Human Biology Laboratory Manual - McGraw


Human Biology Laboratory Manual - McGraw
Resource Guide
to accompany
Human Biology
Laboratory Manual
Seventh Edition
Sylvia S. Mader
Prepared by
Evelyn Jo Hebert
Laboratory Resource Guide to accompany
Published by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY
10020. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002, 2000, 1998, 1995, 1992, 1990, 1988. All rights reserved.
The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced in print form solely for classroom use with
Human Biology Laboratory Manual, provided such reproductions bear copyright notice, but may not be reproduced in any other form or for any
other purpose without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Laboratory Chapter Title
Scientific Method
Metric Measurement and Microscopy
Chemical Composition of Cells
Cell Structure and Function
Human Body Tissues
Basic Mammalian Anatomy I
Chemical Aspects of Digestion
Energy Requirements and Ideal Weight
Cardiovascular System
Features of the Cardiovascular System
Basic Mammalian Anatomy II
Musculoskeletal System
Nervous System and Senses
Human Development
Mitosis and Meiosis
Human Genetics
DNA and Biotechnology
Human Evolution
Effects of Pollution
Appendix A:
Common Materials: Preparation and Organization
Microscopes: Supplies and Slide-Cleaning Procedures
Test Tubes: General Management and Volume Measurement
Reagents: Mixing and Dispensing
Culture Methods: Pond Water
Hot-Water Bath
Appendix B:
Organizational Hints
Hints for the Instructor
Hints for the Laboratory Assistant
Aldrich/Fluka Chemical Co.
1001 W. St. Paul Ave.
Milwaukee, WI 53233
(800) 558-9160
(414) 273-3850
Fax: (800) 962-9591
Amersham Pharmacy & Biotech
800 Centennial Ave.
Piscataway, NJ 08855
(800) 526-3593
Fax: (877) 295-8102
Carolina Biological Supply
2700 York Rd.
Burlington, NC 27215
(800) 334-5551
Fax: (800) 222-7112
Fisher Science Education
485 So. Frontage Rd.
Burr Ridge, IL 60521
(800) 955-1177
Fax: (800) 955-0740
Sigma Chemical Co.
P.O. Box 14508
St. Louis, MO 63178-9974
(800) 325-3010
Fax: (800) 962-9591
Thornton Associates, Inc.
1432 Main Street
Waltham, MA 02451
(800) 642-4418
(781) 839-6400
Fax: (781) 890-5507
Triarch, Inc.
P.O. Box 98
Ripon, WI 54971
(800) 848-0810
Fax: (920) 748-3034
USB Corporation
26111 Miles Rd.
Cleveland, OH 44128
(800) 321-9322
Fax: (800) 535-0898
Grau-Hall Scientific
6401 Elvas Ave.
Sacramento, CA 95819
(800) 331-4728
(916) 455-5258
VWR Scientific Sargent-Welsh Div.
911 Commerce Ct.
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089
(847) 459-6625
(800) 932-5000
Fax: (856) 467-3336
Lab-Aids, Inc.
17 Colt Ct.
Ronkonkoma, NY 11779
(800) 381-8003
Fax: (631) 737-1286
Wards Natural Science Establishment, Inc.
P.O. Box 92912
Rochester, NY 14692-9012
(800) 962-2660
Fax: (800) 635-8439
Modern Biology, Inc.
111 North 500 West
West Lafayette, IN 47906
(800) 733-6544
Fax: (765) 743-7612
YSI, Inc.
1725 Brannum Lane
Yellow Springs, OH 45387
(800) 765-4974
(937) 767-7241
Fax: (937) 767-9353
P.O. Box 901
Ft. Atkinson, WI 53538-0901
(800) 558-9595
Fax: (920) 563-8296
This Resource Guide is designed as a supplement to the Laboratory Manual that accompanies Human Biology,
7th edition, by Sylvia Mader. Each Laboratory Manual chapter has a corresponding Resource Guide chapter,
which contains:
“Time Estimates’’ and “Special Requirements’’ of the laboratory. These are provided at the beginning
of each Resource Guide chapter. The instructor can tell at a glance how much time the laboratory involves and
if the laboratory requires any special preparations or materials.
“Seventh Edition Changes.’’ This section makes note of all changes from the sixth edition. In addition
to these changes, each lab has uses numbered lists and other design elements to make the exercises visually easier to follow.
“Materials and Preparations.’’ Each main laboratory topic is listed separately under “Materials and
Preparations,’’ followed immediately by a complete materials list (including Carolina catalog product numbers) and preparation instructions for those exercises. This enables the instructor to have all the materials
and information at hand for the exercises. Each item in the materials list is preceded by a short line. Use these
lines to record the number you required of each item.
“Answers to Exercise Questions’’ and “Answers to Laboratory Review Questions.” These sections
include the lab manual questions in boldface type for better visibility, with the answers following in italics.
Tables contain expected experimental results, which are also in italics.
Scientific Method
(LM pages 1–8)
Time Estimate for Entire Lab: 2.0 hours
Special Requirements
1. Living material (order to arrive as close as possible to date of use): live garden snails, Helix aspersa
2. Fresh material (obtain locally, close to time of use): iceberg lettuce for snails
Seventh Edition Changes
This is a completely new lab, which focuses on and introduces the student to the scientific method.
Preparation for this lab is minimal.
Observing the Garden Snail (LM pages 2–6)
garden snails, Helix aspersa, live (Carolina 14-1140)
correction fluid pen, white (or correction fluid, white, one bottle)
iceberg lettuce, one untrimmed head per 50 snails
magnifying lenses or dissecting microscopes
graduated cylinders for observing snail movement
rulers, 30 cm plastic
Live snails. Obtain 50 snails for a class of 20 to 35 or more students. Order snails so that they arrive as close
as possible to the date they will be needed, so they will be lively. Between laboratories, keep snails in a dry
shoe box, no more than about 25 per box. This method requires no cleanup; keeping snails in a terrarium
can be very time-consuming because of the need to remove slime, which otherwise fosters bacterial growth.
There is no need to feed or water snails unless they are stored for more than a month. To feed and
water, remove snails from the shoe box and put them in a container of moist cornstarch or lettuce for several hours or overnight. After feeding, return the snails to a clean shoe box.
Stored snails may need to be rehydrated before laboratory use. To do this, dip the snail into water or
let it sit in a petri dish containing a few mm of water. If snails are hiding in their shells, spritz them with
water or place them on a moist paper towel out of direct light. Depending upon how long snails have been
stored, it may take a few minutes or several hours for the snails to “wake up” and come out of their shells.
If snails seem sluggish, spritz with warm water. Present the snails to students on an untrimmed head of iceberg lettuce. Use white correction fluid to number the snails for identification.
Snail movement. Snails usually move up an incline. On a flat surface, the direction a snail moves is difficult
to predict and/or control. If placed in a downhill or side position, snails will usually turn and move up.
1.3 Formulating Hypotheses (LM page 5)
_____ garden snails, Helix aspersa, live (Carolina 14-1140)
_____ small beakers, 35-mm film cans, watch glasses, or small petri dishes for distributing test
_____ petri dishes, preferably 150 mm (or else 100 mm) for testing the snails
_____ cotton and Q-tips
_____ beaker of clean water for rinsing snail
Note: “Materials and Preparations” instructions are grouped by exercise. Some materials may be used in more than one exercise.
Suggested test substances:
_____ potting soil, slightly moist
_____ cornstarch
_____ liquid soap for hand washing dishes
_____ baking soda
_____ fat-free milk
_____ orange juice
_____ vinegar
_____ honey
_____ water
Miscellaneous test substances. After discussion about controls and variables, have students choose six to
ten substances and appropriate combinations for testing. Keep in mind that salt and laundry detergent are
lethal to snails.
Control hints. Plain water might be used as a control for liquids. Fine sand could be used as a control for
powders. Wet and dry powders would have water as a variable. If water is the variable, it is the water that
is being tested, not the substances.
Experimental design. These methods are recommended: For a dry substance, make a circle of the test substance in a petri dish and put the snail in the center of the circle. For a liquid, make a circle of cotton soaked
with the test substance in a petri dish or soak the cotton end of a Q-tip and put the Q-tip in the path of a
crawling snail. Any cleanable flat surface, such as a plastic tray, can also be used. Wash the snails by dipping
them in water between testing procedures.
Cleanup. Cleanup is easier and the experiment goes well if students are restrained in their use of the test
substances. Substances can be distributed to several stations in small beakers, 35-mm film cans, watch glasses, or small petri dishes. Testing snails in 150 mm petri dishes works well. A brush or other abrasive in combination with a liquid detergent speeds removal of the snail slime.
1.1 Using the Scientific Method (LM page 2)
The arrow in Figure 1.1 indicates that research often enters a cycle of hypothesis–experiments
and observations–conclusion–hypothesis. Explain. A conclusion from one experiment often leads to formulating a hypothesis for another experiment.
How is a theory different from a conclusion? A conclusion is based on data from one type of experiment/observation. A theory is based on many conclusions from many experiments/observations.
1.2 Observing the Garden Snail (LM page 4)
Observation: Garden Snail’s External Anatomy (LM page 2)
2. Is your snail still growing? As stated in the laboratory manual, an upward curl at the front edge of the shell
indicates that the snail is fully grown.
Observation: Garden Snail’s Motion (LM page 3)
1. Describe the wave action of the foot and any motion you see in the pneumostome.
The snail’s foot, when viewed from the bottom, shows an undulating, wavelike motion as the snail moves. The
pneumostome opens and closes as the snail moves.
2. As you watch the snail, identify behaviors that might
a. protect it from predators The snail pulls into its shell.
b. help it acquire food The snail moves from place to place.
c. protect it from the elements The snail pulls into its shell.
d. allow interaction with the environment The snail’s eyes on its tentacles move around.
3. Allow a garden snail to crawl on your hand. Describe how it feels. The foot feels “slimy,” and the
undulating motion of the foot tickles.
Table 1.1 Preferred Direction of Motion*
Direction Moved
Crawled up
Tried to crawl off the edge
Did not move
Pulled into shell and did not move in any direction
Crawled sideways, then diagonally up
Moved fast, then slower; seemed to wander
Mostly moved up, but not always
Moved really fast
*Answers will vary. The answers provided here are examples.
Table 1.2 Snail Speed*
Centimeters Traveled
Time (min.)
14.2 cm
1 minute
Average Speed (cm/min.)
14.2 cm/min.
26.4 cm
2 minutes
13.2 cm/min.
12.8 cm
1 minute
12.8 cm/min.
4.0 cm
Did not finish
Snail pulled into shell.
*Answers will vary. The answers provided here are examples.
1.3 Formulating Hypotheses (LM page 5)
2. Hypothesize in Table 1.3 how you expect the snail to respond, and offer an explanation for your
reasoning. The following is an example of three possible student hypotheses regarding flour.
Table 1.3 Hypotheses About Snail’s Reaction to Common Powders and Liquids
Substance Tested
Hypothesis. . .
Reasoning for Hypothesis
Snail will show no reaction.
Flour is a bland substance.
Snail will be repelled.
Flour is a dry substance.
Snail will be attracted.
Flour is a white substance.
1.4 Performing an Experiment (LM pages 6-7)
Table 1.4 Snail’s Reaction to Common Substances*
Substance Tested
Snail’s Reaction
Snail moved toward flour and began to eat it.
Snail crawled onto cornstarch and began to eat it.
Baking soda
Snail began to foam and pulled into shell. This substance contains sodium.
Moist potting soil
Snail crawled into it.
Snail moved away.
Snail avoided the vinegar.
Fat-free milk
Snail showed no interest.
Snail moved into water.
Liquid soap for handwashing dishes
Snail moved away.
Orange juice
Snail showed no interest.
*possible student observations
1. Does your experiment contain a control sample? Explain. See “control hints” above.
2. Did other students get results that support your hypothesis? Answers will vary.
3. What is needed by other experimenters in order for them to repeat your experiment? Other experimenters will need to know the conditions of the experiment, the substances tested, and the criteria used for
determining attraction or repulsion.
Conclusions (LM page 7)
Study your results, and decide what factors may have caused the snail to be attracted to or
repelled by a substance. Any conclusion by students is acceptable; however, in general snails are repelled
or harmed by acidic solutions (vinegar, orange juice) and by powders that go into solution (salt, laundry
detergent, sugar). Snails show no reaction to, or are attracted to, such things as moisture, flour, and cornstarch.
Test this new hypothesis, and describe what your results show or do not show. Can you come to a
conclusion? As an example, a student might hypothesize that snails are repelled by any substance that
contains sodium, such as sodium bicarbonate and salt, etc. Testing these substances either supports or
does not support the hypothesis.
1. What kind of phenomena do scientists study? natural
2. What is a tentative explanation of observed phenomena? hypothesis
3. What do you call the information scientists collect when doing experiments and
making observations? data
4. What step in the scientific method follows experiments and observations? conclusion
5. What do you call a sample that goes through all the steps of an experiment and does not contain
the factor being tested? control
6. What do you call an experiment that can be done by someone else in exactly the
same way? repeatable
7. Can data prove a hypothesis true? (Yes or No) no
Indicate whether statements 8 and 9 are hypotheses, conclusions, or theories.
8. The data show that vaccines protect people from disease. conclusion
9. All living things are made of cells. theory
10. Wavelike contractions along what organ allow a snail to move? foot
11. How many body divisions does a snail have? three
12. Name one criterion you used to formulate your hypotheses regarding snail behavior toward
various substances. direction of movement
13. What can be concluded if a snail withdraws into its shell? nothing
14. Snails that foam are (attracted to/repelled by) a substance. repelled by
Thought Questions
15. What is a theory? A theory is a concept that ties together many conclusions into a generalized statement.
16. Why is it important to test one substance at a time when testing a snail’s reaction? Only then can
you be certain of the snail’s reaction to that particular substance.