3. T/F: The artistic process of creating graphics on a computer is similar to creating art using pen and paper, or paintbrush, oil, and canvas.
5. MC: Animation and video (moving pictures) are stored in the computer as a series of images called ____.
A . frames
6. MC: Digital graphics animation involves displaying digital ____ in rapid succession to provide the illusion of motion.
A . images
9. T/F: When you ungroup an illustration, PowerPoint breaks it into its component objects.
10. MC: A Flip-book is ________________.
B. A display book with pictures or drawings that causes the images to appear to have movement when flipped at a rapid rate
11. MC: A Cut-out Animation is ______________.
B. A type of stop-motion created by using 2-dimensional cut-out figures
12. MC: Persistence of Vision is _______________.
D. A phenomena that creates an optical illusion of motion
13. MC: A stop-motion animation is ________________.
C. A video using still shot images of inanimate objects that are manipulated in small increments from one picture to the next
14. MC: Animation is ____________________.
A. A stop-motion film
B. A scene created with inanimate objects
C. Optical illusions of movement
D. All of the above (Correct Answer)
15. MC: A type of cutout animation in which the scene is backlit is called _______________.
D. Silhouette
17. MC: A thaumatrope(as created in class) is a display with two different pictures, one on each side, and when flipped from side to side, it
will cause the brain to do what?
A. Combine the two images
18. MC: A stop-motion animation in which Lego blocks or Lincoln logs are used is called ______.
C. Object
19. MC: A stop-motion animation in which characters are made of craft dough is called ________.
C. Claymation
20. T/F: Simulation is sophisticated computer animations that imitate the operation of a real-world process.
21. SA: What is FPS?
Frames Per Second
23. MC: How is animation created?
B. Using a sequence of bitmap images when 1 or more objects are changed slightly between each image
27. T/F: The sole purpose of animation is for entertainment
28. T/F: MS PowerPoint can be used for simple key frame animations
31. T/F: 2D objects can never become 3D objects
34. MC: 2D objects can be transformed into 3D objects by a process called ___________.
E. Rendering
35. 2D objects are transformed to 3D objects by ___________.
(Both A and B)
A. Adding shadows and light
B. Defining the texture
1. What are storyboards?
A. The process of producing sketches of the shots of the script
B. Part of the pre-production (or planning) stage
C. Look like a comic book of your film without speech bubbles
D. All of the above
2. True or False. Storyboards are only used for animation projects.
3. True or False. You must be a great hand-drawing artist to storyboard.
4. What are the benefits of storyboarding?
A. It is cost effective and saves money
B. It allows for accurate planning and reduces wasted time
C. It allows everyone to share ideas and promotes consensus
D. All of the above
5. Know the 4 different types of shot descriptions:
Animation History
1. Which of the following is not an early animation device from the 19th century?
A. rotoscope
B. thaumatrope
C. phenakistoscope
D. zeotrope
6. Eadweard J. Muybridge contributed to the development of animation by:
A. creating color film
B. inventing the motion picture camera
C. taking stop action photographs of a horse running
D. developing the concept of persistence of vision
10. In 1914, John Bray Studios employee Earl Hurd simplified the animation process with the
use of _____. This new technique was quickly used by all major animation studios.
A. the rotoscope
B. the multi-plane camera
C. the pencil test
D. celluloid (transparent film)
11. Which animation pioneer created the first animated film in 1906 entitled Humorous Phases
of Funny Faces by drawing on a chalkboard?
A. Otto Messmer
B. Winsor McCay
C. Earl Hurd
D. J. Stuart Blackton
14. Which animation pioneer developed the first successful cartoon character Gertie the Dinosaur which was part of a
1914 New York vaudeville routine?
A. Otto Messmer
B. Winsor McCay
C. Earl Hurd
D. J. Stuart Blackton
16. Which cartoon was awarded the first Academy Award for Best Animated Short in 1932?
A. Koko the Clown – Fleischer Brothers
B. Flowers and Trees – Disney
C. The Milky Way – MGM
D. For Scent-imental Reasons – Warner Brothers
Bouncing Ball
Principles of animation involved in creating a bouncing ball animation
A. Motion in arcs
- Ball falls in an elliptical arc through space
- If the ball moved in a straight line between the top and bottom points of the bounce, the action would appear
B. Slow in/slow out (easing)
- As the ball falls it is accelerated by gravity
- As the ball bounces, it moves very fast at first, then is slowed by gravity at the high point of its bounce
- At the high point of the bounce, the ball is weightless
C. Squash and stretch
- When it impacts the ground, the ball squashes. The volume must remain the same. If an object becomes wider
(squashed) it must also become shorter. Squeezing a balloon illustrates the concept of constant volume while
squashing and stretching.
- At some point as the ball falls, it stretches. When it impacts the ground, it squashes. When it bounces off the
ground, it stretches again. Note how quickly the ball regains its circular shape.
12 Principles of Animation
In 1981, animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas wrote a book entitled The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation, where
they presented the 12 Principles of Animation. Most of these concepts were developed when Disney sent his animators
for drawing classes at the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles. These principles have become the industry standards
and are still used to this day.
Define the twelve principles of animation.
A. Straight Ahead versus Pose to Pose
- Straight Ahead animation means drawing the frames in sequence. This leads to spontaneous motion. It works
well with abstract animation and fluids.
- Pose To Pose is the more often used animation technique. It requires the animator to create strong poses
(keyframes) first and then add the in-between frames.
B. Arcs
- Almost all natural motion is in some form of an arc.
- If a ball is thrown, it usually follows an arched path.
- Pivot points often define the arc. The pivot point for the thigh is the hip and the pivot point for the calf is the
- Most human motion follows an arc. If a boxer throws a punch, the motion of his glove follows an arc.
C. Timing
- Timing is the amount of frames used as an object moves across the screen.
- Timing can imply weight. Light objects have less resistance and move much quicker than heavy objects.
- Actors work with their timing to get the maximum impact from their lines.
- Speed can imply emotion. A fast walk may mean happiness and a slow walk may mean depression.
- An animator must determine how many frames are needed for a given movement. A stopwatch or video
reference can be helpful.
D. Slow In and Slow Out
- Also known as ease in and ease out.
- Most motion starts slowly, accelerates, and then slows again before stopping. Imagine a car that went 40 mph
immediately when stepping on the accelerator and went to 0 mph when hitting the brake.
- Gravity has an effect on slow in / slow out. When a ball bounces, it increases in speed as it gets closer to the
ground. It decreases in speed at the top of the arch.
E. Squash and Stretch
- Living flesh distorts during motion.
- Exaggerated deformations will emphasize motion and impact.
- Although objects deform like rubber, they must maintain volume while being squashed and stretched.
- A bouncing ball will squash or elongate on impact and stretch vertically as it leaves the point of impact.
- This is the most well known and often used principle.
F. Anticipation
- Animation can occur before an action. Before you jump, you bend your knees.
- By exaggerating this action, the animator can guide the viewer’s eyes.
- The formula for most animations is anticipation, action, and reaction.
G. Follow Through and Overlap
- Follow through is the action that follows the main action. It is the opposite of anticipation.
- When a baseball bat hits the baseball, it does not stop abruptly. A boxer does not freeze at the moment a
punch lands.
- Overlapping actions means that all elements do not stop at the same time.
- A good example of overlapping action is the movement of an animal’s tail.
H. Secondary Actions
- Secondary actions are actions caused by the impact of another object. They movement of a ball that has been
kicked is a secondary action.
- Secondary actions are also minor actions that occur due to a major action. Most people blink their eyes when
they turn their head. Facial expressions are secondary actions.
I. Staging
- Staging is the clear presentation of an idea.
- The animator can use the camera viewpoint, the framing of the shot, and the position of the characters to
create a feeling or strengthen understanding.
J. Exaggeration
- Exaggeration is used to increase the readability of emotions and actions.
- Animation is not a subtle medium.
- Individual exaggerated poses may look silly as stills but add dramatic impact when viewed for a split second.
- Animators should use exaggeration to increase understanding of feeling, but be careful to not over-exaggerate
K. Solid Drawing
- To get maximum feeling from the audience, animated characters must be drawn or modeled precisely.
- Proper drawing and modeling can reveal a characters weight, character, and emotion.
- Proper drawing and modeling are needed to give the character proper depth and balance.
- When creating animated characters, it is a good idea to not add too much detail.
L. Appeal
- Animated characters need to have a unique personality and have a wide range of emotions (happy, excited,
fearful, embarrassed, angry, scared, etc.).
- Character flaws are actually a good thing. Audiences can be sympathetic to characters that have a flaw or two.
- Complex personalities and moral ethical dilemmas add to character appeal.
Column A
1. Anticipation
2. Appeal
3. Arcs
4. Exaggeration
5. Follow Through and Overlap
6. Secondary Actions
7. Slow In and Slow Out
8. Solid Drawing
9. Squash and Stretch
10. Staging
11. Straight Ahead versus Pose to Pose
12. Timing
Column B
A. Also known as ease in and ease out.
B. Amount of frames between poses.
C. Animated characters need to have a unique
personality and have a wide range of emotions.
D. Animation can occur before an action.
E. Drawing the frames in sequence versus creating
strong posed (keyframes) first and adding the
inbetween frames later.
F. Living flesh distorts during motion. Exaggerated
deformations will emphasize motion and impact.
G. Minor actions that occur due to a major action.
H. The action that follows the main action; actions do
not stop at the same time.
I. The basis for almost all natural motion; created using
a spline curve.
J. The clear presentation of an idea.
K. To get maximum feeling from the audience, animated
characters must be drawn or modeled precisely.
L. Used to increase the readability of emotions and
PART 2: Short Answer
DIRECTIONS: Identify the animation principle that is best illustrated by each description provided below. Record your
answers in the spaces provided.
13. Before a character throws a punch, he pulls his fist back.
slow in and slow out
14. A roller coaster comes to a stop at the end of the ride.
follow through and overlap
15. A girl’s pony tail moves up and down as she jumps rope.
squash and stretch
16. As a ball hits the ground, it changes shape but maintains volume.
17. The main character is positioned using the rule of thirds.
18. As a character turns his head from left to right, he dips his chin.
straight ahead versus pose to pose
19. An animator decides to animate a water splash in a frame-by-frame manner.
20. An animator decides how many frames it should take for an apple to drop to
the ground.

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