Urban Ecosystem Recovery with Green Technology y y gy y y gy

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Urban Ecosystem Recovery with Green Technology y y gy y y gy
Urban Ecosystem Recovery with Green Technology
y
y
gy
Shiro, Masayuki, WAKUI
Shiro
hi , Masayuki, WAKUI
ki
Professor, Faculty of Information environment, Tokyo city University
President, Gifu Academy of Forest Science and Culture
President, Nagoya Open University of the Environment
Special Appointed Professor, Appointed Professor, Faculty of Economics,
Faculty of Economics, Aichi Gakuin
Aichi Gakuin University
Visiting Professor, Chubu Institute for Advanced Studies, Chubu University
Visiting Professor, Faculty of Regional Environmental science, Tokyo University of Agriculture
The Torre The Torre Gungi
Gungi, the Roof Garden of 14
, the Roof Garden of 14th Century, Lucca, Toscana, Italia
Built in the late 14th century for defending Lucca from the Medici
defending Lucca from the Medici family’s attack, this defense tower can be seen even now.
The first vestiges of green roof can be seen in a historic remain in a suburb of Baghdad. In around 600 B.C. the historic remain was built in the desert by Nebuchadnezzar II, a king of the Neo‐Babylonian Empire, because his princess Amytis had missed her green homeland. Soil was piled, plants and flowers were planted and water was drawn up and dashed downward on the five storied 25 meter high
and dashed downward on the five‐storied, 25‐meter‐high terraced patio of the palace was so big that it could be seen as if it was hung in the air when seen from distance. The surface area of the building is presumed to be 60 square meters. However, the green palace was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 528 B.C.
Ecological Architecture Style as Tradition
Greening of Symbiosis with Nature ・ Architecture as Shelter
Shirakawa‐go
“Lawn Building”
A ridge on which lawn and flowers are planted. Further, the roots of the plants reinforce the ridge.
In Japan,
p , all of traditional architectural structure method are
Baubiologie
Pergola with Japanese wisteria is set for shade, Private house
A
Approach
h off “Bau-Bio-Logie,
“B Bi L i Architectural
A hit t
l BiologyBi l
E l
Ecology”
”
“A new academic to request a healthy daily life
This is a new field of study that pursues the healthy housing. It is prevalent in Alpine countries such as Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. German Prof. Dr. Anton Schneider was one of its leading figures. Baubiologie
g g
g is spreading around p
g
the world, and, also in Japan, Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Baubiologie Japan was founded in March 2005, to try to create comfortable spaces.
“Unité d'Habitation, Marseille”
“La Ville Radieuse
Radieuse”
Radieuse”,
””, Le Corbusier
He proposed solutions for urban problems, such as securing open space through building tall buildings, and separating streets into motorways and motorways and footaths
footaths..
Traditional Green Roof with Turf Traditional Green R
oof with Turf G
Grass,
Norway
“Ecological Apartments”, Kassel, Germany
This housing complex was built under the following principles:
 Piling soil and planting wild flowers on the roof onto only to enhance the
heat insulation capacity but also to contribute to greening its scenery.
scenery
 Not conducting pavement that prevents water from infiltrating into the
soil on the surface of the sidewalk, parking lot or driveway apron.
 Planting long trailing vines around the building for heat insulation.
 Using clay as a wall material, which naturally harmonized the
temperature and humidity.
Business Buildings with Gree
en Roofs
R
West Exxit Redevelopment of Commerrcial Facilities in High
peed Growth Eraa
ties in High‐‐ Sp
The Pre
edawn of Green
n
Roof
History of Roof Gardens for customers services of Commercial Facilities
Roof Garden, Roof Garden, Shiraki
Shiraki‐‐ya Department Store, Ninonbashi
Store, Ninonbashi, 1903
, 1903
Roof Terrace, Matsuzakaya, Ginza, 1923
This zoo includes lions and panthers.
Nihonbashi Mituskoshi Department store opened a rooftop garden named the “hanging
hanging garden
garden”, 1907.
1907
Sotetsu‐Joinus
Sotetsu‐
Joinus, West Exit , West Exit of Yokohama Station
“Joinus
Joinus‐‐no
no‐‐Mori”
Opened at 1973.
Tokyu opened at 1967.
In June 1982, the Tokyu
group announced the “Shibuya Plan 1985” as its strategy for designing the commercial redevelopment in Shibuya.
ASAKURA Museum of Sculpture
ASAKURA Museum of Sculpture
Akitacommercial building, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi, Completed 1915.
Architectural Style of Compromise between East and West
There is a Japanese garden on the roof terrace.
This was one used as an art studio building. This rooftop garden was build for nature education for the pupils.
Roof Garden, Seibu, Ikebukuro
Roof
Garden Seibu Ikebukuro
“Shoku
Shoku‐‐to
to‐‐Midori
Midori‐‐no
no‐‐
Kuchuteien””
Kuchuteien
( Hanging garden with foods and greens)
Functional Transition Concept of “Green roofs and Artificial grounds” in Japan
1970
1945
Roof Terrace Utilization for Industrial Promotion
European Cites
1912
The castellated wall divided the urban are and nature, or the old city and the new green city.
Roof Terrace
Roof Terrace Utilization for Customer Services
2000
I Garden, Isetan Department Store, Shinjuku
Roof Terrace Utilization for Landscaping
Roof Terrace Utilization for Contribution of Environment
Japanese Cities
Garden City and Ecological Environmental City = EDO
Recycling and Natural symbiosis type
Cities were created based not on the castle wall, but on nature
Metropolitan expressway, Ohashi
Junction “Sky Garden”
The ecological environmental city
It appeared in the Exposition of Global Harmony 2005 Aichi, Japan, an international exhibition.
Bio‐‐Lung contributed for a popularization of living walls
Bio
バイオラング
Global House
Bio‐‐Lung
Bio
setting position
setting
position
Pond
Ai‐‐chikyu Plaza
Ai
North Gate
Global Rope
Temperature of Expo AMEDAS
33.4℃
33.4
℃
Non‐‐green wall
Non
Wind velocity: 1.5m/s
Examples of the special greening techniques in recent year
Emilio Ambasz’s green concept “coexistence with nature” had a great influence on architecture.
nature
had a great influence on architecture
“GRIN‐GRIN,” a practical study facility, is located in Island‐city central park, an artificial
park, an artificial island in Fukuoka city, Japan. 2008
Toyoo ITO, 2005
Global citizens exchange center, Expo 2005 Aichi Commemorative park
“ACROS Fukuoka”, 1995
NIHON SEKKEI, INC. and Emilio Ambasz
This hub facility of the park is connected to Aichikyuhaku‐kinen‐koen station. The social exchange, activity facilities and sports facilities around the semi‐outdoor “Dialogue square” are open to citizens. The rooftop garden forms a grassy hill, which mingles with the surrounding scenery. This facility sims to fully harness wind power, solar power, dry g
y
y
y
p
p
y
mist, biopellets, and so on. The environmental technologies that appeared in the Exposition of Global Harmony 2005 Aichi, Japan are inherited and developed.
“Namba Parks”
This composite facility, which is run mainly by the mainly by the Nankai
i l b th Nankai
N k i Electric Railway, El t i R il
opened on April 19,2003, where Osaka stadium used to be.
“Kibou‐no‐Kabe”
A giant green wall, 9 meters tall, 78 meters in length,
designed by Tadao ANDO. The color of this green wall
varies with seasons.
Expansion of green wall since the Exposition of Global Harmony 2005 Aichi, Japan
11C
1.1 Construction area of rooftop greening
i
f
f
i
Single year (m2)
Accumulated total (m2)
Construction area, single year
Construction area, accumulated total
HEISEI (
HEISEI (year)
)
1.2 Construction area of wall greening
Define value
Provisional value
Single year (m2)
According to the Ministry of land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism’s 2013 report, the greened roof area of about 23.8 ha (equal to 33 soccer grounds) and the greened wall area of about 6.3 ha (equal to 9 soccer grounds) were created in the same year. The surface area of a soccer ground is 7,140 square meters.
 The accumulative created green area: during the 14 years from 2000 to 2013, the f
h
greened roof area about 383 ha and the greened wall area of about 62 ha were created. * In this graph, the data of 2012 and 2013 are temporary data.
d 2013
t
d t
Accumulated total (m2)
Construction area, single year
Construction area, accumulated total
Bio lung
バイオラング
HEISEI (year)
Define value
Provisional value
 The graph above shows single year and accumulated data of the roof and wall greening surface area since 2000.
Pont Max Juvenal, Aix en Provence
Metropolitan Expressway Ohashi Junction, Creation area of ecological network (green pained area) Ohashi JCT
Effectively using various social capital, this attempt aims to restore green zones and ecosystems in the city area. Further, if there is a serious disaster, this is also expected to be utilized as a disaster mitigation area.
Creation and restoration of urban ecological network through utilizing artificial ground
Expansion of the green covering ratio through urban development by the private sector.
MORI building corporation’s restoration and creation strategy of urban ecological network in its urban redevelopment project. Roof temperature (in summer)
Roof temperature (in winter)
JR Shinjuku station area
Tokyo metropolitan, seafront area
JR Shibuya station area
Haneda
international airport area
JR Shinagawa, Tamachi
Station area
Tokyo getting ready for the coming Tokyo Olympic Games+ i T k Ol
i G
redevelopment of the metropolitan area is advancing greatly, especially in the Strategic Special Zones. This is a big chance for Tokyo to be a naturally renovating type of city.
Secure a system for making the real estate value of the green area on artificial ground persistent!
Market participants around the green real estate
I
Investors
t
D
Developers
l
Stable and lasting financing
Quality estate supply
T
Tenants
t
Utilization promotion
Expected effects
Improving the environmental value of real estate
Supply of necessary information
Preparation of high‐
quality environmental real estate stock
Considering the proper methods of evaluation for green real estate
Green real estates
Introducing energy saving technology, installation of solar light panels, effective air conditioning devices, greening and so on
Condition maintenance
Adequate information serve for each subject
‐
‐
Tokyo Plaza,
OMOTESANDO
Currently, environmental measures from the perspective of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are beginning to be implemented.
Certainly, technological developments, such as energy saving and greening are advancing; however, the market value for green real estate is not properly increasing given alack of information provision and clear methods of evaluation.
Estates
Disaster prevention map
Degree of collapse risk
Risk 5
Risk
5
Risk 4
Risk 3
Risk 2
Risk 1
To maintain the value of green areas that are created in the course of urban redevelopment and revitalization, a new system that can make it investment value obvious is needed!
Terrace Market, Futako tamagawa Rise
The green area’s real estate value tends to be obvious g
only at the time of development. So the subsequent investment appetite for its maintenance should be secured with the help of public organizations.
Green areas not only contribute to guaranteeing high CBI (City Biodiversity Index) points, but can also serve as evacuation places when there is a natural disaster. Thus, the green area’s other various disaster‐reduction functions should be maintained and strengthened through green policy and other measures.
An active discussion taking place on the true value of “green real estate” is desirable.
Presage for the future
America Pavilion, Milano expo‐
Que Branly
Que Branly Museum, Paris
Pont Max Juvenal, Aix en Provence
2015 Living wall with vegetables
High Line,
New York
Patrick Blanc, 2005
Most Extensive Green Roof System
A bridge that connects a great theater in the Aix‐
en‐Provence city commune and the office district
One Central Park Project, Sydney, 2007 (SEKISUI House, L.td.)
Jean Nouvel +Norman Foster
Approx. 56,000m2 (site area)
Approx 100 000m2 (total floor Approx. 100,000m
(total floor
area)
Marvelous technology, retainable for as long as 10 years, with 6‐meter‐high trees on as little as a 50 mm thin soil base on a hospital’s rooftop.
Architect, Kengo KUMA
wall with aluminum panel and plants
未来への予兆
マックス・ジュヴェナル橋
ミラノ万博・アメリカ館
野菜による壁面緑化
Patrick Blanc, 2005
Que Branly
Que Branly Museum, Paris
High Line, New York
New York
隈健吾設計
アルミパネルと
緑化による壁面
Central Park Project, Sydney, 2017
ジャン・ヌーヴェル+ノーマン・フォスター
ジャン・ヌーヴェル+ノーマン・
フォスター
約 56,000
56,000㎡
㎡(敷地) 約100,000
100,000㎡
㎡(延床)
エクス・アン・プロヴァンス市
新興地区のプロヴァンス大劇場と
オフィス街をつなぐ橋。
オフィス街をつなぐ橋