Social sustainability?

Transcription

Social sustainability?
Welcome address
Franc Zupanič
University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
1
Introduction to sustainable
technologies
Franc Zupanič
University of Maribor, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
Smetanova 17, SI-2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2
Evolution of human forms
Evolution of human forms from
ape to Homo sapiens sapiens
- the evolution needed several
million years
- the stone age lasted approx.
3.4 million years up to 6000 BC
- the copper age (at least from
5000 BC, Rudnik, Serbia)
- the bronze age (3000 BC to
1200 BC)
- the iron age (1200 BC to 700
AD)
- the industrial revolution (the
end of the 18th century)
The bronze artefacts
The iron artefacts
3
The industrial revolution
The industrial revolution brought tremendous changes in the way how we produce things and our
style of life. And this still continues in our GLOBAL world.
4
Achievements during the last two
centuries
-
we can fly
we can dive
we can built very high buildings
we can go to the space
we can easily travel around the
world
- we can be interconnected all the
time
- and everybody wants to have
access to this possibilities…
- and we want these and more
should be available for our
children…
5
Sustainable development
Sustainable development is requirred if we want that achievements will not be limited to our
generation or just a few people!
Three main areas and their
interconnection
- social
- economic
- environmental
- To which extent is our
civilization sustainable?
- very low…
6
Resources
From where we can get the resourses we need?
From the Earth, but the resources are neither uniformly
distributed nor unlimited…
The Earth
materials resources
energy; food; water
Asteroid belt, other planets and their moons,
perhaps sometimes in the future
7
Social sustainability?
The human population growth
- Dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C.,
approximately 5 million
- Over the 8,000-year period up to 1 A.D. from 200600 million; a growth rate of 0.05% per year
- It had taken all of human history until around
1800 for world population to reach one billion
- the second billion was achieved in only 130 years
(1930),
- the third billion in less than 30 years (1959), the
fourth billion in 15 years (1974), and the fifth
billion in only 13 years (1987)
- 20th century:the population has grown from 1.65
http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/
billion to 6 billion
- In 1970, there were roughly half as many people
in the world as there are now
- It will now take over 200 years to double again
8
The social sustainability will be probably the toughest challange?
The universal declaration of human
rights
Article 2.
• Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this
Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex,
language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin,
property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be
made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status
of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be
independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of
sovereignty.
9
Social sustainability?
Growth of urban areas
•
Situation
– The urban population in 2014 accounted
for 54% of the total global population, up
from 34% in 1960, and continues to
grow. It is estimated that by 2017, even
in less developed countries, a majority
of people will be living in urban areas.
our beautiful Maribor
•
Trends
– The global urban population is expected
to grow approximately 1.84% per year
between 2015 and 2020, 1.63% per year
between 2020 and 2025, and 1.44% per
year between 2025 and 2030.
favela - slum
10
Social sustainability?
The difference between the richest and
poorest increases
- Eighty people hold the same amount of wealth as the
world’s 3.6 billion poorest people.
http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list/2/#version:static
- The report from the global anti-poverty organization
finds that since 2009, the wealth of those 80 richest
has doubled in nominal terms — while the wealth of the
poorest 50 percent of the world’s population has fallen.
- The global wealth inequality is increasing while the rich
get richer. If trends continue, the organization projects
that the richest 1 percent of people will have more
wealth than the remaining 99 percent by 2016.
- but the total wealth in the world increases…
http://fivethirtyeight.com/datalab/meet-the-80-people-who-are-as-rich-as-half-the-world/
11
Social & environmental sustainability?
Water resources
- the access to water will be
the main reason for the
future wars
- there is a tendency for
privatizing water resources?!
12
Social sustainability?
Political tensions & wars
- produces many victims
- refugees
- are the world leaders also
helpless as refugees?!
13
Environmental sustainability?
Aral see
- Amu darya
- Syr darya
- used to transform the desert into
farms for cotton and other crops
14
Environmental sustainability?
Environmental degradation
- excessive deforesting
- oil transportation and
accidents
- global warming
15
Environmental sustainability?
Rare earth elements
-
highly important for several advanced technologies (mobile phones, ultra-strong
magnets…
strategic material (mainly in China)
manufacturing can cause strong pollution
16
What can do the largest players (countries, multinational corporations?
China's Premier Li Keqiang sets out
economic goals
China's Premier Li Keqiang unveiled a lower growth
target and pledged tighter environmental controls as
he opened parliament's annual session.
Addressing the National People's Congress (NPC),
Mr Li said China would target growth of about 7% in
2015.
- Still
- 7 % growth per year will
double the production in
approximately 10 years
(exponential function!)
With traditional drivers of growth weakening, more
structural reform was needed going forward, he said.
Describing pollution as a "blight" on quality of
life, he said environmental laws would be strictly
enforced.
Some 3,000 legislators from across China convene
for the annual legislative session at Beijing's Great
Hall of the People.
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-31743598
17
What can we do ourselfes?
We can do!
- as human beings
-
responsible citizen
clever consumption
healthy criticism
not believe everything what is sold…
- as professionals
- teaching
- developing better solutions…
- if everybody does what is necessary then
we can solve all problems
18
Iron & Steel
Steel
- annual production 1.5 Bt
- primary production is highly energy and material intensive
- however, more and more steel is produced from the scrap, with much
smaller energy and material consumption…
19
Manufacturing technologies
Metals
- casting
- powder metallurgy
• Completely new
technologies
• Improvements of the
current technologies
- sintering
- additive technologies
-
machining
forming
heat treatments
thermomechanical treatments
joining
- welding
- brazing
- surface engineering
- surface modification
- thin films…
20
Casting
-
melting
from few grams to several tons
increase the yield – near-net shape
reduction of energy consumpion, exhaust gases…
21
Machining
-
complex shapes
high precision
coolants, lubricants
energy consumption
"Small CNC Turning Center" by Nathaniel C. Sheetz. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Small_CNC_Turning_Center.jpg#/media/File:Small_CNC_Turning_Center.jpg
22
Powder metallurgy
Sustainable
- environmental
- economic
- competitive advantage
- powder production
- high precision
- relatively small energy
consumption
- net shape or near-net shape
23
Forming
- energy
- near-net shape
- small material loss
24
Heat & thermomechanical treatment
- varying properties in large
range
- energy consumption
- achieving final properties
- enabling further
processing
- variation of bulk or only
surface properties
25
Joining
•
•
•
•
fusion welding
friction-stir welding
brazing
…
26
Surface engineering
- thick and thin film
- surface modification
27
And much more…
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