SUPERNATURAL INTERVENTION IN KALIDASA`S

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SUPERNATURAL INTERVENTION IN KALIDASA`S
SUPERNATURAL
INTERVENTION
IN
KALIDASA'S
ABHIJNANASAKUNTALA
AND
SHAKESPEARE'S
TEMPEST
by
MANDAKRANTA |BOSE
B.A.,
University of Calcutta
M.A.,
University of Calcutta
B.Lftt.,University
of Oxford
THESIS
THE
SUBMITTED
IN
REQUIREMENTS
MASTER
PARTIAL
FULFILLMENT
FOR
DEGREE
OF
THE
OF
ARTS
in
THE
FACULTY
OF
(Department
GRADUATE
of
STUDIES
Comparative
Literature)
We
accept
to
THE
this
the
thesis
required
UNIVERSITY
OF
October,
(c)
Mandakranta
as
conforming
standard
BRITISH
COLUMBIA
1978
Bose,
1978
OF
In p r e s e n t i n g
this
thesis
in p a r t i a l
fulfilment of
an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h
the
I
Library shall
f u r t h e r agree
for
scholarly
by h i s
of
make i t
t h a t permission
written
for
Columbia,
I agree
r e f e r e n c e and
f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f
thesis
It
for financial
is understood that copying or
gain s h a l l
not
this
Comparative L i t e r a t u r e
The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h
2075 W e s b r o o k
Vancouver,
V6T
thesis
be allowed without my
M a n d a k r a n t a Bose
,
Columbia
Place
Canada
1W5
24 November 1978
that
or
publication
permission.
artment of
for
study.
purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department
representatives.
this
freely available
the requirements
ABSTRACT
Widely
Kalidasa's
grounds
Abhi jnanas'akuntala
for
t h e themes
plays
set
comparison.
of
loss,
revolve
brought
s e p a r a t e d by t i m e and c u l t u r a l
Both
up f a r
i n remote
and S h a k e s p e a r e ' s
are romantic
re-union,and
round noble
lovers,
both
do t h e
action
of
The
supernatural
with
all
plays.
laws of
about
that
of
the major
of
people,
heroines
and b o t h
in
but
of
the
is
through
of
occurences
i n each
plot
the
tragedy
i n each p l a y
the events
are
elements.
t h e movement
instrument
both
made p o s s i b l e by
supernatural
s i g n i f i c a n t turns
explore
and i n n o c e n t
nature,
We f i n d on e x a m i n i n g
i s thus
status
of
the
The T e m p e s t
supernatural
command.
that
the
provide
play.
construction
plays.
The
the
the ordinary
the r e s p e c t i v e plays
for
valid
actions
supernatural
happenings
c o n c l u s i o n brought
agencies.
impetus
both
show s t r a n g e
overriding
the
in
plays
and a h a p p y
supernatural
offer
An e v e n more s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y l i e s
Not
averted
The
ordinary
K a l i d a s a and S h a k e s p e a r e make o f
supernatural
are,
Tempest
have young
use t h a t
only
as t h e y
tragicomedies
forgiveness.
away f r o m t h e s o c i e t y o f
lands.
heritage
beings
supernatural
abounds
not
the
same
i n s p e c t a c u l a r d i s p l a y s on t h e
performing
In A b h i j n a n a s a k u n t a l a
i s , however,
amazing
on t h e o t h e r
i i
deeds a t
hand,
in
stage,
Prospero's
the workings
of
i i i
the
supernatural
may be m a r v e l l o u s ,
take place before
plays
is
entirely
the
spectator's
i n f a c t much d e e p e r .
under man's
man.
By c o n t r a s t ,
sents
a scheme o f
not
t h e most
the
supernatural
must subdue
emphasizes
existence,
it
it
through
focusses
attention
and t h u s
achieves greater
perhaps
supernatural
only
even
for
i s only
of
is
and
the
dramatic
tension
of
reprevisible,
that
t o man who
Abhijnanasakuntala
of
and t h e
supernatural.
vision that
e x i s t e n c e , which
i t s anthropocentric
the
the sake
inimical,
nature,
has a b r e a d t h
unity
in
between
i s autonomous
subdue n a t u r e .
upon man as a c r e a t u r e
human a c t i o n t h a n we f i n d
actually
The T e m p e s t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e s
therefore,
the
difference
o f w h i c h human l i f e
the c o - r e x i s t e n c e o f man,
sense of
But
The
and seems t o e x i s t
part.
and t h r o u g h
Abhijnanasakuntala,
The T e m p e s t .
eyes.
I n The T e m p e s t t h e
i s a power a l i e n ,
rather
no m a g i c a l e v e n t s
in Abhijnanasakuntala
important,
it
metaphysical
control
but
implies a
is lacking
p e r s p e c t i v e The
responsible for
Tempest
h i s own
i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n
Abhijnanas'akuntala.
in
of
fate,
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
It
I have
i s a p l e a s u r e to acknowledge
received in preparing
P r o f e s s o r Andrew P a r k i n ,
methods
I thank
I am e q u a l l y g r a t e f u l
whose s e n s i t i v e and e x t e n s i v e
me t o a v o i d many e r r o r s .
f o r his constant
native
a graduate
t o P r o f e s s o r Ashok
loan of a typewriter
to the University
of;
texts
has h e l p e d
great
b e y o n d my
of B r i t i s h
w h i c h my g r a d u a t e
study
To P r o f e s s o r
f o r the preparation
in this
including the
manuscript.
h e l p e d me i n more ways
he h a s more t h a n my g r a t i t u d e .
iv
of this
Columbia
W.E.Fredeman
I am i n d e b t e d f o r many k i n d n e s s e s ,
My h u s b a n d h a s t h r o u g h o u t
think
Aklujkar
literature.
fellowship, without
J a n e Fredeman
of Sanskrit
t o me i n v e n t u r i n g
u n i v e r s i t y w o u l d n o t have been p o s s i b l e .
and D r .
of the
To P r o f e s s o r Graham Good I owe a v e r y
encouragement
f i e l d of Sanskrit
To my s u p e r v i s o r ,
him f o r h i s p a t i e n c e and
knowledge
I am a l s o m o s t g r a t e f u l
for
dissertation.
I l a r g e l y owe my u n d e r s t a n d i n g
of dramatic a n a l y s i s .
understanding.
debt
this
t h e h e l p and encouragement
than
I can
ABBREVIATIONS
NS
.
.
.
Bharata Muni, Natyasastra,
Manisha G r a n t h a l a y a ,
Sakuntala
.
.
.
Bombay:
e d . , M.M.Ghosh,
1967.
Kalidasa, Abhijnanas'akuntala,
p u b l i s h e d by t h e a u t h o r ,
v
Calcutta:
1934.
ed.,
A.B.Gajendragadkar,
TABLE
OF
CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT
i i
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
ty
ABBREVIATIONS
•.
.
Y
Chapter
I.
n.
III.
IV.
THE
TEMPEST
FOR
COMPARISON
1
ABHIJNANAS'AKUNTALA
10
THE
TEMPEST
CONCLUSION
SAKUNTALA:
AND
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
CASE
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
38
.
NOTES
SELECTED
.
A
.
vi
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
54
64
69
Chapter
THE
TEMPEST
Over
called
a
AND
"the
his
edition
of
the
East
well
often
as
been
SAKUNTALA:
century
Kaljdasa
I
ago,
A
Sir
of
in
the
West,
compared
as
the
foremost
cu 1 t u r e s }
frequently
led
Sanskritic
cultures
to
prom
the
this
and
even
Williams,
in
to
in
1876.
Kalidasa
of
the
broader
the
the
and
Indologist,
preface
Since
1
literary
comparison
comparison
COMPARISON
India"
published
as
respective
FOR
Monier
Shakespeare
Sakuntala,
CASE
to
then,
in
Shakespeare
figures
c r i t i c s
of
have
have
their
been
Elizabethan
and
the
comparative
views
of
2
East
and
West.
Of
peare's
son.
far
Both
f i r s t
away
secluded
in
ing
is
both
are
fact
both
many
the
that
be
from
point
both
iKalidasa and
of
courts
motivating
of
view
have
show
of
1
people;
which,
by
to
for
fall
are
both
evaluating
in
are
set
love
up
in
provide
Equally
interestsignificant
agencies
the
recon-
brought
history,
sharpen
compari-
of
however,
factors.
cultural
Shakes-
theme
who
who
supernatural
tried
Shakespeare
the
lovers
heroines
ordinary
and
well-suited
around
and n o b l e
royal
plays
c r i t i c s
built
innocent
the
Sakuntala
particularly
young
have
of
Kalidasa(s
dramas
society
away
Several
between
portray
the
areas
from
to
romantic
sight;
from
works,
seem
both
cases
and,
the
their
Tempest
c i l i a t i o n ;
at
a l l
at
work.
comparison
particular
aspects
2
of
their
literary
studies,
It
has
Rabindranath
the
cerned
further
with
important
of
comments
impact
elements
silent
on
attempt
in
of
there
is
a
human
world,
sees
they
so
and
says
essential
the
ships.
He
peace
through
remain
parallels
are
Tagore,
f i r s t ,
the
the
most
common
theme
young
directed
at
the
ethical
he
does
of
as
In
not
of
heroines.
address
stagecraft,
one
is
which
the
and
himself
he
I
is
shall
major
In
In
in
to
in
that
world
structural
view,
and
and
nature.
and
shows
with
the
even
for
The
beings
and
shows
Furthermore,
Shakespeare
his
to
human
i s ,
is
in
the
for
relation-
characters
s e l f - r e s t r a i n t ;
and
Sakuntall
in
Shakespeare
approaches
Kalidasa
nature
human
to
effects
In
Nature
with
Kalidasa
self-examination
of
some
belong
qualities
tune
from
ultimate
nature.
subdue
their
dramas
different.
human
Tagore's
between
difference
believes
for
differs
their
wholly
the
he
two
that
of
not
this
the
found
efforts
difference
Tagore,
and
blend
Tagore,
man' s
For
con-
the
identify
i t ,
bear
hostile.
Tempest
specifical1y
supernatural,
exclusive
harmonious
frequently
The
to
perceptive.
of
problems
the
most
such
play.
relationships
Tempest,
or
Among
innocence
As
comparatlvlsts,
mutually
messages
social
study
Tagore
the
plays.
of
quite
are,
essentially
the
the
Sakuntala.
next,
presence
previous
cultures
are
each
being
comparison
and
of
and
structure
this
As
the
of
the
components
the
for
remains
of
3
achievement.
Tagore's
Tempest
grounds
aesthetic
of
The
and
interst
r e c o n c i l i a t i o n ,
Tagore's
to
practice
on
achieving
the
other
3
hand,
Shakespeare
struggling
to
impose
with
that
separation
of
their
will
the
and
physical,
on
the
human
of
and
actions
the
Prospero
only
at
the
finds
Tagore
by
Tempest,
over
the
and
renunciation
a
which
sees
he
the
of
c r i t i c s
the
supernatural
the
same
the
destinies
He
plane
thinks
power
of
and
and
of
on
of
that
Dusyanta,
are
beginning
order
Tagore
their
inevitable
of
says
test
which
gives
also
as
play
results
the
play.
Tagore,
is
Ferdinand's
a
the
it
of
merely
love
a
serenity
sublime
passions
of
rather
man's
than
of
for
self-
tone.
in
celebration
of
the
the
the
Ka.l i d a s a
in
their
He
The
man's
conquest
oneness
the
both
natural
supernatural
characters
other
hand,
Shakespeare
but
in
did
the
at
petty
to
see
the
exist
with
in
in
any
Mansinha,
Sakunta1 a
"do
He
the
not
argues,
controlling
need
problems
of
to
the
on
that
as
human
existence
that
influence
supernatural
the
taken
conclusion
elements
5
forces
have
Mayadhara
a l l . "
uses
believed
not
Shakespeare
works.
comes
psychological
directly
and
comparison,
that
providence
providence
by
Sakuntala
Intelligence
detailed
Shakespeare,
in
greater
supernatural
a
projection
in
environments.
king
to
them
soul.
Siveral
author
much
through
universal
of
the
wanted
perceives
contrast
nature
note
natural
people
^
Miranda.
love
Tempest,
conquering
contrary,
4
less
The
S'akuntala
of
on
in
and
repentance
suffering,
as
least
forces
refusal
impulsive
Ferdinand's
at
external
their
believes
shows,
and
involve
human
a
destiny.
the
God
or
world.
4
Mansinha
supernatural
the
by
not
takes
a
At
is
that
factors.
point
a
are
theological
that
by
at
end
the
to
the
for
the
a
we
also
the
about
the
that
of
from
of
in
and
of
design
the
its
signi-
the
belief
and
the
of
in
for
of
gods,
As
mentioned
supernatural
forces
and
leads
7
of
Sakuntala,
God.
Mansinha
From
Shakespeare
relevance
over-
curse
lovers.
Raleigh,
seems
destiny
of
act
elements
all
SSlSa k e s p e a r e
Walter
that
that
the
psychological
Kalidasa
loses
of
that
seventh
Shakespeare's
comparison
essay
see
at
tragedy
consequence
general
of
and
supernatural
text,
is
the
psychological
characters
re-union
taken
plane
the
believes
view,
and
of
time,
shaped
also
speculations
his
claim
the
nature
same
his
symbolIzations
This
on,
same
the
any
destinies
of
on
that
given
Dusyanta
leads
Mansinha
happenings
into
is
revealed
design
above,
and
saying
been
But
the
the
characters
which
not
neglectful
Sakuntala
in
Sakuntala
Kalidasa.
Durvasas.
the
in
has
influence
strangely
right
exist
supernatural
ficance
do
is
this
becomes
the
present
study.
Commenting
general,
is
M.M.
directed
Sharma
at
in
Sanskrit
literary
genena1;e
passion
the
an
supernatural
argues
a
that
sense
spectator.
He
by
of
tells
in
use
of
us
Sanskrit
of
wonder
reminds
us
that
the
a
that,
poetry
heroism
wonder,
the
and
dramatic
either
feelings
Sharma
the
of
theoreticians,
awareness
supported
indispensable.
the
creating
surprise
to
on
or
this
drama
in
supernatural
measure
of
according
was
of
last
to
expected
romantic
being
supernatural
was
used
5
_
_
by
Kalidasa
In
another
and
others
a r t i c l e ,
wonderful
and,
unnatural
event
ordinary
power
garments
and
by
to
Sharma
some
is
of
create
strange
sage,
jewellery
sense
discusses
explained
a
this
as
for
the
logic,
of
the
supernatural
concludes
the
working
of
in
the
case
Kanva's
of
when
the
she
and
that
as
Sakuntala
marvellous.
8
the
when
an
extraacquiring
sets
out
for
9
Dusyanta
s
i d y l l i c
to
the
that
on
the
comedies.
To
of
him
Arden.
Sa kun ta1 a ,
Sanskrit
Like
of
Shakespeare's
appears
similar
Shakespeare's
depends
does
not,
sont
d ' a f f a l b l i r
efface,
d'accord
much
on
however,
plots,
chance
and
elaborate
admetter
of
thing
audience
that
diminished
bevh'ii h i m s e l f
paraltre
have
pue'ril
points
a
pour
on
to
only
a
dans
la
it
is
interest
role
in
et
que
raffine',
le
ne
If
we
doubtful
the
trop
secondaire
^
enfeebled
" L ' a r t i f i c e ,
de
Les
1'action."
time,
le
et
theorie
supernatural
I'Inde."
secondary
role
the
gout
tout
humaines
of
12
vraisemblance
penetre
un
ou
scholar
I'emploi;
denouer
Kaliidasa"s;
out,
notre
a
denouement
thought
or
qui
French
passions
re'duit
pour
of
would
1 ha
des
au
think
they
jeu
excepte"
que
whether
le
en
century
merveilleux
K'alidasa
n1interviennent
the
nineteenth
"Le
dieus
ral
with
hermitage
many
notes,
athe
says,
I'interet;
presque
gout
la
supernatural.
Sakuntala
Basham
Le'v.J,
drama,
menagalt
diminuer
as
be
Kanva's
Basham
supernatural.
to
comment.^
sujet
et
ceases
compares
Sylvain
of
i t
A.L.Basham
forest
of
his
kingdom,
of
risque
as
some-
the
play;
de
choquait
pas
s
Levi
relegates
Sakuntala
because
the
supernatu-
his
interest
6
lies
primarily
structure.
of
is
so,
more
the
in
the
also
plot
is
used
in
Sakuntala
to
then
it
d i f f i c u l t
plot.
above,
he
a
supernatural
in
Sakuntala.
brief
survey
The
though
tacit
several
studies
compared
their
of
dramatic
natural
elements
use
Sakuntala
and
reasons
have
also
attempt
influences
that
in
The
to
the
not
the
plot
given
at
show
how
course
of
Kalidasa
and
of
relationship
seem
the
the
made
and
super-
trop
in
The
of
necessity
one
my
aim
Shakespeare
and
particularly
action
in
has
is
of
this
suited,
this
comyet
fundamentals
make
for
that,
for
p r e s e n t stwdy.,
the
is
suggests
no
does,
the
the
of
Sakuntala
Tempest
of
and
which,
gout
one
Shakespeare
the
the
be
than
taste
Kalidasa,
handling,
could
play
importance
the
If
observation
above
extensively
with
as
Levi's
beginning
human
of
"notre
highlight
of
a
supernatural
construction,
Tempest
of
the
plot.
what
c r i t i c a l
as
accepted
plot
In
the
But
have
Kalidasa
although
man's
of
structure
plot-
that
the
understand
his
in
admits
unravel
terms
Shakespeare
technique.
the
I
of
I
have
methods
examine
he
admission
c r i t i c s
parative
of
happenings.
nevertheless
he
not
disparagement
discounts
d o.e s
to
the
product
Sakuntal a
strange
in
Levi's
a
cited
Perhaps
and
is
importance
of
passage
because
magic
quality,
mention
evidently
raffine."
poetic
does
unfolding
is
and
he
primary
natural
theme
When
supernatural
that
in
to
super-
purpose
for
chapter.
the
I
shall
supernatural
Sakuntala
differed
in
supernatural,
their
they
and
that,
understanding
nevertheless
7
admitted
man's
interpreted
such
- - ,
exercise
such
as
obvious
in
here
obvious
spirits
the
more
closeness
phenomena
under
seems
at
that
is
higher
place
the
as
it
that
the
major
directed
of
direct ion.
at
of
of
who
about
portion
of
discovering
supernatural
the
events
of
the
some
supernatural
Sakuntala.
As
against
the
supernatural
The
Tempest
is
to
Prospero,
portrays
Inextricably
the
human
arises
functions
a
linked
out
of
unmistakable
l i f e
in
Furthermore,
Sakuntalf
yet
work
according
however,
to
the
in
the
two
events
and
correlates
w i l l ,
significant
turns
noting
perceived
and
s'tuely
elements
is
hand,
significant
this
by
Structurally,
similar
or
the
background.
guide
purpose.
gods
obvious
subservient
Sakuntala
gods,
closely
brings
Is
includes
supernatural
in
the
other
action
begin
evident,
in
autonomous
less
function
than
work
--
It
is
prognostication.
The
always
the
and
usefully
Tempest
On
Inscrutable
has
to
The
once
If
is
possible.
beings
or
and
'supernatural'
disappearances,
men,
Tempest
which
design,
supernatural
use
the
The
in
beings,
own
may
w i l l .
humanity.
Prospero's
study
always
at
by
consideration.
in
magic,
it
of
about
uses
the
and
present
who
be
appearances
The
supernatural
A
supernatural
premonition
plays
them.
as
term
manner
powers
points
insofar
broadest
the
the
their
The
powers
Sakuntala
with
i t .
fantastic
immediately
force
the
magical
of
Prospero's
of
in
to
the
for
this
points
plot
in
at
a
plays
reason,
which
particular
8
Related
examining
workings
about
the
of
to
terms
the
the
effective.
guiding
figure
of
which
Again,
of
Prospero
providence.
would
the
my
and
The
shows
is
neither
in
The
such
of
the
is
explicit
throughout.
visible
the
task
perceives
them
so
focal
second
Tempest
Tempest
occupying
No
be
spectator
forces.
happenings
supernatural
diately
role
in
analysis
supernatural
supernatural
Sakuntala
the
this
we
nor
always
stage
point
In
so
imme-
have
the
virtually
of
power
in
is
y
available
more
by
purpose
divine
t i l l
in
than
is
in
revealed
design
end
The
In
The
in
of
in
Tempest,
certainly
on
has
shows,
the
the
play.
other
Yet,
as
as
that
Durvasas
had
[
"My
1
Viskambhaka,'
a
conception
is
said:
words
the
act
with
withheld
The
the
is
a
tool
great
as
Prospero's
the
of
learn
me
be
the
understanding
from
baanam
is
the
enough.
man's
and
to
hands.
so
his
independent
Anasuya's
]
Kanva
evidently
revoke
annaha
otherwise"
that
and
obvious
in
force
introductory
supernatural
but
ambiguities.
i n a b i l i t y
abstract
"Tado
human
is
full
We
Prospero's
Sanskrit
supernatural
an
supernatural
- ' ! . ; * ' -
is
is
the
Tempes t ,
from
hand,
cannot
i s ,
of
between
the
us
demonstration.
T.;c iiojor
destiny.
that
of
f i r s t
Durvasas1
supernatural
man's
direct
supernatural
powers
guiding
acquaints
difference
the
man,
narihadi"
the
handling
the
Durvasas.
by
Sakuntala
major
play
Sakuntala,
has
which
implication
the
English
Sakuntala
curse
of
report
bhabidum
(Act
IV,
scene).
This
represents
clearly
different
from
9
what
we
find
in
The
However,
varies
in
between
the
the
them,
although
the
plays,
there
two
because
in
situation
becomes
in
through
the
future
precise
the
of
these
nature
plays
plays.
The
and
is
a
play
forces
reconciliation.
operation
ensured.
status
each
workings.<ofisupernatural
final
of
Tempest.
a
of
aim
component
which
of
function
key
supernatural
events
whcih
The
of
study
this
the
functional
tragedy
this
of
of
similarity
arise
also
out
bring
supernatural
the
dramatic
is
averted
is
to
agency
in
about
the
thus
action
and
examine
the
of
a
happy
the
framework
Chapter
II
ABHIJNANASAKUNTALA
Kalidasa
greatest
to
six
of
lyrical
love
have
poem,
as
A
been
by
regarded
works
found
him.
have
to
They
three
long
Of
most
c r i t i c a l
well-known
of
attributed
spurious.
However,
Meghaduta,
poetical
pieces;
Meghaduta ,
a l l
literature
epigram
the
and M a i a v i k a g n i -
these ,
perfect
as
been
are:
VikramorvasTya,
dramas.
be
and A b h i j n a n a s a k u n t a l a ^
the
Sanskrit
Kalidasa.
Many
Kumarasambhava,
romantic
centuries
Sanskrit.
to
which
A b h i j na n a s a k u n t a l a ,
three
traditionally
poets.
definitely
and
mi t r a ,
for
of
are
Raghuvams'a,
and
been
Sanskrit
h i m , some
works
has
have
been
literary
is
tells
full
us
a
of
long
regarded
works
in
encomiums
that
Kavyesw natakam ramyam t a t r a ramya
Sakuntala.
[ Of a l l f o r m s ' o f
poetry,
dr.ama i s t h e m o s t
p l e a s i n g , and among d r a m a s S a k u n t a l a
pleases
best.
]
The
the
Western
translation
Sakuntala
languages.
of
has been
world
Sir
came
William
translated
Goethe
was f u l l
Willst
du
die
of
to
know
Jones
into
in
1789.
almost
praise
Bllithe
Sakunta1 a
des
a l l
for
fruhen
through
Since
then
European
Sakuntala:
die
Friichte des spateren
Jahres.
W i l l s t d u , was r e i z t und
entzuckt,
W i l l s t du was s a t t i g t und n a h r t .
W i l l s t d u d e n H i m m e l , d i e E r d e , m i t e i n e m Namen
begriefen,
N e n n ' i c h , S a k u n t a l a , D i e , und so i s t A l l e s
gesagt.
10
11
[
If
in
e a r l y and
fruits
of r i p e r
years,
Of e x c i t e m e n t a n d e n c h a n t m e n t
I should
t e l l ,
Of f u l f i l l m e n t a n d c o n t e n t ,
o f Heaven and
earth;
Then w i l l
I but say " S a k u n t a l a " and have s a i d a l l .
According
influenced
by
one
to
the
word
of
Heinrich
prologue
blooms
Heine,
to
of
Goethe
Sakuntal a
in
was
actually
conceiving
the
-f
;
5
form
a
of
the
Kalidasa
"Vorspiel
c r i t i c
human
content
would
remain
European
of
within"
if
we
"Sophocles,
Virgil
Kalidasa
a
able
to
leave
exception
philosophy
were
of
These
lies
Kalidasa's
to
l i f e
overwhelmed
interest
because
Ruben,
find
"the
general
remarks
"rJow
poor
we
Ryder
and
Faust.
to
ourselves
to
our
German
compares
notes
the
Kalidasa
that
world
and
"we
has
know
not
that
been
the
appreciations
aesthetic
fn
appeal ,
Sa kun t a i l a .
are
Inner
Tagore
without
meaning
and
the
nature
and
his
portrayal
of
or
Goethe
a e s t h e t i c appeal of the p l a y .
—
—
d i s c o v e r i n g K a l i d a s a ' s philosophy of
of
with
7
c r i t i c a l
found
by
in
love
poet,
in
tries
and
Milton,"
alone."
directed
times,
Professor
and
him
Theatre"
Sakuntala
confined
great
However,
dem
recent
culture."^
is
auf
the
Ruben's
8
l i f e .
relationq
ship
between
man
Many
c r i t i c s
have
The
is
closest
in
tions
of
the
that
attempt
prescribed
Bharata.
This
and
nature
been
charmed
c r i t i c s
to
for
is
have
see
have
the
by
in
the
come
h o w we'll ll
drama
attracted
to
lyricism
the
study
fitt c o n f o r m s
theoretical
purpose
other
that
runs
to
texts
c r i t i c s .
in
K a l i d a s a . ^
of
the
of
through
technique
conventhe
the
school
12
studies
by
M.R.Kale
supernatural
and
B.Bhattacharya.
occurences
without
Kale
examining
itemizes
their
structural
1 2
function
in
the
play,
pondence
between
while
Sakuntala
and
Bhattacharya
precepts
of
notes
the
Sanskrit
corjresdramatic
theory..
Sanskrit
to
be
not
a
form
only
of
although
of
they
approach
that
most
the
thematic
enhance
present
fore
of
However,
context
is
the
of
dramatic
In
its
Bharata.
earliest
was
indispensable.
so
generally
on
of
Sakuntala
the
and
play
to
confine
analyses
are
the
interested
exclusion
themselves
have
done
a
structure.
dramatic
plot
development
elements
in
Kalidasa's
will
and
be
Written
available
in
the
useful
practice
drama,
is
in
to
much
they
to
tell
The
studying
play
to
is
note
Sanskrit
classical
dominated
the
treatise
by
of
the
there-
craftsmanship.
orientation
later
mind,
influential
as
it
function
entertainment
thought,
theory
the
the
Kalidasa's
theoretical
especially
of
so,
had
of
supernatural
do
drama
drama
human
thematic
analyse
we
view
consider
the
structure,
play
theory
elevating
writing
content
the
to
of
been
understanding
before
the
but
understanding
at
Natyaslastra
it
and
about
aimed
drama,
critics
While
attempt
function
their
has
drama
study.
nothing
In
to
form
our
literary
that
modern
of
on
admitted
philosophical
studies
us
poetry.
entertaining
This
in
writers
on
second
the
literature.
Indian
by
the
century
Sanskrit
A.D.,i.5
dramaturgy.
13
Bharata
defines
drama
as:
h a n a b h a v o p a s a i j i p a n n a m n a n a v a s t h a n t a r a t ma kam.
il.okavrttanukaranam natyam etan
maya.krtam.'
CNS.* I . " I l l - 1 2 )
[ The drama as I have d e v i s e d i t ,
is
the
i m i t a t i o n of the a c t i o n s and c o n d u c t of
people,
r i c h i n v a r i o u s e m o t i o n s and d e p i c t i n g
different
stages (in their development).
]
Later
size
writers
on
other
tion
the
hand
of
one
see
of
the
of
is
tragic
the
the
expected
to
ending,
and
furthering
it
end
of.drama
fact
that
the
so
be
be
happiness.
An
theory
progress
of
joy
judged
far
as
we
of
the
action
notes
the
factors
the
concept
its
of
in
the
know,
there
subject,
satisfactory
a
was
consequence
plot
towards
the
evolu-
and
be
views
on
drama,the
can
important
always
the
the
considered
empha-
and
of
Sanskrit.1tWhatever
to
drama,
goal
should
f i t t i n g
carefully
Drama
that
of
They
depicting
Concerning
influence
dramatic
the
of
The
in
closely.
nature
instrument
suggest
in
the
mimetic
states.
order
end
of
an
Bharata
mind.
in
Sanskrit
terms
the
as
drama
play
in
follow
remarkable
Sanskrit
that
it
only
light
no
hand
theorists
elevation
as
drama
emotional
Sanskrit
joy
on
is
development
the
happy
obstructing
or
denouement.
(--
the
Sanskrit
term
is
'rupaka'
--)
can
be
1 4
of
ten
of
these
should
ranga.*
different
kinds
categories,
begin
with
Those
a
a
set
and
our
'nataka.'
of
play
belongs
Rupaka,
preliminaries
preliminaries
consist
of
or
to
the
drama
called
songs
in
the
and
f i r s t
general,
'purva-
dances
to
14
propitiate
gods
no
on
bearing
begins
by
a
with
divided
a
or
into
the
are
entire
a
kind
and
each
play
in
may
f i c t i o n ,
parts
play.
play
of
drama,
the
the
of
a
the
play.
based
or
a
on
a
mixture
by
a
divisions
dramatic
be
of
that
action,
theory.
and
the
denotes
which
stages
of
development.
The
tional
points
in
that
of
action.
the
its
the.
The
pratimukha-samdhi,
action
five
'
the
a
be
It
the
'samdhis'
'bharatavakya
, '
found
in
dramaturgy,
of
kinds,
two
to
main
or
is
main
plot
it
links
in
into
1
a
Sanskrit
a
five
meaning
the
the
sub-
into
the
the
chief
primary
be
a
chain
of
development
successive
are.thus
into
1
in
the
of
divided
the
and
may
l i t e r a l l y
are,
' garbha-samdhi , '
is
- - a r e
'samdhis'
lead
and
through
evoked
points
action
is
place
not
format
theme,
indicates
divide
though
the
preludes
time,
Sanskrit
'Samdhi, '
1
of
by
to
play.
The
two.
followed
proper
"correspond
legendary
'samdhis.
term
may
is
play
with
sentiment
Plots
proper
The
acts,
of
drama
and
one-act
theory
have
play
general
action
1
the
the
These
Western
dramatic
to
the
which
introduced
ends
This
the
These
the
unities
always
even
'rasaf'
of
is
being
single
benediction.
to
hero.
The
within
joined
juncture,
act
Then
benediction,
the
interludes.
secondary.
plots
to
audience.
play.
introduction
sometimes
A
the
the
a
observed
constituents
and
of
or,
an
According
plot
entertain
action
acts,
closing
every
to
'nandi,'
containing
action
or
the
'prastavana,'
playwright
and
and
transi-
next
mukha-samdhi
stage
,
1
avamars'a-samdhi , '
'
15
and
1
ni rvahana-samdhi
what! i would'
tion,
the
the
the
movement
essential
and
out
1
of
' b l j a , '
seed
the
incident,
might
of
wish
the
Sanskrit
some
a
theorists
of
the
drama
prospect
and
' phalltgama ,
whether
That
to
is
the
the
theories
on
actions
The
into
the
1
the
many
action
is
and
set
divisions
to
in
suggests
of
units
of
of
clear
to
has
'prakarl,
to
of
us
as
we
the
five
1
the
'avasthas':
praptyasa", '
success,
result.
We
may
l i f e
any
or
this
that
always
drama
is
note
purposeful
in
the
action,
imagination.
analytical
based
the
1
The
of
recommend
that
contis
certainty
the
they
of
identify
effort,
analyze
real
dictum
conduct
smaller
way
theorists
Bharata's
the
the
f u l f i l l e d .
intention
action
'yatna,'
attainment
as
the
recognized:
sign
be
plainly
The
in
episode,
to
not
'niyatapti,'
logical
action
are
fs
the
the
general
drama.
success,
Sanskrit
dramatic
the
of
'bindu,'
i s ,
are
1
classify
detail
that
stages
arthaprakrtis
purpose
the
the
minute
1
terms
beginning,
in
Five
But
the
to
various
be
'arambha,'
further
and
to
of
us
plot
the
exposi-
action,
action
'pataka,'
the
f a l l i n g
'avasthas,'
action,
these
as
and
1
respectively
the
help
offthe
drop),
of
elements
this
catastasis,
'karya,'
structural
that
the
the
terminology
'samdhis'
plot.
of
and
them
the
nature
of
points"introduce
Western
arthaprakrtis
( l i t e r a l l y ,
meanings
in
The
the
elements
development
the
known
conclusion.
marking
nuity
These
1
progression,
and
by
be
.
approach
their
imitation
the
of
men.
the
which
action
are
are
far
further
too
divided
complicated
and
not
16
quite
of
relevant
the
stages
to
of
the
relationship
and
the
our
the
present
action,
between
' av a st ha s '
study.
a
the
For
table
is
'samdhis,
1
easier
given
the
comprehension
below
showing
'arthaprakrtis , '
:
Samd h i
Arthaprakrti
Mukha
identifies
BTja
Avastha
and
introduces
Arambha
Pratimukha
"
Bindu
"
Yatna
Garbha
"
Pataka
"
Praptyas'a
Avamars'a
"
PrakarT
"
Niyatapti
Nirvahana
"
Karya
"
Phalagama
SaDskrit
the
obvious
were
types
of
tory
to
to
the
use
scene,
supplying
an
1
the
the
it
possible
matter
then,
or
of
different
the
like
that
a
some
function
the
a-Re*
' v i s kambha ka , '
behind
the
scene,
an
to
1
act
an
a
the
types
to
the
act.
It
of
these
between
scene
' c u l i k a ' ;
introduce
Sanskrit
1
for
drama
the
explana-
a
1
scene
following
is
not
them
vary
is
It
and
might
thus
'ahkamukha'
would
choice
and
partly
instance,
an
one,
quite
scenes
s i m i l a r l y ,
act.
five
revelation,
revelation,
an
of
The
the
ankavatara,
'viskambhaka ,
behind
of
scene
with
Playwrights
'arthopaksepakas.'
functions
A
classical
as
five
distinction
'pravesaka,'
in
all
preface
emphasis.
present
perform
may,
of
that
acts,
plays.
from
the
into
one-act
some
1
divided
short,
known
transition
how,precisely,
easily
any
always
introductory
clear
a
of
acts,
' c u l i k a ,
'ahkamukha,'
is
were
.' a r t h o p a k s e p a k a s '
'pravesaka,
and
exception
expected
preambles
plays
of
seem,
any
17 .
'arthopaksepaka'
in
particular
individual
preference-.-
bhaka'
1
and
p r a v e s'a k a .
Four
tation
are
styles,
'satvatT,'
the
part
verbal
action.
the
f i t
portrayal,
many
ways
but
ter,
and
A
should
can
'madhyama,'
fied,
be
an
full
to
the
'madhyama'
a
some
is
the
law
a
kinds
suits
graceful
of
its
character
lead.
conceived
have
an
impressive
have
and
sportive.
control
of
grave
while
charac-
is
an
and
over
A
a
royal
lover
his
senses.
refinement,
'adhama,'
'uttama'
in
self-possessed,
intelligent
or
faults,
all
be
manners,
person
Natyasa s t r a ,
for
can
s p i r i t ,
person,
'BharatT,'
'ArabhatT'
followed
hero
should
are,
p l o t s . ^
should
in
represen-
These
'KaisikT'
strong,
'uttanfa,'
has
mode.
have
a
of
be
and
average
'viskam-
dramatic
suitable
formulates
he
graceful
addition
be
uses
'ka i s i kT.1
is
erotic
also
main
courageous,
heroine
According
the
dramatist's
drama.
and
action.
and
of
on
heroic
treatises
noble,
in
the
Natyasastra,
in
grave,
truth,
is
energetic
the
should
writers
representation,
other
a
Kalidasa
' v r t t i s , '
'arabhatT,'
romantic
and
to
of
by
Natyasastra
According
hero
of
for
The
steady,
called
'SatvatT'
depiction
style
of
Sakuntala
on
1
recommended
'bharatT,'
of
In
depended
a
coarse
patient
woman.
and
'adhama'
digniheroine
18
is
a
disreputable
or
sinful
many
subdivisions
of
these
disregard
only
to
here
their
confusion.
person.
basic
over-precise
Later
theorists
character-types,
but
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which
suggest
we
may
leads
18
In
only
tic
is
discussing
mention
impact
that
field
of
structural
of
of
drama,
drama.
'rasa,'
Sanskrit
features
The
translated
"aesthetic
from
poetic
far
ordinary
or
Bharata,
no
meaning
who
its
unless
composition
it
also
to
the
arouses
a
is
and
theory
the
theories
that
vital
in
Usually
distinguishes
element
in
presentation.
of
'rasa,
audience
to
h
an
the
most
goes.
phrase
its
the
not
aesthe-
complex
perhaps
the
the
their
most
interpretation
'rasa'
propounded
the
successors
examine
central
emotion,"
emotion,
dramatic
to
as
and
his
also
probably
aesthetics
so
it
is
and
but
concept
which
controversial
as
Bharata
a
any
According
drama
has
aesthetic
1 g
appreciation
of
emotions.
therefore
be
judged
to
by
A
his
dramatist's
handling
of
achievement
emotions.
is
In
other
20
words,
'rasa'
The
eight
is- t h e
tradition
aesthetic
'rasas'
of
soul
of
the
play.
established
emotions
eroticism,
as
by
proper
comedy,
to
pathos,
Bharata
identifies
drama.
These
heroism,
are
anger,
the
fear,
21
disgust,
and
to
up
one
principal
diversified
and
enriched
of
build
the
points
Sakuntala.
always
a
sense
wonder.
He
convey
of
Bharata
tells
to
the
The
emotion
by
makes
us
dramatist
that
which
other
is
expected
must
subsidiary
particularly
the
spectator
is
denouement
the
'adbhuta
be
gradually
supported,
feelings.
relevant
of
a
One
to
play
rasa,'
that
should
i s ,
wonder:
sarvesam kavyanam
nirvahahe
kartavyo
nanarasabhavayuktiyuktanam
nityam hi raso'adbhutas
tajjnaih
(NS.
XX.
46-7)
1 9
[ Replete with different emotions,
n e c e s s a r i l y t e r m i n a t e s by a r o u s i n g
of
wonder.]
Judged
in
this
Bharata's
show,
an
lopment
views,
the
King
not
at
the
the
bee
With
and,
due
by
a
Dusyanta
the
pretext
Burning
marry
sign
of
with
a
of
The
her
defending
it
his
each
in
turns
king
in
wild
the
deve-
events.
the
sage
The
sage
is
daughter,
companions
saves
in
his
will
Sakuntala
falls
stay
plot
of
to
foster
girl
returns
other,
its
tracing
Menaka.
two
from
of
comes
gallant
his
exemplify-.
excursion.
Beauty,
Sakuntala
for
us
many
nymph
with
prolongs
love
the
hunting
the
Bee.
by
help
meets
to
outline
Hastinapura
along
struck
modesty,
of
king
child
plants
also
through
during
the
appears
following
will
action
but
frightened
the
the
Dusyanta
home,
watering
Sakuntala
that
hermitage
Sakuntala,
is
as
outline
of
Kanva's
l i g h t ,
all
poetry
a sense
is
when
her
love
she
from
with
her.
love.
the
hermitage
animals
Dusyanta
and
and
under
demons.
Sakuntala
secretly.
of
The
king
his
troth-plighting
Sakuntala,
who
has
is
to
to
return
follow
to
the
leaves
him
capital
his
signet
later.
Kanva
and
as
ring
is
the
with
s t i l l
away
*
and
Sakuntala
hermit
Is
Durvasas
day-dreaming.
visits
s'akuntala,
who
slight
him
by
her
the
effect
to
is
not
lost
the
in
paying
that
Meanwhile,
hermitage,
thoughts
attention,
she
will
be
of
the
and,
irascible
imagining
Dusyanta,
pronounces
forgotten
by
a
that
wishes
to
curse
on
the
person
20
whose
thoughts
so
plead
for
Durvasas
one
will
token,
remember
an
ignorant
her
her,
of
the
he
curse
her.
When
relents
only
by
enough
when
may
have
her
Sakuntala's
he
say
catches
given
two
to
that
sight
her.
friends
friend
her
of
some
Sakuntala
who
;
wish
loved
is
to
kept
spare
anxiety.
his
absence,
escort
Dusyanta,
now
of
his
disciples.
he
fails
has
been
but
is
where
lost
a
the
Inside
a
fish
by
police
suspicion
restored
of
on
r i n g ,
her
to
birth
Sakuntala
as
might
arrange
away
to
the
son.
meantime,
a
fisherman
attempting
officers.
having
seeing
Dusyanta
heartless
conduct
fight
for
the
war.
While
the
is
gods
He
stolen
i t .
and
he
after
stay
the
he
at
the
the
her
Kasyapa
is
ring
caught
king
under
memory
is
gets
reward.
himself
is
battle
her
house
by
of
the
w i l l i n g l y
of
rejects
he
fisherman
to
recognition,
king's
king's
blames
with
spite
pitied
before
When
place
in
aided
it
in
presented
wife
is
sell
the
the
demons,
earth
her
finds
Sakuntala.
against
to
and
is
hermitage
to
But
happened
Dusyanta
brought
repentant
towards
returning
is
r i n g ,
now
have
s'akuntala
a
while
his
for
to
and
has
husband^s
Sakuntala.
plight,
taken
what
her
her
which
by
of
to
When
recognize
enough
and
gives
Sakuntal"a
rtver
In
Menaka,
In
two
in
priest.
she
to
The
concerned
mother,
approves
sends
reminders.
his
returns,
and
her
of
her
ornament
Kanva
an
occupy
a
for
called
goes
in
to
his
to
the
heaven,
21
Dusyanta
happens
Kasyapa.
There
and
discovers
united
by
with
he
that
t e l l i n g
him
watches
a
boy
playing
his
own
son,
is
great
the
PadmapurTna,
of
epics
22
this
of
and
in
'nataka'
genre, (for
'nataka'
in
the
classical
purposes,
The
story
with
divine
a
him
sage
lion
Bharata.
frees
is
We
Sanskrit
Borrowed
doing
so
the
He
of
cub
is
his
re-
guilt
Mahabharata,
find
a
work
of
Natyasastra)
But
keeping
in
similar
a
one
story
later
way
while
the
which
only
is
a
type
was
Kalidasa
epic
on
legendary
followed
is
,
intact
the
the
he
Sakuntala
found
his
the
curse.
story
India.
legends.
own
the
of
of
in
date
than
-
Kalidasa
Mahabharata,
hermitage
Kasyapa
of
another
-
play.
and
story
source
two
losing
the
he
the
the
on
v i s i t
Sakuntala,
The
our
to
theme
convention
of
drama
required
adapted
the
of
be
of
f a i r l y
simple:
King
the
based
legend
outline
expedition,
the
termed
to
the
a .hunting
from
the
to
his
story.
Dusyanta,
reaches
Kanva's
0
S
hermitage,
her
meets
descent,
accepts
ssor,
afraid
their
her
son
Sakuntala
impatiently
condition
marries
of
_
her,
puBlic
nine
learns
proposes
that
leaves
censure,
years
alone,
her
for
son
his
rejects
later.
the
The
from
own
'gandharva'
alone
would
palace,
and
her
her
when
she
intervention
mouth
marriage,
be
his
later,
succebeing
arrives
of
a
with
voice
from
23
heaven
by
brings
about
This
version
Kalidasa.
He
has
their
of
the
re-union.
story
invented
the
has
been
episodes
elaborated
of
upon
Durvasas'
22
curse,
away
the
of
giving
Sakuntala,
reawakening
invitation
visit
of
the
of
to
the
re-union
of
might
in
"a
well-known
ring
with
to
her
fight
Hemakuta
An
found
tales.
To
the
important
the
gods,
of
wandering
of
the
words
Indra's
the
in
episode
folk-lore
it
is
his
homeland
leaves
herself
his
play.
from
and
and
the
Ruben,
far
the
subsequent
is
ring
of
home
identify
r i n g ,
the
addition
man
can
the
hermitage),
t i t l e
hurries
of
wafting
repentance,
(Kasyapa's
the
maiden,
she
his
use
love
that
and
for
in
Menaka's
recovery
motif
of
so
a
r i n g ,
the
legend
a
the
memory
acknowledged
have
Buddhist
learns
to
Sakuntala.
as
or
king's
to
of
fisherman's
king
king
ring,
losing
the
the
the
with
Kalidasa
who
and
or
a
her
token
coming
24
child
to
him
1ater
Apart
loped
the
four
has
of
the
Kalidasa's
in
the
by
The
some
them
The
and
The
epic,
is
bare
four
Kanva
and
with
it
of
in
the
the
is
has
we
of
is
drama
the
through
course
with
to
are
understand
character,
only
thirty-two
indispensable
for
that
deve-
Bharata.
necessary,
s'akuntala
out
Mah"abharata
heroine
them
has
introducing
the
outline
f i l l e d
ones,
and
of
with
of
the
personages
friends
most
Kalidasa
characters
in
major
two
portrayal
new
Sakuntala,
these
of
episodes,
story
Dusyanta,
play.
The
new
adding
conversation
achievement.
it
~-
creation
Sakuntala's
feelings.
also
surrounded
characters,
action
inventing
elements.
characters
Kalidasa
new
from
story
supernatural
on."
as
a
her
major
we
find
passion,
and
23
yet,
in
doing
so
Kalidasa
Natyasastra
concerning
Even
playfulness
in
young
her
girl
and
conventional
mising
fully
in
promise
to
she
trials
deference
marks
homage
she
Mahabharata
give
her
shows
self-respect,
to
the
advice
charaterization
S'akuntall
that
the
the
the
her
feminine
deserving
rejection
her
in
self-respect
character
king
yet
conforms
has
she
the
the
--
to
her
husband
her
out
as
f i n a l l y
the
a
moving
self-restraint
--
and
bursts
into
an
only
her
uncompro-
individual
not
in
a
despite
After
a
of
Unlike
does
throne.
anger
heroine.
mature
wins.
she
the
innocence
displays
version
son
of
of
the
make
the
the
king's
conformity
once
when
with
she
says:
anajja,
attano
hlaanumaneria
L I g n o b l e m a n , do y o u
o f y o u r own h e a r t ?
]
pekkhasi
judge
by
the
measure
(Act
But
on
the
she
a
does
king's
not
rail
duty
as
Mahabharata.
s i b i l i t y .
This
the
hermits
but
complementary
the
type
motherly
does
Kalidasa
possessed
often
hermitage,
and
heroine
is
Invents
and
other
found
in
the
or
of
the
his
becomes
among
a
him
of
legend
is
an
the
loving,
One
in
are
is
Sanskrit
Kanva,
considerate
found
is
of
Kanva,
self-
ascetic
literature.
also
father
in
opposite
and
master
119)
respon-
given
calm
p.
advice
sole
impatient
GautamT,
sage
with
disciples
who
angry,
sages
the
two
Saradvata,
hermitage,
hands
shower
Kalidasa's
the
characteristics.
the
matron
Dusyanta
deviation
also
Sarngarava
while
invention
at
V,
of
The
Kalidasa's
of
while
the
retaining
24
his
status
The
jester,
r e l i e f ,
his
is
living
than
to
the
affords
the
a
clown,
for
and
the
character
all
the
prescience
audience
his
is
Mahabharata
in
and
him
as
creation
of
character
opportunist
becomes
a
noble,
individual,
the
powers.
comic
Dusyanta's
selfish
prescribed
other
regards
another
s e l f - c o n t r o l 1ed
Ideal
and
frequent
king
plays.
thoughtless,
in
righteous
up
with
to
the
legend
blessed
This
common
and
the
d u t i f u l ,
he
friend.
and
of
sage
more
elevated
king
a
while
closest
Kalidasa
is
as
fully
treatises
on
drama,
25
the
type
does
at
not
the
tion
for
known
his
of
clearly
absolved
careful
to
uses
modify
pi a y ' s
of
of
of
In
betraying
look,
is
his
But
loss
to
d i f f i c u l t
to
f i t
clear
sugges-
woman's
love,
is
of
in
memory
is
most
to
the
Sakuntala
Here
of
the
we
a
equally
Kalidasa
of
decide
because
bewailing
as
instrument
as
Kalidasa
Dusyanta
betrayal.
well
a
queens,
rejection
wilful
the
betraying
total
supernatural
as
c r i t i c a l
Sakuntala,
Dusyantahs
a
Yet,
there
her.
Dusyanta's
being
the
act
capable
one
a
hero.
see
is
thus
how
Durvasas'
curse
course
the'
of
action.
is
structure
follows
f i f t h
Interest
character
It
plot
is
attribute
from
Kalidasa
to
the
Durvasas.
prevented
Dusyanta
Hamsapadika,
loss
of
of
Dusyanta
hear
dhTrodatta'
spare
beginning
we
curse
the
entirely
that
song
as
the
not
suggested
prescribed
by
rules
the
of
the
play
Sanskrit
to
the
writers.
dramaturgy
on
model
of
Sakuntala
general
lines,
25
though
not
in
minor
deviations
by
suggesting
gained
authority
at
the
Kalidasa's
evident
from
earlier
in
Sanskrit
of
which
seven
the
'nandi.'
prologue,
by
is
exposition.
1
of
rules
the
did
for
might
level
later.
dramaturgical
series
of
significant
action
are
spread
by
the
the
over
six
customary
introduction
stage-manager,
the
elaboration
should
is
derived.
minor
have
writings
structure
action
not
It
plot
of
these
of
that
proper
the
be
given
conceived
incidents
out
Sakuntala
has
years.
The
play
benediction,
to
the
play
'sutradhara ,'
the
and
in
the
the
' prastavana . '
the
the
a
follows
the
At
an
plot
Then
playwright
as
turns
with
the
they
accounts
the
reached
account
drama
acts,
that
Kale
that
nor
chapter
fresh
prefaces
entry
time
this
in
points.
end
of
the
prologue
' mu k h a s a m d h i . '
which
The
of
beginning
pratimukha-samdhi,
occurs
1
king
signals
the
when
the
enters.
the
beginning
progression,
the
king
His
the
tells
of
the
-
the
jester
y
how
captivating
the
beginning
indicated
by
heralding
the
he
of
finds
the
the
Sakuntala.
catastasis,
curse
f a l l i n g
of
The
occurs
Durvasas.
action
begins
1
garbha-samdhi ,
in
The
with
the
fourth
1
act,
' avamarsa-samdhi'
the
rejection
of
y
Sakuntala
by
conclusion
which
brought
where
begins
eventually
The
are
Dusyanta.
they
two
with
leads
main
together
fall
The
in
the
to
'nirvahana-samdhi '
invitation
the
happy
characters,
in
love.
the
In
of
Indra.to
the
Dusyanta,
re-union.
Sakuntala
expository
Sanskrit
introducing
part
and
of
dramaturgy
Dusyanta,
the
play
this
part
26
is
thought
known
as
of
the
as
the
stage
development,
the
inception
called
of
'yatna'
or
the
explains
to
the
jester
some
ascetics
of
the
hermitage.
of
Sakuntala
of
the
returns
desired
curse.
is
success
The
shown
by
sown
when
would
at
of
royal
an
'prakarT,
the
ends
the
the
'bTja'
pronounces
the
'Bindu,'
and
the
need
chooses
the
latter.
'pataka'
that
i s ,
torn
that
lovers.
the
to
The
play.
'karya'
is
the
re-union
conventional
or
attainment
by
Durvasas'
or
'phalagama'
the
f i r s t
essential
is
turn,
that
a
is
Dusyanta
critical
exemplified
by
two
the
his
duties
protect
the
hermitage
The
curse
the
of
from
is
in
the
Sakuntala
is
the
marks
the
that
final
issue
the
lovers.
or
the
point
incident
benediction
in
Durvasas
turning
of
point
cementing
between
of
by
when
certain
blessing
is
The
the
the
arthaprakrti \ '
drop,
significant
the
the
1
rejection
of
the
when
act
object
as
an
marks
action
with
a
It
of
recognized
thwarted
decisive
action.
stage
begins
been
and
lovers.
as
is
the
is
classified
a
next
third
The
known
who
or
the
the
action
'praptyas/al
desired
of
takes
of
in
love.
king
of
1
of
has
The
'niyatapti'
son.
action
the
and
destinies
or
fine
segments
episode
falling
or
he
about
re-union
ascetic
a
of
or
plot,
household
demons,
the
seed
the
distinct
dilemma
the
the
have
which
end
The
endeavour,
that
king's
attainment
The
element
comes
the
play's
'arambha.'
king
prospect
the
1
of
the
The
action
play
bharatavakya.
1
27
This
of
Sanskrit
the
play
and
heroic
of
the
turns
of
to
which
in
our
'adbhuta
All
make
events
structure
theory.
'rasas.'
play
the
basic
erotic,
For
the
the
dramatic
is
of
is
the
the
of
these
of
study,
the
has
been
play
'rasa'
with
combine
marvel
the
in
terms
that
pervades
comic,
pathetic,
at
conclusion
at
the
the
wonderful
protagonists.
this
most
the
main
mingled
lives
is
supernatural
is
audience
present
rasa,'
The
of
sense
relevant
of
the
since
traditionally
wonderful,
the
function
seen
as
one
can
be
no
of
27
producing
that
a
a
sense
supernatural
wonder,
and
it
proves
also
that
development.
or
other
birth
In
of
natural
the
by
of
is
demons
demons
the
it
to
wonder.
event
is
hermits
has
for
used
act.
narrated
(Act
the
threatening
provides
play
effective
single
in
a
an
a.nymph
given
in
achieve
Kalidasa
every
While
does
be
Sakuntala
daughter
of
of
I,
second
the
the
their
p.
is
this
a
In
and
powerful
effect
means
some
of
influencing
very
f i r s t
we
find
that
and
the
hermitage.
for
protection.
hint
of
third
This
the
The
act
she
the
is
the
act
to
hermits
plot-
element
the
super-
by
reports
introduction
king
of
Sakuntala,
supernatural
A
doubt
source
in
the
22).
occasion
there
be
of
invited
say:
tatrabhavatah
Kanvasya maharser
asamnidhyad
r a k s a m s l na i s t i v i g h n a m
utpadayanti'tat
katipayaratram'sarathidvitTyena
bhavata
sanathTkriyatlm
asrama i t i .
(Act
II,
p.
[ The powers o f e v i l
d i s t u r b our
pious
l i f e
in the absence of the h e r m i t - f a t h e r .
We
46)
28
t h e r e f o r e a s k t h a t y o u w i l l r e m a i n a few
n i g h t s w i t h y o u r c h a r i o t e e r to p r o t e c t the
hermi t a g e . ]
( R y d e r , p.
23)
(akase): rajan!
sayantane_s avanakarmani sampravrtte_
vedim Jiutas'anavatTm p a r i t a h p r a k i r n a h
c h a y a s " c a r a n t i b a h u d h a bhayam a d a d f i c i n a h
s a m d h y a p a y o d a k a p i s'ah p i s i tas'ananam.
* ( A c t I I I , p. 71)
[ (a v o i c e f r o m h e a v e n ) : 0 K i n g !
The f l a m e s r i s e h e a v e n w a r d f r o m t h e e v e n i n g a l t a r ;
And r o u n d t h e s a c r i f i c e s , b l a z i n g h i g h ,
F l e s h - e a t i n g demons s t a l k , l i k e r e d c l o u d - m a s s e s ,
And c a s t c o l o s s a l s h a d o w s on t h e s k y . ]
( R y d e r , p. 38)
/
In t h e t h i r d a c t G a u t a m T b r i n g s i n c h a r m e d
water to g i v e
S a k u n t a l a r e l i e f from her a i l m e n t , s a y i n g ,
imina dabbhodayena
bhab issad i.
nirabadham
e b b a de
[ T h i s darbha water w i l l cure your
completely of suffering.]
sarTram
( A c t I I I , p.
body
69)
The f o u r t h a c t b e g i n s . w i t h t h e c u r s e o f Durva'sas
which i n i t i a t e s the t r a g i c p a r t of the a c t i o n .
The power o f
the curse i s c l e a r l y e x p l a i n e d :
v i c i n t a y a n t i yam a n a n y a m a n a s a
t a p o d h a n a m v e t s i na mam u p a s t h i t a m
s m a r i s y a t i tyam na s a b o d h i t o ' p i s a n
katham p r a m a t t a h p r a t h a m a m k r t a m i v a .
' ' '
( A c t I V , p.
74)
[ He, o f whom t h i n k i n g s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y y o u
f a i l to r e c o g n i z e the presence of such a hermit
as m y s e l f , w i l l n o t r e m e m b e r y o u e v e n on b e i n g
r e m i n d e d , as a d r u n k a r d f o r g e t s h i s p a s t w o r d s . ]
In t h e same a c t we a r e t o l d o f t h e d i v i n e p o w e r o f Kanva
by
w h i c h he b e c o m e s a w a r e o f S a k u n t a l a ' s m a r r i a g e ( a l t h o u g h why
he d o e s n o t know a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e c u r s e r e m a i n s a m y s t e r y ) .
29
A
voice
p.
80).
and
from
heaven
Through
jewellery
also
the
hear
a
the
are
him
divine
acquired
voice,
hermitage,
tells
power
from
reported
bidding
about
to
a
be
farewell
the
of
marriage
Kanva
tree
to
bridal
(Act
the
(Act
IV,
garments
p.
guardian
IV,
85).
deity
Sakuntala.
We
.of
GautamT
exclaims ,
jade- n n a d i j a n a s i n i d d h a h i m
tabobanadebadahfm.
[ My c h i l d ,
the d e i t i e s
who a r e a s a f f e c t i o n a t e
you farewel1 . ]
At
tion
of
the
beginning
premonition
in
of
the
the
anunnadagamanasi
of
as
f i f t h
king's
(Act
IV,
the
hermitage,
kinsmen,
bid
act
heart.
there
The
is
a
king
the
wafts
diated
end
her
of
away
her,
an
this
act
from
Sakuntala's
the
action
kingdom
clearly
of
mother,
Dusyanta
identifiable
the
says,
nymph
who
as
90)
sugges-
t a c c e t a s a _ s m a r a t i nunam
abodhapurvam
bhavasthfrani
jananantafasauhrdani .
(Act V,
[ T h e r e m u s t Be r e c o l l e c t i o n s
Of t h i n g s n o t s e e n on e a r t h ,
Deep n a t u r e ' s
predilections,
Loves e a r l i e r than
birth.]
(Ryder,
At
p.
has
p.
103)
p.
53)
Menaka,
repu-
a
supernatural
arid
utksipyaiham
one:
strTsamsthanam capsarastirtham
jyotirekam
jagama.
(Act
[ Before our eyes a heavenly
light
In w o m a n ' s f o r m , But s h i n i n g
Bright,
S e i z e d her and v a n i s h e d
straight.]
In
garden
of
the
the
sixth
king
act
and
the
stays
nymph
Sanumati
invisible
--
V,
p.
124)
(Ryder,
p.
61)
comes
to
the
"tirakkharinT-
30
padicchanna"
(Act
returning
to
heaven.
the
comes
gods,
help
and
takes
VI,
at
to
Hemakuta,
gods,
by
Matali,
finds
that
blessing
he
at
the
to
the
the
beginning
deliberately
so,
had
when
been
In
is
of
is
it
the
to
of
the
ask
last
abode
of
act
the
with
the
parents
the
play
had
promised.
the
the
gods,
the
as
is
of
the
and
hermit's
The
underscored,
that
of
for
Sakuntala
as
by
king
king
son
heavily
before
Dusyanta
fine
revealed
designed
act
a
most
is
act
re-united
of
the
charioteer
this
heavenly
he
throughout
the
of
father
influence
events
--
heaven.
supernatural
of
end
where
is
132)
Matali,
the
him
taken
p.
and
whole
chain
San urnat!
says:
s u d a m ma& s a u n d a l a m s a m a s s a s a n t T e
mahendaj a n a n i e muhadojannabhaossua
deba ebba
taha
anucitthissaanti*jaha aiena
dhammapadinim
bfiatta'ahinandissadi
t t i . '
(Act V i ,
pp.161
L, I h e a r d t h e m o t h e r o f t h e g o d s
consoling
Sakuntala.
She s a i d t h a t t h e g o d s ,
impatient
f o r the s a c r i f i c e , would soon c a u s e him to
welcome h i s true
wife.]
( R y d e r , p.
77)
Meditation
and
by
a
or
voice
'pranldhana,'
from
Kalidasa.
that
the
use
secondary
It
of
role,
i n v i s i b i l i t y
heaven,
are
is
to
hard
the
all
when
we
find
so
tiraskarinT,'
1
supernatural
support
supernatural
or
the
in
a
many
view
elements
of
Sanskrit
uses
of
it
used
Sylvain
drama
in
has
Levi
a
Sakuntala
28
at
every
stage
An
play
the
its
important
nature,
same
of
human
plane,
progression.
point
beings,
conventions
to
and
of
note
is
that
supernatural
Sanskrit
although
in
forces
exist
drama
preclude
the
on
31
supernatural
occurences
on
the
stage
although
supernatural
29
beings
do
jester
being
being
but
appear.
beaten
wafted
away
reported.
understands
Supernatural
by
Yet,
the
such
report
While
such
reports
action
sight
and
and
the
of
where
drama
also
rather
in
detail
Again,
the
stimulates
also
the
reporting
and
happenings
precisely
In
of
sense
emphasizes
gods.
clarifies
the
of
because
by
the
the
death
of
too,
at
human
the
those
to
the
recognize
In
using
them
Greek
are
not
drama
reported
both
being
passion
Oedipus
at
l i f e
being
of
of'vast
events
gains
shown
in
marvellous
report
awareness
placing
in
his
showing
murder
of
its
than
unit
instance,
for
design
wonder
vision
For
response
Oedipus'
Sakuntala
intensify
stage.
next
play.
than
to
for
events.
the
the
incidents
Agamemnon's
imaginative
report
the
of
for
in
similar
the
shown
audience
of
spectator
very
on
the
rather
rather
therefore
the
Sakuntala
actually
turn
events
presented
of
the
as
intervention,
aspresented
fearful
intensity
gory
help
such
or
that
spectator
or
Clytemnestra1s
sure
radical
marvellous
than
never
imagination
also
reporting
is
makes
the
his
l i f e
are
some
prepare
they
Matali,
supernatural
precedes
human
of
mother,
of
stimulate
technique
Sanskrit
her
invisible
Kalidasa
hearing,
thedesign
the
extent
every
of
by
occurences,
the
in
play.
Colonus
nature
shaped
and
by
miraculous
powers
beyond
at
the
work
32
vision
of
tion.
The
greater
look
the
audience
than
"beginning
He
man
closely
The
the
audience
at
is
thus
the
of
made
l i f e ,
of
to
the
imagina-
reminded
as
we
find
of
forces
when
we
events.
the
king's
is
constantly
his
chain
awareness
hermitage
appeal
moulding
the
with
an
supernatural
is
gradually
as
he
f i r s t
enters
lies
in
store
for
premonition
that
some
happy
future
s'antam
idam
asVamapadam s p h u r a t i
b u i l t ,
him.
exclaims,
ca
bahu
k u t a h pha 1 a m ' i h a s y a
bhavitavyanam
dvarani bhavanti
sarvatra.
(Act
I.
p.
10)
[ A t r a n q u i l spot is t h i s
hermitage
Y e t my a r m t r e m b l e s .
What s u c c e s s c a n t h i s
portend?
athava
However,
We
too
Soon
in
become
after
love
aware
that
meets
the
girls
Sakuntala.
When
he
with
circumstances
is
the
is
a
whom
Sakuntala's
immediate
in
the
f i f t h
as
found
of
he
Her
in
a
king
can
act,
on
with
the
away
connection
the
her
is
a
to
with
Mahabharata
the
her
going
which
does
of
to
and
falls
the
that
she
means
that
she
custom.
have
plot,
any
but
later,
plot-development
clear
protection
mother
happen.
find
not
the
becomes
story.
to
violating
nymph
destiny.]
recount
t h r i l l e d
nymph,
to
to
hermitage
development
origin
doors
friends
without
the
are
is
the
significance
supernatural
her
of
he
and
marry
the
there
something
b i r t h ,
connection
spirits
abode.
her
bearing
Sakuntala's
mother
of
daughter
girl
everywhere
is
This
of
when
a
her
heavenly
carefully
kind
of
of
retained
happening
33
seems
to
have
especially
if
today
an
quite
willing
to
protect
the
united.
but
what
main
creates
in
jeopardy
the
course.
outcome
of
the
conflict
of
the
hand,
of
the
the
causes
king,
other
continue
the
rt
principal
plot
and
motives
by
of
of
to
the
the
a
in
which
in
play.
This
play
attributing
to
so
union
king's
and
Sakuntala
in
the
f i r s t
Dusyanta's
plot
far
the
of
by
has
of
placing
had
a
the
time,
exercise
of
identifiable
On
the
Sakuntala,
of
This
about
f i r s t
here.
verge
curse
suspense
clearly
action
the
demons,
the
the
the
in
tribulations,
of
directions.
for
tragi-comic
to
the
is
about,
thus
has
lovers.
brings
the
king
nuisance
act
audience
in
hermitage
king
tragic
love
the
for
be
tension
true
at
the
seems
legends.
the
leads
to
to
power-.is
the
act
fourth
action
leaves
the
boon
and
interference
occasion
Even
happenings
that
stay
the
third
the
taking
hand,
an
in
course
myths
supernatural,
event
the
his
Thus
a
mainspring
it
transpires
be
Durvasas1 ssupernatural
as
it
to
whichturns
is
smooth
prove
of
legend.
audience,
such
one
In the
demons
in
audience,
some
other
is
providing
The
The
Durvasas
by
any
prolong
the
the
from
disbelief
demons.
of
to
derived
like
act
to
presence.
hermitage
the
second
from
lovers
was
context
intrusion
continued
are
it
acceptable
suspend
opportunity
another
of
plot
the
the
quite
audience,
to
if
In
the
the
Indian
literature
had
been
tragedy.
lapse
of
one
then
On
memory
34
to
powers
--
as
of
the
only
in
beyond
the
his
control
Mahabharata
king's
love
possible
and
story
expected.
of
eventual
happiness
that
the
marriage
between
from
the
great
sage
--
Kanva
than
his
the
own
makes
re-union
Another
is
to
Durvasas1
Sakuntala's
but
hopes
rather
factor
and
and
from
also
renewal
him
that
keeps
not
alive
sanction
Sakuntala
the
the
with
wholehearted
Dusyanta
perfidy
receives
guardian
spirits
*
of
the
woods.
The
powers
at
f i f t h
work
act
when
premonition
which
ter
himself
between
most
powerful
play.
This
who
rescues
her
away,
is
the
not
Menaka,
pp.
and
from
is
on
the
sixth
to
makes
mind
161-2).
ground
by
since
mechanical
of
repentant
for
learn
that
re-uniting
phase
of
the
deus
Sakuntala
theory
action
one
is
of
the
in
the
Menaka,
This
prohibited
possibly
of
the
a
stage.
friend
of
Sanumati's
of
the
have
a
and
encoun-
machina.
king.
gods
uneasy
s p i r i t i n g
ex
Sanumati,
presence
the
follows
resources
the
an
tragic
occurences,
observe
the
the
l i t e r a l l y
nymph
of
by
mother,
dramatic
magical
supernatural
intervention
Sakuntala's
example
of
aware
for
Then
the
We
This
of
of
troubled
act
us
stage.
hint
supernatural
stage
In
a
king
humiliation
limited
in
of
presentation
comes
the
the
perfect
the
with
Sakuntala.
action
the
every
design
the
her
find
prepares
of
soliloquy
at
is
shown
because
we
examples
which
actual
begins
supernatural
special
Dusyanta
most
(Act
s k i l f u l l y
VI,
35
handled.
When
condition
as
well
anguish.
He
has
time
mourning
soon
aroused
offstage
at
king's
his
his
to
of
the
to
rush
and
the
and
reawakens
as
hts
friend's
coming
i n ,
communicates
in
mood
Dusyanta
done
in his previous
With
attention,
this
goes
to
this
the
call
Matali
is
at
this
by
to
with
the
to
the
of
of
action
the
that
celestial
lets
king
the
he
in
despondency
arises
jester
In
of
and
much
king
Indra's
as
out
duty
so
the
the
king
of
demons.
gods
enters
services
demons,
not
the
go,
request
his
might
for
new
never
have
sorrow.
and
semi-celestial
hermitage
her
Matali
is
king's
touch
kingly
As
his
somebody
the
the
king
shock.
invitation
business
his
a
the
his
Matali,
to
of
of
he
hears
l i f t
sense
rebellious
this
mood
play's
upon
battle
by
settled
accepts
to
curing
help,
overcoming
dares
us
mood
is
king's
passes
arouse
instrumental
administering
and
he
cries
who
his
in
action
when
helps
thus
to
assistance
of
is
relief
by
person
the
convince
assailant
jester's
incident
Matali
comic
The
on
despondent
anger
jester.
This
of
this
heroic
The
comments
observation
From
presumptuous
prerogatives.
inaction
own
her
incapable
of
Indra.
melancholy
and
our
loss.
one
friend.
providing
as
departs,
become
beating
charioteer
anger
Sanumati
the
its
king
on
his
last
way
and
The
back
of
her
the
king's
phase.
leaves
hermitage
Sakuntala
mother.
claiming
Because
the
palace,
is
brought
Kasyapa.
child
meeting
have
between
It
been
36
/
Dusyanta
of
an
and
event
We
the
or
other.
it
which
as
arranged
then
the
of
he
Their
love
broken
waiver
its
subsequent
trial
of
Finally,
of
as
the
regaining
towards
we
r e u n i o n
this
is
only
with
taking
the
so
for
are
seen
powers.
again
it
by
is
plunges
Matali
protect
both
calculated
Sakuntala,
place
is
to
curse,
superhuman
that
see
to
that
recovery
of
agency
opportunity
Durvasas'
love,
Sakuntala
progress,
supernatural
well,
but
king's
not
its
Sakuntala
magic
appearance
hermitage
by
its
piece
into
all
the
away
of
that
is
in
of
has
s p i r i t i n g
hopelessness
told
Dusyanta
stays
the
some
in
marvellous
Dusyanta
by
exercise
merely
grief.
stage
Durvasas'
action
on
them.
of
Menaka's
a
above
shaped
because
and
takes
every
beginning,
memory
as
at
is
contains
consequences
dramatist
forces
that
In
however,
a
by
Sakunta1 a
demons.
lapse
therefore
of
Sakuntala
from
the
Sakuntala
see
action
court
_
not
the
the
Dusyanta
maneuvering
we
are
according
to
categorically
a
divine
design.
The
in
the
the
play.
At
its
occasions
powerful
helps
to
which
they
sense
place
of
the
occur,
has
most
pi a y , . i n f 1 u e n c i n g
providing
a
supernatural
obvious
the
for
their
actions
a
it
functions
the
of
the
characters
actions.
It
But
that
several
moulds
motivation
wonder.
into
therefore
we
we
framework
must
see
of
also
also
and
action
existence
and
produces
note
the
of
that
world
in
that
. .
it
37
accommodates
both the
complementary
unrelated
states
phenomena.
is
thus
never
an
integral
seen
part
of
as
natural
of
i t .
the
existence
The
an
and
supernatural
rather
supernatural
intrusion
into
than
alien
presence
human
as
in
l i f e
and
Sa k u n t a l a
but
as
Chapter
So
seems
much
d i f f i c u l t
view
of
is
romantic
a
the
contrast
to
has
the
to
context
of
thie
has
Is
Coleridge
Tempest
seen
in
was
be
in
"the
that
it
is
as
that
of
obvious
external
insistence
on
led
to
deal
has
been
largely
the
of
to
point
as
prescriptive
events
freedom
that
allegorical
interpretation
in
and
is
38
G.
that
in
conforms
its
main
in
the
because
that
out
an
follows
rather
rules.
the
play
meaning
its
that
the
organic
imagination
imaginative
in
helpful
drama
trees,"^
the
fact
it
literature.
understood
of
that
Tempest
comparison
f i r s t
of
the
The
it
comprehensive
construction
classical
structure
His
great
to
by
plays
romantic
growth
conformity
a
be
|n
that
observation
tempered
of
and
particularly
a
a
Tempest
unified
other
is
the
should
mechanical
influential
to
as
The
general
study
known
on
any
doctrine
present
prevailing
a
the
reservation
the
rules
at
Shakespeare's
too
that
written
Even
Sakuntala
as
been
neo-classical
This
The
TEMPEST
comedy
with
lines.
of
THE
arrive
play.
III
of
principle,
than
He
as
must
than
be
Wilson
The
Knight's,
judged.
play
interpretation
symbolical.
a
argued
rather
the
unity
has
which
most
who
regards
39
the
play,
like
all
Shakespeare's
last
plays,
as
a
myth
of
2
the
regeneration
of
l i f e .
symbol
of
the
symbol
of
regeneration
opposed
further
the
destructive
motifs
Caroline
in
reconciliation,
builds
Spurgeon's
lends
symbol
of
the
D.G.James
unifies
of
almost
the
The
of
view
conflicting
of
that
storm
of
that
the
a
these
being
the
and
imagery
myth
the
the
and
of
of
the
of
theme
images
of
carethemes.
therefore
whole
is
between
chaos
and
through
which
of
a
showing
theme
opposed
as
has
By
Shakespeare
play
experiences
in
the
music
opposition
Belief
music
restoration.
structure
as
and
and
classification
Tempest
religious
a
poetical
interpretations.
suggests
as
a
Shakespeare's
images
fundamental
sees
his
and
l i f e ,
loss
images
Tempest
analysis
to
of
symbolical
between
in
tempests
immortality,
analysis
Spurgeon
The
support
and
between
and
calls
forces
pattern
f a c i l i t a t e d
correlation
fully
a
Spurgeon's
destruction,
He
l i f e
into
regeneration
order.
Shakespeare
a
of
a
statement
l i f e
and
4
power.
Another
that
Tempest,
The
final
as
a
period,
final
influential
along
with
completes
celebration
his
of
c r i t i c ,
other
entire
reBirth,
E.M.W.Ti11 yard ,
plays
from
Shakespeare's
dramatic
pattern,
which
only
is
suggests
serving
implied
5
the
tragedies.
discovers
the
structure
of
of
the
most
Northrop
structures
The
Tempest.
Balanced
and
Frye
of
is
myth
Frank
yet
another
dominating
Kermode,
comprehensive
c r i t i c
the
who
views
of
who
poetic
offers
the
one
play,
in
40
finds
that
historic
and
to
the
Man's
resolve
his
he
it
possesses
the
This
7
him
and
with
of
to
which
the
form
power
the
of
of
man's
between
conflict
the
ultimately
helps
play
of
and
suggesting
The
the
the
art
and
efforts
nobility
him
metaphysical
meaning
the
universal
opposition
that
abstract
of
while
one
understand
philosophical
tragi-comic
Prospero's
that
perception
help
connection
good.
formulates
experiences,
nature.
that
play
and
to
discover
powers
Tempest
of
explains
importance
reality
of
virtue
of
a
merciful
providence.
A
Edward
that
different
Dowden
Shakespeare's*
attitudes
through
Shakespeare
to
whose
the
"In
l i f e ,
of
of
criticism
approach
plays
the
"heights"
line
were
expressions
of
serene
been
biographical
suggesting
depths"
a
was
had
that
despair
belief
of
initiated
and
who
his
argued
changing
tragedies
from
by
show
which
he
rose
in
the
triumph
of
good
This
was
challenged
o
over
evil
Lytton
show
in
the
Strachey
weariness
last
who
and
comedies.
asserted
an
that
attempt
to
the
final
withdraw
plays
from
by
actually
the
problems
g
of
l i f e
Into
poetical
dreams-.
serenity
was
strongly
restated
that
last
and
the
show
However,
with
a
plays
growing
the
should
to
by
of
the
to
explaining
Shakespeare's
idea
Morton
regarded
indifference
validity
reference
be
But
his
of
Luce
as
Shakespeare's
who
more
of
dramatic
the
personal
last
mood
claimed
a
recreation
b u s i n e s s . ^
plays
mainly
is
debatable,
41
as
the
findings
E.E.Stoll
and
the
also
as
of
the
historical
deplored
the
excesses
habit
of
treating
demonstrated
artifacts
the
of
A
to
of
deal
critics
as
a
biography.
literary
of
show.
criticism
considering
current
great
of
allegorical
Tempest
necessity
conforming
stage-conditions.^
The
school
light
the
He
plays
conventions
has
been
and
thrown
12
on
these
The
by
masque-element
masque,
of
matters
the
spells
Prospero
pulates
out
with
and
the
then
the
in
freed
The
of
of
worth
Enid
a
the
Welsford.
noting.
are
As
shown
enchantment.
in
Kermode
plot
development
in
the
a
grip
Furthermore,
masque-presenter
However,
of
and
Tempest
from
function
unfolding
scheme
Nicoll
particularly
characters.
the
the
is
characters
has
that
Allardyce
has
proceeds
recommended
who
mani-
rightly
in
pointed
accordance
in
neo-classical
1 3
theory.
Knox,
Support
who
for,thts
provides
demonstrating
how
a
most
deeply
point
of
view
penetrating
rooted
the
comes
study
play
is
from
of
The
in
the
Bernard
Tempest,
comic
1 4
tradition
of
The
has
been
Plautus.
sense
of
frequently
wonder
aroused
examined,
as
by
for
Prospero's
instance
by
magic
Knox,
15
Kermode,
the
he
and
Joan
supernatural
has
done
is
has
more
thought
than
ment
playmaking.
of
to
Hartwfg.
see
been
to
the
Shakespeare's
studied
formulate
use
of
C.J.Sisson
by
conception
1 fi
W.C.Curry,
Shakespeare's
the
has
supernatural
shown
in
but
of
what
metaphysical
as
what
an
instru-
light
42
Shakespeare's
but
It
has
is
not
audience
traced
therefore
would
its
effect
necessary
action
in
The
Tempest
course
of
events
with
is
a
have
in
here
of
the
to
detail
affected
basis
on
viewed
that
the
provide
us
Tempest
with
that
of
Sakuntal a
journey
from
loss
to
restoration
unfolding
analyze
so
by
Prospero's
the
we
of
the
the
insofar
which
a c t i o n . ^
sequence
may
see
as
each
is
guided
the
This
structure
will
of
The
depicts
by
7
of
how
supernatural.
comparing
magic,
a
the
supernatura1.
Two
our
points
perspective
popular
doubt
demand
lavish
f i r s t
court.
makes
for
In
The
theatre
on
the
of
theatre
the
Tempest
lavtshly
the
performance
by
however,
Tempest
was
style
not
and
had
only
use
of
music.
characteristics
are
so
apparent.
to
the
popular
be
recognized
demand
that
Shakespeare
to
the
laws
special
in
was
in
for
why
its
This
was
no
Tempest
this
for
ordinary
supernatural.
shows,
was
writing,
The
the
at
influ-
the
royal
but
also
masque-ldke
doubt
but
element
This
no
source
spectacle
is
The
the
of
productions
entertainments
This
that
use
at
keep
the
demand.
1611
spectacular
the
his
Into
for
substitute
of
come
may
f i r s t ,
Shakespeare
accommodates
extensive
which
entertainment
second,
known
of
noted
clear,,
which
Tempest
which
elaborate
quite
for
stage
The
be
mounted
Shakespeare,
spectacle
Blackfriars
enced
on T h e
influenced
materials.
should,
a
it
response
must
also
helps
laws
of
is
also
nature
f a c i l i t a t e d
43
by
setting
enchanted
llers'
the
play
corner
tales
In
in
of
known
a
the
to
world
Shakespeare's
and
travel
The
the
New
of
Shakespeare
and
his
remote
where,
Shakespeare,
circulation,
tales
strange,
times,
in
according
anything
many
literature
World
island
such
in
an
the
might
general
with
to
tales
particular
contemporaries
in
trave-
happen.
were
was
in
popular.
fascinated
reports
of
lands
1o
that
were
There
some
is
no
precise
elements
chiefly
and
marvellously
a
in
certain
rich
but
literary
it
can
Be
German
source
traced
"scenarios"
contemporary
also
of
harboured
for
back
the
comedy,
the
to
well
dangers.
plot,
although
European
works,
Italian
as
many
commedia
as
two
del I 1 a r t e ,
romances
of
1 9
the
time.
But
conclusive
the
and
magician
belong
might
to
porary
the
the
common
known
pamphlets
of
the
elements
king,
the
have
none
stock
for
supposedly
log-Bearing
these
or
evidence
of
Borrowed,
prince,
or
folkr1iterature
stories
accounts
Borrowing
and
of
he
the
such
s p i r i t
.
World
as
slaves,
Shakespeare
probably
New
is
used
to
contem-
sharpen
20
his
picture
working
on
of
an
the
enchanted
already
island,
existing
plot
but
as
he
Kalidasa
was
not
was
in
Sa k u n t a l a .
This
nent
of
The
particular
create
a
argues
Tempest
purpose.
sense
of
all
is
the
used
That
wonder
he
is
more
strongly
according
used
to
that
But
compo-
Shakespeare's
supernatural
obvious.
every
that
elements
he
used
own
to
the
44
supernatural
also
play
the
is
what
The
to
be
does
a
suspense
voyagers.
from
and
( I . i i . 1 5 ) .
to
in
unambiguously
ends
vengeance
once
strates
that
by
shown
upon
his
Prospero's
authority
over
and
be
u n d e r ,human
lengthy
see
his
happens
and
design,
s p i r i t
commanding
slave
for
on
at
once
position
time
being.
by
the
we
same
control.
ascribed
time,
are
Prospero's
past
events,
some
kind
this
is
to
done
is
the
with
for
and
but
f i r s t
Ariel
not
also
time
at
only
around
This
strengthens
are
he
at
as
Ariel
demon-
we
told
island
has
Ariel
of
the
once
this
that
Though
him.
be
supernatural,
the
art,
done"
thus
of
find
Prospero's
harm
is
so
plans
forces.
subdues
time
he
for
power,
of
opens,
the
account
the
that
invoking
now
easily
the
How
at
at
fate
no
play
which,
conversation
Prospero's
only
work
supernatural
powers , . P r o s p e r o
man
at
by
of
the
the
intensity,
caused
"There's
of
in
the
of
demonstrating.
seems
scene
been
that
his
we
that
will
had
enemfes.
which
extent
second
announcement
again
grows
action
at
which
regarding
occasion
into
Prospero's
the
her
it
the
aims
storm
the
storm
to
the
everything
between
the
shaping
As
as
forces
explained,
enters.
soon
leads
of
a
theatre
whole
with
embodiment
of
analysis
with
reassures
supernatural
which
the
as
The
reassurance
opens
that
Prospero
means
phenomenon.
But
Miranda
a
following
play
natural
as
happens
total
has
great
confrontation
the
sense
and
hints
that
Ariel
It
seems
that
the
of
is
his
supernatural
45
powers
have
can
be
their
used
own
of
to
Ariel
of
and
proves
that
That
potency
history
by
so
Ariel.
the
through
of
his
he
have
a
when
he
puts
Miranda
discuss
magic,
for
we
Sycorax
and
his
over
total
By
the
end
At
of
the
this
available.
We
shown
as
a
creature,
monster
tried
would
to
stage
have
magic.
and
Prospero ' s
it
are
{Z.
Caliban
more
though
to
evident
that
he
the
domination
over
Shakespeare
not
mere
is
and
boasts,
he
who
is
Miranda
--
It
not
aside
the
as
great
is
a
that
an
knows
Prospero's
clear
had
in
of
Caliban
whether
i i . 349-53)
this
freely
given
evidence
it
Prospero
says
sleep
testimony
are
are
to
Ariel .
However,
destroyed
is
they
demon-
more
better
time,
introduced
doubtful.
ravish. Miranda
Prospero's
the
Is
over
scene
is
dangerous
same
Prospero's
authority
of
even
mild
plans
Prospero's
his
half-demon
his
bears
showing
that
we
discussion
claims
and
scene
power
or
permanently
existence.
may
spirits.
these
not
powers
triumph
other
that
but
this
Prospero's
( I . i i . 1 8 5 - 6 ) ,
with
man
independent
Halfway
stration
by
beast
this
he
once
been
he
for
leaves
value
of
magic :
It
would
his
control
Art
i s o f s u c h pow ; l . r ,
my d a m ' s g o d ,
Setebos
(I.ii.374-5)
His
exit
who
promptly
Then
is
followed
Prospero
falls
puts
in
by
A r i e l ' s
love
with
Ferdinand
to
entrance
Miranda
the
test
leading
and
she
in
with
Ferdinand
him.
46
l e s t too l i g h t
the p r i z e
light.
Make
winning
(I.
When
Ferdinand
draws
(stage-direction).
Prospero's
about
that
great
events
in
Prospero
within
his
command
stand
that
which
clears
love,
this
fies
has
in
turn
the
Prospero's
next
act
magic.
and
cleaner,
glossier,
soon
and
99).
when
keeps
and
men.
by
and
the
hint
events
comes
their
The
prepare
the
to
ground
equally
just
as
spell
well
the
cast
separate
for
their
by
two
sleep
upon
by
signi-
brought
about
intrigue.
Ariel
conspirators
being
(11.i.59-62 ,
is
revealed
save
sleepers
and
controlled
are
Ariel
the
Antonio
having
that
garments
them
to
in
Gonzalo
over
put
fall
when
control
all
to
i s .
Prospero's
are
Is
under-
wishes,
event
This
his
also
Miranda
find
that
We
told
enemies
Prospero's
before
they
been
complete
than
mechanism
courtiers
repeating,
have
brings
how
shipwreck
f i r s t
what
shown
restoration.
The
:
his
fn
we
of
get
becoming
again,
is
.454-5)
moving"
to
Ferdinand
the
from
only
we
fresher
Sebastian.
check
scene
and
obvious
in
been
not
power
tempest
eventually
as
"charmed
proof
this
brought
and
is
this
monsters
for
just
remarks,
92-4,
have
is
way
that
the
we
he
have
In
s p i r i t s ,
reconciliation
In
but
caused
and
the
we
play.
Ferdinand
supernaturally
by
the
over
sword
Again
power
power
is
his
i i
awaken
draw
the
very
Antonio
is
Sebastian
But
an
and
intrigue
Alonso
their
66 ,
and
swords
so
is
his
to
kept
47
kill
them.
Ariel
connects
the
event
firmly
with
Prospero's
power :
My
master
through
his
Art
forsees
That you, his f r i e n d , are i n ;
Por e l s e h i s p r o j e c t d i e s , - -
danger
a n d s e n d s me
to keep them
f o r t h , - living.
( I I . i .292-4)
With
A r i e l ' s
awakening
courtiers,
the
leading
a
find
in
to
complete
supernatural
this
love
forming
The
f i r s t
Ferdinand
of
their
the
scene
betrothal.
threatened
sequence
Ferdinand
My
the
powers
way
between
virtual
and
process
of
of
action
of
of
III
and
action.
out
and
is
his
i n i t i a t e d ,
Here
again
Prospero's
the
we
design
and
play.
portrays
Miranda,
Miranda
husband,
re-education
carrying
Act
king
the
growing
culminating
in
their
asks,
then?
answers,
Ay,
As
with
a
heart
Bondage
e'er
as
of
w i l l i n g
freedom:
here's
my
hand
(III.i.87-9)
This
is
for,
having
their
forced
one
place
used
where
magic
hearts
work
love
cannot
naturally.
Prospero
That
invokes
On
Prospero's
to
Bring
them
independently
Is
Be
deep
why,
divine
that
and
magic
to
true
instead
of
does
together,
come
not
he
together,
like
using
love
his
that
enter,
must
let
Because
grows
powers,
blessings:
which
Heavens
breeds
rain grace
between
them.
( I l l - i .75-6)
48
The
the
rest
of
supernatural
i s ,
however,
the
Act
III,
eavesdropping
Trinculo.
Miranda
about
and
it
signifies
the
his
defense
will
"solemn
in
a
tell
and
of
their
away
are
That
by
the
this
the
the
fact
stage.
their
a
dance,
is
ts
and
the
scene
is
takes
happening :byj
Prospero
and
not
again
brought
c i v i l i z a t i o n .
prove
most
energetic.
"strange
whisked
of
their
in
the
a
and
his
us,
away
the
in
of
the
arousing
physical
The
and
move-
taking
fantasy.
a
moral
him
"on
movements
to
The
is
highly
There
bring
magic
The
that
followers,
of
places
to
be
shapes"
devised.
sense
Prospero's
one
Ariel
banquet
appearance
combine
is
guilt.
carefully
to
reassures
its
later
this
3).
stages-direction
music,
and
against
the
their
Stephano
because
Ariel
in
Ariel
act
and
stylized
find
this
induce
the
present
of
and
bringing
on
for
king
most
to
natural
lightning,
recognition
choreographed
this
music,"
banquet
chides
at
to
action
Prospero
scene
we
with
( " 1 1 1 . i i . 11
intervention
spirits
incident
all
master"
of
is
dangers,
final
i i
straining
of
much
danger
units
nature
thunder
harpy
mi/nds
of
of
whole
a
of
which
powers
strange
of
the
such
scene
conspiracy
source
magic,
and
The
accompaniment
ments
of
my
next
banquet.
action
one
animal
supernatural
is
in
new
against
The
shape
a
supernatural
I
shows
is
is
In
Caliban's
Prospero's
But
"This
upon
This
by
action
act.
very
it
The
masque.
indicated
the
top"
of
the
s p i r i t s ,
present
the
banquet
of
.
49
as
a
his
ritual
courtiers
mockery
by
of
until
Ariel
selves
The
who
from
action
Sebastian
agencies
chastisement
are
taken
the
meaning
also
sfn
is
And
a
thus
which
In
betrothal
ef
on
them.
This
of
the
to
the
as
we
does
moral
to
be
a
stern
see
the
and
not
This
that
chastisement
the
wholly
but
guided
sure
is
revealed
by
of
Alonso
supernatural
Prospero's
the
of
art
of
"true
the
with
and
strongest
the
unfolding
by
mine
love"
central
nature
less
and
pleasant
punishes
averted
(I/V.i.84,
symbol
More
formulation
imagination,
of
Art
c a l l 'd
to
enact
133).
the
of
the
explains
This
richness
shaping
the
masque
of
a
20-22)
power
significance
thus
l i f e
i.1
in
becomes
harmony
heaven.
relevant
to
conclusion
Caliban,
and
the
blessings
(IV.
the
and
celebrating
further
£• h a v e f r o m t h e i r c o n f i n e
My p r e s e n t
fancies.
provides
them-
instructor.
and
necessarily
cleanse
by
wedding-masque
Miranda,
which
to
regeneration
presentation
S p i r i t s ,
way
by
n o t h i n g but
heart-sorrow
l i f e
ensuing.
( I I I . i i i . 8 1 - 2 )
Ferdinand
action..
their
followed
and
clear
shown
IV
of
temptation
Alonso
them
act
Act
through
purification.
tells
leading
is
and
the
of
Stephano,
effectively
by
present
this
and
study,
scene
where
Trinculo.
Prospero's
power
however,
and
is
the
Prospero
The
the
dangers
are
action
can
50
move
on
to
the
repentance
come.
the
of
This
play,
going
the
begins
when
Ariel
a
A
scheme,
which
function
the
the
later,
the
last
of
three
will
act
what
Prospero's
"cannot
lines
i s ,
reconciliation
account
of
how
Antonio,
few
that
occupies
brief
recounts
and
( V . i . l l ) .
that
with
The
his
through
project
Sebastian,
release"
This
is
of
enemies
elsewhere.
reiterated
gives
his
which
on
Alonso,
fulfilment
of
has
magic
been
is
c u l p r i t s ,
budge
t i l l
Prospero
you
himself
a
summary
of
what
his
powers
have
achieved
for
is
similar
to
what
the
chorus
does
in
v i i i
scene
him.
of
21
Doctor
to
Faustus
abjure
before
bring
but
magic
he
does
the
which
so,
king,
we
are
not
so
up
his
project
Prospero
ft
the
sure
as
he
calls
helps
most
of
he
also
"rough"
him
to
powerful
Antonio
had
announces
and
wished,
them,
his
to
Sebastian
in
intention
(V.i.50).
chastise
of
his
However,
enemies
and
penitence
--
and
forgiveness
to
and
wind
happy
r e- uni on .
When
that
The
it
two
is
we
very
most
of
of
and
Caliban's
to
have
Prospero
the
clearly
are,
Miranda.
plots.
potentialities
recounts
the
progress
composed
Prospero's
vicious
the
at
important
re-education
Ferdinand
look
of
f i r s t ,
At
of
the
three
the
enemies,
The
of
and
third
is
lines
second,
the
beginning
a
revenge-plot
of
his
we
of
find
action.
chastisement
its
treachery
plot,
and
the
f o i l i n g
the
enemies
action
union
of
seems
because
in
Act
I,
51
scene
soon
of
i i , and
his
his
union
expected
enemies
is
to
Miranda.
shaped
the
plot
may
them
in
his
power.
vengeance
is
revealed
as
the
correction
his
have
and
Miranda
keeps
his
finally-,
saves
the
desire
island
the
act
it
the
and
for
Prospero
The
in
him
By
events.
supernatural
play.
When
.same
revenge.
But
of
total
his
But
by
of
his
troubled
magic
his
is
all
by
but
his
plan
over
brings
music;
sound
who
Caliban's
therefore
The
Tempest.
as
an
instrument
in
the
must
further
forces
also
helps
of
he
Prospero's
Caliban,
of
incident
his
and
is
which
and
most
magic
motivated
is
foiled
things
in
magic.
is
element
agency
penitence
it
moment
magic;
prisoner
control
we
the
and
and
plot-motivation.
his
safe
the
way,
from
one
But
them
effecting
supernatural
the
Ariel
alive,
holds
exerts
independently
using
re-
of•action
c r i t i c a l
of
by
This
lines
every
But
Ferdinand
supernatural
shipwrecked
By
them.
of
two
instrument
Miranda
means
At
this
the
the
plot-structure
remains
from
he
In
enemy.
magic.
enemies
powerful
because
f i r s t
are
thus
his
the
as
admonishes.them,
by-
seen,
see
s p i r i t ;
that
marriage
Prospero's
enemies
with
the
therefore
he
reconciliation
by
impetus
Ferdinand
In
has
gains
Prospero1s.
magic
he
cemented
we
by
that
and
be
As
are
we
rejoices
the
prime
importance
Although
it
subordinate
play
note
to
of
most
that
reveal
banquet
does
to
not
man,
accountable
the
working
character
(Act
for
III,
in
of
the
scene
i i i )
52
reveals
the
the
shipwrecked
party
revelation
immediately
succeeds
with
The
to
remorse,
same
pattern
Prospero's
V,
scene
ment
as
due
sin.
Sebastian
tion
who
generating
by
Is
moral
as
insist
the
accept
placing
out
prime
that
for
the
good
and
is
since
the
suggests
the
a
moral
his
of
Sycorax
that
group
Both
the
too.
the
battle
had
in
can
fundamental
what
to
A r i e l ,
the
to
in
powers
The
evident
is
as
and
the
his
his
man
of
that
right
in
himself
possessed
capacity
agent,
and
an
the
that
aware-
between
play
and
by
Sycorax.
supernatural
in
and
consequently
contradiction
beginning
by
expediency.
universe
bring
between
supernatural
of
reinforce
Prospero,
and
order
at
also
essen-
reconcilia-
character
is
serves
supernatural
The
It
is
Antonio
the
and
chastise-
affected
matter
crises
action,
symbolized
account
However,
play
of
play.
a
by
cell
nature
and
reveals
In
when
his
perverted
as
responses.
the
order.
is
merely
and
his
rebukes
then,
Alonso
of
o'f.the
evil
Prospero's
Alonso
unaffected.
later
temporarily
wholly
supernatural
there
that
has
Alonso
supernatural
that
only
individuals
mover
workings
of
sin
particular
wrong,
ness
been
troubles,
overwhelming
before
the
proves
their
Sebastian
brought
Prospero's
and
dimensions
the
had
in
of
reiterated
accepts
which
cause
and
is
is
supernatural,
spelling
what
and
him
The
by
Alonso
contrary,
between
Tempest
party
j u s t i c e ,
the
Antonio
responses
the
i ) .
virtuous
On
leaves
of
magic
(Act
t i a l l y
but
the
themselves
powers,
are
53
neither
--
good
virtuous
vast
nor
or
powers,
e v i l ,
sinful
quite
sionally
perceived
ordinary
laws
made
possible.
magical
the
of
and
element
the
next
these
Yet,
as
approach
user.
alien
to
the
world
or
acquired
part
of
differ
tell
us
in
makes
the
accepted
man
By
and
the
world
of
present
study
we
shall
use
the
and
plays.
what
of
The
Tempest
as
where
scheme
a
structu-
Sakuntala.
examine
these
events
natural
in
similarly
the
Sakunta1 a
is
as
occa-
use
strange
supernatural
Tempest
only
their
world
purpose
inconceivably
and
the
The
the
are
of
supernatural
about
of
to
part
in
their
These
man.
suspended
unlike
the
this
the
are
by
presence
an
clearly
plays-use
they
the
fantastic,
existence.
according
of
nature
is
function
--
Their
supernatural
ral
how
of
but
at
and,
what
In
points
equally,
differences
in
Chapter
IV
CONCLUSION
Analysis
and
Sakuntala
forces
find
but
fn
have
that
these
the
movement
in
with
union
loss,
deal
and
a
with
such
a
sense
and
a
treachery.
Prospero
process
of
sharp
of
of
that
begins
and
suffering
on
which
the
the
different.
loss
on
from
of
with
Miranda,
at
and
the
play
to
a
the
and
is
a
complex
action
in
begins
and
Tempest
does
is
both
brief
problem
fractured
by
is
wrong
done
gradually
works
out
man
of
By
getting
the
emphasizing
Tempest
its
in
ambition
grievous
The
not
Sakuntala",
The
potentiality
54
and.re-union,
separation
forgiveness.
wronged
events
strengthening
the
Ferdinand
world
both;we
specific
The
father's.
a
In
It
that
beginning,
tragic
depicts
as
supernatural
action,
that
Tempest
plays
forgiveness
in
her
The
about
reconciliation.
reconciliation
focus
situation,
being
bring
moves
separation
It
against
a
to
and
both
of
functions.
of
are
because
stratagem
deeper,
in
towards
problem
Miranda's
Prospero's
course
lovers
then
merely
the
Sakuntala
only-
that
only
plot-patterns
and
because
not
movement
of
development
structural
forces
guide
although
plot
clearly
important
plays'a
the
the
shows
generally
both
of
creates
central
a l l
his
55
enemies
in
the
in
his
f i r s t
power.
act
ance.
However,
he
do
can
them
and
of
the
is
no
play
shadow
overcast
tragedy
to
him
this
a
his
by
is
and
he
happy
one
comes
is
great
so
of
be
Tt
and
The
a
is
and
through
he
can
vengethat
reform
possibilities
that
at
play
the
lapsed
end
memory
child.
the
his
resolution.
but
only
III,
absolute
tragic
comic
potentially
Chapter
so
enemies;
king's
wife
in
preparing
Sa k u n t a l a ,
the
a
about
his
into
loss.
his
transformation
to
in
when
finds
seems
turned
tragic
observed
friends.
revenge
averted
have
destroy
into
thus
of
a
power
than
them
are
I
Prospero
better
turn
As
In
too
is
that
comes
both
tragic
There
back
plays
situation
workings
of
into
supernatural
powers.
This
different
plays.
as
man , a n d
The
as
an
ways'
in
which
Sakuntala
powers
in
s i m i l a r i t y cannot,
part
of
of
nature
Tempest
instrument
plays
supernatural
design
grand
well
an
of
the
entity
the
human
forces
in
action.
by
as
i t s e l f
workings
is
of
purpose
are
covers
the
the
as
status
viewed
in
in
the
world
of
supernatural.
human
than
part
of
work
the
under
produce
the
supernatural
destiny.
used
to
of
rather
man's
order
But
that
that
disguise
agencies
supernatural
controlling
plot-construction
abouts
as
a
of
above
of
man
the
see
force
supernatural
reveals
as
we
however,
as
No
of
control
some
doubt
the
entirely
great
in
both
mechanics
convenient
the
But
turn-
supernatural
different
56
lights
and,
consequently,
tionship
with
elements
in
standing
not
only
Kalidasa
and
Shakespeare,
at
action
human
these
The
obtrusive
music,
The
in
the
and
and
have
its
Chapter
unseen
which
at
the
of
vital
demons
stay
to
at
limit
remember
The
to
be
been
the
than
in
The
and
parallel
in
action
forces.
juncture
of
on
hermitage.
repudiate
his
curse
everything
of
for
demons
consecutive
to
with
supernatural
unquestionable.
he
to
go
Kasyapa's
their
in
is
the
for
to
the
battle
hermitage
child.
play
No
but
as
of
we
curse
of
action
phases,
The
show
menace
equally,
second
it
them
magic
is
the
to
ring.
the
and
Sakuntala
influence
is
lost
time
against
Dusyanta
Dusyanta
Sakuntala ' s
where
prolonged
causes
allows
have
constantly
be.
startling
its
unearthly
Dusyanta's
while,
shown
less
moments
to
looking
spirits
is
Its
of
existence.
But
crucial
King
under-
of
The
various
that
our
much
The
Durvasas
provides
Dusyanta
brought
living
when
is
Sakuntala
Sakuntala,
to
of
Sakuntala.
for
supernatural
ways
Tempest.
Durvasas'
by
their
proves
rela-
techniques
scheme
the
of
occasion
the
the
its
of
add
supernatural
provides
menace
occasion
in
of
in
use
dramatic
also
influence
and
put
but
the
therefore
supernatural
Kanva's
forget
may
the
the
II,
by
how
we
lightning,
influenced
come
comparing
place
of
no
differently
respective
Sakuntala
thunder
in
By
plays,
presence
Tempest;
seen
mankind.
viewed
thus
has
proclaims
57
aspects
when,
By
contrast,
of
the
after
the
play,
had
been
sense
of
Ariel
are
work
further
t h i s ,
the
and
at
vividly,
by
serve
the
to
his
saves
the
lives
of
incidents
Caliban.
the
are
to
so
the
in
the
potency
of
reveals
his
plan
Miranda
all
that
Prosepero's
to
control
nature
The
Prospero's
In
the
supernatural
other
men
but
in
own
into
play
that
I,
is
more
Juno
and
and
that
Caliban,
envelops
because
they
as
scene
i i , we
brought
about
which
enable
to
aside
the
very
which
is
these
succeed
soon
powers
set
he
whispered
of
As
too
immobility.
Trinculo,
magic.
Act
powers
perhaps
is
end
ethereal
A r i e l ' s
It
the
him
in
he
realize
by
not
laws
only
of
themselves.
This
of
happens
play.
This
as
the
masque
of
commotion
powers.
enchantment
marvellous
proving
that
the
aroused
obedience
also,
Stephano,
the
obviously
to
l i f e ,
of
vast
to
the
is
scene
fantasy
us
banquet,
miraculous
f i r s t
Ferdinand
startling
people
a
by
but
charm
Alonso's
the
Prospero's
only
vanishing
punsihment
highlight
into
the
wonder
that
Introduces
not
of
superhuman
spirit-slaves
the
in
that
almost
scene,
a b i l i t y
of
that
and
second
upon
sense
storm
Prospero's
monstrous
his
episodes
Ceres,
the
demonstrated,
from
warning
of
second
extracts
The
in
plays
Our
raging
strengthens
the
once
the
learn
the
Tempest
supernatural.
seeing
we
The
supersession
Tempest,
is
only
of
nature,
hinted
at
in
a
Sakuntala.
major
The
feature
Sanskrit
58
play
our
does
contain
ordinary
Kanva's
experience
hermitage
when
she
from
Dusyanta's
and
goes
Matali
Strange
Chapter
II,
on
of
implicit
to
calm
to
be
in
the
violent
reports
the
waters
guaranteeing
rt
a
Ferdinand
that
Ceres,
that
nature
has
to
strive
hard
has
to
impose
order
are
can
to
absent
from
the
man
presenting
have
help
that
important
he
rules
the
and
man
lies
storm
and
then
and
has
But
solemn
music
succeeded
in
betrothal
of
the
masque
of
Juno
and
bounty.
But
man
nature
and
her
This
s
In
than
of
theatre
very
the
harmony
_
Sakuntala.
rather
the
with
this
nature.
A
strange
in
nymph,
i n v i s i b l y .
than
nature
Prospero
shown,
achieve
upon
a
the
mystery.
its
raise
through
bless
s
entirely
to
when
ending
we
in
by
teleported
occurences
of
between
commanding
only
happy
that
jewellery
convention
rather
sense
of
discussion,'in
Greek
impact
a b i l i t y
by
is
is
is
reported
our
within
trees
and
about
miraculous
conflict
Prospero's
move
events
the
The
SanumatT
Tern p e s t * h a v e .
magic
of
in
the
visual
i n T he
sense
played.
of
stimulating
events
A
and
not- f a l l
Sakuntala
always
noted
do
garments
mother.
however,
have
or
lack
rich
charioteer,
Sanskrit
Prospero's
elements.
and
the
stage,
strange
of
we
her
that
events.
court.
by
are,
As
reports
aspect
Dusyanta's
startling
the
natural
Sakuntala
heavenly
of
advantage
verbal
the
the
happenings
of
kingdom
seen.
reporting
the
to
give
happenings
actually
them
strange
with
of
sense
Miranda
c o n f l i c t
is
_
S a k u n t a l a man
and
nature
59
co-exist
harmoniously
by
supernatural
of
a
man
there
is
in
clearly
Sakuntala
when
the
l i t t l e
the
sent
gave
later
them
to
This
of> e x i s t e n c e
The
him
bid
in
harmony
as
is
in
and
between
is
begins
triumph
soon
plain
over
show
unwilling
The
is
a
flowers
and
jewellery
that
with
Life
It.
are
when
told
that
the
woods,
instead.
demonstrated
addresses
of
as
nature
from
the
the
The
a
trees
forest,"
The
different
in
His
are
that.
exclusively.
it
from
rule
is
of
and
man
The
and
with
convincing
proof
of
This
The
with
slaves,
again
that
of
not
Is
Ariel
but
supernatural
opposition
supernatural
which
the
Prospero's
and
Caliban
associates,
a
supernatural
view
anthropocentric
the
storm
his
a
controls
The
dealings
offers
nature
not
nature.
between
Tempest.
totally
not
Prospero
controls
and
Sakuntala
does
where
them
slaves, at
with
bring
further
Sakuntala
laws
hermitage
"companions
man
these
its
We
Kanva
Sakuntala
nature.
that
Tempest
that
in
court.
is
completely
nature
in
to
suggests
Tempest,
and
instance
determined
farewell.
is
through
man
quite
play
The
no
Kanva's
nature
find
existence
relationship
garments
and
incident
lives
beings
rich
her
In
in
of
overriding
Dusyanta's
we
that
and
disciple
man
is
Man's
Sakuntala's
Tempest.
it
for
when
as
nature
events
his
between
forest
asks
by
scheme
There
Tempest.
leaves
trees
harmony
The
shown
Kanva
a
powers.
controlling
is
in
feature
world
is
and
of
so
alien
60
to
that
of
rare
cases
ship
is
man
that
of
no
these
forced,
co-existence
worlds
fraught
coming
with
is
envisaged.
together,
tension
and
the
a
In
the
relation-
sense
of
menace.
y
By
contrast,
at
separate
as
complementary
for
but
instance,
fight
men
Sakuntala
demons
and
on
is
man
guides
cannot
that
asked
by
Indra,
behalf
of
the
or
gods
is
fully
1ife
such
separation
of
Dusyanta
relationship
with
present
in
The
ment
man's
celebrates
role
of
a
are
plan
providence
by
and
controls
man,
but
the
as
VI'
Sanumati
This
the
over
events
force
plan
of
that
reveals
the
view
is
man's
to
an
the
He
tragic
of
contradictory
universe.
the
between
demons
supernatural
his
to
the
oftner
Prospero'simastery
in
gods,
as
divine
is
them
supernatural
resolution
supernatural
supremacy
the
some
Act
the
of
such
Sakuntala.
where
presents
Dusyanata,
the
play
to
the
beings
Communication
and
the
In
for
and
Tempest
man's
in
and
king
feared
according
the
hand.
the
s p i r i t s ,
understand.
Is
supernatural
universe.
gods.
Some
represented
human
same
frequent
away,
there
in
is
and
existence
the
drives
supernatural
of
of
ubiquitous.
Dusyanta
that
levels
man
parts
is
spirits
presence
that
close
places
that
instru-
supernatural
assumes
the
absolutely.
y
Sakuntala
human
the
being
vital
curse.
has
no
parallel
using
even
this.
supernatural
incident
But
to
of
here
Durvasas
human
The
powers
to
placing
power
is
one
instance
shape
of
events
Sakuntala
demonstrably
under
a
is
a
limited,
61
for
when
he
relents
Anasuya,
he
admits
which
once
at
that
pronounced,
Understanding
supernatural
helps
of
us
the
closed
to
actually
a
by
the
of
Dusyanta,
separate
facts
last
like
forces.
scheme
of
a
as
planned
far
metaphysical
In
boundaries.
undiscovered
of
and
The
Tempest
in
the
conception
at
a
existence,
The
universe
the
senses
asks
Dusyanta
This
as
deeper
of
of
is
undis-
the
the
help
in
event,
unseen
in
a
than
as
be
play
proved
shown
by
such
to
sphere
as
last
level
not
the
super-
for
units
events,
seem
the
some
engineered
chance
ring
for
the
supernatural
heaven.
seems
own.
with
gods,
that
curse
man
l i f e
of
its
Sa kun t a 1 a ,
significance
Sakuntala's
vast
that
the
loss
arbitrary
therefore
audience
into
that
contemplation.
comparison,
The
king
his
of
the
plane
and
Even
beyond
human
presents
related
events.
In
friend
retract
difference
in
play,
purpose.
of
Sakuntala
from
gain
existence,
but
stretches
the
to
entirely
plays.
the
returning
thus
immediate
in
mortal,
Events
recovery
is
mere
unable
alien
Tndra,
Sakuntala's
relationships
the
never
in
and
of
but
of
power
basic
in
others
of
a
a
Sakuntala
that
act
all
has
the
to
is
intervenes
purpose.
as
the
point
pleas
he
respectively
supernatural
natural
the
vast
i n
most
categorically
even
by
implication
the
map
The
In
world
of
the
The
existence
Tempest,
the
of
world
separate
which
of
Tempest
implied
confines
man.
level
It-does
of
being
has
in
closer
Sa k u n t a l a
the
action
not
on
explore
which
the
62
supernatural
exists.
of
existence
The
to
human
The
himself,
as
the
a
and
the
supernatural
these
powers
books
are
obviously,
by
rests
upon
human
and
the
a
In
and
its
natural
to
of
in
relationship
to
of
the
while
Sakunta1 a
the
difference
in
handling
element
undoubtedly
the
in
the
plays,
The
regarded
acknowledges
is
the
in
us
of
man
harnesses
why
Prospero's
power.
and
have
we
have
Quite
relegation
is
of
entirely
Sakuntala
which
unity
the
seen
conception
man,
both
of
is
for
the
of
of
Tempest
the
explicit
serves
supernatural
uti1ize
to
in
part
supernatural
the
despite
super-
plot-development.
most
to
how,
the
pi ays
explicit
the
related
for
his
for
reminds
that
Importance
problems
is
Sakuntala.
play
it
fundamental
pages
supernatural
it
the
This
man
we
in
urgency
worlds.
with
solve
function
supernatural
of
while
stressing
of
greater
consequence
of
scheme
responsibility
effort.
l i f e
preceding
difference
underlying
own
larger
is
supernatural,
secondary
vision
the
is
Even
supernatural
means
in
a
in
symbols
perception
the
is
glorification
supernatural
there
man's
insistently
his
a
i n f i n i t e l y
than
on
the
important
this
to
of
through
such
is
instrument.
power
greatness
basic
motives
Tempest
marvellous
the
gives
The
convenient
foreign
and
disregarding
in
man's
the
by
Tempest
passions
focus
But
as
The
The
Tempest
implied.
a
This
structural
different
function
highlight
philosophies
of
the
human
63
achievement,
natural
frame
in
of
between
while
Sakuntala
reference
the
two
Kalidasa
and
more
purposes
than
they
found
the
construction,
despite
differently,
almost
human
containing
one.
While
supernatural
they
also
of
similar
argues
certainly
a
as
influence
affairs
human
therefore
Shakespeare
conceptions
their
e l l i p t i c a l
on
plays
both
specific
the
used
action.
the
the
a
The
superlarger
comparison
suggests
supernatural
that
for
as
practical
playwrights
an
ideal
of
it
man's
place
useful
in
interest
fundamental
reflecting
suggests
convincingly
found
thematic
of
tool
in
the
formulating
world.
they
difference
opposite
plot-
cultural
used
of
That
the
tool
world-view,
identities.
NOTES
Chapter
I
Kalidasa, essentially a lyric poet,
i s the bestknown f i g u r e i n S a n s k r i t l i t e r a t u r e .
He i s b e l i e v e d t o
have l i v e d sometime i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y A . D . and t o
have
been t h e p r i n c i p a l poet a t t h e c o u r t of King
Vikramaditya.
D e t a i l e d b i o g r a p h i c a l a c c o u n t s a r e g i v e n by S . N . D a s g u p t a
and S . K . D e , A H i s t o r y o f S a n s k r i t L i t e r a t u r e ,
Calcutta:
U n i v e r s i t y of C a l c u t t a , 1962, v o l . I,
and by
K.Krishnamoorthy,
K a l i d a s a , New Y/ork:. T w a y n e , 1 9 7 2 .
p
See f o r I n s t a n c e , A. R y d e r ,
S h a k u n t a l a and Other
W r i t i n g s o f K a l i d a s a , New Y o r k : . : D u t t o n - , ,
1 9 1 2 ; A . H i 11 e b r a n d t ,
K a l i d a s a , B r e s l a u : V\. & H . M a r c u s , 1 9 2 1 ; S r i A u r o b i n d o ,
K a l i d a s a , C a l c u t t a : Arya S a h i t y a , 1 929; W.Ruben,
Kalidasa:
T h e Human M e a n i n g o f H i ' s W o r k s , t r a n s l . J o a n B e c k e r ,
Berlin:
Berlin Akademie,
1957.
3
RabTndranath
Tagore,
"Sakuntala , " i n Col 1ected
Works ( i n B e n g a l i ) , C a l c u t t a : V i s v a - B h a r a t i , 1 974 , v o l . V ,
p p . 521 - 3 7 ;
A . C . S u b r a h m a n i a m , "The W i n t e r ' s T a l e and
Sakuntala - - A Comparative
Study,"
S a m s k r i t Ranga
Annual,
vol.
V, 1964-65/1966-67, pp. 69-76;
Mayadhara
Mansinha,
K a l i d a s a and S h a k e s p e a r e , D e l h i : M o t i l a l B a n a r a s i d a s s ,
1969,
pp.
110-15.
4
Tagore,
pp.
521-37.
5
Mansinha,
^Mansinha,
1923,
p.
112.
pp.
^Walter Raleigh,
pp.
159-60.
110-15.
Shak e s p e a r e ,
London:
Macmillan,
Q
Mukunda Madhav Sharma , "The T r e a t m e n t
of the
Supernatural
and t h e Wonderful
in Sanskrit
Dramas,"
Proceedings of the A l l India Oriental
Conference,
Poona,
1969,
pp. 290-99.
64
65
g
S h a r m a , "Some O b s e r v a t i o n s
on t h e T r e a t m e n t
of
the S u p e r n a t u r a l and the W o n d e r f u l
in Sanskrit
Dramas,"
S a m s k r i t a Ranga A n n u a l , v o l . V I ,
1972,
pp.
59-69.
Grove
^A.L.Basham,
The Wonder
P r e s s , 1954,
pp.
434-40.
1890,
p.
^ S y l v a i h
175.
1 2
L e v i ,
Levi,
p.
Le
that
Theatre
was
Indien,
India,:New
Paris:
York:
Bowillon,
175.
Chapter
II
Textual
c i t a t i o n s a r e f r o m t h e e d i t i o n by
A.B.
Gajendragadkar,
B o m b a y : ~ p u b l i s h e d • by" t h e - a u t h o r ,
1934.
The f u l l
t i t l e m e a n s ' T h e s i g n e t - r i n g o f S'a k u n t a l a . 1
Hereafter
I use the s h o r t t i t ! e S a k u n t a l a .
Translations
are e i t h e r mine, or taken from R y d e r ' s e d i t i o n of the
play.
2
Quoted
K a l Ida's a ,
by
Bombay:
M.R.Kale
in
Booksellers'
The
Abhijnanasakuntalam
Publishing,
1961
,
p.
of
13.
3
Q u o t e d f r o m D e u t s c h e M o n a t s s c h r i f t by
R.M.Bose,
A b h i j n a n a s ' a k u n t a l am: A S y n t h e t i c S t u d y ,
Calcutta;
Modern
Book A g e n c y ,
1970,
p.
x i i i .
4
Ruben , p .
7.
5
Ruben ,
p .
6
Ruben,
p.
7
Ryder ,
pp.
Ruben,
pp.
8 .
10.
xx-xxi.
P
8-9;
see
also
his
last
chapter.
9
K a l i da s a ,
Krishnamoorthy,
Delhi: Motilal
K a l i d a s a ; C . R . D e v a d h a r , Works
B a n a r a s i d a s s , 1 972 , v o l .
I;
of
66
D.Sarma,
An
distributed
of
D.
Interpretative
by C h o w k h a m b a ,
Study
1968.
of
Kalidasa,
^ E d w a r d C. D i m m o c k , J r . ,
e_t a j _ . ,
I n d i a , C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o ,
S a r m a , op_. c i t .
^ B . Bhattacharya , Sanskrit
V a r a n a s i : B h a r a t i y a M a n i s h a , 1974;
Kale,
1 2
pp.
Drama
Kale,
Calcutta:
The
Literatures
1974,
pp.
96-9;
and
pp.
Dramaturgy,
48-50.
82-3.
13
Moti.lal
P.V.Kane,
History
Ba.narasidass, 1961,
of
p.
Sanskrit
47.
P o e t i c s , Del h i : -
14
Natyasastra, ed. M.M.Ghosh,
C a l c u t t a : Manisha
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Theten
different
kinds
b f _ d r a m a m e n t i o n e d t n t h e N_S a r e : n a t a k a , p r a k a r a n a ,
anka,
v y a y o g a , b h a n a , s a m a v a k a r a , v T t h f , p r a h a s a n a , d i m a , and
ihamrga.
15
A detailed discussion
I n d i a n Kavya L i t e r a t u r e ,
Delhi:
1972,
vol.
I.
1 6
Nsf,
ch.
20-22.
Njf,
ch.
24.31;
1 7
1 o
19
i y
34.69b-7Q.
/
NS,
l 0
ch.
may be f o u n d i n
A.K.Warder,
Motiial Banarasidass,
ch.34.lla;
12a-b.
'
N_S,
ch.
6.31
.
20
V.K.Chari,
" P o e t i c E m o t i o n s and P o e t i c S e m a n t i c s , "
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2 1
Njf,
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22
2 3
24
Gajendragadkar,
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1.62.3-1.69.44.
Ruben ,
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'
Dasarupaka, ed. G.G.O.Haas,
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New
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Columbia
26
Kale,
27
Z 9
Levi,
NS",
p.
48.
c h . 6.82.
HS_,
2 8
Introduction,
p.
ch.
175.
20.19.
Chapter
III
Samuel T a y l o r
Coleridge, Lecture
IX,
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19
20
A.
21
J . P . H a r t s u g g e s t s t h a t by s h o w i n g t h e v i r t u e
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w h i t e m a g i c The T e m p e s t a n s w e r s t h e d i l e m m a o f t o o much
l e a r n i n g as p r e s e n t e d i n D o c t o r F a u s t u s ,
Boston
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