,
producers, academics and regulators to address resistance management
of Ostrinia nulilalis to Bt transgenic corn. The result was the high-dose/refuge
strategy that is currently in place. Since that time this committee has sponsored
meetings and symposia with industry and the Environmental Protection Agency to
discuss insect resistance management issues. These meetings provided a forum
for all stakeholders to discuss issues concerning resistance management of corn
Lepidoptera. The meetings also provided opportunities for information sharing,
refining programs, establishing research priorities, and building understanding
among participants. The dialogue has allowed the committee to identify
science-based practical resistance management strategies. The importance of
resistance management strategies that are practical cannot be overemphasized
because the ultimate stewards of the Bt technology are the growers. So the
committee has tried, whenever possible and without compromising the scientific
integrity of resistance management, to consider grower realities. Topics discussed
include the structure of the USDA committee format, the interactions among
stakeholders, and select components of insect resistance strategies, education,
extension, managing resistance of other insects, ongoing research, and future
research needs.
Palavra-chave: Research Committee, IPM, IRM