TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide - z/VM

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TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide - z/VM
z/VM
TCP/IP Level 3A0
Diagnosis Guide
Version 3 Release 1.0
GC24-5985-00
z/VM
TCP/IP Level 3A0
Diagnosis Guide
Version 3 Release 1.0
GC24-5985-00
Note!
Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information under “Notices” on page 285.
| First Edition (February 2001)
| This edition applies to the IBM® Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Feature for z/VM (TCP/IP Level
| 3A0), program number 5654-A17 and to all subsequent releases and modifications until otherwise indicated in new
| editions.
| This edition replaces GC24-5851-01.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1987, 2001. All rights reserved.
US Government Users Restricted Rights – Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract
with IBM Corp.
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Programming Interface Information . . . . . . vii
Who Should Read This Book . . . . . . . vii
How To Use This Book . . . . . . . . . vii
How This Book is Organized . . . . . . . vii
How Numbers Are Used in This Book . . . . viii
Where to Find More Information . . . . . . ix
How the Term “internet” Is Used in This Book . . x
Understanding Syntax Diagrams . . . . . . . xi
How to Send Your Comments to IBM . . . . . xiii
Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . xv
| First Edition for z/VM (February 2001)
IP Multicasting . . . . . . .
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems .
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Diagnosing SSL Problems . . .
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First Edition for VM/ESA® (July 1999) .
RouteD Diagnosis . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 1. Diagnosis Overview . . . . . 1
Chapter 2. Problem Identification . . . . 5
Categories that Help Identify the Problem . . .
Abend . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wait State . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incorrect Output . . . . . . . . . . .
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . .
Documentation . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation .
Necessary Documentation . . . . . . . .
Additional Documentation . . . . . . .
Problem Resolution. . . . . . . . . .
Severe Problem Resolution . . . . . . .
Customer Worksheet . . . . . . . . . .
Problem Category . . . . . . . . . .
Background Information . . . . . . . .
Additional Information . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and
Internetworking Overview . . . . . . 15
VM Structure . . . . . . . . . . .
Virtual Machines . . . . . . . .
Virtual Machine Communication Facility
Inter-User Communication Vehicle. . .
*CCS and Logical Device Service Facility
Overview of Internetworking . . . .
Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) . .
Token Ring IEEE 802.5. . . . . . .
IEEE 802.3 . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet - DIX V2 . . . . . . . .
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
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Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP) . . .
IP Routing. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Internet Addressing . . . . . . . . .
Direct Routing . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect Routing . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplified IP Datagram Routing Algorithm . .
Subnetting. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simplified IP Datagram Routing Algorithm with
Subnets. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Static Routing . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Routing . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamic Routing Tables . . . . . . . .
Example of Network Connectivity . . . . .
Chapter 4. Server Initialization
CMS Servers . . .
Diagnosis Method
Diagnosis Method
GCS Servers . . .
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Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures . . . . . 33
TCP/IP Internals . . .
Internal Procedures . .
Queues . . . . . .
Internal Activities . .
Input/Output . . . .
CETI Driver . . . .
HYPERchannel Driver .
IUCV Links . . . .
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Chapter 6. Diagnosing the Problem . . 45
Unable to Connect to TCP/IP Node . . . . .
Description of the Problem . . . . . . .
Symptom . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problem Determination . . . . . . . .
PING—Sending an Echo Request to a Foreign
Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resolving the PING Command Problems . .
Failure of the HYPERchannel Interface . . . .
Description of the Problem . . . . . . .
Symptom . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problem Determination . . . . . . . .
Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failure of an SNA IUCV Connection . . . . .
Description of the Problem . . . . . . .
Symptom . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problem Determination . . . . . . . .
Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces . . . . . . . 51
Debugging in VM . .
Executing Traces. .
Activating Traces .
First-Level Trace . .
Second-Level Trace .
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Directing Output . . . . . . . .
Process Names . . . . . . . . . .
Single Process Names . . . . . . .
Group Process Names . . . . . .
Commonly Used Trace Options . . . .
Connection State . . . . . . . . .
Connection State As Known by TCP. .
Connection State As Known by Pascal or
Applications. . . . . . . . . .
Connection State As Known by Socket
Applications. . . . . . . . . .
Traceroute Function (TRACERTE) . . .
Chapter 8. FTP Traces
FTP Connection .
FTP Client Traces .
Activating Traces
Trace Output .
FTP Server Traces .
Activating Traces
Trace Output .
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VMCF
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Chapter 9. Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol Traces . . . . . . . . . . 147
SMTP Client Traces
Activating Traces
Obtaining Queue
SMTP Server Traces
Activating Traces
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Information
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Chapter 10. RPC Programs . . . . . 155
General Information about RPC
RPC Call Messages . . . .
RPC Reply Messages . . . .
Accepted Reply Messages .
Rejected Reply Messages .
RPC Support . . . . . .
Portmapper . . . . . . .
Portmapper Procedures . .
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Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis . . . . 159
Incoming Datagram RouteD Processing . .
Outgoing Datagram RouteD Generation .
RouteD Route Table and Interface List . .
Diagnosing Problems . . . . . . . . .
Connection Problems . . . . . . . .
PING Failures . . . . . . . . . .
Incorrect Output . . . . . . . . .
Session Outages . . . . . . . . .
Activating RouteD Trace and Debug. . . .
RouteD Trace and Debug Commands . .
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operands. . . . . . . . . . . .
Usage Notes. . . . . . . . . . .
RouteD Trace and Debug SMSG Commands
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operands. . . . . . . . . . . .
Usage Notes. . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Output . . . . . . . . . . .
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
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| Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE
| Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . .
| Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems . . . . . .
Abends . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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MPROUTE Connection Problems . . . . .
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Routing Failures . . . . . . . . . .
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| Using Privileged MPROUTE SMSG Commands
All OSPF Configuration Information. . . .
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Configured OSPF Areas and Ranges . . . .
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Configured OSPF Interfaces . . . . . .
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Configured OSPF Non-broadcast, Multi-access
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Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Configured OSPF Virtual Links . . . . .
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Configured OSPF Neighbors . . . . . .
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OSPF Link State Advertisement . . . . .
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OSPF Area Statistics and Parameters . . .
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OSPF External Advertisements . . . . .
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OSPF Area Link State Database . . . . .
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OSPF Interface Statistics and Parameters . .
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OSPF Neighbor Statistics and Parameters . .
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OSPF Router Routes . . . . . . . . .
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OSPF Link State Database Statistics . . . .
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OSPF Routing Protocol Statistics . . . . .
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MPROUTE Routing Table . . . . . . .
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Route Expansion Information . . . . . .
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RIP Configuration Information . . . . .
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Configured RIP Interfaces . . . . . . .
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RIP Routes to Be Accepted . . . . . . .
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RIP Interface Statistics and Parameters . . .
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| MPROUTE Traces and Debug Information. . .
Starting MPROUTE Tracing and Debugging
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from the VM Console . . . . . . . .
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Starting MPROUTE Tracing and Debugging
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using the SMSG Command . . . . . . .
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Destination of MPROUTE Trace and Debug
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Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis . . 217
SSL component Flow . . . . . . . . . . .
Invoking Trace Activity on the SSL Server . . .
Diagnosing Problems . . . . . . . . . . .
Symptom - The SSL server could not be started
Symptom - The SSL server is restarted by the
stack at regular intervals . . . . . . . .
Symptom - The correct parameters are not being
passed to the SSL server. . . . . . . . .
Symptom - The inability to connect to an
application server listening on a secure port . .
Symptom - Connections close due to errors . .
Symptom - Incorrect input or output . . . .
Trace Output . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Normal . . . . . . . . . . . .
Trace Connections NODATA . . . . . . .
Trace Connections DATA . . . . . . . .
Trace FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Local Host Information . . . . .
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Chapter 14. Network File System . . . 229
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Activating Traces for NFS Client .
VM NFS Server Support. . . . .
NFS Protocol . . . . . . .
Mount Protocol. . . . . . .
PCNFSD Protocol . . . . . .
General NFS Debugging Features
Activating Traces for NFS Server .
Additional Trace Options . . .
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Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces
Remote Printing Client Traces . . . . .
Activating Remote Printing Client Traces
Remote Printing Client Trace Output .
Remote Printing Server Traces . . . .
Activating Remote Printing Server Traces
Remote Printing Server Trace Output .
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Chapter 16. Remote Execution
Protocol Traces . . . . . . . . . . 247
Remote Execution Protocol Client Traces . . . .
Activating Remote Execution Protocol Client
Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Execution Protocol Client Trace Output
Remote Execution Protocol Server Traces . . .
Activating Remote Execution Protocol Server
Traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Remote Execution Protocol Server Trace Output
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Chapter 19. BOOT Protocol Daemon
(BOOTPD) Traces . . . . . . . . . 261
Activating Traces . . . .
Trace Output . . . .
BOOTPD Trace Records .
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Chapter 20. Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol Daemon
(DHCPD) Traces . . . . . . . . . . 265
Activating Traces . . . .
Trace Output . . . .
DHCPD Trace Records .
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Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions 269
PCCA Devices . . . .
PCCA Block Structure
CCW . . . . . .
CETI Devices . . . .
Matching CCW Traces and
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Appendix A. Return Codes
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Appendix B. Related Protocol
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Chapter 17. TFTP Client Traces. . . . 251
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Activating Traces .
Trace Output . .
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Chapter 18. TFTPD Traces . . . . . . 253
Activating Traces . . . . . . .
Trace Output . . . . . . .
Formats of TFTPD Trace Records .
TFTPD Trace Codes: . . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 1000 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 1500 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 2000 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 2500 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 3000 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 3500 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4000 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4100 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4200 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4300 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 5000 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 5100 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 5200 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6100 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6200 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6300 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6301 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6302 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6303 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6304 . . . .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6305 . . . .
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UDP Error Return Codes
Trademarks .
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Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
z/VM Base Publications . . . . . . . .
Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . .
Installation and Service . . . . . . .
Planning and Administration . . . . .
Customization . . . . . . . . . .
Operation . . . . . . . . . . .
Application Programming . . . . . .
End Use . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagnosis. . . . . . . . . . . .
Publications for Additional Facilities. . . .
DFSMS/VM® . . . . . . . . . .
OSA/SF . . . . . . . . . . . .
Language Environment® . . . . . .
Publications for Optional Features . . . .
CMS Utilities Feature. . . . . . . .
TCP/IP Feature for z/VM . . . . . .
OpenEdition® DCE Feature for VM/ESA®.
LANRES/VM . . . . . . . . . .
CD-ROM . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other TCP/IP Related Publications . . . .
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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
Contents
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Preface
This TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide is intended to provide information for diagnosing
problems occurring in IBM’s* Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) networks.
Programming Interface Information
This book documents information NOT intended to be used as Programming
Interfaces of z/VM.
Warning: Do not use this Diagnosis, Modification, or Tuning Information as a
programming interface.
Who Should Read This Book
This book is intended to be used by system programmers or TCP/IP
administrators for diagnosing problems. You should use this book to:
v Analyze a problem in a VM TCP/IP implementation
v Classify the problem as a specific type
You should be familiar with TCP/IP and the protocol commands to use this book.
How To Use This Book
You should read this book when you want to diagnose and report problems that
can occur in TCP/IP networks.
How This Book is Organized
Chapter 1. Diagnosis Overview, describes basic problem determination steps. A
flow diagram shows the process to follow when determining problems.
Chapter 2. Problem Identification, describes problem categories and the structure of
service support to help you solve your problems.
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview, describes the
structures of the TCP/IP implementation for VM and an overview of
Internetworking.
Chapter 4. Server Initialization, describes the mechanism used to start each TCP/IP
server.
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures, describes TCPIP internal procedures, queues, and
activities and input/output functions.
Chapter 6. Diagnosing the Problem, provides information about diagnosing
TCP/IP problems. The chapter also provides a systematic approach to solving
TCP/IP problems.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces, describes how to activate traces and direct trace output.
The chapter also describes single and group processes.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
vii
Chapter 8. FTP Traces, describes how to activate and interpret File Transfer
Protocol (FTP) traces.
Chapter 9. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Traces, describes how to activate and
interpret Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) traces.
Chapter 10. RPC Programs, describes how to activate and interpret Remote
Procedure Call (RPC) traces.
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis, describes how to activate, debug, and interpret
RouteD traces, and diagnose problems.
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems, describes how to activate, debug,
and interpret OSP traces, and diagnose OSP problems.
|
|
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis, describes how to debug and interpret SSL server
traces.
Chapter 14. Network File System, describes how to debug NFS Server problems
plus interpret NFS traces.
Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces, describes the tracing capabilities available in
the client and server functions provided with the Remote Printing implementation
in TCP/IP for VM.
Chapter 16. Remote Execution Protocol Traces, describes the tracing capabilities
available in the client and server functions provided with the Remote Printing
implementation in TCP/IP for VM.
Chapter 17. TFTP Client Traces, describes how to activate and interpret TFTP client
traces.
Chapter 18. TFTPD Traces, describes how to activate and interpret TFTPD traces.
Chapter 19. BOOT Protocol Daemon (BOOTPD) Traces, describes how to activate
and interpret BOOTPD traces.
Chapter 20. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Daemon (DHCPD) Traces,
describes how to activate and interpret DHCPD traces.
Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions, describes how to activate and interpret
traces on PCCA and CETI devices. The chapter also provides samples of Channel
Control Word (CCW) traces.
Appendix A. Return Codes, describes TCP/IP return codes.
Appendix B. Related Protocol Specifications, describes the TCP/IP RFCs.
This book also includes a glossary, a bibliography, and an index.
How Numbers Are Used in This Book
In this book, numbers over four digits are represented in metric style. A space is
used rather than a comma to separate groups of three digits. For example, the
number sixteen thousand, one hundred forty-seven is written 16 147.
viii
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Where to Find More Information
The “Glossary” on page 289, defines terms used throughout this book associated
with TCP/IP communication in an internet environment.
For more information about related publications, see “Bibliography” on page 307.
Table 1 shows where to find specific information about TCP/IP for VM
applications, functions, and protocols.
Table 1. Usage of TCP/IP Version 2 for VM Applications, Functions, and Protocols
Applications, Functions, and
Protocols
Topic
Book
BOOTP Daemon (BOOTPD)
Setting up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Planning and Customization
Commands
Planning and Customization
Setting up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Planning and Customization
Commands
Planning and Customization
eXternal Data Representation (XDR)
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
Commands
User’s Guide
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
Commands
User’s Guide
MPROUTE
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization
NETSTAT
Usage
User’s Guide
Network Computing System (NCS)
Setting Up NCS
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Programmer’s Reference User’s Guide
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
OSF/Motif
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
PING
Usage
Planning and Customization Program
Directory User’s Guide
Portmapper**
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Programmer’s Reference User’s Guide
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
DHCP Daemon (DHCPD)
Kerberos
Network File System (NFS)
**
Remote Execution Protocol (REXEC)
Preface
ix
Table 1. Usage of TCP/IP Version 2 for VM Applications, Functions, and Protocols (continued)
Applications, Functions, and
Protocols
Topic
Book
Remote Printing
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
Remote Procedure Calls (RPC)
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
Resolver
CMS Program Interface
Programmer’s Reference
Configuration Parameters
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
RouteD
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
RPCGEN command
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
Interface to SMTP
Programmer’s Reference
Setting Up the Server and Agent
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Planning and Customization Program
Directory User’s Guide
SNMP Distributed Program Interface
(DPI)
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
Socket Calls
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization
Telnet
Setting Up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
Commands
User’s Guide
Usage
User’s Guide
Commands
User’s Guide
Setting up the Server
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
Planning and Customization
Commands
Planning and Customization
Usage
Programmer’s Reference
Setting Up the Interface
Planning and Customization Program
Directory
Usage
User’s Guide
Simple Network Management
Protocol (SNMP)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon
(TFTPD)
X Window System
®
X Window System GDDM Support
How the Term “internet” Is Used in This Book
In this book, an internet is a logical collection of networks supported by routers,
gateways, bridges, hosts, and various layers of protocols, which permit the
network to function as a large, virtual network.
x
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Note: The term “internet” is used as a generic term for a TCP/IP network, and
should not be confused with the Internet, which consists of large national
backbone networks (such as MILNET, NSFNet, and CREN) and a myriad of
regional and local campus networks worldwide.
Understanding Syntax Diagrams
This section describes how to read the syntax diagrams in this book.
Getting Started: To read a syntax diagram, follow the path of the line. Read from
left to right and top to bottom.
v The ─── symbol indicates the beginning of a syntax diagram.
v The ─── symbol, at the end of a line, indicates that the syntax diagram
continues on the next line.
v The ─── symbol, at the beginning of a line, indicates that a syntax diagram
continues from the previous line.
v The ─── symbol indicates the end of a syntax diagram.
Syntax items (for example, a keyword or variable) may be:
v Directly on the line (required)
v Above the line (default)
v Below the line (optional).
Syntax Diagram Description
Example
Abbreviations:
Uppercase letters denote the shortest acceptable abbreviation. If an item
appears entirely in uppercase letters, it cannot be abbreviated.
KEYWOrd
You can type the item in uppercase letters, lowercase letters, or any
combination.
In this example, you can enter KEYWO, KEYWOR, or KEYWORD in any
combination of uppercase and lowercase letters.
Symbols:
You must code these symbols exactly as they appear in the syntax diagram.
*
Asterisk
:
Colon
,
Comma
=
Equal Sign
-
Hyphen
()
Parentheses
.
Period
Variables:
Highlighted lowercase items (like this) denote variables.
KEYWOrd var_name
In this example, var_name represents a variable you must specify when you
code the KEYWORD command.
Preface
xi
Syntax Diagram Description
Example
Repetition:
An arrow returning to the left means that the item can be repeated.
A character within the arrow means you must separate repeated items with
that character.
A footnote (1) by the arrow references a limit that tells how many times the
item can be repeated.
repeat
,
repeat
(1)
repeat
Notes:
1
Specify repeat up to 5 times.
Required Choices:
When two or more items are in a stack and one of them is on the line, you
must specify one item.
A
B
C
In this example, you must choose A, B, or C.
Optional Choice:
When an item is below the line, the item is optional. In this example, you
can choose A or nothing at all.
When two or more items are in a stack below the line, all of them are
optional. In this example, you can choose A, B, C, or nothing at all.
A
A
B
C
Defaults:
Defaults are above the line. The system uses the default unless you override
it. You can override the default by coding an option from the stack below
the line.
In this example, A is the default. You can override A by choosing B or C.
xii
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
A
B
C
Syntax Diagram Description
Example
Repeatable Choices:
A stack of items followed by an arrow returning to the left means that you
can select more than one item or, in some cases, repeat a single item.
A
B
C
In this example, you can choose any combination of A, B, or C.
Syntax Fragments:
A Fragment
Some diagrams, because of their length, must fragment the syntax. The
fragment name appears between vertical bars in the diagram. The expanded
fragment appears in the diagram after a heading with the same fragment
A Fragment:
name.
In this example, the fragment is named “A Fragment.”
A
B
C
How to Send Your Comments to IBM
Your feedback is important in helping us to provide the most accurate and
high-quality information. If you have comments about this book or any other VM
documentation, send your comments to us using one of the following methods. Be
sure to include the name of the book, the form number (including the suffix), and
the page, section title, or topic you are commenting on.
v Visit the z/VM web site at:
|
http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zvm
There you will find the feedback page where you can enter and submit your
comments.
v Send your comments by electronic mail to one of the following addresses:
Internet:
[email protected]
GDLVME(PUBRCF)
IBMLink™:
v Fill out the Readers’ Comments form at the back of this book and return it using
one of the following methods:
– Mail it to the address printed on the form (no postage required in the USA).
– Fax it to 1-607-752-2327.
– Give it to an IBM representative.
Preface
xiii
xiv
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Summary of Changes
This section describes the technical changes made in this edition of the book and in
previous editions. For your convenience, the changes made in this edition are
identified in the text by a vertical bar (|) in the left margin. This edition may also
include minor corrections and editorial changes that are not identified.
|
|
|
|
First Edition for z/VM (February 2001)
This edition contains updates for the General Availability of TCP/IP Level 3A0
Diagnosis Guide:
IP Multicasting
and IGMP traces were added to the ″TCP/IP Traces″ chapter. The
trace provides information about the multicast options associated
The IGMP trace provides information about the Internet Group
Protocol (IGMP).
|
|
|
|
MULTICAST
MULTICAST
with sockets.
Management
|
|
Support for IP Multicasting Class D type addresses used in IP addresses has been
added.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems, has been added. The chapter
describes how to activate, debug, and interpret OSP traces, and diagnose
MPROUTE problems.
Diagnosing SSL Problems
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis, has been added. The chapter describes how to
activate, debug, and interpret SSL traces, and diagnose SSL problems.
First Edition for VM/ESA® (July 1999)
This edition contains updates for the General Availability of TCP/IP Function
Level 320 Diagnosis Guide:
RouteD Diagnosis
This chapter has been improved to include information on incoming and outgoing
datagram processing and generation. Also more detailed problem diagnosis,
tracing output, and debug information, has been included.
Miscellaneous
Miscellaneous service updates were added since the previous release.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
xv
xvi
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Chapter 1. Diagnosis Overview
To diagnose a problem suspected to be caused by TCP/IP for VM, you first
identify the problem, then determine if it is a problem with TCP/IP, and, finally, if
it is a problem with TCP/IP, gather information about the problem so that you can
report the source of the problem to the appropriate IBM service support group.
With this information available, you can work with service support representatives
to solve the problem. The object of this book is to help you identify the source of
the problem.
Figure 1 on page 2 summarizes the procedure to follow to diagnose a problem. The
text following the figure provides more information about this procedure.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
1
Diagnosis Overview
Diagnosis
Procedure
Is
problem
with
TCP/IP?
1
3
Use information in
Chapter 2 to document
the problem.
Yes
No
2
5
Go to the diagnosis
guide for the device
or application with
the problem.
Is
problem
resolved?
4
Yes
Diagnosis task
is completed.
No
6
7
Report the problem
to the IBM service
support group.
Does
IBM service
support group supply
a solution?
Yes
No
8
IBM service support
group creates an APAR.
9
Solution is developed
by the IBM service
support group.
10
Apply the solution.
Figure 1. Overview of the Diagnosis Procedure
1
Determine if the source of the problem is TCP/IP.
Various messages outputed to the console, together with alerts and some
diagnostic aids provide information that helps you to find the source of a
problem. If the problem is with TCP/IP, go to Step 3; otherwise, go to
Step 2.
2
Check appropriate books.
Refer to the diagnosis guide of the hardware device or software application
that has the problem.
3
Gather information.
Refer to Chapter 2. Problem Identification, for a detailed explanation of
diagnostic procedures and how to collect information relevant to the
problem.
2
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosis Overview
4
Try to solve the problem.
If you can solve the problem, go to Step 5; otherwise, go to Step 6.
5
The diagnosis task is completed.
The problem has been solved.
6
Report the problem to service support.
After you have gathered the information that describes the problem, report
it to service support. If you are an IBMLINK user, you can perform your
own RETAIN® searches to help identify problems. Otherwise, a
representative uses your information to build keywords to search the
RETAIN database for a solution to the problem. The object of this keyword
search using RETAIN is to find a solution by matching the problem with a
previously reported problem.
You can also visit the VM TCP/IP homepage to view PSP as well as FAQ
information at http://www.ibm.com/s390/vm/related/tcpip/
7
Work with support representatives.
If a keyword search matches a previously reported problem, its solution
might also correct the problem. If so, go to Step 10. If a solution to the
problem is not found in the RETAIN database, the service support
representatives will continue to work with you to solve the problem. Go to
Step 8.
8
Create an APAR.
If service support does not find a solution, they may create an authorized
program analysis report (APAR) on the RETAIN database.
9
A solution is developed by the support personnel.
Using information supplied in the APAR, service support representatives
determine the cause of the problem and develop a solution for it.
10
Apply the solution.
Apply the corrective procedure supplied by the support personnel to
correct the problem. Go to Step 4 to verify that the problem is corrected.
Chapter 1. Diagnosis Overview
3
Diagnosis Overview
4
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Chapter 2. Problem Identification
This chapter explains the categories that best describe a problem you might have
with TCP/IP. This chapter also describes how you can use Service Support and its
indexed database (RETAIN) to find the solution to your problem. You should
review this chapter before contacting any service support to help expedite a
solution to your problem.
Categories that Help Identify the Problem
There are seven general problem categories:
v Abend
v Message
v Loop
v Wait State
v Incorrect Output
v Performance
v Documentation.
For each category, this section provides you with:
v A description of the category
v A list of the documentation to be gathered
v Directions for preparing your findings and providing them for further service
support.
Problems that are related to installation, configuration, and general performance
should first be pursued through your marketing branch office. They have access to
facilities such as HONE, EQUAL, and the regional area Systems Centers, which
may be able to provide a resolution to the problem. The Program Directory and the
Preventive Service Planning (PSP) facility are also valuable sources of information
for these types of problems. PSP bucket information can be viewed on the TCP/IP
for z/VM home page at http://www.ibm.coms390/vm/related/tcpip/
In addition to the general categories previously listed, the following keywords can
be used to describe problems associated with TCP/IP. These keywords are used to
perform inquiries in RETAIN and in the licensed program, INFO/SYS:
v CLEAR/RESET
v DIAG/DIAGNOSTIC
v
v
v
v
v
LAN
LOCKED/HANG/HUNG
RECFMS
REJECT/FRMR
SENSE
v INOP
v ETHERNET
v TOKEN-RING
v User ID names of server virtual machines
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
5
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
Abend
An abend occurs when TCP/IP unexpectedly terminates execution. In addition to
TCP/IP abends, Pascal and C runtime routines can abend.
An execution error in the Pascal runtime produces output similar to that shown in
Figure 2. The compile module is TCQUEUE and AMPX messages are Pascal runtime
errors.
AMPX036I Assertion failure checking error
TRACE BACK OF CALLED ROUTINES
ROUTINE
STMT AT ADDRESS IN MODULE
PREPENDENVELOPE
7
000AAC02
QUEUES
FROM1822
88
000EA58A
FROM1822
SCHEDULER
49
000BB5FC
SCHEDULER
-MAIN-PROGRAM5
00020130
TCPIP
VSPASCAL
001103E2
Figure 2. Pascal Execution Error
For more information about Pascal execution errors, see the following books:
v VS Pascal Applications Programming Guide
v VS Pascal Language Reference.
Gather the Information
Gather the following documentation for your abend problem:
v TCP/IP dump (see “Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation” on
page 11)
v Client or server dump, if applicable.
You might also need to gather the following documentation:
v TCP/IP configuration
v Console listing
v
v
v
v
TCPIP DATA file
TCPIP PROFILE file
Channel control word (CCW) trace with data
TCP/IP trace
v Customized DTCPARMS file
v RSU Service Level
Document the Problem
To determine if the abend is related to TCP/IP, look at your TCP/IP dump or
console log.
Message
The message problem category describes a problem identified by a message. If the
message starts with AMPX, the error is caused by an abend in the Pascal runtime.
For more information about Pascal execution errors, see “Abend”.
Gather the Information
Gather the following documentation for your message problem:
v Console log
You might also need to gather the following documentation:
6
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
v Host CCW trace
v Virtual Machine TCP/IP dump
v TCP/IP trace.
Document the Problem
To prepare a message problem report, follow these steps:
1. Write down the following:
v The operation you tried to perform
v The results you expected
v The results you received.
2. Write down the entire content of the message or messages, including the
message identifier.
3. Give this information to your service support person when reporting your
problem.
Loop
If an operation, such as a message or printed output, repeats endlessly, TCP/IP
could be in a loop. Some indicators of a loop problem are:
v Slow response time
v No response at all
v Inordinately high CPU utilization by TCP/IP.
Gather the Information
Gather the following documentation for your loop problem:
v TCP/IP dump (see “Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation” on
page 11)
v Branch Trace if appropriate.
You might also need to gather the following documentation:
v Configuration files for TCP/IP
v TCPIP DATA file
v TCPIP PROFILE file
v CCW trace
v TCP/IP trace.
Document the Problem
To prepare the loop problem report, complete the following steps:
1. Record the circumstances of the loop that indicate you have a problem.
2. Use the addresses obtained from the branch trace to locate routine name or
names, so you can determine where the loop occurs.
3. Contact the IBM service support group to report your problem. Provide the
following information:
v The symptoms that indicate you have a loop problem
v The maintenance level of your TCP/IP
v The contents of the branch trace
v The routine name or names where the loop occurs. This may be obtained
from a formatted dump.
Chapter 2. Problem Identification
7
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
Wait State
If TCP/IP applications appear to hang and connected hosts report link time-outs
on their end, TCP/IP could be in a wait state. Some indicators of a wait state
problem are:
v
v
v
v
v
v
Application programs cannot function or terminate
Link time-outs are observed on connected hosts
No communication with system console is possible
No CPU utilization by TCP/IP is observed
No response at all
Traffic ceases through the network connections.
Gather the Information
Gather the following documentation for your wait state problem:
v TCP/IP dump (see “Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation” on
page 11)
v Dump of the client or server virtual machine if appropriate.
You might also need to gather the following documentation:
v Configuration files for TCP/IP
v TCPIP DATA file
v
v
v
v
TCPIP PROFILE file
Virtual PSW value for the TCP/IP virtual machine
Console log
TCP/IP trace of events prior to the wait state occurring.
Document the Problem
To prepare the wait state problem report, complete the following steps:
1. Record the circumstances leading up to the wait state condition.
2. Use the module loadmap or the address portion of the virtual PSW value to
determine the routine name where the wait state is occurring.
3. Contact the IBM Support Center to report your problem. Provide the following
information:
v The symptoms that indicate you have a wait state problem
v The program levels where the wait state occurs
v The contents of any traces activated at the time the problem occurred
v The routine name indicated by the address portion of the PSW.
Incorrect Output
A TCP/IP incorrect output problem, such as missing, repeated, or incorrect data, is
an unexpected result received during regular network operation. Incorrect output
is the broadest problem category, and includes some of the following problems:
8
Problem
Description
Activate Failure
The inability to establish a connection with the
device.
Deactivate Failure
The inability to end a connection that was
established with the device.
Load Failure
Any problem that occurs during initialization.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
Dump Failure
Any problem that causes the storage contents of
TCP/IP to be dumped or a Pascal trace back.
Device Failure
The inability of a device to continue
communication using TCP/IP.
Gather the Information
Gather the following documentation for your incorrect output problem:
v The operation you tried to perform
v The results you expected
v The results you received.
You might also need to gather the following documentation:
v TCP/IP dump (see “Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation” on
page 11)
v CCW trace
v The contents of any traces activated at the time of problem
v Console log
Document the Problem
Incorrect output problems are often caused by definition errors during TCP/IP
generation. Before you contact the IBM Support Center to report your problem,
check that all statements and their keywords were correctly specified for your
system during the generation process. After you confirm that all generation
definitions were correctly specified:
1. Prepare a description of the following:
v The operation you tried to perform
v The results you expected
v The results you received.
2. Give this information to the IBM Support Center when you call to report your
problem.
Performance
A performance problem is characterized by slow response time or slow
throughput, which can be caused by congestion in the network or a malfunction of
an interface. When you suspect that you have a performance problem, gather as
much information as possible about your system before and during the poor
performance times.
Performance problems are normally caused by:
v Over-utilization of the host
v Inappropriate prioritization of an application program within the host
v Over-utilization of the communication interface
v Malfunction in the host, communication controller, or network.
Gather the Information
Gather the following documentation for your performance problem:
v The operation you tried to perform
v The results you expected
v The results you received
v TCP/IP configuration files
Chapter 2. Problem Identification
9
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
You might also need to gather the following documentation:
v TCP/IP dump (see “Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation” on
page 11)
v Console log
v CCW trace
v TCP/IP trace.
Document the Problem
To prepare a performance problem report:
1. Write a description of the following:
v The operation you tried to perform
v The results you expected
v The results you received.
2. Record any other characteristics about your operating environment during the
time of the performance problem. Some examples of these characteristics are:
v The time of day that the poor performance occurred.
v Any unique application programs that were running at the time of the
problem.
v The physical configuration of your network, especially the LAN interfaces or
the number of virtual circuits, such as X.25, involved.
v Any modifications made to your operating system, input/output (I/O)
generation, or the connection interface, such as virtual circuits for X.25 or the
local area network (LAN) configuration for LANs.
3. Check the console for messages.
Documentation
A TCP/IP documentation problem is defined as incorrect or missing information in
any of the TCP/IP books.
If the error interferes with TCP/IP operation, report the problem to your service
support. However, for comments or suggestions on the content of a TCP/IP book,
use the Readers’ Comment Form located at the back of the book. An e-mail
address is also provided for your convenience.
Gather the Information
Gather the following information for your documentation problem:
v The name and order number of the IBM publication in error
v The page number of the error
v The description of the problem caused by the error.
Document the Problem
Give the following information to your service support personnel when you report
your problem:
v The order and revision number of the book that contains the error.
The order and revision number appear on the front cover and title page of the
book in the form xxxx-xxxx-n. The xxxx-xxxx is the order number and n is the
revision number.
v Page numbers, figure numbers, chapter titles, section headings, and any other
information that pinpoints the location of the text that contains the error.
v A description of the problem caused by the documentation error.
10
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
Guidelines for Machine Readable Documentation
If, after talking to the Level 2 Support Center representative about a problem, it is
decided that documentation should be submitted to the TCP/IP support team, it
may be more convenient for the customer and/or the TCP/IP support team that
documentation be submitted in machine readable form (that is, on tape) or else
sent over the network. Machine readable documentation can be handled most
efficiently by the IBM support person if it conforms to the following guidelines
when creating the tape (or tapes).
When preparing machine readable documentation for submission in a z/VM
environment, the following guidelines should be followed:
1. Dumps and traces should be submitted on tape.
v For dumps:
The generation of dumps for the TCP/IP virtual machine (for program
checks) is controlled by a parameter on the ASSORTEDPARMS statement
in the PROFILE TCPIP file. Two possible formats are supported:
- CPDUMP - tells TCP/IP to generate a dump using the CP DUMP
command.
- VMDUMP - tells TCP/IP to generate a dump using the CP VMDUMP
command.
If neither of these parameters is specified on the ASSORTEDPARMS
statement, TCP/IP suppresses the dump generation for program checks.
Use of the VMDUMP parameter presumes the availability of the Dump
Viewing Facility (DVF) at your installation. Refer to the CP Command
Reference for additional information on the two dump formats.
Dumps generated for other error conditions will have a format specified
by the error processing routine that intercepted the error (such as the C
run-time library). These dumps will be in either the DUMP or VMDUMP
format.
Dumps generated in the VMDUMP format must be processed by the
Dump Viewing Facility prior to submission. Refer to the Dump Viewing
Facility Operation Guide for information on processing VMDUMP
formatted dumps. When submitting dumps processed by the applicable
facility, be sure to include all of the files produced by the processing of
the dump (DUMP, REPORT, etc.). Dumps generated in the DUMP format
must be read from the system spool to disk (using the RECEIVE
command) prior to submission.
Dump files may be transferred to tape using the VMFPLC2 command.
Refer to the Service Guide for VM for details on using VMFPLC2. Each file
dumped to tape should constitute a single tape file (that is, a tape mark
should be written after each file is dumped to tape).
v For TCP/IP Traces:
TCP/IP trace files should be transferred to tape using the VMFPLC2
command. If multiple traces are being submitted, each trace file dumped
to tape should constitute a single tape file (that is, a tape mark should be
written after each file is dumped to tape).
Note: Use of any other utility (IBM or non-IBM) to transfer dumps or traces to
tape may result in a processing delay and could result in the APAR
being returned to the customer (closed RET) due to the inability of the
change team to process the tape.
Chapter 2. Problem Identification
11
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
2. Submit other types of information (such as server virtual machine traces,
configuration files, console logs, etc.) on paper or tape. If submitted on tape,
the data should be written to tape using VMFPLC2 only, adhering to the
requirement that each file dumped to tape is followed by a tape mark.
3. Write at least ten tape marks after the last file to ensure the load processing
correctly recognizes the end of the tape and does not spin off the end off the
reel (for 3420 tapes).
4. Tapes that are submitted to the TCP/IP support team must be non-label (nl).
Cartridge (3490) or reel tapes may be used. Each tape should contain an
external label to identify the tape and its contents in some way. The problem
number/apar number should appear on the label. If multiple tapes are used, a
separate explanation should be included itemizing the contents of each tape.
5. Generate a map of the tape (or tapes) to be submitted using the VMFPLC2
SCAN command and include the hard copy output of that scan with the tapes.
Necessary Documentation
Before you call for IBM service support, have the following information available:
Information
Description
Customer Number
The authorization code that allows you to use
service support. Your account name, and other
customer identification should also be available.
Problem Number
The problem number previously assigned to the
problem. If this is your first call about the problem,
the support center representative assigns a number
to the problem.
Operating System
The operating system and level that controls the
execution of programs.
Component ID
A number that is used to search the database for
information specific to TCP/IP. If you do not give
this number to the support center representative,
the amount of time taken to find a solution to your
problem increases.
Release Number
An identification number that is on each TCP/IP
release.
Table 2. TCP/IP Component ID Number
Licensed IBM Program Product
Component ID Number
TCP/IP (VM)
5735FAL00
A complex problem might require you to talk to a number of people when you
report your problem to service support. Therefore, you should keep all the
information that you have gathered readily available.
Note: You might want to keep the items that are constantly required, such as the
TCP/IP component ID, or VM operating system release level in a file for
easy access.
Additional Documentation
The service support representative might ask you to furnish the following
additional items:
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Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
v The failing CPU type
v The communication interface, such as X.25 using NPSI or a LAN bridge
v The system fixes and changes.
Have a list of all program temporary fixes (PTFs) and authorized program
analysis report (APAR) fixes that have been applied to your system. You should
also have a list of any recent changes made to your system, such as user
program modifications, redefinition of statements in system generation, or a
change of parameters used to start the system.
v Documentation list
Prepare a list of all documentation that you use to operate your system and any
documentation used to locate or fix the problem.
v System configuration
System configuration information includes:
–
–
–
–
TCPIP DATA file
TCPIP PROFILE file
Configuration statements for clients or servers
Problem type
TCP/IP problems are described by one or more of the following categories:
- Abend
- Message
- Loop
- Wait State
- Incorrect Output
- Performance
- Documentation.
“Categories that Help Identify the Problem” on page 5 explains how to use
these categories when reporting your problem.
Problem Resolution
The service support representative uses the information that you provide to create
a list of categories describing your problem.
The program specialist examines all the information that has been compiled,
refines your problem definition, and attempts to solve the problem. If a solution is
not found in RETAIN or through other sources, the program specialist writes an
APAR. A number is assigned to the APAR. The APAR allows the support group to
examine your problem more closely and develop a solution. Once the solution is
developed and tested, it is entered into RETAIN and sent to you. RETAIN is kept
current with new solutions and error descriptions so that future similar problems
can be resolved through a problem category search.
Severe Problem Resolution
If your problem is so severe that it must be resolved immediately, you should
work closely with a program specialist to help develop a quick solution.
You need to provide the specialist with detailed problem information. Answer
questions and follow procedures directed by the program specialist so that a
possible quick temporary fix can be developed for your problem.
Chapter 2. Problem Identification
13
Problem Identification, Reporting, and Resolution
Customer Worksheet
You, the customer may wish to fill out an informal worksheet to use as a reference
before calling for support. By completing this worksheet before calling for support,
you will save time and help expedite your fix.
The following Problem Category topic along with the references in Chapter 2.
Problem Identification, should be reviewed before you call for service support.
Problem Category
Determine within which of the following categories your problem falls:
Category
Description
Abend
An abend occurs when TCP/IP unexpectedly stops processing.
These problems are explained in “Abend” on page 6.
Message
The message problem category describes a problem identified by a
message. These problems are explained in “Message” on page 6.
Loop
Loop problems refer to an operation that repeats endlessly. These
problems are explained in “Loop” on page 7.
Wait State
Wait state problems refer to situations where TCP/IP (or possibly
specific servers) fail to respond to requests for service and no
activity takes place in the address space or virtual machine of the
affected server. These problems are explained in “Wait State” on
page 8.
Incorrect Output
An incorrect output problem, such as missing, repeated, or
incorrect data, is an unexpected result received during regular
network operation. These problems are explained in “Incorrect
Output” on page 8.
Performance
A performance problem is characterized by slow response time or
slow throughput. These problems are explained in “Performance”
on page 9.
Documentation
A documentation problem is defined as incorrect, missing, or
ambiguous information in any of the TCP/IP books. These
problems are explained in “Documentation” on page 10.
Background Information
After determining the problem category and reviewing the section referring to that
category, you must gather the required information regarding your problem. Each
problem category detailed in this chapter contains a section called “Gather the
Information”. See this section to determine the appropriate information you will
need to obtain.
Additional Information
Some additional information may be required. See “Additional Documentation” on
page 12, to determine if you need more information.
14
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Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking
Overview
This chapter describes the TCP/IP implementation for VM. It also provides an
overview of networking or internetworking as background information.
VM Structure
Figure 3 represents the TCP/IP layered architecture for the VM environment.
X Toolkit GDDMXD
CMS Telnet FTP TFTP SMTP DNS SNMP NFS BOOTPD DHCPD TFTPD Kerberos LPR RouteD X Window System RPC REXEC SSL
User
LPD MPROUT E
LDSF
CCS
CP
VMCF
Figure 3. The TCP/IP Layered Architecture for VM
Virtual Machines
In VM, most TCP/IP servers and clients are virtual machines. Each server and
client is implemented as an independent virtual machine.
A request for service is sent to the appropriate virtual machine for processing and
then forwarded to the appropriate destination. The destination can be the TCP/IP
virtual machine if the request is outgoing, or a user’s CMS virtual machine if the
request is incoming.
The configuration and initialization steps for typical CMS type servers is shown in
figure Figure 4 on page 16.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
15
TCP/IP Structures in VM
General 1
PROFILE
EXEC
Server
191
Server's Exit EXEC
Global Exit EXEC
4
8
6
Setup
Begin
End
DTCPARMS
3
TCPMAINT
591 or 198
2
TCPRUN EXEC
Prepare
5
7
SERVER'S MAIN ROUTINE
9
CMS or
LOGOFF
Figure 4. The sequence of a Server Startup
where :
1
PROFILE EXEC on 191 accesses required disks
2
PROFILE EXEC calls TCPRUN EXEC
3
Locate server and server class definitions in DTCPARMS files
4
Call any server and global exits with SETUP parameters
5
Prepare the execution environment, issuing any needed CP and CMS
commands
6
Calls any server and global exits with BEGIN parameters
7
Run the server
8
Call any server and global exits with END parameters
9
Return to CMS or logoff
TCPRUN EXEC may also call the exits with the ADMIN or ERROR parameters if
the server cannot be started due to administration or problems.
Virtual Machine Communication Facility
The Virtual Machine Communication Facility (VMCF) is used by virtual machines
for communication. Because the TCPIP virtual machine has all of the physical
interfaces, all communication input/output (I/O) requests are sent to TCPIP for
execution.
Inbound data comes into the TCPIP virtual machine and is sent through VMCF to
the destination virtual machine. The routing for inbound data is chosen on the
basis of the virtual machine that is communicating with the destination.
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Inter-User Communication Vehicle
All communication that uses the current socket interface uses the Inter-User
Communication Vehicle (IUCV) interface. For example, the Remote Procedure Call
(RPC) uses the socket interface and, therefore, RPC communication uses IUCV to
communicate with virtual machines.
*CCS and Logical Device Service Facility
*CCS is used for communication between Telnet and a user’s CMS virtual machine.
This line-mode interface permits requests to be passed between the user and Telnet
virtual machines.
When a user requires a full-screen interface, the Logical Device Service Facility
(LDSF) is used. This interface simulates a 3270 device on the user’s virtual
machine, thereby relieving TCP/IP of the need to create a full-screen interface.
Overview of Internetworking
Networking in the TCP/IP world consists of connecting different networks so that
they form one logical interconnected network. This large overall network is called
an internetwork, or more commonly, an internet. Each network uses its own physical
layer, and the different networks are connected to each other by means of
machines that are called internet gateways or simply gateways.
Note: This definition of a gateway is very different from the one used in general
network terms where it is used to describe the function of a machine that
links different network architectures. For example, a machine that connects
an OSI network to an SNA network would be described as a gateway.
Throughout this chapter, the TCP/IP definition of a gateway is used.
Figure 5 shows a simple internet with a gateway.
Internet A
Internet
Gateway
Network 1
Network 2
Figure 5. Networks with a Gateway Forming an Internet
The function provided by these gateways is to transfer IP datagrams between the 2
networks. This function is called routing and because of this the internet gateways
are often called routers. Within this chapter, the terms router and gateway are
synonymous; both refer to a machine that transfers IP datagrams between different
networks.
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
17
TCP/IP Structures in VM
The linking of the networks in this way takes place at the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) network level. It is possible to link
networks at a lower layer level using bridges. Bridges link networks at the ISO data
link layer. Bridges pass packets or frames between different physical networks
regardless of the protocols contained within them. An example of a bridge is the
IBM 8209, which can interconnect an Ethernet network and a Token-Ring network.
Note: A bridge does not connect TCP/IP networks together. It connects physical
networks together that will still form the same TCP/IP network. (A bridge
does not do IP routing.)
Figure 6 depicts a router and a bridge. The router connects Network 1 to Network
2 to form an internet.
Internet A
Network 1
Bridge
Token Ring
Ethernet
Router
Network 2
Bridge
Token Ring
Token Ring
Figure 6. Routers and Bridges within an Internet
Bridges
Bridges are not within the scope of this document; however, there are some aspects
of bridging that have a direct effect on TCP/IP networks, particularly in the area of
IP routing. This is very important because if IP datagrams are not passed properly
over a bridge, none of the higher TCP/IP protocols or applications will work
correctly.
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Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
Different physical networks have different maximum frame sizes. Within the
different frames, there is a maximum size for the data field. This value is called the
maximum transmission unit (MTU), or maximum packet size in TCP/IP terms.
Figure 7 shows the relationship of MTU to frame size.
ICMP
IP
Network Protocol
RARP
ARP
Data Link
Logical Link
Control Sublayer
Logical Link Control Header Data
Media Access Control Sublayer
Media Access Control Header
Data
Maximum Frame Size
Figure 7. Relationship of MTU to Frame Size
If an IP datagram is to be sent out onto the network and the size of the datagram
is bigger than the MTU, IP will fragment the datagram, so that it will fit within the
data field of the frame. If the MTU is larger than the network can support, then the
data is lost.
The value of MTU is especially important when bridging is used because of the
different network limits. RFC 791 - Internet Protocols states that all IP hosts must be
prepared to accept datagrams of up to 576 bytes. Because of this, it is
recommended that an MTU of 576 bytes be used if bridging (or routing) problems
are suspected.
Note: MTU is equivalent to the PACKET SIZE value on the GATEWAY statement,
or the MAXMTU value when using BSDROUTINGPARMS in the TCPIP
PROFILE file.
Token Ring IEEE 802.5
When a token-ring frame passes through a bridge, the bridge adds information to
the routing information field (RIF) of the frame (assuming that the bridge supports
source route bridging). The RIF contains information concerning the route taken by
the frame and, more importantly, the maximum amount of data that the frame can
contain within its data field. This is called the maximum information field (I-field).
The value specified for the maximum I-field is sometimes referred to as the largest
frame size, but this means the largest frame size excluding headers. See Figure 8 on
page 20 for details on the relationship of the I-field to the header fields.
Note: It is important to be aware that IBM’s implementation limits the number of
bridges through which a frame can be passed to 7. An attempt to pass a
frame through an eighth bridge will fail.
The maximum I-field is always decreased by a bridge when it cannot handle the
value specified. So, for a given path through several token-ring bridges, the
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
19
TCP/IP Structures in VM
maximum I-field is the largest value that all of the bridges will support. This value
is specified in the Routing Control (RC) field within the RIF as shown in Figure 8.
Routing Segment
Control Number . . .
2
2 bytes
I-Field
SD AC FC DA SA RI
1
1
1
6
L-PDU
6
FCS ED FS
4
1
Data Frame
1 byte
DSAP SSAP CONT P_id Type Data
1
1
1
3
2
Logical Link Control
Protocol Data Unit
(L-PDU)
n
Figure 8. Format of an IEEE 802.5 Token-Ring Frame
The size of the MTU is the maximum amount of data that is allowed within a
frame. The token-ring architecture specifies the maximum value of the I-field in the
data frame, which corresponds to the maximum size of the L-PDU. The maximum
I-field is determined by the bit configuration in the RC field, and is present in all
routed frames.
Table 3 shows the relationship between the RC field and the maximum I-field
values.
Table 3. Relationship between RC Field and Maximum I-Field Value
Routing Control Field
Maximum I-Field in Bytes
x000 xxxx xxxx xxxx
516
x001 xxxx xxxx xxxx
1500
x010 xxxx xxxx xxxx
2052
x011 xxxx xxxx xxxx
4472
x100 xxxx xxxx xxxx
8144
x101 xxxx xxxx xxxx
11 407
x110 xxxx xxxx xxxx
17 800
In Figure 8, we can see that, within the L-PDU, the Logical Link Control (LLC)
header uses 8 bytes, and so the MTU value is 8 bytes less that the maximum
I-field. (Note that the L-PDU contains a SNAP header, as described in
“Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)” on page 21) This is how to calculate the
MTU for a token ring. The token-ring bridges always adjust the value of the
maximum I-field to that of the smallest one in the path. You should always ensure
that the MTU value is less than the value specified by the bridge.
Typically, within a 4Mbps token-ring network, the value of maximum I-field will
be 2052 bytes, and so the MTU would be set to 2044 bytes (2052 minus 8 bytes for
the LLC header).
IEEE 802.3
The frame used in IEEE 802.3 Ethernet networks is shown in Figure 9 on page 21.
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TCP/IP Structures in VM
Pre SD DA SA LEN
7
1
6
6
L-PDU
PAD FCS
2
Data Frame
4
DSAP SSAP CONT P_id Type Data
1
1
1
3
2
Logical Link Control
Protocol Data Unit
(L-PDU)
n
Figure 9. Format of an IEEE 802.3 Frame
The maximum size of the L-PDU for a 10Mbps network is 1500 bytes. Because 8
bytes are used within the L-PDU for the LLC header, this means that the
maximum size of the data field is 1492 bytes. Therefore, the MTU for IEEE 802.3
networks should be set to 1492 bytes.
Ethernet - DIX V2
The frame used in DIX Ethernet networks is shown in Figure 10.
Pre SD DA SA Type
8
6
6
6
Data FCS
2
n
Data Frame
4
Figure 10. Format of an Ethernet V2 Frame
There is no LLC data in an Ethernet V2 frame. The maximum size for the frame is
1526 bytes. This means that the data field can be 1500 bytes maximum. The MTU
for Ethernet V2 can be set to 1500 bytes.
It is possible to bridge Ethernet V2 frames to either IEEE 802.3 or IEEE 802.5
networks; a LLC header is added or removed from the frame, as required, as part
of the conversion when bridging.
Sub-Network Access Protocol (SNAP)
The TCP/IP software provides protocol support down to the ISO network layer.
Below this layer is the data link layer, which can be separated into two sublayers.
These are the Logical Link Control (LLC) and the Media Access Control (MAC) layers.
The IEEE 802.2 standard defines the LLC sublayer, and the MAC sublayer is
defined in IEEE 802.3, IEEE 802.4, and IEEE 802.5.
The format of an IEEE 802.2 LLC header with the SNAP header is shown in
Figure 11.
LLC with SNAP Header
SNAP Header
DSAP SSAP CONT P_id Type
1
1
1
3
Data
2
Figure 11. SNAP Header
The values of the fields in the LLC header when a SNAP header is used are
specified in RFC 1042 - Standard for Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802
Networks. The values specified are:
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
21
TCP/IP Structures in VM
Field
Value
DSAP X'AA'
SSAP X'AA'
CONT
X'03' Specifies unnumbered information (UI)
P_id
X'00 00 00'
Type
X'08 00' - IP
X'08 06' - ARP
X'08 35' - RARP
IP Routing
IP routing is based on routing tables held within a router or internet host. These
tables can either be static or dynamic. Typically, static routes are predefined within a
configuration file, and dynamic routes are “learned” from the network, using a
routing protocol.
Internet Addressing
Hosts on an internet are identified by their IP address. Internet Protocol (IP) is the
protocol that is used to deliver datagrams between these hosts. It is assumed the
reader is familiar with the TCP/IP protocols. Specific information relating to the
Internet Protocol can be found in RFC 791.
An IP address is a 32-bit address that is usually represented in dotted decimal
notation, with a decimal value representing each of the 4 octets (bytes) that make
up the address. For example:
00001001010000110110000100000010
00001001 01000011 01100001 00000010
9
67
97
2
32-bit address
4 octets
dotted decimal notation (9.67.97.2)
The IP address consists of a network address and a host address. Within the internet,
the network addresses are assigned by a central authority, the Network Information
Center (NIC). The portion of the IP address that is used for each of these addresses
is determined by the class of address. There are four commonly used classes of IP
address (see Figure 12).
|
xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx 32-bit IP Address
Host
Net
Net
Host
Class B:
Class A:
Class C:
Class D:
Net
1110
Host
Multicast Group ID
Figure 12. Classes of IP Addresses
The class of address of the IP network is determined from the first 4 bits in the
first octet of the IP address. Figure 13 on page 23 shows how the class of address is
determined.
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TCP/IP Structures in VM
32-bit address
Class A
Class B
Class C
|
|
|
|
|
Class D
xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
min
max
range
0xxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
00000000
01111111
0 - 127
(decimal notation)
min
max
range
10xxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
10000000
10111111
128 - 191 (decimal notation)
min
max
range
110xxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
11000000
11011111
192 - 223 (decimal notation)
min
max
range
1110xxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx xxxxxxxx
11100000
11101111
224 - 239.255.255.255
Figure 13. Determining the Class of an IP Address
As shown in Figure 13, the value of the bits in the first octet determine the class of
address, and the class of address determines the range of values for the network
and host segment of the IP address. For example, the IP address 9.67.97.2 would be
a class A address, since the first 2 bits in the first octet contain B'00'. The network
part of the IP address is “9” and the host part of the IP address is “67.97.2”.
Refer to RFC 1166 - Internet Numbers for more information about IP addresses.
Refer to RFC 1060 - Assigned Numbers for more information about reserved network
and host IP addresses, such as a network broadcast address.
Figure 14 on page 24 shows a simple network with a bridge and a router.
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
23
TCP/IP Structures in VM
Machine B
Machine A
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
192.9.200.1
192.9.200.3
Bridge
LAN
Segment 001
LAN
Segment 002
192.9.200.2
Machine C
Machine D
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
9.67.32.1
9.67.32.2
Ethernet
Figure 14. Routing and Bridging
Machine D is acting as an IP router and will transfer IP datagrams between the
class C, 192.9.200, network and the class A, 9, network. It is important to note that
for Machine B to communicate with Machine C using TCP/IP, both Machine D and
the bridge have to be correctly configured and working.
Direct Routing
Direct routing can take place when two hosts are directly connected to the same
physical network. This can be a bridged token-ring network, a bridged Ethernet, or
a bridged token-ring network and Ethernet. The distinction between direct routing
and indirect routing is that with direct routing an IP datagram can be delivered to
the remote host without subsequent interpretation of the IP address, by an
intermediate host or router.
In Figure 14, a datagram travelling from Machine A to Machine B would be using
direct routing, although it would be traveling through a bridge.
Indirect Routing
Indirect routing takes place when the destination is not on a directly attached IP
network, forcing the sender to forward the datagram to a router for delivery.
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In Figure 14 on page 24, a datagram from Machine A being delivered to Machine C
would be using indirect routing, with Machine D acting as the router (or gateway).
Simplified IP Datagram Routing Algorithm
To route an IP datagram on the network, the algorithm shown in Figure 15 is used.
Does
destination IP
network address
equal
my IP network
address?
No
Send IP datagram to
gateway corresponding
to destination IP address.
Yes
Send IP datagram
on local network.
Figure 15. General IP Routing Algorithm
Using this general routing algorithm, it is very easy to determine where an IP
datagram will be routed. Following is a simple example based on the configuration
shown in Figure 14 on page 24.
Machine A
IP Address = 192.9.200.1
Routing Table
Destination
Gateway
192.9.200.1
192.9.200.1
(Machine A's network interface)
9.0.0.0
192.9.200.2
(Route to the 9.n.n.n address is
via Machine D, 192.9.200.2)
Machine A sends a datagram to host 192.6.200.3 (Machine B), using the direct
route, 192.9.200.1 (its own network interface). Machine A sends a datagram to host
9.67.32.2 (Machine C), using the indirect route, 192.9.200.2 (Machine D), and
Machine D then forwards the datagram to Machine C.
Subnetting
A variation of the network and host segments of an IP address, known as
subnetting, can be used to physically and logically design a network. For example,
an organization can have a single internet network address (NETID) that is known
to users outside the organization, yet configure its internal network into different
departmental subnets. Subnetwork addresses enhance local routing capabilities,
while reducing the number of network addresses required.
To illustrate this, let us consider a simple example. Assume that we have an
assigned class C network address of 192.9.200 for our site. This would mean that
we could have host addresses from 192.9.200.1 to 192.9.200.254. If we did not use
subnetting, then we could only implement a single IP network with 254 hosts. To
split our site into two logical subnetworks, we could implement the following
network scheme:
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
25
TCP/IP Structures in VM
Without Subnetting:
192
9
200
host
11000000 00001001 11001000 xxxxxxxx
With Subnetting:
192
9
200
64 host
11000000 00001001 11001000 01xxxxxx
192
9
200
128 host
11000000 00001001 11001000 10xxxxxx
Network
Address
Host Address
Range
192.9.200
1 - 254
Subnet
Address
Host Address Subnet
Range
Value
192.9.200.64
65 - 126
Subnet
Address
Host Address Subnet
Range
Value
192.9.200.128
129 - 190
01
10
The subnet mask would be
255
255
255
192
11111111 11111111 11111111 11000000
Notice that there are only two subnets available, because subnets B'00' and B'11' are
both reserved. All 0’s and all 1’s have a special significance in internet addressing
and should be used with care. Also notice that the total number of host addresses
that we can use is reduced for the same reason. For instance, we cannot have a
host address of 16 because this would mean that the subnet/host segment of the
address would be B'0001000', which with the subnet mask we are using, would
mean a subnet value of B'00', which is reserved.
The same is true for the host segment of the fourth octet. A fourth octet value of
B'01111111' is reserved because, although the subnet of B'01' is valid, the host value
of B'1' is reserved.
Each bit of the network segment of the subnet mask is always assumed to be 1, so
each octet has a decimal value of 255. For example, with a class B address, the first
2 octets are assumed to be 255.255.
Simplified IP Datagram Routing Algorithm with Subnets
The algorithm to find a route for an IP datagram, when subnetting is used, is
similar to the one for general routing with the exception that the addresses being
compared are the result of a logical AND of the subnet mask and the IP address.
For example:
IP address:
9.67.32.18
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.240
00001001 01000011 00100000 00010010
<AND>
11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000
Result of
Logical AND:
00001001 01000011 00100000 00010000
9.67.32.16
The subnet address is 9.67.32.16, and it is this value that is used to determine the
route used.
Figure 16 on page 27 shows the routing algorithm used with subnets and Figure 17
on page 27 shows how a subnet route is resolved.
26
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Structures in VM
Does
destination IP
address ANDed with
my subnet mask equal
my IP address ANDed
with my subnet
mask?
Send IP datagram to
gateway corresponding
to the destination IP
address ANDed with my
subnet mask.
No
Yes
Send IP datagram
on local network.
Figure 16. Routing Algorithm with Subnets
IP datagram with
Destination IP address = 9.67.32.34
arrives at Machine A (9.67.32.17)
00001001 01000011 00100000 00100010
9
67
32
34
<AND> 11111111 11111111 11111111 11110000
255
255
255
240
00001001 01000011 00100000 00100000
9
67
32
32
Machine A’s Routing Table
Destination
Gateway
Subnet mask
9.67.32.16
9.67.32.32
9.67.32.17
9.67.32.18
255.255.255.240
255.255.255.240
Datagram sent to gateway 9.67.32.18
Figure 17. Example of Resolving a Subnet Route
Static Routing
Static routing, as the name implies, is defined within the local host, and as changes
to the network occur, must be manually changed. Typically, a configuration file
will contain the definitions for directly-attached networks, routes for specific hosts,
and a possible default route that directs packets to a destination for networks that
are not previously defined.
TCP/IP uses the GATEWAY statements, defined in the TCPIP PROFILE file, to
configure the internal routing tables. The internal routing tables for TCP/IP can be
modified by using the OBEYFILE command. Refer to the TCP/IP Planning and
Customization for details about defining the GATEWAY statements and using the
OBEYFILE command.
Note: When the GATEWAY statements are updated using OBEYFILE, all
previously-defined routes are discarded and replaced by the new GATEWAY
definitions.
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
27
TCP/IP Structures in VM
Dynamic Routing
Dynamic routing is the inverse of static routing. A TCP/IP protocol is used to
dynamically update the internal routing tables when changes to the network occur.
TCP/IP uses the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and the RouteD virtual
machine to monitor network changes. The TCP/IP Planning and Customization
contains more details about RouteD.
Note: When you use RouteD, the GATEWAY statements must be commented out
of the TCPIP PROFILE file, and the BSDROUTINGPARMS statements
should be used to configure the initial network definitions.
Dynamic Routing Tables
When TCP/IP is configured to use RouteD, there are actually two routing tables.
The first routing table is managed by RouteD, and is updated dynamically based
on the RIP protocol. RouteD will then update the internal routing table of the
RouteD virtual machine. The two routing tables might not be identical for the
following reasons:
v ICMP redirects are received by the TCPIP address space. TCPIP updates its
internal routing table, but these changes are not propagated to RouteD. To
prevent this situation, the parameter IGNOREREDIRECTS, should be coded in
the TCPIP PROFILE file.
v The GATEWAY statements are not commented out in the TCPIP PROFILE file. In
this situation, TCPIP will route packets based on the GATEWAY statements, and
then based on the updates by RouteD. This is similar to a condition in UNIX**
environments known as “kernel” routes.
Customizing both the GATEWAY and BSDROUTINGPARMS statements should
only be attempted by network programmers familiar with IP routing, RIP, and the
ramifications of having distinct routing tables.
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TCP/IP Structures in VM
Example of Network Connectivity
193.0.2.3
193.9.200
Link 1
Host (VM1)
Link 2
193.0.2
Router
To all other
TCP/IP networks
Host (jakespc)
193.0.2.2
193.9.200.100
193.9.200.2
Router
Router
Router
9.67.43.126
128.84.1
Subnet
128.84.55
Subnet
128.84.xx
Subnet
Figure 18. Example of Network Connectivity
Figure 18 shows a host, VM1, directly connected to networks 193.9.200 and 193.0.2.
Neither network has subnets. VM1 is indirectly connected to network 128.84, which
has subnets using the high-order byte of the host number as the subnet field. The
subnet 128.84.1 is accessible through 193.9.200.2; the subnet 128.84.55 is accessible
through 193.9.200.100; and the other subnets of 128.84 are accessible through
193.0.2.2. All packets destined for a network that has no entry in the routing table
should be routed to 193.0.2.3. All packets to the host jakespc should be routed
through 193.0.2.2.
Notes:
1. Directly-attached networks must be defined in the GATEWAY table before
default networks (DEFAULTNET) or first-hop networks (FIRSTHOP) are
defined.
2. Verification of the TCPIP virtual machine is recommended for connectivity
issues, regardless of whether overt internal or external changes have been made
to the system.
Chapter 3. TCP/IP VM Structures and Internetworking Overview
29
TCP/IP Structures in VM
30
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Chapter 4. Server Initialization
This chapter describes the mechanism used to start each TCP/IP server.
CMS Servers
Servers that run under CMS share a common profile, TCPROFIL EXEC. It is copied
by TCP2PROD to each server’s 191 disk as PROFILE EXEC. You should never
modify this file as it may be replaced by TCP/IP service procedures.
The profile accesses the common disks (198, 591, and 592) and then calls TCPRUN
EXEC. TCPRUN determines what kind of server is running and invokes the
appropriate server function. The kind of server is referred to as the server class. It is
obtained from the userid, nodeid, SYSTEM, or IBM DTCPARMS file.
The DTCPARMS file contains all of the information needed to establish the
necessary runtime environment and to start the server. Exits can be defined to
override any value set by a DTCPARMS file. A complete description of the
DTCPARMS file and the server initialization process can be found in the TCP/IP
Planning and Customization.
Because the various tags in the DTCPARMS file are used to determine what special
environments should be created, as well as the options or parameters that will be
passed to the server, it may become necessary to determine the precise commands
that are issued.
A trace of TCPRUN EXEC can be obtained using one of the following procedures.
Diagnosis Method 1
1. Logon to the server and indicate that you do not want the server to start.
2. Enter the command TCPRUN (DEBUG.
3. Stop the server (#CP EXT or HX)
4. Examine the trace file, TCPRUN DEBUG A.
Diagnosis Method 2
If a problem only occurs when the server is disconnected, an alternate trace
method is provided.
1. Logon to the server and indicate that you do not want the server to start.
2. Enter the command GLOBALV SELECT DTCRUN SETLP DEBUG 1.
3. Logoff.
4. Autolog the server.
5. Logon to the server and stop it (#CP EXT or HX)
6. Examine the trace file, TCPRUN DEBUG A.
7. Enter the command GLOBALV SELECT DTCRUN SETLP DEBUG (set DEBUG to null)
to turn off the trace.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
31
Server Initialization
GCS Servers
Servers that run under the GCS operating system share a common profile,
TCPROFIL GCS. It is copied by TCP2PROD to each server’s 191 disk as PROFILE
GCS. You should never modify this file as it may be replaced by TCP/IP service
procedures.
The profile will then search for and run userid GCS. The DTCPARMS file is not
used by the GCS servers.
Due to the simple nature of the relationship between the common profile and the
server-specific GCS exec, no debug facility is provided.
32
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures
This chapter describes some of the internal procedures that occur in the TCP/IP
server and the types of input/output (I/O) supported by TCP/IP.
You should collect the messages, console logs, and system and user dumps
pertaining to TCP/IP server protocols and procedures. You should also trace
TCP/IP protocols or procedures to determine TCP/IP suite problems, such as TCP
requests from remote and local clients or servers.
TCP/IP Internals
The following sections describe the internal procedures, queues, and activities for
TCP/IP.
Internal Procedures
Table 4 describes the major internal Pascal procedures. These procedures are
external declarations of processes invoked by the scheduler.
Table 4. TCP/IP Internal Procedures
Procedure
Description
ArpProcess
Processes Address Resolution Protocol requests.
CallProcRtn
Calls the appropriate processing routine for Activity Control
Blocks (ACBs) with a ProcessName of DEVICEdriverNAME.
ClientTimer
Converts an INTERNALclientTIMER ACB to a notification
to the internal client.
ConsistencyChecker
Schedules itself at regular intervals to perform various tests
of the TCP/IP machine’s internal consistency. The
ConsistencyChecker maintains various statistics about recent
resource usage. It tries to restart well-known clients that
appear to be inactive and attempts to collect infrequently
used, but active, TCBs.
From1822
Receives incoming datagrams and IMP messages from the
Series/1 on the Defense Data Network (DDN). Processes
incoming IMP messages and passes the incoming datagrams
to IpUp.
IntCliProc
Processes notifications for the internal client.
IpDown
Processes outgoing IP datagrams received from TcpDown. It
selects the network to use for the first hop, and the address
within that network to employ. It passes datagrams to
ToGlue to send to the Series/1. IpDown also processes
table-driven gateway selections for IpDown’s routings
(except for the internal loopback routes used for debugging,
which are hard coded into DispatchDatagram). All routines
are placed in IpDown and other processes, such as IpUp (for
ICMP redirect messages) and TcpIpInitialize. You can access
the routing information using these routines.
IpUp
Processes incoming IP datagrams. If necessary, it
reassembles fragmented datagrams. IpUp sends completed
datagrams to TcpUp, UdpUp, or RawIpUp.
IucvApiGreeter
Processes new IUCV paths from clients using IUCV APIs.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
33
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 4. TCP/IP Internal Procedures (continued)
34
Procedure
Description
Monitor
Maintains internal performance records. It receives status
requests from clients and information on the Series/1
through StatusIn. The Monitor collects run-time performance
statistics and responds to requests from clients to execute
commands that alter internal routing and addressing
information, write out performance records, control run-time
debug tracing, and indicate the clients that are authorized to
make these special requests. The Monitor also handles some
unusual situations, such as recording errors detected by the
interrupt handlers (which cannot simply write out tracing,
because they function with interrupts disabled) and
attempting to autolog well-known clients.
Notify
Sends asynchronous notifications to clients. It processes
ACB, CCB, and TCB bufferpools to manage the notifications
sent to clients through VMCF.
PingProcess
Processes PING requests, responses, and time-outs.
RawIpRequest
Processes incoming RAWIP requests. It passes outgoing
datagrams to IpDown.
Scheduler
The scheduler checks the queues of executable activities,
removes the first item of the highest priority, nonempty
queue, and invokes the indicated process. If all of the
executable job queues are empty, it is inactive until an
interrupt arrives and schedules some activity. If the
consistency checker is not currently scheduled to execute
and there is activity scheduled on the main job queue (the
ToDoQueue), the scheduler establishes a time-out, so that
the consistency checker can be invoked.
ShutDown
Shuts down the TCPIP server gracefully. The DoShutDown
parameter returns a true value, and then a return from the
scheduler to main program shutdown is used to call the halt
procedure. You need to return to main to print profile
statistics.
SnmpDpiProcess
Processes SNMP DPI requests from an SNMP agent.
SockRequest
Processes BSD-style socket requests.
StatusOut
Receives requests for information on the status of Glue from
the Monitor, which it passes to ToGlue on the Series/1.
TcpDown
Creates outgoing TCP segments based on the client requests
handled by TcpRequest and the remote socket responses
handled by TcpUp. TcpDown packages these segments into
IP datagrams, which it passes to IpDown.
TcpRequest
Processes client’s requests for TCP service and for handling
asynchronous notifications. Buffers outgoing client TCP
data, updates the state of TCP connections, and signals
TcpDown to send TCP segments.
TcpUp
Processes incoming TCP segments received from IpUp. If
necessary, TcpUp signals Notify to generate asynchronous
notifications about TCP connections. It also processes
window and acknowledgment information from the remote
socket.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 4. TCP/IP Internal Procedures (continued)
Procedure
Description
Timer
Checks the TimerQueue for any time-outs that may be due
and places them in the ToDoQueue. Then Timer resets the
external timer to awaken it later if future time-outs are
pending.
Timer also encapsulates all operations involving time-outs,
including the Timer process that transforms time-outs into
active signals. The TimerQueue is referenced in the
TCQueue segment.
ToA220
Sends the outgoing datagrams supplied by IpDown to A220.
See “HYPERchannel Driver” on page 41 for more
information.
ToCeti
Sends the outgoing datagrams supplied by IpDown to CETI.
See “CETI Driver” on page 40 for more information.
ToGlue
Sends outgoing datagrams supplied by IpDown to the
Series/1.
ToIUCV
Sends the outgoing datagrams supplied by IpDown to PVM
IUCV. See “IUCV Links” on page 42 for more information.
ToPCCA3
Sends the outgoing datagrams supplied by IpDown to
PCCA3. PCCA is the name for LAN channel-attached units.
To1822
Sends outgoing datagrams supplied by IpDown to the
Series/1 on DDN.
UdpRequest
Processes incoming UDP requests. Gives outgoing
datagrams to IpDown.
1822Status
Receives status information from the 1822 interrupt handlers
about the IMP and the Series/1, and passes that information
to the clients.
1822Timer
Controls OutHost table cleanup, and brings down and
reinitializes IMP.
Queues
Table 5 describes the queues TCP/IP uses to control events that occur during
run-time.
Table 5. TCPIP Queues
Queue
Description
InDatagram
The various device drivers place incoming IP
datagrams in this queue for IpUp to process.
QueueOfCcbsForTcpResources
This queue contains a list of ACBs pointing to CCBs
that have tried to perform TcpOpen, but failed
because of a lack of TCBs, data buffers, or SCBs. As
resources become available, they are assigned to the
first CCB on this list. When all resources (a TCB and
two data buffers) are available, a
RESOURCESavailable notice is sent to the client, who
reissues the open.
QueueOfCcbsForUdpResources
This queue contains a list of ACBs pointing to CCBs
that have tried to perform UdpOpen, but failed
because of a lack of UCBs or SCBs. Processing is
similar to QueueOfCcbsForTcpResources.
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures
35
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 5. TCPIP Queues (continued)
Queue
Description
QueueOfRcbFrustrated
This queue contains raw-IP client-level requests to
send datagrams that cannot be processed, because of a
shortage of buffer space. When buffer space becomes
available internally, the RAWIPspaceAVAILABLE
notice is sent to the appropriate clients, and the
requests are removed from this queue.
QueueOfTcbFrustrated
This queue contains client-level TCP send-requests
that cannot be satisfied, because of a shortage of
internal TCP buffer space. When buffer space becomes
available internally, the BUFFERspaceAVAILABLE
notice is sent to the appropriate clients, and the
requests are removed from this queue.
QueueOfUcbFrustrated
This queue contains UDP client-level requests to send
datagrams that cannot be satisfied, because of a
shortage of buffer space. When buffer space becomes
available internally, the UDPdatagramSPACEavailable
notice is sent to the appropriate clients, and the
requests are removed from this queue.
Segment: EnvelopePointerType
IpUp places incoming TCP segments in this queue for
TcpUp to process.
ToDoPullQueue, ToDoPushQueue
This is the primary queue for executable activities.
Activities are placed in this queue directly by Signal
and indirectly by SetTimeout. The scheduler removes
these activities from the queue and invokes the
corresponding process.
Internal Activities
Table 6 describes TCP/IP internal activities performed by TCP/IP processes. An
example of called internal activities is shown in Figure 46 on page 82. Activities,
which are found in most TCP/IP internal traces, explain why the process has been
called.
Table 6. TCP/IP Internal Activities
36
Activity
Description
ACCEPTipREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to the
IPrequestor informing it of an incoming IP-level
request from a local client.
ACCEPTmonitorREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to the Monitor
informing it of an incoming monitor request from a
client.
ACCEPTpingREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to the PING
process informing it of an incoming PING request
from a client.
ACCEPTrawipREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to the
RAWIPrequestor informing it of an incoming
RAWIP-level request.
ACCEPTtcpREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to the
TCPrequestor informing it of an incoming TCP-level
request (or a request that belongs to both IP and TCP,
such as Handle) from a local client.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 6. TCP/IP Internal Activities (continued)
Activity
Description
ACCEPTudpREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to the
UDPrequestor to inform it of an incoming UDP-level
request.
ACKtimeoutFAILS
Sent by the Timer to TcpDown when an ACK time-out
fails.
ARPtimeoutEXPIRES
Sent by the Timer to the ARP process when it is time
to scan the queue for packets that are waiting for an
ARP reply. Outdated packets are discarded.
CCBwantsTCB
This is not an activity. ACBs with this activity value
point to CCBs that attempted to perform TcpOpen,
but failed because of a lack of TCBs or data buffers.
These ACBs are located in
QueueOfCcbsForTcpResources.
CCBwantsUCB
This is not an activity. ACBs with this activity value
point to CCBs that attempted to perform UpdOpen,
but failed because of a lack of UCBs or data buffers.
These ACBs are located in
QueueOfCcbsForUpdResources.
CHECKconsistency
Sent by any process to check the ConsistencyChecker
for the internal data structures.
DELETEtcb
Sent by the Timer to the TCPrequestor, signifying that
enough time has elapsed since the connection was
closed to free the TCB without endangering later
sequence numbers or allowing internal dangling
pointers.
DEVICEspecificACTIVITY
Sent by a device driver to itself for a driver-specific
purpose.
DISPOSEsockTCB
Sent by various processes to SockRequest to delete a
TCB owned by a BSD socket-style client.
EXAMINEincomingDATAGRAM
Sent by IP-down or a network driver (such as From-r)
to IpUp when it places an incoming datagram in the
global InDatagram Queue.
EXAMINEincomingSEGMENT
Sent by IpUp to TcpUp when an incoming datagram
contains a TCP segment. It places these datagrams in
the global InSegment Queue.
FINISHdatagram
Sent by IP-request, TcpDown, and IpUp signifying the
presence of outgoing datagrams in the global
OutDatagram Queue. These datagrams are available
for IpDown, which completes the IP header and sends
it out.
FROMlineSENSE
Sent by the 1822 interrupt handler when a unit check
ending status is given by the channel to an I/O
command.
HAVEcompletedIO
Sent by the I/O interrupt to a network driver when
the most recent I/O operation has been completed.
HOSTtimeout
Sent by the 1822 initialization routine to the
1822-Timer routine to check the OutHost table for
entries whose idle time limit has been exceeded.
IMPdown
Sent by the From-1822 routine to the 1822-Timer
routine when there is an indication that the IMP is
about to go down.
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures
37
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 6. TCP/IP Internal Activities (continued)
38
Activity
Description
IMPinit
Sent by the From-1822 routine to the 1822-Timer
routine when there is an indication from the Series/1
that the IMP is down and needs to be reinitialized.
INFORMmonitor
Sent by any internal process informing the Monitor of
some noteworthy situation or event.
INTERNALclientTMOUT
Sent to the INTERNALclientTIMERname process,
which converts it to an internal client notification.
INTERNALldsfNOTIFICATION
Sent to the internal client, which passes a notification
of an LDSF interrupt.
INTERNALnotification
Sent to the internal client, which passes a notification.
IUCVrupt
Sent to the ToIUCV process when an IUCV interrupt
occurs.
KILLdetachedTCB
Sent by the Timer to TcpRequest indicating that a
TCB, which was detached from a BSD-style socket,
has not disappeared. TcpRequest then deletes it.
LOOKatTIMERqueue
Sent by the external interrupt handler to awaken the
Timer process. The Timer process then removes the
appropriate items from the TimerQueue and places
them in the ToDoQueue.
NOactivity
Sent when someone does not initialize an ACB.
OPENtimeoutFAILS
Sent by the Timer to TcpRequest when an open
time-out fails.
PENDINGpingREQUEST
This is not an activity. ACBs with this activity value
contain information on PING requests awaiting a
response or time-out. These ACBs are in a local queue
within TCPING.
PINGtimeoutFAILS
Sent by the Timer to the PING process when a Ping
request times out.
PROBEtimeoutFAILS
Sent by the Timer to TcpDown when a window probe
should be sent to a given connection.
PROCESSsnmpAGENTrequest
Sent by Sock-request to the SNMP DPI process when a
write() is performed on a special SNMPDPI socket.
QUITwaiting
Sent by the Timer to TcpRequest when a connection in
a time-wait state should be closed.
READdatagram
Sent by the I/O interrupt handler to FromGlue or
StatusIn indicating that a message from the Series/1
should be read.
REASSEMBLYfails
Sent by the Timer to IpUp when a datagram
reassembly times out.
REJECTunimplementedREQUEST
Sent by the external interrupt handler to Monitor
instructing it to reject an unrecognized request.
RESETconnection
Sent by TcpRequest to TcpDown in response to a
client’s abort or by TcpUp in response to an
unacceptable segment. It instructs TcpDown to send
an RST to the foreign socket, appearing as though it
came from the local socket with the necessary values
for RCV.NXT and SND.NXT.
RETRANSMITdata
Sent by the Timer to TcpDown when TCP data should
be retransmitted.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 6. TCP/IP Internal Activities (continued)
Activity
Description
RETRYread
Some drivers set a time-out for this activity if they are
unable to start a read channel program. When the
time-out expires, the drivers try the read again.
RETRYwrite
Some drivers set a time-out for this activity if they are
unable to start a write channel program. When the
time-out expires, the drivers try the write again.
SELECTtimeoutFAILS
Sent by the Timer to Sock-request indicating that a
select() time-out has expired.
SENDdatagram
Sent by IpDown to the network driver of its choice
indicating the availability of one or more datagrams to
send on that network. At present, the supported
drivers are ToGlue, ToPronet, and ToEthernet, and the
supported networks are Telenet, Pronet, and Ethernet,
respectively.
SENDnotice
Sent to Notify by any process that has discovered
information that warrants sending an asynchronous
notification to a client.
SendOFFControl
Sent by any internal process informing the Series/1
that the host is not ready.
SendONControl
Sent by any internal process informing the Series/1
that the host is up and ready.
SENDreadDIAG
Sent by any internal process conducting a test of the
Series/1 read channel.
SENDtcpDATA
Sent by TcpRequest to TcpDown when data is
available to send to the specified connection.
SENDwriteDIAG
Sent by any internal process before it tests the
Series/1 write channel.
SEND1822noops
Sent by any internal process before it sends three 1822
NOOP messages to the IMP.
SHUTdownTCPipSERVICE
Sent to the shutdown process instructing it to
terminate the TCPIP server gracefully.
STOPlingering
Sent by the Timer to TcpRequest indicating that the
lingering time-out for a socket-style connection has
expired. TcpRequest then releases the client.
TERMINATEnotice
Sent by the external interrupt handler to Notify when
a final response has been received for an outstanding
VMCF message that Notify has sent.
TOlineSENSE
Sent by the 1822 interrupt handler when a unit check
ending status is given by the channel to an I/O
command.
TRYautologging
Sent to the monitor by the timer when an autologged
client has been forced off the network. An attempt is
then made to log on the client.
TRYiucvCONNECT
Sent by the IUCV driver to itself (meout)ll, so that it
can retry an IUCV connect that has failed.
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures
39
TCP/IP Procedures
Input/Output
The following sections describe the types of I/O supported by TCP/IP. These I/O
types include CETI, HYPERchannel, and IUCV.
CETI Driver
The CETI driver controls the 9370 internal adapters supported by TCP/IP for VM
implementations (token-ring, Ethernet, and X.25 adapters).
The TCCETI1_ceti1 segment is the primary CETI driver. This segment prepares
channel control words (CCWs), controls memory requirements for CETI I/Os, and
processes initializations and communication with the 9370 internal adapters.
Table 7 describes some of this segment’s procedures.
Table 7. TCPIP Internal Activities
Procedure
Description
SendCetiMessage
This is the output routine for a CETI data port. It sends data
passed to it over the addressed CETI port to a given
destination. The message data and an appropriate header
are placed in the correct locations in the data port buffer
area. Transfer of the message to the CETI controller is
signaled by updating the outbound control block. This
process has four steps:
1. Checks for sufficient space; a return code is issued if
there is insufficient space.
2. Moves the message and appropriate header to the proper
location in the buffer.
3. Updates the outbound control block, which notifies the
controller of the outbound message.
4. Updates host-specific information, CurrentBuff, and
statistics.
GetCetiMessage
40
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
This is the primary interface for receiving messages sent to
an inbound CETI port. It retrieves the next message from
the port indicated by the portindex parameter and places it
in the specified memory. After the message has been
transferred, the control block is updated to indicate that the
buffer has been freed. Data length is set by the caller to the
maximum size message that it can accept and reset by
GetCetiMessage to the actual number of bytes transferred.
This procedure updates INDX after the message has been
transferred, so that INDX remains NumBuffs ahead of the
next inbound message. It also updates SLPT, so that SLPT
refers to the same buffer as CurrentBuff.
Note: This procedure assumes that CheckCetiIo has verified
the presence of a message.
TCP/IP Procedures
Table 7. TCPIP Internal Activities (continued)
Procedure
Description
ToCeti
This is the primary external task entry point for activating
the CETI driver. During device initialization, this procedure
is scheduled by the interrupt handler after each I/O
completion. During normal operation, it is activated by
higher levels using the SENDdatagram event or by the
interrupt handler if attention interrupts have occurred.
During initialization, interrupts cause the next I/O operation
in the startup sequence to be initiated, and send Datagram
events are ignored. During normal operation, both attention
interrupts and send datagram events cause a process Ceti
event to occur, which places any output into the correct
buffers and passes any input to the proper protocol
software.
HYPERchannel Driver
The HYPERchannel driver was taken from TCTOPC3 PASCAL (Version 1.1) and
modified to support HYPERchannel. There are several major differences between
the IBM 8232 (supported by TCTOPC3) and A22x (370 HYPERchannel adapter).
The IBM 8232 operates like a gateway supporting various LAN attachments, such
as Ethernet, token-ring, and Proteon. TCTOPC3 implements multiple packet
blocking and media interface headers for the IBM 8232. Packets to and from the
IBM 8232 have the IP-packets encapsulated in the media-interface protocol packets.
Multiple packets can also be transferred in an IBM 8232 block transfer. An IBM
8232 block consists of one or more media-interface encapsulated packets, prefixed
by a halfword index field. The end of the block is indicated by a halfword index
field of zero.
TCTOA22 PASCAL implements the following modifications to TCTOPC3.
v An A220 block starts with the HYPERchannel basic 16-bit message
encapsulation. For more information, see Figure 19 on page 42.
v Media-interface encapsulation is not performed; however, HYPERchannel-block
encapsulation is performed.
v Only a single packet is transferred for each block.
TCTOA22 implements basic message encapsulation with an IP packet starting at
displacement +16 (for example, message header +9 = X'10' and +11 = X'04').
Figure 19 shows the basic 16-bit message encapsulation.
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures
41
TCP/IP Procedures
0
Trunks to try
To Trunks
From Trunks
10
Message Flags
GNA CRC
SRC EXC
A/D
Access Code 0000
(No longer supported)
20
30
40
Physical address of
destination adapter
Protocol server
logical address
Dest
Port #
Physical address of
source adapter
Originating
server address
Source
Port #
IP on HYPERchannel
type code 0x05
50
IP type designator
0x34
60
Offset to start of IP
header from message start
Offset to start of IP
header from byte 12
Padding (variable length including zero bytes)
70
First (64-offset) bytes of IP datagram
Associated Data
Remainder of IP datagram
No associated data is present if IP
datagram fits in the proper message
Figure 19. The TCP/IP Layered Architecture for VM
Two enhancements to the basic 16-bit HYPERchannel encapsulated information are
supported, depending on schedules and assignment of the MESSAGETYPE field.
v Packet-blocking
Assuming that you assigned a unique MESSAGE TYPE field, TCTOA22
conditionally implements packet blocking using the IBM 8232 model (halfword
length fields terminated with a length field of zero). This enhancement requires
your installation to specify block or nonblocking mode.
v SLS/720 Datagram Mode
SLS/720 implements an extended message header for datagram mode that is not
directly interoperable with either the 16-bit or 32-bit mode encapsulation
standard described in RFC1044. It incorporates some aspects of both 16-bit and
32-bit modes, using the first 16 bits to address the SLS/720 in the local domain
and the second 16 bits to address the adapter in the remote domain (with a pair
of SLS/720s connecting the two domains using an RS449/TELCO link).
IUCV Links
At present, IUCV links support two types of IUCV communication: Passthrough
Virtual Machine (PVM) IUCV and System Network Architecture (SNA) IUCV. They
differ only in the connect procedure.
PVM IUCV
There are two types of PVM IUCV connections:
v Remote
v Local.
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Procedures
Remote PVM IUCV: The CONNECT request for Remote PVM IUCV contains the
following two fields:
Field
Description
VM ID
The VM ID of the CONNECT request is the ID of a local virtual machine.
user
The user of the CONNECT request is the user of a local virtual machine.
The format of the user field in the CONNECT request is shown in
Figure 20 on page 43.
1
8
1ST Doubleword
Remote PVM node
2ND Doubleword
Remote TCPIP VM ID
Figure 20. Format of the User Field for a CONNECT Request
The time-out is set for one minute, because a response (COMPCONN or SERVER)
should occur within that time. If the time-out expires, the connection is
disconnected and retried later.
If a PENDCONN interrupt is received while waiting for a response to a
CONNECT, a conflict can occur. The conflict is resolved by using the
IucvOurPvmNode field. If the PVM node name is lower in the collating sequence
than the remote node, the CONNECT request is abandoned, and the pending
incoming connection request is served. If the PVM node name is higher in the
collating sequence than the remote node, the pending incoming connection request
is abandoned, and the CONNECT request is served.
Local PVM IUCV: The CONNECT request for Local PVM IUCV contains the
following two fields:
Field
Description
VM ID
The VM ID of the CONNECT request is the ID of another TCP/IP user.
user
The user of the CONNECT request is the user of a local virtual machine.
The format of the user field in the CONNECT request is shown in
Figure 21.
1
8
1ST Doubleword
XYZZY
2ND Doubleword
XYZZY
Figure 21. Format of the User Field for a Local IUCV CONNECT Request
Local IUCV links are considered to be a PVM IUCV link.
SNA IUCV
The CONNECT request for SNA IUCV contains the following two fields:
Field
Description
Chapter 5. TCP/IP Procedures
43
TCP/IP Procedures
VM ID
The VM ID of the CONNECT request is the ID of another TCP/IP user.
user
The user of the CONNECT request is the user of a local virtual machine.
The format of the user field in the CONNECT request is shown in
Figure 22.
1
8
1ST Doubleword
SNALINK Program Name
(usually SNALINK)
2ND Doubleword
Remote LU Name
Figure 22. Format of the User Field for an SNA IUCV CONNECT Request
If the local SNALINK machine is the SNA PLU, there should be a short response
time. If it is the SNA SLU, then the SNALINK machine does not respond until it
receives a BIND from the SNA PLU. Therefore, do not set a time-out while waiting
for a response to your CONNECT, because the SNALINK machine does not initiate
a connect in this case.
When communicating over an established path, blocks up to 32K are sent and
received. The blocks contain packets prefixed by block headers. Each packet is
preceded by a halfword block header that contains the offset within the block of
the next block header. A zero block header indicates the end of the block. Figure 23
shows a block containing a 10-byte packet followed by a 20-byte packet.
10-byte packet
12
Offset (dec): 0
2
20-byte packet
34
12
14
00
34
Figure 23. IUCV Block Header
The PVM and SNALINK machines do not look at individual packets. They send
the block as a unit to the peer TCP/IP machine using the PVM or SNA network.
This driver only issues one IUCV SEND, and waits for the COMPMSG interrupt
before issuing the next SEND. The PVM or SNALINK machine can have more than
one outstanding SEND through SNALINK.
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Chapter 6. Diagnosing the Problem
This chapter describes how to diagnose problems associated with TCP/IP and its
interfaces. Different scenarios are used to illustrate a systematic approach to
solving TCP/IP problems, although it is unlikely that they will duplicate exactly
the problems you encounter.
The scenarios presented in this chapter include the inability to connect to a TCP/IP
node, and failure of the HYPERchannel interface and the SNA IUCV connection.
Each scenario describes the problem, explains the symptoms associated with the
problem, outlines the steps necessary to determine the nature of the problem, and
suggests recovery procedures for you to implement.
For each scenario, the following configuration is used:
Nodes and Addresses
Configuration Setting
Local node name
LOCAL1
Local node IP address
1.2.3.4
Remote node name
REMOTE1
Remote node IP address
1.2.4.1
Unable to Connect to TCP/IP Node
This section describes a failure to establish a Telnet connection to a TCP/IP node.
Description of the Problem
You attempt to activate a Telnet connection to a remote node, REMOTE1, but the
system returns an “Invalid or unknown node” message.
Symptom
When you execute the following TELNET command, the system returns the
following message:
TELNET REMOTE1
Host 'REMOTE1' Unknown.
Problem Determination
The system returns the Host host_name Unknown message, because the node is not
defined in the HOST LOCAL file in VM, the node is not defined in the Domain
Name System (DNS), or the host resides in a domain other than that specified in
the TCPIP DATA file.
If you are unsure whether the REMOTE1 host resides in your domain, try
specifying the fully-qualified name, including both the host name and domain
name.
If you use Domain Name Server (DNS) at your site, check the DNS database for
REMOTE1 and verify that the IP address is correct.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
45
Diagnosing the Problem
Another method of narrowing down the possible problem areas is to use the PING
command to see if any communications with the remote system are possible. The
PING command sends a string to the given destination and informs you of the
message’s status. It provides an efficient method for determining whether your
configuration is correct. The destination may be specified by its name or by its IP
address. The command is issued as follows:
PING 1.2.4.1
or
PING REMOTE1
The possible errors from the PING command invocation and the probable causes
of these errors are:
v HOST UNKNOWN - Name server problem (if host name was used) or problem
with the HOSTS LOCAL file.
v DESTINATION UNREACHABLE - This indicates that the name (if specified)
was successfully resolved, but there is no route that will allow access to that
host or network.
Use the NETSTAT GATE command to verify that the 1.2.4 subnet is readable. If
not, check the GATEWAY statements in the PROFILE TCPIP file in VM. The
GATEWAY statement defines how to connect to an external network. In this
scenario, you should find the entry 1.2.4.
If you are using dynamic routing (RouteD), verify that all routing daemons are
operating, and that BSDrouting parms are correct in the PROFILE TCPIP.
v TIMEOUT - Numerous error conditions are possible in this case. It could be that
the remote host is down, network congestion prevented the return of the PING
reply, or the reply came back after the timeout period. Further analysis is
required, focusing on the possible conditions.
PING—Sending an Echo Request to a Foreign Host
The PING command sends an echo request to a foreign host to determine if the
system is accessible. PING uses ICMP as its underlying protocol.
PING Command
The TCP/IP User’s Guide has the complete PING command format.
Resolving the PING Command Problems
The echo request sent by the PING command does not guarantee delivery. More
than one PING command should be sent before you assume that a communication
failure has occurred.
A foreign host can fail to respond even after several PING commands. This can be
caused by one of the following situations:
v The foreign host may not be listening to the network.
v The foreign host may be inoperative, or some network or gateway leading from
the user to the foreign host may be inoperative.
v The foreign host may be slow because of activity.
v The packet may be too large for the foreign host
v The routing table on the local host may not have an entry for the foreign host.
Use additional PING commands to communicate with other foreign hosts in the
network to determine the condition that is causing the communication failure.
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Diagnosing the Problem
However, you need to know the network topology to determine the location of the
failure. Issue the PING commands in the following order, until the failure is
located:
1. Send a PING command to your local host.
2. Send a PING command to a host (other than your local host) on your local
network.
3. Send a PING command to each intermediate node that leads from your local
host to the foreign host, starting with the node closest to your local host.
A successful PING command, sent to a different host on the same network as the
original host, suggests that the original host is down, or that it is not listening to
the network.
If you cannot get echoes from any host on that network, the trouble is usually
somewhere along the path to the foreign hosts. Direct a PING command to the
gateway leading to the network in question. If the PING command fails, continue
to test along the network from the target, until you find the point of the
communication breakdown.
Failure of the HYPERchannel Interface
This scenario describes the failure of a HYPERchannel driver, during which
disruption of the channel interface stops data transmittal between processors.
Description of the Problem
HYPERchannel is a high-speed extension of a channel interface between physically
distinct processors. This interface is similar to Ethernet or token-ring LANs,
defined according to 802 IEEE standards.
A HYPERchannel failure is difficult to diagnose, because it can result from
problems with software or hardware developed by different companies.
Symptom
When a HYPERchannel interface fails, it appears as a channel failure to the host.
To quickly determine if a HYPERchannel interface has failed, use a host-based
channel program, such as NetView® or the Event Reporting Error Program (EREP).
For example, NetView generates a real-time alert if the necessary filters are set.
This alert can automatically trigger a number of actions ranging from displaying a
highlighted message on the NetView screen to taking a series of automated,
corrective steps.
Problem Determination
You should use EREP to analyze a hardware error and determine its source in the
VM environment. Although EREP is limited in diagnosing a HYPERchannel
failure, it can isolate the problem to a HYPERchannel (sub)channel.
If the HYPERchannel has failed, or if a problem is suspected, the primary
diagnostic aid available for use in the VM environment is a TCP/IP level trace.
A MORETRACE HCH can be initiated to trace HYPERchannel activity. The
second-level trace should be used as opposed to just TRACE since the latter traces
only errors, while MORETRACE traces all activity. In analyzing the resultant trace
output, it is helpful to bear in mind that HYPERchannel transmission problems on
the local LAN will normally be reflected via A220 unit check and sense
Chapter 6. Diagnosing the Problem
47
Diagnosing the Problem
information. Transmission problems involving remote LANs (via link adapters, 710,
715, 720, 730, etc.) may reflect problems with fault messages, since the A220 part of
the operation may have already completed.
Since the HYPERchannel hardware is dedicated to the TCPIP virtual machine, the
tracing facilities present in native VM can also be used to aid in problem
determination.
Recovery
If a HYPERchannel hardware problem is evident or suspected by examination of
trace and/or EREP output, then the HYPERchannel driver should be stopped
using the OBEYFILE interface and the device taken off-line. The trace information
(particularly the sense codes) and possibly the EREP data should be made
available to the hardware CE to assist in problem analysis. Once the problem has
been resolved, the NETSTAT CP and OBEYFILE interfaces can be used to reactivate
the HYPERchannel driver.
If the problem cannot be positively identified as hardware-related, stop and restart
the HYPERchannel driver via the OBEYFILE interface, ensuring that “full” tracing
is activated. If the problem does not clear, contact the IBM Support Center. Ensure
that a trace of the HYPERchannel activity is available for submission as supporting
documentation of the problem.
Failure of an SNA IUCV Connection
The SNA IUCV connection communicates with other SNA nodes and is useful for
interfacing with a token-ring or X.25 NPSI configuration.
Description of the Problem
An SNA IUCV connection failure appears as if a device is lost, and the session
between the nodes is disrupted. Use NetView or EREP to identify an SNA IUCV
failure.
Symptom
An SNA IUCV connection failure signals either a hardware failure or a session
error, depending on the status of the connection across the interface. If an active
session is using the connection, the SNA IUCV failure is classified as a session
error and a session-level failure is generated. If a connectionless data transport
fails, the SNA IUCV failure is classified as a hardware failure of the data transport
and a link-level failure is generated by the access method.
When an SNA IUCV connection is disrupted, it is detected by the application that
is sending or receiving data, or by the communication software or hardware. For
example, if you are using UDP or ICMP connectionless data transport, the
datagram detects the failure. If an active session is in progress, an SNA or TCP
connection detects the failure.
Problem Determination
Determining the cause of an SNA IUCV failure depends on whether it is a session
error or hardware failure.
Session Error
Use a logical monitoring system, such as NetView, to determine the cause of a
session error. NetView generates a real-time alert if the necessary filters are set.
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Diagnosing the Problem
This alert notifies the network operator by displaying a highlighted message on the
NetView console. This message lists the session partners, which allows you to
determine where the failure occurred. Using NetView, you can:
v View the network and the specific interface
v Proceed through several layers of screens to pinpoint the source of the problem
v Test the interface for operability in most cases.
For more information about NetView’s diagnostic capabilities, see NetView at a
Glance.
If you are using an X.25 NPSI configuration, loss of the CTCP in your host can
cause a session error. The default name for the CTCP is TCPIPX25. The CTCP
operates through the X.25 NPSI GATE (Generalized Access to X.25 Transport
Extension) and provides a flexible interface between the host and the simulated LU
in X.25 NPSI.
You can activate an internal trace for TCPIPX25 by putting a TRACE statement in
the X25IPI CONFIG file. Use the DATA option on the TRACE statement and
specify debug flags to view the CTCP internally. At a minimum, specify the
following debug flags:
Flag
Description
0
This flag is set to 0.
1
This flag is set to 0.
2
This flag traces the IUCV interface and is set to 1.
3
This flag traces the VTAM® interface and is set to 1.
4
This flag is set to 0.
5
This flag is set to 0.
6
This flag is set to 0.
7
This flag is set to 0.
For more information about the TRACE statement, see the TCP/IP Planning and
Customization.
Hardware Failure
The operating system or access method can detect a hardware failure. When a
hardware failure occurs, the operating system displays a message and writes it to a
system error log, such as EREP. Analyze the error log to determine what hardware
component failed and why.
Recovery
The steps you take to recover the SNA IUCV link depend on your network
configuration and the cause of the failure. Once you have determined the cause,
you can use NetView to recover the SNA IUCV link:
NetView can perform the following enhanced error recovery procedures:
v Highlights the error message on the NetView console so that it does not scroll
off the screen
v Creates automated recovery procedures
v Forwards the alert to the appropriate focal point.
Chapter 6. Diagnosing the Problem
49
Diagnosing the Problem
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
This chapter describes how to activate traces and direct the output to a file or the
screen. Single and group processes are also described and samples of trace output
are shown.
Debugging in VM
There are no special TCP/IP options or invocation parameters that are specifically
directed toward VM-specific debugging activities. Since all of the servers are
implemented as virtual machines, normal VM debugging tools are available for use
in problem analysis.
Executing Traces
Varying levels of tracing of virtual machine activity are available for use in the VM
environment. This tracing is activated through the use of the CP TRACE command.
Refer to the CP Command Reference publication for more information on the use of
these commands. The scope of the processing that one traces by virtue of these
commands should be selected judiciously. Portions of TCP/IP processing are very
timing-dependent. Excessive tracing can introduce connection failures due to
time-out limits being exceeded.
Activating Traces
There are two levels of detail for run-time traces: first-level and second-level traces.
These levels are also referred to as basic and detailed traces. Second-level traces
provide more detailed information than first-level traces. Each internal TCP/IP
process can be independently selected for first-level tracing or for the additional
level of detail provided by second-level tracing.
Use of the TRACEONLY statement restricts TCP/IP stack tracing to particular
users, devices, or IP addresses.
Activation of tracing can be accomplished by either including a list of processes to
be traced in the TCPIP profile or by using the OBEYFILE command to manipulate
the trace specifications dynamically. A combination of these methods can also be
used to vary the amount of tracing performed as needs dictate. Both levels of
tracing are eligible for manipulation by these means. The default name of the
profile is PROFILE TCPIP. For more information about OBEYFILE, see the TCP/IP
Planning and Customization.
First-Level Trace
To activate and deactivate first-level traces, use the TRACE and NOTRACE
commands, respectively.
The following is the format of the TRACE command:
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
51
TCP/IP Traces
ALL
TRACE
process_name
The parameters of the TRACE command are:
Parameter
Description
process_name
Is the set of new process names to be activated by TRACE. The
new set replaces any previous set of selected processes.
ALL
Is the default value and activates the ALL set of process names.
The following is the format of the NOTRACE command:
ALL
NOTRACE
process_name
The parameters of the NOTRACE command are:
Parameter
Description.
process_name
Is the set of process names to be deactivated by NOTRACE.
NOTRACE deactivates a set of process names previously started
by a TRACE command.
ALL
Is the default value and deactivates the entire trace process, closing
any active trace file.
Second-Level Trace
To activate and deactivate second-level traces, use the MORETRACE and
LESSTRACE commands, respectively.
The following is the format of the MORETRACE command:
ALL
MORETRACE
process_name
The parameters of the MORETRACE command are:
Parameter
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Description
TCP/IP Traces
process_name
Is the set of process names to be activated by MORETRACE.
MORETRACE activates second-level traces.
ALL
Is the default value and activates the ALL set of process names.
The following is the format of the LESSTRACE command:
ALL
LESSTRACE
process_name
The parameters of the LESSTRACE command are:
Parameter
Description
process_name
Is the set of process names to be deactivated by LESSTRACE.
LESSTRACE deactivates a set of process names previously started
by a MORETRACE statement.
ALL
Is the default value and deactivates the entire second-level trace
process.
Figure 43 on page 80 shows a sample trace using LESSTRACE.
Directing Output
You can send trace output either to a file or to the screen.
Output Directed to a File
The FILE command creates a file and writes the current trace output to it.
VM FILE Command:
FILE filename filetype
A
filemode
The parameters of the FILE command are:
Parameter
Description
filename
The name of the file to which the output is written.
filetype
The file type of the file to which the output is written.
filemode
The file mode where the file is written.
Output Directed to the Screen
The SCREEN command sends trace output to the TCPIP user console, closing any
active disk trace file.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
53
TCP/IP Traces
SCREEN
The SCREEN command has no parameters.
For more information about trace activation and output statements, see the TCP/IP
Planning and Customization .
Process Names
The process names entered in the TRACE, NOTRACE, MORETRACE, and
LESSTRACE commands are used in conjunction with the internal procedures listed
in “Internal Procedures” on page 33. There are single process names and group
process names. A group process combines several single processes into one process
name.
You should be as specific as possible when entering process names, because some
process names yield voluminous output. For example, the output from the
MORETRACE ALL command can be overwhelming. Also, you should not execute
traces unnecessarily, because it can adversely affect system response time.
Note: In the sample traces shown in this chapter, the home addresses could be:
v 9.67.58.233
v 9.67.58.39
v 9.67.58.193
There can be more than one name for a process. The following sections list the
different forms of the process name where appropriate.
Single Process Names
Single process names involve only one event. They are usually not as helpful as
entering a group process name or several single process names, because several
processes can give complementary information, which in some situations, could be
matched with a CCW trace, if required.
ARP
The ARP trace provides information about the ARP process, ARP table contents,
ARP packets, and ARP requests.
Figure 24 shows a sample trace of the ARP process and the ARP table content
using ARP and Parse-Tcp options.
Note: The event Arp adds translation... indicates when ARP translation
information is added to the ARP table. ARPop is the operation field in the
ARP packet. A value of 1 is an ARP request, and a value of 2 is an ARP
response.
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting
entries older than 300 seconds
entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.226
entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.234
entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
entries older than 300 seconds
entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.226
entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.234
entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
Figure 24. A Sample of an ARP Trace (Part 1 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
55
TCP/IP Traces
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp:
1
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A140138
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.225
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: C53400D7C530
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp:
1
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A140138
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.225
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: C49C00D7C498
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP entries older than 300 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.226
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
ScanTranslationVisitNode: Deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.234, age 325 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
ArpReqSent: ArpEnvelopeQueue is now:
1 packets queued waiting for ARP reply
First Hop 9.67.58.234, Seconds on queue 0
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp:
2
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A250858
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: 10005A6BB806
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
Arp adds translation9.67.58.234 = IBMTR: 10005A250858
ArpReplyReceived: ArpEnvelopeQueue is now:
0 packets queued waiting for ARP reply
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP entries older than 300 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
ScanTranslationVisitNode: Deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.226, age 310 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.234
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
Figure 24. A Sample of an ARP Trace (Part 2 of 3)
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp:
1
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A0019F5
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.226
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: F53400D7F530
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp:
1
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A0019F5
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.226
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: F53400D7F530
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
Arp adds translation9.67.58.226 = IBMTR: 10005A0019F5
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP entries older than 300 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.226
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.234
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
Figure 24. A Sample of an ARP Trace (Part 3 of 3)
Figure 25 shows the MORETRACE command used in conjunction with an ARP
trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
57
TCP/IP Traces
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP entries older than 300 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
ArpReqSent: ArpEnvelopeQueue is now:
1 packets queued waiting for ARP reply
First Hop 9.67.58.234, Seconds on queue 0
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp: 0
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A250858
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: 10005A6BB806
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
Arp adds translation9.67.58.234 = IBMTR: 10005A250858
ArpReplyReceived: ArpEnvelopeQueue is now:
0 packets queued waiting for ARP reply
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP entries older than 300 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.234
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
.
.
.
ScanTranslationTable: Scanning for ARP entries older than 300 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link ETH1 address 9.67.58.39
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.233
ScanTranslationVisitNode: Deleting entry for link TR1 address 9.67.58.2 34, age 342 seconds
ScanTranslationVisitNode: NOT deleting entry for link TR2 address 9.67.58.193
Figure 25. A Sample of an ARP Trace Using MORETRACE
CCS
Figure 26 shows a sample of a CCS CP System Service trace. This trace indicates
when a remote client has logged on using a TELNET internal client.
Telnet server: Conn 0:Connection opened 09/07/97 at 12:29:14
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.226, port= 1030
12:30:04 09/07/97 PCCA3 common routine KILL TCB #1000 (INTCLIEN) Foreign host aborted the
connection
Bytes: 9313 sent, 292 received
Segs in: 67 OK, 24 pushed
Max use: 1 in retransmit Q
Figure 26. A Sample of a CCS Trace
CLAW Trace Information
The CLAW driver support includes provisions to gather trace information to assist
in problem diagnosis. This tracing is supported by the CLAW process name.
Activation of the CLAW trace process can be accomplished by either including the
process name in the list of processes to be traced in the PROFILE TCPIP file or by
using the OBEYFILE command interface.
Two levels of tracing are supported, TRACE and MORETRACE. Specifying TRACE
CLAW results in the generation of the following output.
v Information about CLAW read and write channel program processing
v Start I/O and write complete notifications
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v CSW information on I/O completions
v Data from Sense ID channel command execution
v Statistical information about packets (queue sizes, packet data lengths, and so
forth)
v ACB information.
Figure 27 shows an abridged section of a sample trace of the CLAW process.
:
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11793672:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw interrupt handler)
IoDevice 0A90
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 006BABB0
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count:
0
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Sense ID on input
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3:
Received Sense ID data: FF 30 88 61 00 00 00 on device 0A90
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11793672:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw interrupt handler)
IoDevice 0A91
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 006BABB0
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count:
0
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Sense ID on output
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
Figure 27. A Sample of a CLAW Trace (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
59
TCP/IP Traces
CLAW device AIXV3:
Received Sense ID data: FF 30 88 61 00 00 00 on device 0A91
CLAW device AIXV3:
CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0A90. First command 02
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11793984:
Send datagram -> To-CLAW (from To-CLAW)
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Waiting for start pkt
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 1 0
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: LengthOfData: 32
CLAW device AIXV3:
CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0A91. First command 01
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11793984:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw interrupt handler)
IoDevice 0A91
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 00001018
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count:
1
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Waiting for start pkt
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw write complete.
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 0 0
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11793672:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw interrupt handler)
IoDevice 0A90
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 00002878
Unit Status: 00, Channel Status: 80
Byte Count:
8208
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Waiting for start pkt
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
Claw device AIXV3: System validate completed.
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 2 0
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: LengthOfData: 32
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: LengthOfData: 32
CLAW device AIXV3:
CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0A91. First command 01
:
Figure 27. A Sample of a CLAW Trace (Part 2 of 2)
Specifying MORETRACE CLAW results in the generation of the following output:
v All trace information described for TRACE CLAW, above
v Envelope and CLAW control packet information
v IP datagram information
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v Read and write channel program information when I/O is started
Figure 28 on page 62 shows an abridged section of a sample trace of the CLAW
process when MORETRACE is specified.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
61
TCP/IP Traces
:
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11777704:
Send datagram -> To-CLAW (from To-CLAW)
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 0 0
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11777704:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw wait scan)
IoDevice 0000
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 00000000
Unit Status: 00, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count:
0
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3: Received Control Packet:
Connection Response: Version=2, Link ID=2, Correlator=0,
Return Code=0, Work station application=TCPIP,
Host application=TCPIP
CLAW device AIXV3: Received Control Packet:
Disconnect: Version=2, Link ID=2, Correlator=0,
Return Code=0, Work station application=
,
Host application=
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 1 0
CLAW device AIXV3: Sending envelope:
Disconnect: Version=2, Link ID=2, Correlator=0,
Return Code=0, Work station application=TCPIP,
Host application=TCPIP
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: LengthOfData: 32
CLAW device AIXV3: StartClawOutputIo
CCWB at 00692D80, real address=0001FD80, data at 0069B000
OpCode=01 Address=016000 Flags=60 Length=0020
OpCode=22 Address=01FD8F Flags=60 Length=0001
OpCode=08 Address=020008 Flags=00 Length=0000
CLAW device AIXV3:
CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0A91. First command 01
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw: Sio returned 0 on device 0A91
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11777600:
Send datagram -> To-CLAW (from To-CLAW)
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
Figure 28. A Sample of a CLAW Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 3)
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CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 0 0
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11777704:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw interrupt handler)
IoDevice 0A91
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 00020018
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count:
1
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw write complete.
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 0 0
ToClaw: Acb Received:
11777704:
Have completed I/O -> To-CLAW (from Claw interrupt handler)
IoDevice 0A90
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 0001F998
Unit Status: 00, Channel Status: 80
Byte Count:
8208
Device AIXV3:
Type: CLAW, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0A90
Host name: HOST
Adapter name: PSCA
Control task name: NONE
CLAW device AIXV3:
UnpackReads: NetType 98 AdapterNumber 1 BytesToMove 156
CLAW device AIXV3: Received IP datagram:
IP Datagram:
version: 4
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 156 bytes
Identification: 3590
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 255
Protocol: ICMP
Header CheckSum: 42324
Source Address: 01020301
Destination Address: 01020302
Figure 28. A Sample of a CLAW Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
63
TCP/IP Traces
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: Queuesizes: 0 1
CLAW device AIXV3: Sending envelope:
IP Datagram:
version: 4
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 156 bytes
Identification: 3590
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 60
Protocol: ICMP
Header CheckSum: 26709
Source Address: 01020302
Destination Address: 01020301
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw PackWrites: LengthOfData: 156
CLAW device AIXV3: StartClawOutputIo
CCWB at 00692D80, real address=0001FD80, data at 0069B000
OpCode=09 Address=016000 Flags=60 Length=009C
OpCode=22 Address=01FD8F Flags=60 Length=0001
OpCode=08 Address=020018 Flags=00 Length=0000
CLAW device AIXV3:
CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0A91. First command 09
CLAW device AIXV3: ToClaw: Sio returned 0 on device 0A91
:
Figure 28. A Sample of a CLAW Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 3 of 3)
It is not recommended that either level of CLAW tracing be activated as a normal
course of business. These traces have the potential to generate large amounts of
data and there is a fair amount of overhead associated with them. In sample traces
of the same test traffic, MORETRACE CLAW generated more than twice as many
lines of output as TRACE CLAW. Both should be used with discretion, with
exploitation of MORETRACE CLAW reserved for those situations where a
CLAW-related problem is evident and you wish to maximize the collection of
diagnostic data.
Congestion
Figure 29 shows a sample of a TCP Congestion Control trace.
A TCP Congestion Control trace gives information about internal TCPIP
congestion.
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.
.
.
TCPUTI032I Conn 1004: TcpSlowStart: CongestionWindow now 536, was 65535. Thr
esh now 1072, was 65535. MSS 536, SndWnd 0
TCPUTI032I Conn 1004: TcpSlowStart: CongestionWindow now 536, was 536. Thres
h now 1072, was 1072. MSS 536, SndWnd 0
TCPUTI032I Conn 1004: TcpSlowStart: CongestionWindow now 536, was 536. Thres
h now 1072, was 1072. MSS 536, SndWnd 0
TCPUTI015I 11:17:49 05/28/91 TCP-request KILL TCB #1004 (USER11 ) Foreign h
ost did not respond within OPEN timeout
TCPUTI019I
Bytes: 1 sent, 0 acked, 0 received
TCPUTI027I
Max use: 1 in retransmit Q
TCPROU003I Conn 1004: Opening congestion win: CongestionWindow 65535, Thresh
old 65535, MSS 536, increment 536
TCPUTI032I Conn 1004: TcpSlowStart: CongestionWindow now 536, was 65535. Thr
esh now 4096, was 65535. MSS 536, SndWnd 8192
TCPROU003I Conn 1004: Opening congestion win: CongestionWindow 536, Threshol
d 4096, MSS 536, increment 536
TCPROU003I Conn 1004: Opening congestion win: CongestionWindow 1072, Thresho
ld 4096, MSS 536, increment 536
TCPDOW021I Avoiding small packet. Desired 3, Max seg 536, MaxSndWnd div 2 40
96, HowManyInUse 1
TCPDOW021I Avoiding small packet. Desired 6, Max seg 536, MaxSndWnd div 2 40
96, HowManyInUse 1
TCPDOW021I Avoiding small packet. Desired 9, Max seg 536, MaxSndWnd div 2 40
96, HowManyInUse 1
TCPROU003I Conn 1004: Opening congestion win: CongestionWindow 1608, Thresho
ld 4096, MSS 536, increment 536
TCPROU003I Conn 1004: Opening congestion win: CongestionWindow 2144, Thresho
ld 4096, MSS 536, increment 536
TCPROU003I Conn 1004: Opening congestion win: CongestionWindow 3216, Thresho
ld 4096, MSS 536, increment 536
TCPUTI015I 11:20:37 05/28/91 TCP-request KILL TCB #1004 (USER11 ) You abort
ed the connection
TCPUTI019I
Bytes: 73 sent, 2293 received
TCPUTI022I
Segs in: 19 OK
TCPUTI027I
Max use: 1 in retransmit Q
.
.
.
Figure 29. A Sample of a Congestion Trace
CONSISTENCYCHECKER or CONSISTENCY_CHECKER
The Consistency Checker or Consistency_Checker trace provides information about
a TCPIP user’s internal consistency, including the number of buffers allocated and
the number of active connections. The Consistency Checker is not enabled unless
the ASSORTEDPARMS configuration statement option CHECKCONSISTENCY has
been specified.
Figure 30 shows a sample of a Consistency Checker trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
65
TCP/IP Traces
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware address 02608C1A73F5 for link ETH1
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware address 10005A6BB806 for link TR1
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware address 10005A6BAFDF for link TR2
Maximum recent queues: Timer = 5, ToDo = 4
ToTcpBuff buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0, NotInUse conns = 0
ToCpBuff
buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0 NotInUse conns = 0
FromTcpBuff buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0 NotInUse conns = 0
FromCpBuff buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0, NotInUse conns = 0
CheckTree traversing tree IP routing via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
CheckTree traversing tree IP routing via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
Height 4
Free count 295, tree count 5, total 300, expected 300
CheckTree traversing tree TCP connections via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
CheckTree traversing tree TCP connections via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
Height 4
Free count 251, tree count 5, total 256, expected 256
CheckTree traversing tree UDP ports via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 4, tree head says 4
CheckTree traversing tree UDP ports via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 4, tree head says 4
Height 3
Free count 26, tree count 4, total 30, expected 30
CheckTree traversing tree Address translation via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
CheckTree traversing tree Address translation via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
Height 4
Free count 1495, tree count 5, total 1500, expected 1500
Figure 30. A Sample of a CONSISTENCYCHECKER Trace (Part 1 of 2)
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17:36:23 10/24/97 PCCA3 common routine KILL TCB #1001 (FTPSERVE) Foreign host ab
orted the connection
Bytes: 409 sent, 80 received
Segs in: 18 OK
Max use: 2 in retransmit Q
Telnet server: Conn 0:Connection opened 10/24/90 at 17:36:35
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.225, port= 1071
Telnet server: Conn 1:Connection opened 10/24/90 at 17:37:17
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.43.126, port= 3213
Maximum recent queues: Timer = 7, ToDo = 3
ToTcpBuff buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0, NotInUse conns = 0
ToCpBuff
buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0 NotInUse conns = 0
FromTcpBuff buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0 NotInUse conns = 0
FromCpBuff buffers allocated: InUse conns = 0, NotInUse conns = 0
CheckTree traversing tree IP routing via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
CheckTree traversing tree IP routing via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
Height 4
Free count 295, tree count 5, total 300, expected 300
CheckTree traversing tree TCP connections via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 8, tree head says 8
CheckTree traversing tree TCP connections via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 8, tree head says 8
Height 6
Free count 248, tree count 8, total 256, expected 256
CheckTree traversing tree UDP ports via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 4, tree head says 4
CheckTree traversing tree UDP ports via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 4, tree head says 4
Height 3
Free count 26, tree count 4, total 30, expected 30
CheckTree traversing tree Address translation via TreeTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
CheckTree traversing tree Address translation via NormalTraverse
NodeCount 5, tree head says 5
Height 4
Free count 1495, tree count 5, total 1500, expected 1500
CcbGarbageCollect disposing of CCB for client TCPUSR13
17:38:18 10/24/97 TCP-request KILL TCB #1006 (FTPSERVE) OK
Bytes: 11457 sent, 2 received
Segs in: 5 OK
Max use: 3 in retransmit Q
Telnet server: Conn 2:Connection opened 10/24/97 at 17:39:21
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.225, port= 1072
Telnet server: Conn 3:Connection opened 10/24/97 at 17:41:27
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.225, port= 1073
Figure 30. A Sample of a CONSISTENCYCHECKER Trace (Part 2 of 2)
ELANS
The ELANS trace provides ELANS adapter status, ARP translations, received frame
type, LLC frame type, and the entering ELANS procedure name.
ICMP
The ICMP trace provides information about the ICMP packets sent from the
networks, and gives the IP addresses or names if the names are in the HOST
LOCAL file. Figure 31 shows a sample of an ICMP trace. ICMP was specified in
the TRACE statement in the PROFILE TCPIP file.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
67
TCP/IP Traces
PCCA3 initializing:
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Not started
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
TCP-IP initialization complete.
PCCA3 device LCS1: Received startup packet
IP-up sees ICMP datagram, code 3, subcode:
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware
IP-up sees ICMP datagram, code 0, subcode:
IP-up sees ICMP datagram, code 3, subcode:
IP-up sees ICMP datagram, code 0, subcode:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
3, source: Loopback, dest: Loopback, len: 36
address 02608C1A73F5 for link ETH1
address 10005A6BB806 for link TR1
address 10005A6BAFDF for link TR2
0, source: RALVMM, dest: SA23, len: 256
3, source: Loopback, dest: Loopback, len: 36
0, source: APOLLO, dest: SA23, len: 256
Figure 31. A Sample of an ICMP Trace
IGMP
The IGMP trace provides information about the Internet Group Management
Protocol (IGMP). This includes information about joining and leaving IGMP
multicast groups. It also displays IGMP query and report messages received and
the IGMP reports sent out. Figure 32 shows a sample of a IGMP trace. IGMP was
specified in the TRACE statement in the PROFILE TCPIP file.
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DTCIPU055I
DTCPDO088I
DTCIPU080I
DTCIPU057I
DTCPRC001I
DTCPRC002I
DTCPRC009I
DTCPRC010I
DTCPRC011I
DTCPRC009I
DTCPRC009I
DTCPRC019I
DTCPRC020I
DTCPRC021I
DTCPRC022I
DTCPRC023I
DTCIPU049I
DTCIPU050I
DTCIPU055I
DTCPDO088I
DTCIPU080I
DTCPDO088I
DTCPDO088I
:
DTCIPU057I
DTCPRC001I
DTCPRC002I
DTCPRC009I
DTCPRC010I
DTCPRC011I
DTCPRC009I
DTCPRC009I
DTCPRC019I
DTCPRC020I
DTCPRC021I
DTCPRC022I
DTCPRC023I
DTCIPU049I
DTCIPU059I
DTCIPU078I
DTCIPU082I
IgmpAddGroup: Adding multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link TRING interface 9.130.48.70
SendIGMP : Sent IGMP report for multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link TRING interface 9.130.48.70
IGMPaddGroup: IGMP report message pending for group 224.0.0.9
IgmpHandle: received IGMP datagram
version: 4
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 28 bytes
Identification: 0
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 1
Protocol: IGMP
Header CheckSum: 40975
Source Address: 09823046
Destination Address: E0000009
IP-up sees IGMP datagram, code: 18, source: 9.130.48.70, dest: 224.0.0.9, group: 224.0.0.9, len: 8
IgmpHandle: dropping loopback IGMP datagram
IgmpAddGroup: Adding multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link FDNET interface 9.130.248.99
SendIGMP : Sent IGMP report for multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link FDNET interface 9.130.248.99
IGMPaddGroup: IGMP report message pending for group 224.0.0.9
SendIGMP : Sent IGMP report for multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link TRING interface 9.130.48.70
SendIGMP : Sent IGMP report for multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link FDNET interface 9.130.248.99
IgmpHandle: received IGMP datagram
version: 4
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 28 bytes
Identification: 36252
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 1
Protocol: IGMP
Header CheckSum: 37567
Source Address: 0982B001
Destination Address: E0000001
IP-up sees IGMP datagram, code: 17, source: 9.130.176.1, dest: 224.0.0.1, group: *, len: 8
IgmpHandle: processing IGMP query
IgmpHandle: IGMP report message pending for group 224.0.0.9
IgmpHandle: completed IGMP query processing
Figure 32. A Sample of an IGMP Trace
|
ILANS
The ILANS trace provides ILANS adapter status, ARP translations, received frame
type, LLC frame type, and the entering ILANS procedure name. If you run the
ILANS trace from the PROFILE TCPIP, it shows the adapter address.
Figure 33 shows a sample of an ILANS trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
69
TCP/IP Traces
CETI device initializing:
Device ILANS1:
Type: ILANS, Status: Not started
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0240
TCP-IP initialization complete.
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansLevel2Init
ILANS device ILANS1: Sending SET_NET_PARMS.request
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: SET_NET_PARMS.confirm:
Completion status 00000000, Extended Status 00000000
ILANS device ILANS1: Sending DLM_RTV_ATTRIB.request
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA MAC primitive type is CC31
ILANS device ILANS1: DLM_RTV_ATTRIB.confirm: Completion status 00000000
Node address: 10005A4209A0
ILANS device ILANS1: Sending DL_ACTIVATE_SAP.request
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is CC0D
ILANS device ILANS1: DL_ACTIVATE_SAP.confirm: Completion status 00000000, PSapId '0007120C'X
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0806'X
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0806'X
Arp adds translation9.67.58.234 = IBMTR: 10005A250858
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0800'X
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0800'X
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0806'X
Arp adds translation9.67.58.226 = IBMTR: 10005A0019F5
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0800'X
CETI shutting down:
Device ILANS1:
Type: ILANS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0240
Final result of DoHaltIo for device 0242: Cond code 0
Final result of DoHaltIo for device 0243: Cond code 0
Figure 33. A Sample of an ILANS Trace
INITIALIZE
The initialization trace provides information about TCPIP initialization. The return
codes for the AUTOLOG and FORCE commands are also provided.
Figure 34 shows a sample of an INITIALIZE trace using MORETRACE. The
information provided by MORETRACE includes a list of autologged clients,
authorizations, and reserved ports and a table of local ports.
70
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TCP/IP Traces
TCPIP
AT GDLVM7 VIA RSCS
09/07/97 11:09:58 EST
FRIDAY
VM TCP/IP V2R4
Initializing...
UnlockAll issuing "CP UNLOCK TCPIP 0 DFF"
COMMAND COMPLETE
LCS devices will use diagnose 98 real channel program support
Trying to open GDLVM7 TCPIP *
Trying to open PROFILE TCPIP *
Using profile file PROFILE TCPIP *
PCCA3 initializing:
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Not started
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
Telnet server: Using port 23
Telnet server: No inactivity timeout
Telnet server: Every 1800 seconds a timing mark option packet will be sent.
******************************************
Log of IBM TCP/IP Telnet Server Users started on 09/07/97 at 11:10:43
State after initialization:
Client list: Queue size = 19
13610776:
PrevCCB: Client list
NextCCB: 13611528
Authorization: Monitor, Informed
No outstanding VMCF messages
Handled notices: none
Last touched: 20
Login name: OPERATOR
Notice list: empty
Reserved socket list: empty
VMCF error count: 0
13611528:
PrevCCB: 13610776
NextCCB: 13612280
Authorization: Monitor, Informed
No outstanding VMCF messages
Handled notices: none
Last touched: 20
Login name: TCPMAINT
Notice list: empty
Reserved socket list: empty
VMCF error count: 0
.
.
.
13600336:
PrevCCB: 13599584
NextCCB: Client list
No outstanding VMCF messages
Handled notices: Buffer space available, Connection state changed, Data deliv
ered, User-defined notification, Datagram space available, Urgent pending, UDP d
ata delivered, UDP datagram space available, Other external interrupt received,
User delivers line, User wants attention, Timer expired, FSend response, FReceiv
e error, RawIp packets delivered, RawIp packet space available, IUCV interrupt,
I/O interrupt, Resources available for TcpOpen, Resources available for UdpOpen,
Figure 34. A Sample of an INITIALIZE Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
71
TCP/IP Traces
Connection list: Queue size = 1
Ping response or timeout, SMSG received
Last touched: 41
Login name: INTCLIEN
Notice list: empty
Reserved socket list: Queue size = 1
5104192:
PrevScb: 13601048
NextScb: 13601048
Client: INTCLIEN
4671640:
PrevTcb: 5104256
NextTcb: 5104256
Backoff count 0
Client: INTCLIEN
ClientRcvNxt: 0
ClientSndNxt: 600188177
CongestionWindow: 65535, SlowStartThreshold: 65535
Local connection name: 1000
Foreign socket: net address = *, port= Unspecified
Sender frustration level: Contented
Incoming segment queue: Queue size = 1
5732096:
PrevDataBuffer: 4672528
NextDataBuffer: 4672528
First Unused Sequence Number: 0
Offset of last byte delivered: 0
Offset of last byte received: 0
Sequence number of first byte: 0
Incoming window number: 0
Initial receive sequence number: 0
Initial send sequence number: 600188176
Maximum segment size: 536
Local socket: net address = *, port= TELNET (23)
Outgoing window number: 0
Precedence: Routine
RcvNxt: 0
Round-trip information:
Smooth variance: 1.500
ReplaceSmooth TRUE
SndNxt: 600188176
SndUna: 600188176
SndWl1: 0
SndWl2: 0
SndWnd: 0
MaxSndWnd: 0
State: Listen
No pending TCP-receive
Figure 34. A Sample of an INITIALIZE Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 3)
72
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TCP/IP Traces
Local socket: net address = *, port = TELNET (23)
* autolog client *
* permanently reserved*
VMCF error count: 0
The local port hash table:
20 = FTPSERVE has 0 TCBs for socket *.FTP default data (20) *Perm
21 = FTPS
ERVE has 0 TCBs for socket *.FTP control (21) *Perm *Autolog
23 = INTCLIEN has
1 TCBs for socket *.TELNET (23) *Perm *Autolog
25 = SMTP has 0 TCBs for socke
t *.SMTP (25) *Perm *Autolog
53 = NAMESRV has 0 TCBs for socket *.DNS (53) *Pe
rm *Autolog
53 = NAMESRV has 0 TCBs for socket *.DNS (53) *Perm *Autolog
161
= SNMP has 0 TCBs for socket *.161 *Perm *Autolog
162 = SNMPQE has 0 TCBs for
socket *.162 *Perm *Autolog
512 = REXECD has 0 TCBs for socket *.REXEC (512)
*Perm *Autolog
514 = REXECD has 0 TCBs for socket *.RSH (514) *Perm *Autolog
2049 = VMNFS has 0 TCBs for socket *.2049 *Perm *Autolog
Figure 34. A Sample of an INITIALIZE Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 3 of 3)
IPDOWN or IP-DOWN
The IPDOWN or IP-DOWN trace provides information about the IP_DOWN
process and IP packets, including the link name and link type.
Figure 35 shows a sample of an IPDOWN trace.
Ipdown: Link: Link Name: TR1, Link Type: IBMTR, Dev Name: LCS1, Dev Type: LCS, Queuesize: 0
Ipdown: FirstHop 9.67.58.234
Figure 35. A Sample of an IPDOWN Trace
When you use the MORETRACE command, you receive information about the
datagram such as the length, ID, protocol, TTL, addresses, and fragments. A
sample of an IPDOWN trace using MORETRACE is shown in Figure 36.
IP-down: ShouldFragment: Datagram: 5046328 Packet size:0
version: 0
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 77 bytes
Identification: 43
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 60
Protocol: UDP
Header CheckSum: 1443
Source Address: 09433AE9
Destination Address: 09432B64
Figure 36. A Sample of an IPDOWN Trace Using MORETRACE
IPUP or IP-UP
The IPUP or IP-UP trace provides the ID, length, protocol, and source address of
incoming datagrams.
Figure 37 shows a sample of an IPUP trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
73
TCP/IP Traces
IP-up: datagram ID 52556, len 124, Protocol UDP from 9.67.43.100
DispatchDatagram: Dest 9.67.43.126, protocol 1 dispatch mode 1, PassedRoute T, DontRoute F
Figure 37. A Sample of an IPUP Trace
When you use the MORETRACE command, you receive additional information
about the datagram, such as TTLs and fragments. A sample of an IPUP trace using
MORETRACE is shown in Figure 38.
IP-up examining:
version: 0
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 124 bytes
Identification: 52670
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 28
Protocol: UDP
Header CheckSum: 22496
Source Address: 09432B64
Destination Address: 09433AE9
Figure 38. A Sample of an IPUP Trace Using MORETRACE
MONITOR
The MONITOR trace provides information about monitor requests, such as netstat,
trace modifications, and drops, from authorized users.
A sample of a MONITOR trace using the MORETRACE command is shown in
Figure 39. To receive more information from the details provided by MORETRACE,
use the MONITORquery function.
74
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
Monitor cmd: UseNewFile returns
OK
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 12
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 2
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 12
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 14
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 4
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 12
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
Figure 39. A Sample of a MONITOR Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
75
TCP/IP Traces
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DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 2
Mon Query: reject/reply ret code is 0
OK
DoMonitorQuery Ending!
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor query
DoMonitorQuery called.
Mon Query: VMCF receive completed.
Mon Query: QueryRecord.QueryType = 8
10:52:37 09/11/90 Monitor KILL TCB #1010 (INTCLIEN) Connection dropped by operator
Bytes: 6469 sent, 13213 received
Segs in: 110 OK, 35 pushed
Max use: 1 in retransmit Q
Respond to TCPMAINT :
OK
Monitor: SimpleResponse--SendMessage RetCode is
OK
Monitor called:
External interrupt handler->Monitor: Accept monitor request
from TCPMAINT Monitor command
Monitor cmd: VMCF receive completed.
Figure 39. A Sample of a MONITOR Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
MULTICAST
The MULTICAST trace provides information about the multicast options associated
with sockets. This includes information about setting ttl, loopback, and outgoing
interface. It also includes information about joining and leaving multicast groups.
Figure 40 shows a sample of a MULTICAST trace. MULTICAST was specified in
the TRACE statement in the PROFILE TCPIP file.
DTCSOC031I SetSockOptIp : Set IP_MULTICAST_TTL : 1
DTCIPU070I Multicast Socket Options
DTCIPU071I
Output Interface address
: *
DTCIPU072I
Time to live (TTL)
: 1
DTCIPU073I
Loopback
: Enabled
DTCIPU075I
Number of Multicast groups : 0
DTCSOC032I SetSockOptIp : Set IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP; multicast group: 224.0.0.9 interface: 9.130.48.70
DTCIPU076I IpMcastAdd: Adding multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link TRING interface 9.130.48.70
DTCIPU070I Multicast Socket Options
DTCIPU071I
Output Interface address
: *
DTCIPU072I
Time to live (TTL)
: 1
DTCIPU073I
Loopback
: Enabled
DTCIPU075I
Number of Multicast groups : 1
DTCIPU063I
Multicast Group Information
DTCIPU064I
Multicast Group Address : 224.0.0.9
DTCIPU065I
Interface Address
: 9.130.48.70
DTCIPU084I
Link Name
: TRING
DTCIPU066I
Reference Count
: 1
DTCIPU067I
Report pending
: Yes
DTCIPU069I
MAC address
: C00000040000
|
| Figure 40. A Sample of a MULTICAST Trace (Part 1 of 2)
|
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76
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TCP/IP Traces
DTCSOC032I SetSockOptIp : Set IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP; multicast group: 224.0.0.9 interface: 9.130.176.198
DTCIPU076I IpMcastAdd: Adding multicast group 224.0.0.9 on link ETRING interface 9.130.176.198
DTCIPU070I Multicast Socket Options
DTCIPU071I
Output Interface address
: *
DTCIPU072I
Time to live (TTL)
: 1
DTCIPU073I
Loopback
: Enabled
DTCIPU075I
Number of Multicast groups : 2
DTCIPU063I
Multicast Group Information
DTCIPU064I
Multicast Group Address : 224.0.0.9
DTCIPU065I
Interface Address
: 9.130.48.70
DTCIPU084I
Link Name
: TRING
DTCIPU066I
Reference Count
: 1
DTCIPU067I
Report pending
: Yes
DTCIPU069I
MAC address
: C00000040000
DTCIPU063I
Multicast Group Information
DTCIPU064I
Multicast Group Address : 224.0.0.9
DTCIPU065I
Interface Address
: 9.130.176.198
DTCIPU084I
Link Name
: ETRING
DTCIPU066I
Reference Count
: 1
DTCIPU067I
Report pending
: Yes
DTCIPU069I
MAC address
: 01005E000009
Figure 40. A Sample of a MULTICAST Trace (Part 2 of 2)
|
NOPROCESS or NO-PROCESS or NONE
NOPROCESS or NO-PROCESS or NONE all suppress tracing. They are similar to
the NOTRACE and LESSTRACE commands.
NOTIFY
NOTIFY traces the NOTIFY VMCF transactions between users and TCPIP. It
provides information about MSGIG, CALLCODEs, ACB numbers, text of notices,
return codes of VMCF transactions, and transaction parameters, such as LENA,
LENB, VADA, and VADB. Figure 41 shows a sample of a NOTIFY trace.
Notify called for ACB 13719104:
Send notice -> Notify (from UDP-request)
Last touched: 70090
Client: TCPMAINT
Notice: UDP data delivered
UDP data delivered is NOT valid.
Notify called for ACB 13719104:
Send notice -> Notify (from IP-up)
Last touched: 70090
Client: NAMESRV
Notice: UDP data delivered
UDP data delivered is valid.
ProduceMessage: Message id = 111 CallCode = 16 ReturnCode = 0
NOTIFY: UDP INFO
LenA = 49
LenB = 234881024 VadB = 1039
AnInteger = 49
Connection = 4096
Figure 41. A Sample of a NOTIFY Trace (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
77
TCP/IP Traces
Notify called for ACB 13719104:
Terminate notice -> Notify (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 70090
Client name: NAMESRV
Message identifier:111
Notify called for ACB 13719104:
Send notice -> Notify (from IP-up)
Last touched: 70090
Client: TCPMAINT
Notice: UDP data delivered
UDP data delivered is valid.
ProduceMessage: Message id = 113 CallCode = 16 ReturnCode = 0
NOTIFY: UDP INFO
LenA = 65
LenB = 234881024 VadB = 53
AnInteger = 65
Connection = 4096
Notify called for ACB 13719416:
Send notice -> Notify (from UDP-request)
Last touched: 70090
Client: NAMESRV
Notice: UDP data delivered
UDP data delivered is NOT valid.
Notify called for ACB 13719416:
Terminate notice -> Notify (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 70090
Client name: TCPMAINT
Message identifier:113
Notify called for ACB 13719416:
Send notice -> Notify (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 70090
Client: SNMPQE
Notice: RawIp packets delivered
RawIp packets delivered is valid.
Notify called for ACB 13718896:
Send notice -> Notify (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 70091
Timeout: 73504.811 seconds
Client: TCPMAINT
Notice: Ping response or timeout
PingTurnCode: OK
Elapsed time: 0.109 seconds
Ping response or timeout is valid.
ProduceMessage: Message id = 115 CallCode = 30 ReturnCode = 0
Figure 41. A Sample of a NOTIFY Trace (Part 2 of 2)
Figure 42 shows a sample of a NOTIFY trace using the MORETRACE command,
which provides additional information about allocated buffers for users and the
number of notices stacked.
78
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Notify called for ACB 13720144:
Send notice -> Notify (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 70215
Timeout: 73349.117 seconds
Client: SNMPQE
Notice: RawIp packets delivered
Notify allocates buffer #0
FindAndSendNotice(SNMPQE) finds 1 notices queued
RawIp packets delivered is valid.
WrapUp(SNMPQE): 13719728:
Send notice -> Notify (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 70215
Timeout: 73349.117 seconds
Client: SNMPQE
Notice: RawIp packets delivered
WrapUp frees buffer #0
Notify called for ACB 13719520:
Send notice -> Notify (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 70215
Timeout: 73635.007 seconds
Client: TCPMAINT
Notice: Ping response or timeout
PingTurnCode: OK
Elapsed time: 0.110 seconds
Notify allocates buffer #0
FindAndSendNotice(TCPMAINT) finds 1 notices queued
Ping response or timeout is valid.
ProduceMessage: Message id = 121 CallCode = 30 ReturnCode = 0
Send ExternalBuffer 0 to TCPMAINT
Notify called for ACB 13719520:
Terminate notice -> Notify (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 70215
Timeout: 73635.007 seconds
Client name: TCPMAINT
Message identifier:121
WrapUp(TCPMAINT): 13720144:
Send notice -> Notify (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 70215
Timeout: 73635.007 seconds
Client: TCPMAINT
Notice: Ping response or timeout
PingTurnCode: OK
Elapsed time: 0.110 seconds
WrapUp frees buffer #0
Figure 42. A Sample of a NOTIFY Trace Using MORETRACE
PARSE-TCP
The PARSE-TCP trace provides information about the options and statements
parsed during TCPIP initialization or after reading an OBEYFILE containing
information about home links. PARSE-TCP produces the TCP/IP configuration if it
is specified in the TRACE statement of the TCPIP PROFILE. This trace is helpful
when running many test cases, because it can suggest the traces that should be
executed.
Figure 43 shows a sample of the console log after executing an OBEYFILE
command. The OBEYFILE contained the following commands:
TRACE parse-tcp
MORETRACE tcp
LESSTRACE tcp-request.
Note: MORETRACE activates TCP traces on both the TRACE and
DETAILEDTRACE statements in Figure 43. For more information on TCP
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
79
TCP/IP Traces
group processes, see “TCP” on page 125. TCPREQUEST is not listed in the
DETAILEDTRACE statement in Figure 43, because the LESSTRACE
command in the OBEYFILE excludes TCP-request.
All tracing goes to screen
Trace: TCP congestion control, Notify, Parse-Tcp, Retransmit-datagram,
Roundtrip, TCP-down, TCP-request, TCP-up
DetailedTrace: TCP congestion control, Notify, Retransmit-datagram,
Roundtrip, TCP-down, TCP-up
BSD info for links:
ETH1: BrdAddr 9.67.58.63, DstAddr *, MaxMtu 0, Metric 0, SubnetMask 255.255.255.224
TR1: BrdAddr 9.67.58.255, DstAddr *, MaxMtu 0, Metric 0, SubnetMask 255.255.255.224
TR2: BrdAddr 9.67.58.223, DstAddr *, MaxMtu 0, Metric 0, SubnetMask 255.255.255.224
Figure 43. A Sample of a PARSE-TCP Trace Using MORETRACE and LESSTRACE
PING
The PING trace provides information about outgoing PING requests from home
clients, ICMP datagrams, and associated data. It is helpful to match ICMP
datagram data with CCW traces.
Figure 44 shows a sample of a PING trace.
Ping called:
13714800:
Accept ping request -> Ping process (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 23
Timeout: 203.493 seconds
Client name: TCPMAINT
Address: 9.67.43.126
Length: 256
Timeout: 10
DoPing sending datagram:
version: 0
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 276 bytes
Identification: 1234
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 60
Protocol: ICMP
Header CheckSum: 43
Source Address: 09433AE9
Destination Address: 09432B7E
Figure 44. A Sample of a PING Trace (Part 1 of 2)
80
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08
7F
18
78
02
C6
72
74
5D
0D
39
B8
CF
8D
B6
E1
Data:
00 23
D6 A3
27 2F
BB 4F
6D 9D
7E 72
13 47
F3 01
A1 06
21 5A
82 E8
AF 57
A9 64
C9 E3
BC 09
C2 BA
43
7F
ED
97
11
00
6F
33
68
EE
37
73
2B
0B
3A
0B
00
8D
6B
53
28
BB
4D
FA
B3
3B
FB
23
C5
09
C8
30
D1
5B
B9
A2
2B
C8
F0
1C
8F
DB
0E
E8
62
EB
40
05
46
7B
68
0A
06
C0
3E
8B
20
C9
DF
97
1D
9E
E1
E2
A8
ED
04
52
E1
E4
C9
CB
E0
96
E4
B6
1D
8E
A1
D9
47
22
B1
39
DE
11
34
D9
CC
DB
F3
4E
62
3C
84
33
83
72
04
85
16
E3
29
45
82
6F
91
A2
C2
37
73
21
D5
5C
66
D4
C9
C5
02
B7
50
B5
D1
12
3B
A5
F5
36
AB
92
C5
A9
5F
A8
F9
9B
C8
7B
AF
1D
0A
16
F5
C5
53
64
27
5D
2B
76
4E
D3
2B
91
3C
6B
B5
07
73
53
8D
42
80
53
CC
C2
5C
9B
63
48
13
8B
E0
F0
86
75
8B
3E
03
DA
3A
2A
B8
B3
AC
EC
7D
7F
35
83
97
19
5B
79
9D
B8
08
6D
80
5A
BD
56
29
A5
12
29
1E
23
UpToPing processing datagram:
version: 0
Internet Header Length: 5 = 20 bytes
Type of Service:Precedence = Routine
Total Length: 276 bytes
Identification: 1234
Flags: May Fragment, Last Fragment
Fragment Offset: 0
Time To Live: 58
Protocol: ICMP
Header CheckSum: 555
Source Address: 09432B7E
Destination Address: 09433AE9
Data:
00 00 2B 43 00 D1 46 A8 47 83 D5 AB 53 8D
7F D6 A3 7F 8D 5B 7B ED 22 72 5C 92 64 42
18 27 2F ED 6B B9 68 04 B1 04 66 C5 27 80
78 BB 4F 97 53 A2 0A 52 39 85 D4 A9 5D 53
02 6D 9D 11 28 2B 06 E1 DE 16 C9 5F 2B CC
C6 7E 72 00 BB C8 C0 E4 11 E3 C5 A8 76 C2
72 13 47 6F 4D F0 3E C9 34 29 02 F9 4E 5C
74 F3 01 33 FA 1C 8B CB D9 45 B7 9B D3 9B
5D A1 06 68 B3 8F 20 E0 CC 82 50 C8 2B 63
0D 21 5A EE 3B DB C9 96 DB 6F B5 7B 91 48
39 82 E8 37 FB 0E DF E4 F3 91 D1 AF 3C 13
B8 AF 57 73 23 E8 97 B6 4E A2 12 1D 6B 8B
CF A9 64 2B C5 62 1D 1D 62 C2 3B 0A B5 E0
8D C9 E3 0B 09 EB 9E 8E 3C 37 A5 16 07 F0
B6 BC 09 3A C8 40 E1 A1 84 73 F5 F5 73 86
E1 C2 BA 0B 30 05 E2 D9 33 21 36 C5 53 75
8B
3E
03
DA
3A
2A
B8
B3
AC
EC
7D
7F
35
83
97
19
5B
79
9D
B8
08
6D
80
5A
BD
56
29
A5
12
29
1E
23
UpToPing: Ping was requested by TCPMAINT
UpToPing: Ping took 0.314 seconds
Figure 44. A Sample of a PING Trace (Part 2 of 2)
ROUNDTRIP or ROUND-TRIP
The ROUNDTRIP or ROUND-TRIP trace shows the average round-trip time.
Figure 45 shows a sample of the ROUNDTRIP trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
81
TCP/IP Traces
RecordSend: Timeout interval is 300 timer units
Ack #1 took
0.043; # acked: 1, ave RT:
0.043
Avg time in burst: 0.043, err
0.000 => smooth RT:
RecordSend: Timeout interval is 75 timer units
Ack #4 took
0.075; # acked: 2, ave RT:
0.059
Avg time in burst: 0.075, err
0.032 => smooth RT:
RecordSend: Timeout interval is 75 timer units
Ack #22 took
0.040; # acked: 3, ave RT:
0.053
Avg time in burst: 0.040, err
0.007 => smooth RT:
RecordSend: Timeout interval is 75 timer units
Ack #25 took
0.041; # acked: 4, ave RT:
0.050
Avg time in burst: 0.041, err
0.005 => smooth RT:
RecordSend: Timeout interval is 75 timer units
Ack #31 took
0.058; # acked: 5, ave RT:
0.051
Avg time in burst: 0.058, err
0.013 => smooth RT:
RecordSend: Timeout interval is 75 timer units
Ack #34 took
0.049; # acked: 6, ave RT:
0.051
Avg time in burst: 0.049, err
0.002 => smooth RT:
0.043, smooth var:
0.022
0.047, smooth var:
0.024
0.046, smooth var:
0.020
0.045, smooth var:
0.016
0.047, smooth var:
0.015
0.047, smooth var:
0.012
Figure 45. A Sample of a ROUNDTRIP Trace
SCHEDULER
The SCHEDULER trace shows the next main process to be executed. Because
scheduler trace entries contain a time stamp, it is often helpful to include TRACE
SCHEDULER when diagnosing other problems so that events can be placed in
time.
Figure 46 shows a sample of a SCHEDULER trace.
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
Scheduler:
2312233908
2312801249
2312801447
2312801649
2312801997
2312802206
2312802343
2312802446
2312802615
2312802739
2313031379
2313031645
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
Accept monitor request -> Monitor
Accept ping request -> Ping process
Examine incoming datagram -> IP-up
Examine incoming datagram -> IP-up
Send notice -> Notify
Terminate notice -> Notify
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
Accept monitor request -> Monitor
Figure 46. A Sample of a SCHEDULER Trace
Note: The number in each line of the SCHEDULER trace is a partial time stamp
that shows in relative terms when each event occurred. The values are in
16-microsecond units.
Figure 47 shows a sample of a SCHEDULER trace using the MORETRACE
command, which adds information about the ACB to be processed. This trace
provides information, such as message identifiers, client calls, and details related to
VMCF communication.
82
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
DASD 03EE LINKED R/O; R/W BY TCPMNTA
DMSACP723I Z (3EE) R/O
DASD 03EE DETACHED
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339349463 Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
DTCPRI048I
32871464:
DTCPRI058I
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from Extnl interrupt hndlr)
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:10
DTCPRI063I
Client call: End TCP/IP service
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339442590 Look at Timer Queue -> Timer
DTCPRI048I
32871464:
DTCPRI058I
Look at Timer Queue -> Timer (from External interrupt handler)
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339442967 Check consistency -> Consistency checker
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Check consistency -> Consistency checker (from Timer)
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339443369 Terminate notice -> Notify
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Terminate notice -> Notify (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI098I
Client name: FTPSRVA
DTCPRI099I
Message identifier:-3
DTCPRI100I
Return code: Abnormal condition during inter-VM communication (VMCF Rc=0 User=FTPSRVA)
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339449984 Look at Timer Queue -> Timer
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Look at Timer Queue -> Timer (from External interrupt handler)
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339450329 Internal Telnet timeout -> Internal Telnet timeout handler
DTCPRI048I
32871584:
DTCPRI058I
Internal Telnet timeout -> Internal Telnet timeout handler (from Timer)
DTCPRI103I
Timer Datum: 16777216, Timer Number: 1
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339450814 Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Internal Telnet timeout hndlr)
DTCPRI005I
Notification: Timer expired
DTCPRI015I
Datum: 16777216, Associated timer: 1
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339521596 Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:6
DTCPRI063I
Client call: Begin TCP/IP service
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339522504 Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:8
DTCPRI063I
Client call: Handle notice
DTCPRC104I
Notices: Buffer space available, Connection state changed
Figure 47. A Sample of a SCHEDULER Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
83
TCP/IP Traces
, Data delivered, User-defined notification, Datagram space available
, Urgent pending, UDP data delivered, UDP datagram space available
, Other external interrupt received, User delivers line
, User wants attention, Timer expired, FSend response, FReceive error
, RawIp packets delivered, RawIp packet space available, IUCV interrupt
, I/O interrupt, Resources available for TcpOpen
, Resources available for UdpOpen, Ping response or timeout, SMSG received
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339523820 Accept monitor request -> Monitor
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Accept monitor request -> Monitor (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:10
DTCPRI063I
Client call: Monitor query
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339524493 Accept ping request -> Ping process
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Accept ping request -> Ping process (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI070I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI071I
Address: 9.130.3.2
DTCPRI072I
Length: 256
DTCPRI073I
Timeout: 10
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339525028 Examine incoming datagram -> IP-up
DTCPRI048I
32871824:
DTCPRI058I
Examine incoming datagram -> IP-up (from Ping process)
DTCPRI280I
Timeout: 64.829 seconds
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339525285 Examine incoming datagram -> IP-up
DTCPRI048I
32871944:
DTCPRI058I
Examine incoming datagram -> IP-up (from IP-up)
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339525450 Send notice -> Notify
DTCPRI048I
32871704:
Figure 47. A Sample of a SCHEDULER Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
84
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TCP/IP Traces
DTCPRI058I
Send notice -> Notify (from IP-up)
DTCPRI280I
Timeout: 492.394 seconds
DTCPRI081I
Client: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI084I
Notice: Ping response or timeout
DTCPRI092I
PingTurnCode: OK
DTCPRI093I
Elapsed time: 0.004 seconds
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339528415 Terminate notice -> Notify
DTCPRI048I
32871704:
DTCPRI058I Terminate notice -> Notify (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI280I
Timeout: 492.394 seconds
DTCPRI098I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI099I
Message identifier:5
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339529294 Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
DTCPRI048I
32871824:
DTCPRI058I
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI280I
Timeout: 64.829 seconds
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:14
DTCPRI063I
Client call: End TCP/IP service
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339670616 Accept TCP request -> TCP-request
DTCPRI048I
32871824:
DTCPRI058I
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI280I
Timeout: 64.829 seconds
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:6
DTCPRI063I
Client call: Begin TCP/IP service
DTCSCH004I Scheduler: 2339671667 Accept monitor request -> Monitor
DTCPRI048I
32871824:
DTCPRI058I
Accept monitor request -> Monitor (from External interrupt handler)
DTCPRI280I
Timeout: 64.829 seconds
DTCPRI061I
Client name: TCPMNTA
DTCPRI062I
Message identifier:8
DTCPRI063I
Client call: Monitor command
DASD 03EE LINKED R/O; R/W BY TCPMNTA
DMSACP723I Z (3EE) R/O
DASD 03EE DETACHED
Figure 48. continuation of the SCHEDULER Trace
SHUTDOWN or SHUT-DOWN
The SHUTDOWN or SHUT-DOWN trace provides information about clients and
servers, TCPIP shut down, and the status of pending communication between
clients and TCPIP.
Figure 49 shows a sample of a SHUTDOWN trace.
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL TCB #1001 (FTPSERVE) TCP/IP service is being shut down
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL TCB #1003 (SMTP
) TCP/IP service is being shut down
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL TCB #1007 (NAMESRV ) TCP/IP service is being shut down
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
Figure 49. A Sample of a SHUTDOWN Trace (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
85
TCP/IP Traces
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
11:01:57 09/07/90 Shutdown KILL
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
TCB #1000 (INTCLIEN) TCP/IP service is being shut down
TCB #1008 (SNMP
) You aborted the connection
TCB #1002 (PORTMAP ) You aborted the connection
TCB #1006 (SNMPQE
) You aborted the connection
7 active clients, with 4 connections in use.
I will delay shutting down for 30 seconds, so that
RSTs and shutdown notifications may be delivered.
If you wish to shutdown immediately, without warning,
type #CP EXT again.
Server Telnet closed down. Bye.
PCCA3 shutting down:
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
UnlockAll issuing "CP UNLOCK TCPIP 0 DFF"
COMMAND COMPLETE
ShutDown at 75442.687 seconds
Figure 49. A Sample of a SHUTDOWN Trace (Part 2 of 2)
SNMPDPI
The SNMPDPI trace provides SNMP “sub-agent” tracing. It lists the MIB queries
by the SNMP agent.
Figure 50 shows a sample of an SNMPDPI trace.
SNMP DPI process called for ACB 13657768:
Process SNMP agent request -> SNMP DPI sub-agent (from Sock-request)
SnmpAgentCcb SNMPD, SnmpAgentSockNumber 7
ProcessMibRequest: Cmd 2, ObjectId 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.1.,
GroupId 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2..
ProcessMibRequest: Name ifDescr, EffectiveCmd 2,
EffectiveObjectId 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.1., Instance 1
mkDPIresponse: ret_code 0
object_id 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.2, set_type 2, value_len 13
D80638:49424D20 4E505349 20582E32 35000000
SNMP DPI process called for ACB 13657456:
Process SNMP agent request -> SNMP DPI sub-agent (from Sock-request)
Timeout: 209.996 seconds
SnmpAgentCcb SNMPD, SnmpAgentSockNumber 7
ProcessMibRequest: Cmd 1, ObjectId 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.7.,
GroupId 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.7.
ProcessMibRequest: Name ifDescr, EffectiveCmd 1,
EffectiveObjectId 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.7., Instance 7
mkDPIresponse: ret_code 2
Figure 50. A Sample of an SNMPDPI Trace
SOCKET
The SOCKET trace provides information about the requests made through the
IUCV socket interface, as well as most responses.
86
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TCP/IP Traces
Figure 51 shows a sample of a SOCKET trace.
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SkSimpleResponse: Client USER8
06319a70, retcode 0 errno 49
Sock-request called for ACB TCPPRI048I 106078608:
DTCPRI052I
IUCV interrupt -> Sock-request (from External interrupt
DTCPRI038I
Interrupt type: Pending message
DTCPRI039I
Path id: 3
MsgId 666, Length 16, TrgCls: 00190003, Reply len 8, Flags 07
SkSimpleResponse: Client USER8
06319a70, retcode 3 errno 0
Sock-request called for ACB TCPPRI048I 106078608:
DTCPRI052I
IUCV interrupt -> Sock-request (from External interrupt
DTCPRI038I
Interrupt type: Pending message
DTCPRI039I
Path id: 3
MsgId 667, Length 16, TrgCls: 00020003, Reply len 8, Flags 07
SkSimpleResponse: Client USER8
06319a70, retcode 0 errno 0
Sock-request called for ACB TCPPRI048I 106078608:
DTCPRI052I
IUCV interrupt -> Sock-request (from External interrupt
DTCPRI038I
Interrupt type: Pending message
DTCPRI039I
Path id: 3
MsgId 668, Length 0, TrgCls: 000D0003, Reply len 8, Flags 87
PrmMsgHi 0, PrmMsgLo 5
SkSimpleResponse: Client USER8
06319a70, retcode 0 errno 0
Sock-request called for ACB TCPPRI048I 106078608:
DTCPRI052I
IUCV interrupt -> Sock-request (from External interrupt
DTCPRI038I
Interrupt type: Pending message
DTCPRI039I
Path id: 3
MsgId 669, Length 16, TrgCls: 00190004, Reply len 8, Flags 07
SkSimpleResponse: Client USER8
06319a70, retcode 4 errno 0
Sock-request called for ACB TCPPRI048I 106078608:
DTCPRI052I
IUCV interrupt -> Sock-request (from External interrupt
DTCPRI038I
Interrupt type: Pending message
DTCPRI039I
Path id: 3
MsgId 670, Length 16, TrgCls: 00020004, Reply len 8, Flags 07
SkSimpleResponse: Client USER8
06319a70, retcode 0 errno 0
Sock-request called for ACB TCPPRI048I 106078608:
DTCPRI052I
IUCV interrupt -> Sock-request (from External interrupt
DTCPRI038I
Interrupt type: Pending message
DTCPRI039I
Path id: 3
MsgId 671, Length 52, TrgCls: 00130008, Reply len 40, Flags 07
SkBlockRequest: Pathid 3, Msgid 671, Retryable F
.
.
.
handler)
handler)
handler)
handler)
handler)
handler)
Figure 51. A Sample of a SOCKET Trace
SSL
The SSL trace provides information about the SSL server’s socket activities that are
unique to the SSL server and information about secure connections.
Figure 52 shows a sample of an SSL trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
87
TCP/IP Traces
18:34:14 DTCSSL007I SkTcpSoc: Socket number 1 assigned by the stack.
18:34:14 DTCSSL009I SetIBMSockOpt: SO_PRIVSOCK issued for socket number 1.
18:34:16 DTCSSL007I SkTcpSoc: Socket number 5 assigned by the stack.
18:34:16 DTCSSL008I SetIBMSockOpt: Socket number 5 is now socket type SO_SSL.
18:34:16 DTCSSL027I Port 1024 being used by the SSL security server.
18:34:16 DTCSSL029I 3 concurrent connections can be handled by the SSL security
server.
18:34:16 DTCSSL024I SkSslAcc: Socket number 6 assigned by the stack for SSL
main accept processing.
18:34:26 DTCSSL025I SkTcpAcc: Socket number 7 assigned by the stack for SSLadmin
accept processing.
18:37:21 DTCSSL001I Connection destined for secure port 423.
18:37:21 DTCSSL003I Certificate label to be used: MEDCERT.
18:37:21 DTCSSL005I TCB 93975872 found for SSL security server.
18:37:21 DTCSSL014I Secure connection opened. Secure connections allowed
decreased to 2.
18:37:21 DTCSSL015I Maximum secure connections not reached. Passive open issued
for SSL security server port 1024.
18:37:21 DTCSSL028I SockAddrSsl: Family: 2, From_address: 9.130.58.177, From_port:1167,
To_address: 9.130.249.34, To_port: 423, Labe
l: MEDCERT, Other Tcb: 93975872.
18:37:21 DTCSSL007I SkTcpSoc: Socket number 7 assigned by the stack.
18:37:21 DTCSSL024I SkSslAcc: Socket number 8 assigned by the stack for SSL
main accept processing.
18:37:21 DTCSSL008I SetIBMSockOpt: Socket number 7 is now socket type SO_SSL.
18:37:21 DTCSSL030I SSL security server issues a connect for the real server
at address: 9.130.249.34 port: 423.
18:37:21 DTCSSL032I 5 bytes received by SSLSERV from the secure client.
18:37:21 DTCSSL032I 37 bytes received by SSLSERV from the secure client.
18:37:22 DTCSSL031I 1615 bytes sent by SSLSERV to the secure client.
18:37:22 DTCSSL032I 5 bytes received by SSLSERV from the secure client.
18:37:22 DTCSSL032I 68 bytes received by SSLSERV from the secure client.
Figure 52. A Sample of an SSL Trace
TCPDOWN or TCP-DOWN
|
The TCPDOWN or TCP-DOWN trace provides information about the outgoing
TCP datagrams, such as data byte length, source port, destination port, and the
connection to which the call is related. TCPDOWN also provides some information
about the other fields in outgoing datagrams, such as:
v Sequence (seq) number
v Acknowledgment (ack) number
v Segment size.
Figure 53 shows a sample of a TCPDOWN trace in which A or AP control bits are
posted (Ack and PUSH).
88
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TCP/IP Traces
TCP-down called for ACB 13716048:
ACK timeout fails #1007 -> TCP-down (from Timer)
Last touched: 2782
TCP-down constructing datagram with 0 bytes of text
ConstructGram sending header: Port 1037->23: #626673280 Ack=639844686 Wnd=65527
A
TCP-down called for ACB 13715736:
Send TCP data #1007 -> TCP-down (from TCP-request)
Last touched: 2783
Timeout: 2947.615 seconds
TCP-down: desired segment size = 18 -> PUSH
TCP-down finds ready segment size = 18
TCP-down constructing datagram with 18 bytes of text
ConstructGram sending header: Port 1037->23: #626673280 Ack=639844686 Wnd=65527 AP
TCP-down has sent out 18 bytes data; SegLen 18 ; SndNxt 22, ClientSndNxt = 22
Figure 53. A Sample of a TCPDOWN Trace
When you activate a TCPDOWN trace using the MORETRACE command, the
foreign host IP address is given and the format of the output is easier to read.
Figure 54 shows a sample of a TCPDOWN trace using the MORETRACE
command.
MakeHead in TCP-down: SourcePort is 1038
DestinationPort is TELNET (23)
ConnectionName is 1007
TCP-down making header seq #650306676
TCP-down: window size: 32768
GuessSegSize(9.67.43.126) => 0.0.0.0 -> 9.67.58.234 Link Name: TR1,
Link Type: IBMTR, Dev Name: LCS1, Dev Type: LCS, max: 0
TCP-down sending max seg size = 536
TCP-down constructing datagram with 0 bytes of text
ConstructGram sending header:
Source Port: 1038
Destination Port: 23
Sequence Number: 650306676
Data Offset: 6
Control Bits: SYN
Window: 32768
Figure 54. A Sample of a TCPDOWN Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
89
TCP/IP Traces
Checksum: 15721
Options:
Maximum segment size: 536
GuessSegSize(9.67.43.126) => 0.0.0.0 -> 9.67.58.234 Link Name: TR1,
Link Type: IBMTR, Dev Name: LCS1, Dev Type: LCS, max: 0
TCP-down called for ACB 13715632:
ACK timeout fails #1007 -> TCP-down (from Timer)
Last touched: 2872
Timeout: 3015.271 seconds
MakeHead in TCP-down: SourcePort is 1038
DestinationPort is TELNET (23)
ConnectionName is 1007
TCP-down making header seq #650306677
TCP-down acking #666910577
TCP-down: window size: 32768
TCP-down constructing datagram with 0 bytes of text
ConstructGram sending header:
Source Port: 1038
Destination Port: 23
Sequence Number: 650306677
Acknowledgement Number: 666910577
Data Offset: 5
Control Bits: ACK
Window: 32768
Checksum: 31536
TCP-down called for ACB 13715736:
Send TCP data #1007 -> TCP-down (from TCP-request)
Last touched: 2873
Timeout: 3042.149 seconds
TCP-down: desired segment size = 3 -> PUSH
TCP-down finds ready segment size = 3
MakeHead in TCP-down: SourcePort is 1038
DestinationPort is TELNET (23)
ConnectionName is 1007
TCP-down making header seq #650306677
TCP-down acking #666910577
TCP-down: window size: 32768
TCP-down constructing datagram with 3 bytes of text
TCP-down: CopyAllText takes 3 bytes from a buffer
ConstructGram sending header:
Source Port: 1038
Destination Port: 23
Sequence Number: 650306677
Acknowledgement Number: 666910577
Data Offset: 5
Control Bits: ACK PSH
Window: 32768
Checksum: 57145
TCP-down has sent out 3 bytes data; SegLen 3 ; SndNxt 4, ClientSndNxt = 4
Figure 54. A Sample of a TCPDOWN Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
TCPUP or TCP-UP
The TCPUP or TCP-UP trace provides information about incoming TCP datagrams,
such as the connection number, local destination port, sequence number,
acknowledgment number, and window size.
Figure 55 shows a sample of a TCPUP trace.
90
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TCP/IP Traces
TCP-up's next segment: Port 1073->23: #568559375 Ack=500632569 Wnd=15652 A
Valid TCP checksum
#1006 Established I=1 O=1H1
W57921 RNxt=275 CliRNxt=275 SNxt=42269 SUna=42025 SWnd=15896 MaxSWnd=16384 CWnd=
33641 Thresh=5912 Con Re Pen2048
Acceptable segment
* #1006 Established I=1 RNxt=275 CliRNxt=275 SNxt=42269 SUna=42269 SWnd=15652 M
axSWnd=16384 CWnd=33755 Thresh=5912 Pen2048
TCP-up's next segment: Port 1071->23: #495605235 Ack=323725624 Wnd=14676 A
Valid TCP checksum
#1000 Established I=1 O=1H1
W114300 RNxt=235 CliRNxt=235 SNxt=99624 SUna=99380 SWnd=14920 MaxSWnd=16384 CWnd
=1960 Thresh=7460 Con Re Pen2048
Acceptable segment
* #1000 Established I=1 RNxt=235 CliRNxt=235 SNxt=99624 SUna=99624 SWnd=14676 M
axSWnd=16384 CWnd=1960 Thresh=7460 Pen2048
TCP-up's next segment: Port 1072->23: #536754847 Ack=469782320 Wnd=15652 A
Valid TCP checksum
#1007 Established I=1 O=1H1
W83772 RNxt=247 CliRNxt=247 SNxt=68120 SUna=67876 SWnd=15896 MaxSWnd=16384 CWnd=
38023 Thresh=7216 Con Re Pen2048
Acceptable segment
* #1007 Established I=1 RNxt=247 CliRNxt=247 SNxt=68120 SUna=68120 SWnd=15652 M
axSWnd=16384 CWnd=38124 Thresh=7216 Pen2048
Figure 55. A Sample of a TCPUP Trace
Figure 56 shows a sample of a TCPUP trace using the MORETRACE command,
which provides complete information about each incoming TCP datagram, except
the data.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
91
TCP/IP Traces
Next TCP header:
Source Port:1073
Destination Port: 23
Sequence Number: 568559378
Acknowledgement Number: 500650786
Data Offset: 5
Control bits: ACK
Window: 15284
Checksum: 2161
Client text starts at 21
Valid TCP checksum
5240128:
PrevTcb: 5241080
NextTcb: 12153680
Backoff count 0
Client: INTCLIEN
Last state notice: Open
ClientRcvNxt: 568559378
ClientSndNxt: 500650786
CongestionWindow: 23488, SlowStartThreshold: 8070
Local connection name: 1006
ConnectionTimeoutTime in 150 seconds
Foreign socket: net address = 9.67.58.225, port= 1073
Sender frustration level: Contented
Incoming segment queue: Queue size = 1
5940600:
PrevDataBuffer: 5241032
NextDataBuffer: 5241032
First Unused Sequence Number: 568559378
Offset of last byte delivered: 0
Offset of last byte received: 0
Sequence number of first byte: 568559378
Incoming window number: 568561149
Initial receive sequence number: 568559100
Initial send sequence number: 500590300
Maximum segment size: 1960
Local socket: net address = 9.67.58.233, port= TELNET (23)
Outgoing segment queue: Queue size = 1
5944840:
PrevDataBuffer: 5241056
NextDataBuffer: 5241056
First Unused Sequence Number: 500650786
Offset of last byte delivered: 0
Offset of last byte received: 220
Sequence number of first byte: 500650566
Outgoing window number: 500666070
Precedence: Routine
RcvNxt: 568559378
Round-trip information:
How many in use: 1
First free: 14
First used: 13
Max number unacked: 1
Retransmission timeout: 1181.832 seconds
Smooth trip time: 0.049
Smooth variance: 0.032
Total acked: 252
Average trip time: 0.185
Acks not counted in round-trip time: 3
ReplaceSmooth FALSE
Figure 56. A Sample of a TCPUP Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 3)
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SndNxt: 500650786
SndUna: 500650566
SndWl1: 568559378
SndWl2: 500650566
SndWnd: 15504
MaxSndWnd: 16384
State: Established
Pending TCP-receive buffer: 2048
WorkOn called:
ClientTextStart = 21
ForeignAddress = 9.67.58.225
ForeignPort = 1073
LocalAddress = 9.67.58.233
LocalPort = TELNET (23)
SegPrc = Routine
SegLen = 0
TextLength = 0
TCB = 5240128:
PrevTcb: 5241080
NextTcb: 12153680
Backoff count 0
Client: INTCLIEN
Last state notice: Open
ClientRcvNxt: 568559378
ClientSndNxt: 500650786
CongestionWindow: 23488, SlowStartThreshold: 8070
Local connection name: 1006
ConnectionTimeoutTime in 145 seconds
Foreign socket: net address = 9.67.58.225, port= 1073
Sender frustration level: Contented
Incoming segment queue: Queue size = 1
5940600:
PrevDataBuffer: 5241032
NextDataBuffer: 5241032
First Unused Sequence Number: 568559378
Offset of last byte delivered: 0
Offset of last byte received: 0
Sequence number of first byte: 568559378
Incoming window number: 568561149
Initial receive sequence number: 568559100
Initial send sequence number: 500590300
Maximum segment size: 1960
Local socket: net address = 9.67.58.233, port= TELNET (23)
Outgoing segment queue: Queue size = 1
5944840:
PrevDataBuffer: 5241056
NextDataBuffer: 5241056
First Unused Sequence Number: 500650786
Offset of last byte delivered: 0
Offset of last byte received: 220
Sequence number of first byte: 500650566
Figure 56. A Sample of a TCPUP Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
93
TCP/IP Traces
Outgoing window number: 500666070
Precedence: Routine
RcvNxt: 568559378
Round-trip information:
How many in use: 1
First free: 14
First used: 13
Max number unacked: 1
Retransmission timeout: 1181.832 seconds
Smooth trip time: 0.049
Smooth variance: 0.032
Total acked: 252
Average trip time: 0.185
Acks not counted in round-trip time: 3
ReplaceSmooth FALSE
SndNxt: 500650786
SndUna: 500650566
SndWl1: 568559378
SndWl2: 500650566
SndWnd: 15504
MaxSndWnd: 16384
State: Established
Pending TCP-receive buffer: 2048
Acceptable segment
SND.UNA = 60486
Old: SndWnd = 15504, Wl1 = 278, Wl2 = 60266
New: SndWnd = 15284, Wl1 = 278, Wl2 = 60486
Finished with DataBuffer ending at 60486
* #1006 Established I=1 RNxt=278 CliRNxt=278 SNxt=60486 SUna=60486 SWnd=15284 M
axSWnd=16384 CWnd=23651 Thresh=8070 Pen2048
Next TCP header:
Source Port: 1073
Destination Port: 23
Sequence Number: 568559378
Acknowledgement Number: 500651006
Data Offset: 5
Control Bits: ACK
Window: 15064
Checksum: 2161
Client text starts at 21
Valid TCP checksum
Figure 56. A Sample of a TCPUP Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 3 of 3)
TCPREQUEST or TCP-REQUEST
The TCPREQUEST or TCP-REQUEST trace provides information about all TCP
service requests from local clients and servers. TCP services are requested by the
standard procedure. For more information about the standard request procedure,
see the TCP/IP Programmer’s Reference. TCPREQUEST traces can be matched with
client traces, such as FTP traces.
The information contained in a TCPREQUEST trace includes:
v Client name: User ID of the requester
v Message identifier
v Client call (VMCF function only)
v Connection number
v Length
v Handle notices requests, if applicable.
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The connection number is the TCP/IP connection number shown by NETSTAT in
client traces. This number is computed to match TCP/IP clients with VMCF
connections.
Figure 57 shows a sample of a TCPREQUEST trace. In this sample trace, the length
equals 65535. A port value of 65535 is an X'FFFF' UNSPECIFIEDport. If a port is
specified on a foreign socket, the UNSPECIFIEDaddress (X'00000000') and
UNSPECIFIEDport means that the client or server is on a passive open port.
However, local ports and addresses are specified.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
95
TCP/IP Traces
TCP-request called for ACB 13715112:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1259
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:10
Client call: End TCP/IP service
TCP-request KILLING CLIENT: TCPUSRX Client has ended TCP/IP service
TCP-request called for ACB 13715112:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1275
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:6
Client call: Begin TCP/IP service
TCP-request KILLING CLIENT: TCPUSRX Client reinitialized TCP/IP service
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1288
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:12
Client call: Handle notice
Notices: Buffer space available, Connection state changed, Data delivered,
UDP data delivered, Timer expired, FSend response, FReceive error, IUCV interrupt
TCP-request called for ACB 13714800:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1288
Timeout: 1190.212 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:24
Client call: Open TCP
TcpRequest FindTcb: OurClientOwnsPort: FALSE, OtherClientOwnsPort: FALSE
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1288
Timeout: 1411.224 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:26
Client call: FReceive TCP
Connection number: 1009
Length: 65535
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1295
Timeout: 1411.224 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:28
Client call: FSend TCP
Connection number: 1009
Length: 14
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1295
Timeout: 1411.224 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:30
Client call: FReceive TCP
Connection number: 1009
Length: 65535
Figure 57. A Sample of a TCPREQUEST Trace
The TCPREQUEST trace using the MORETRACE command adds the following
information:
v Foreign and local IP addresses on active open ports
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v Status of the open client port on passive open ports
v Parameters of established connections.
Figure 58 shows a sample of the TCPREQUEST trace using MORETRACE.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
97
TCP/IP Traces
TCP-request called for ACB 13715632:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1377
Timeout: 1347.787 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:22
Client call: Handle notice
Notices: Buffer space available, Connection state changed, Data delivered,
FSend response, FReceive error, IUCV interrupt
TCP-request called for ACB 13715632:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1377
Timeout: 1347.787 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:24
Client call: Open TCP
Client Open: Ccb found.
Client Open: VMCF receive completed.
Active Open: Foreign Addr: 9.67.43.126
Local Addr: 9.67.58.233
Client Open: sockets OK.
TcpRequest FindTcb: OurClientOwnsPort: FALSE, OtherClientOwnsPort: FALSE
Open: Tcb #1004 owned by TCPUSRX found in state Closed
New Open: Incoming buffer OK.
Open timeout set for 1504.859 seconds
New Open: Ready to send SYN.
DoOpen: ready to exit.
Open: Ready to OK open.
Client Open: ready to exit.
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1378
Timeout: 1504.859 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:26
Client call: FReceive TCP
Connection number: 1004
Length: 65535
#1004 Established I=1 RNxt=1 CliRNxt=1 SNxt=1 SUna=1
SWnd=8192 MaxSWnd=8192 CWnd=536 Thresh=4096 Pen65535
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1384
Timeout: 1504.859 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:28
Client call: FSend TCP
Connection number: 1004
Length: 14
TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1384
Timeout: 1504.859 seconds
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:30
Client call: FReceive TCP
Connection number: 1004
Length: 65535
#1004 Established I=2 O=1H1W8193 RNxt=131 CliRNxt=131 SNxt=15 SUna=1SWn d=8192
MaxSWnd=8192 CWnd=536 Thresh=4096 ConRe Pen65535
.
.
.
Figure 58. A Sample of a TCPREQUEST Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
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TCP-request called for ACB 13715840:
Accept TCP request -> TCP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 1398
Client name: TCPUSRX
Message identifier:36
Client call: Open TCP
Client Open: Ccb found.
Client Open: VMCF receive completed.
Client Open: sockets OK.
TcpRequest FindTcb: OurClientOwnsPort: FALSE, OtherClientOwnsPort: FALSE
Open: Tcb #1000 owned by TCPUSRX found in state Closed
New Open: Incoming buffer OK.
Open timeout set for 1526.740 seconds
15:09:38 TCPUSRX Passive open #1000 Local = SA23, port 1036;
Foreign = RALVMM port Unspecified
TCPUSRX has 3 sockets:
Perm=F, AutoCli=F, Local=SA23 1033, TCB Q = 1
1009 Closed, Foreign=RALVMM 21
Perm=F, AutoCli=F, Local=SA23 1035, TCB Q = 1
1004 Established, Foreign=RALVMM 21
Perm=F, AutoCli=F, Local=SA23 1036, TCB Q = 1
1000 Listen, Foreign=RALVMM 65535
DoOpen: ready to exit.
Open: Ready to OK open.
Client Open: ready to exit.
Figure 58. A Sample of a TCPREQUEST Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
TELNET
Although the TELNET server is different from other protocols, TELNET must be
traced like an internal TCPIP process. The TELNET trace includes events that are
not specifically related to TELNET. It provides information about inbound and
outbound negotiations, negotiated options, and the status of connections.
Table 8 describes the TELNET commands from RFC 854, when the codes and code
sequences are preceded by an IAC. For more information about TELNET
commands, see RFC 854. These commands can be retrieved in TELNET traces for
SendNegotiation events and data. Subnegotiations that are started with an SB
command, code 250 (X'FA') and code 240 (X'F0'), are also provided.
Table 8. Telnet Commands from RFC 854
Command
Code
Description
SE
240
End of subnegotiation parameters.
NOP
241
No operation.
Data Mark
242
The data stream portion of a Synch. This should
always be accompanied by a TCP Urgent
notification.
Break
243
NVT character BRK.
Interrupt Process
244
The function IP.
Abort output
245
The function AO.
Are You There
246
The function AYT.
Erase character
247
The function EC.
Erase Line
248
The function EL.
Go ahead
249
The GA signal.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
99
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Table 8. Telnet Commands from RFC 854 (continued)
Command
Code
Description
SB
250
Indicates that what follows is subnegotiation of the
indicated option.
WILL (option code)
251
Indicates the desire to begin performing, or
confirmation that you are now performing, the
indicated option.
WON’T (option code)
252
Indicates the refusal to perform, or continue
performing, the indicated option.
DO (option code)
253
Indicates the request that the other party perform,
or confirmation that you are expecting the other
party to perform, the indicated option.
DON’T (option code)
254
Indicates the demand that the other party stop
performing, or confirmation that you are no longer
expecting the other party to perform, the indicated
option.
IAC
255
Data Byte 255.
Table 9 lists the options available for TELNET commands from RFC1060, and
RFC1647. For more information about TELNET protocols, see RFC’s 1060, 1011 and
1647.
Table 9. Telnet Command Options from RFC 1060
Option
Name
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
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Binary Transmission
Echo
Reconnection
Suppress Go Ahead
Approx Message Size Negotiation
Status
Timing Mark
Remote Controlled Trans and Echo
Output Line Width
Output Page Size
Output Carriage-Return Disposition
Output Horizontal Tab Stops
Output Horizontal Tab Disposition
Output Formfeed Disposition
Output Vertical Tabstops
Output Vertical Tab Disposition
Output Linefeed Disposition
Extended ASCII
Logout
Byte Macro
Data Entry Terminal
SUPDUP
SUPDUP Output
Send Location
Terminal Type
End of Record
TACACS User Identification
Output Marking
Terminal Location Number
TCP/IP Traces
Table 9. Telnet Command Options from RFC 1060 (continued)
Option
Name
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
40
255
Telnet 3270 Regime
X.3 PAD
Negotiate About Window Size
Terminal Speed
Remote Flow Control
Linemode
X Display Location
TN3270E
Extended-Options-List
Figure 59 shows a sample of a TELNET trace. A terminal type subnegotiation,
option 24 X'18', is included in this sample. The urgent field in TCP datagrams is
sometimes used for TELNET connections. For more information about the urgent
field, see the DATA MARK command in Table 8 on page 99
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
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Internal client sees Acb:
13715528:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 594
Connection: 1007
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Trying to open
Reason: OK
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Connection state changed
; NewState = Trying to open
Internal client sees Acb:
13715528:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 594
Connection: 1007
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Open
Reason: OK
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Connection state changed
; NewState = Open
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 1
Conn 1: StToTcpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 1
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord)
253 for option (ord) 24
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
CONNECTION OPENED 09/26/90 at 13:17:04
STMASTER StateArray index: 1; Tcp Conn#: 1007
Telnet server: Conn 1:Connection opened 09/26/90 at 13:17:04
Conn 1:
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.226, port= 1059
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.226, port= 1059
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Internal client sees Acb:
13716568:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 595
Connection: 1007
Notification: Data delivered
Bytes delivered: 3
Push flag: TRUE
Figure 59. A Sample of a TELNET Trace (Part 1 of 3)
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TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Data delivered
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 5
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpTELNETdata.
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: Negot. received for TERMINALtype
Conn 1: in SendSEND
Conn 1: LenToSend: 6 ToTcpPos: 6 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 6
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Internal client sees Acb:
13716568:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 595
Connection: 1007
Notification: Data delivered
Bytes delivered: 18
Push flag: TRUE
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Data delivered
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 5
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpTELNETdata.
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: SB received for TERMINALtype
Conn 1: Terminal type is settled; it is: IBM-3278-2-E
Conn 1: TermTypeSubNeg. complete; Result is (ord) 3
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord)
253 for option (ord)
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord)
251 for option (ord)
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord)
253 for option (ord)
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord)
251 for option (ord)
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
25
25
0
0
Figure 59. A Sample of a TELNET Trace (Part 2 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
103
TCP/IP Traces
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Internal client sees Acb:
13716360:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 595
Connection: 1007
Notification: Data delivered
Bytes delivered: 3
Push flag: TRUE
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Data delivered
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 5
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpTELNETdata.
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: Negot. received for USEeor
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Figure 59. A Sample of a TELNET Trace (Part 3 of 3)
Figure 60 shows a sample of a TELNET trace using the MORETRACE command.
MORETRACE provides all of the data that is sent and received between two hosts
connected by TELNET. The data is displayed in hexadecimal and EBCDIC
characters and, therefore, you can trace the complete negotiations and data
exchanges.
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Internal client sees Acb:
13715216:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 831
Timeout: 778.669 seconds
Connection: 1007
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Trying to open
Reason: OK
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Connection state changed
; NewState = Trying to open
Internal client sees Acb:
13715216:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 832
Timeout: 778.669 seconds
Connection: 1007
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Open
Reason: OK
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Connection state changed
; NewState = Open
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 1
Conn 1: StToTcpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 1
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord) 253 for option ( ord) 24
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
FF FD 18
}
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
CONNECTION OPENED 09/26/90 at 13:21:12
STMASTER StateArray index: 1; Tcp Conn#: 1007
Telnet server: Conn 1:Connection opened 09/26/90 at 13:21:12
Conn 1:
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.226, port= 1061
Foreign internet address and port: net address = 9.67.58.226, port= 1061
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Internal client sees Acb:
13716048:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 832
Connection: 1007
Notification: Data delivered
Bytes delivered: 3
Push flag: TRUE
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Data delivered
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 5
Conn 1: Telnet data received from TCP:
FF
FB
18
Û
Figure 60. A Sample of a TELNET Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 4)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
105
TCP/IP Traces
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: TnToCp Gobblechar: Found IAC at offset 0, FromTcpPos is 0
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is FB {
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 18
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpTELNETdata.
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: Negot. received for TERMINALtype
Conn 1: in SendSEND
Conn 1: LenToSend: 6 ToTcpPos: 6 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 6
FF FA 18 01 FF F0
z
p
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Internal client sees Acb:
13716464:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Internal Telnet
timeout handler)
Last touched: 832
Notification: Timer expired
Datum: 2000, Associated timer: 1
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Timer expired
Entering ScanConnections
Internal client sees Acb:
13716152:
Internal Telnet notification -> Internal Telnet server (from Notify)
Last touched: 832
Connection: 1007
Notification: Data delivered
Bytes delivered: 18
Push flag: TRUE
TcpNoteGotten: Tag = Data delivered
Conn 1: StToCpStateChanged: New state (ord) is 5
Conn 1: Telnet data received from TCP:
FF
FA
18
00
49
42
4D
2D
33
32
37
38
2D
32
2D
45
FF
F0
Figure 60. A Sample of a TELNET Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 4)
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Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: TnToCp Gobblechar: Found IAC at offset 0, FromTcpPos is 0
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is FA z
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 18
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 00
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 49 I
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 42 B
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 4D M
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 2D Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 33 3
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 32 2
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 37 7
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 38 8
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 2D Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 32 2
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 2D Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is 45 E
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is FF
Conn 1: In GetIac: FirstChar is F0 p
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpTELNETdata.
Schedule called. FirstOneToDo = -1; LastOneToDo = -1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: SB received for TERMINALtype
Conn 1: Terminal type is settled; it is: IBM-3278-2-E
Conn 1: TermTypeSubNeg. complete; Result is (ord) 3
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord) 253 for option ( ord) 25
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
FF FD 19
}
Figure 60. A Sample of a TELNET Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 3 of 4)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
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TCP/IP Traces
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord) 251 for option ( ord) 25
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
FF FB 19
{
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord) 253 for option ( ord) 0
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
FF FD 00
}
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: in SendNegotiation: sending claim (ord) 251 for option ( ord) 0
Conn 1: LenToSend: 3 ToTcpPos: 3 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: TcpSend: TurnCode = OK; LenToSend = 3
FF FB 00
{
Conn 1: TcpSend successful -ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
Conn 1: LenToSend: 0 ToTcpPos: 0 UrgentHighWaterMark: -1
MainLoop calling 1; LastOneToDo = 1; NextToDo = -1
Conn 1: CallToCp Which Conn = 1
Conn 1: Urginfo: Mode is ; Number bytes is 0
Conn 1: StToCpGo returns TOcpDONE.
Figure 60. A Sample of a TELNET Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 4 of 4)
TIMER
The TIMER trace shows the processes with time-out marks. Figure 61 shows a
sample of a TIMER trace.
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In SetTheComparator, time is: 1809.320 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1819.320 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1809.464 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1821.709 seconds
Timer called at 1821.711 seconds
Timeout due: Internal Telnet timeout handler = Internal Telnet timeout
-> 2 pending timeouts left; 1 active signals
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1821.724 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1831.011 seconds
Timer called at 1831.014 seconds
Timeout due: Consistency checker = Check consistency
-> 2 pending timeouts left; 1 active signals
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1831.026 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1941.737 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1831.066 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1891.066 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1845.219 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1855.219 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1845.295 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1891.066 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1854.782 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1864.781 seconds
Timer called at 1864.784 seconds
Timeout due: Ping process = Ping timeout fails
-> 4 pending timeouts left; 1 active signals
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1864.797 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1891.066 seconds
Figure 61. A Sample of a TIMER Trace
When you execute a TIMER trace with the MORETRACE command, it provides
details about each timer event and request from a process. Figure 62 shows a
sample of a TIMER trace using MORETRACE.
PutAcbInOrder adding Acb:
13715216:
Ping timeout fails -> No process! (from Timer)
Last touched: 1812
Timeout: 1910.945 seconds
In PutAcbInOrder, timer queue is
The time is 1900.966 seconds
Timer Queue:Queue size = 5
13715216:
PrevACB: Timer queue
NextACB: 13714904
QueueHead:Timer queue
Ping timeout fails -> No process! (from Timer)
Last touched: 1812
Timeout: 1910.945 seconds
Figure 62. A Sample of a TIMER Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
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TCP/IP Traces
13714904:
PrevACB: 13715216
NextACB: 13715632
QueueHead:Timer queue
Internal Telnet timeout -> Internal Telnet timeout handler (from Timer)
Last touched: 1737
Timeout: 1941.737 seconds
Timer Datum: 2000, Timer Number: 1
13715632:
PrevACB: 13714904
NextACB: 13716048
QueueHead:Timer queue
Check consistency -> Consistency checker (from Timer)
Last touched: 1803
Timeout: 1951.205 seconds
13716048:
PrevACB: 13715632
NextACB: 13715320
QueueHead:Timer queue
ARP timeout expires -> ARP (from Timer)
Last touched: 1769
Timeout: 2034.862 seconds
13715320:
PrevACB: 13716048
NextACB: Timer queue
QueueHead:Timer queue
Open timeout fails #1006 -> TCP-request (from Timer)
Last touched: 71
Timeout: 604874.674 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1901.123 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1910.945 seconds
CancelTimeout removing ACB:
13715216:
PrevACB: Timer queue
NextACB: 13714904
QueueHead:Timer queue
Ping timeout fails -> Ping process (from Timer)
Last touched: 1812
Timeout: 1910.945 seconds
In SetTheComparator, time is: 1901.251 seconds
Setting clock comparator to 1941.737 seconds
PutAcbInOrder adding Acb:
13715736:
Ping timeout fails -> No process! (from Timer)
Last touched: 1827
Timeout: 1926.436 seconds
In PutAcbInOrder, timer queue is
The time is 1916.457 seconds
Figure 62. A Sample of a TIMER Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
UDPREQUEST
The UDPREQUEST trace provides information about all UDP service requests from
local clients and servers. Figure 63 shows a sample of a UDPREQUEST trace.
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UDP-request called for ACB 13706816:
Accept UDP request -> UDP-request (from External interrupt
Client name: VMNFS
Message identifier:10
Client call: Open UDP
Connection number: 0
UDP-request called for ACB 13706816:
Accept UDP request -> UDP-request (from External interrupt
Client name: VMNFS
Message identifier:14
Client call: Send UDP
Connection number: 0
VadA: 0075A028, LenA: 56, VadB: 111, LenB: 14.0.0.0
UDP-request: Local Socket:
net address = *, port= 2049
UDP-request: Foreign Socket:
net address = 14.0.0.0, port= PORTMAP (111)
UDP-request called for ACB 13706608:
Accept UDP request -> UDP-request (from External interrupt
Client name: VMNFS
Message identifier:16
Client call: Receive UDP
Connection number: 0
UDP-request called for ACB 13707128:
Accept UDP request -> UDP-request (from External interrupt
Client name: VMNFS
Message identifier:18
Client call: Send UDP
Connection number: 0
VadA: 0075A028, LenA: 56, VadB: 111, LenB: 14.0.0.0
UDP-request: Local Socket:
net address = *, port= 2049
UDP-request: Foreign Socket:
net address = 14.0.0.0, port= PORTMAP (111)
handler)
handler)
handler)
handler)
Figure 63. A Sample of a UDPREQUEST Trace
When you execute a UDPREQUEST trace using the MORETRACE command, it
adds information about datagram checksums and UCBs. Figure 64 shows a sample
of the UDPREQUEST trace using MORETRACE.
UDP-checksum: datagram
UDP-checksum: datagram
UDP-checksum: datagram
UDP-request called for
= 8DD1 pseudo-header = 88AE final = E97F
= C48C pseudo-header = 88C8 final = B2AA
= 8DD1 pseudo-header = 88AD final = E980
ACB 13706504:
Figure 64. A Sample of a UDPREQUEST Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
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Accept UDP request -> UDP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Timeout: 1190.772 seconds
Client name: VMNFS
Message identifier:10
Client call: Open UDP
Connection number: 0
UDP-request: Ccb found.
UDP-request: Client UdpOpen called.
ClientUDPOpen: Response.Connection = 34817
UDP-request called for ACB 13706504:
Accept UDP request -> UDP-request (from External interrupt handler)
Timeout: 1190.772 seconds
Client name: VMNFS
Message identifier:14
Client call: Send UDP
Connection number: 0
VadA: 0075A028, LenA: 56, VadB: 111, LenB: 14.0.0.0
UDP-request: Ccb found.
UDP-request: Client UdpSend called.
CheckClient: Ucb found
5028920:
PrevUcb: 12952304
NextUcb: 12952304
BytesIn: 0, BytesOut: 0
Socket:
VMNFS has 0 TCBs for socket *.2049 *Perm *Autolog
ConnIndex: 0, Frustration: Contented
IncomingDatagram queue size: 0
ShouldChecksum: TRUE, UdpReceivePending: FALSE,WhetherDatagramDelivered: FALSE
UDP-request: Local Socket:
net address = *, port= 2049
UDP-request: Foreign Socket:
net address = 14.0.0.0, port= PORTMAP (111)
UDP-request: Udp-Send: sending 64 byte UDP datagram.
UDP-checksum: datagram = 15FF pseudo-header = 1C51 final = CDAF
UDP-checksum: datagram = 15FF pseudo-header = 1C51 final = CDAF
UDP-checksum: datagram = 0896 pseudo-header = 1C35 final = DB34
UDP-checksum: datagram = 0896 pseudo-header = 1C35 final = DB34
Figure 64. A Sample of a UDPREQUEST Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
UDPUP
The UDPUP trace provides information about incoming UDP datagrams. Figure 65
shows a sample of a UDPUP trace using the MORETRACE command with a
remote VM/NFS server and a local Portmapper client. Note that the control blocks
for UDP connections are UCBs and not TCBs.
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DASD 3EE DETACHED
UptoUDP called:
UptoUDP: Destination port # 34078936
UptoUDP: Ucb not found - dropping datagram
UptoUDP called:
UptoUDP: Destination port # 34078936
UptoUDP: Ucb not found - dropping datagram
UptoUDP called:
UptoUDP: Destination port # 34078929
UptoUDP: Ucb not found - dropping datagram
UptoUDP called:
UptoUDP: Destination port # 7274560
UptoUDP: Ucb found:
5028816:
PrevUcb: 12686112
NextUcb: 12686112
BytesIn: 0, BytesOut: 0
Socket:
PORTMAP has 0 TCBs for socket *.PORTMAP (111)
ConnIndex: -23, Frustration: Contented
IncomingDatagram queue size: 0
ShouldChecksum: TRUE, UdpReceivePending: FALSE,WhetherDatagramDelivered: FALSE
UptoUDP called:
UptoUDP: Destination port # 134283479
UptoUDP: Ucb found:
5028920:
PrevUcb: 12952304
NextUcb: 12952304
BytesIn: 0, BytesOut: 64
Socket:
VMNFS has 0 TCBs for socket *.2049 *Perm *Autolog
ConnIndex: 0, Frustration: Contented
IncomingDatagram queue size: 0
ShouldChecksum: TRUE, UdpReceivePending: FALSE,WhetherDatagramDelivered: FALSE
UptoUDP called:
UptoUDP: Destination port # 7274560
UptoUDP: Ucb found:
5028816:
PrevUcb: 12686112
NextUcb: 12686112
BytesIn: 56, BytesOut: 36
Socket:
PORTMAP has 0 TCBs for socket *.PORTMAP (111)
ConnIndex: -23, Frustration: Contented
IncomingDatagram queue size: 0
ShouldChecksum: TRUE, UdpReceivePending: FALSE,WhetherDatagramDelivered: FALSE
Figure 65. A Sample of a UDPUP Trace Using MORETRACE
Group Process Names
Group process names combine more than one single process into the same process
name. In all trace commands, TRACE, NOTRACE, MORETRACE, and
LESSTRACE, you can enter more than one group process name.
ALL
The ALL trace provides information about all available events. You must be very
careful when using the ALL trace, because it can overwhelm the console and
adversely affect system response time.
CETI
The CETI group process combines TOCETI, ELANS, ILANS, and TOX25ICA traces.
This group traces all activities related to 9370 integrated adapters. CETI provides
information about CCW addresses, CCW status, and packet information such as
protocols, LLC types, node addresses, and ARP address translations performed by
CETI adapters. Figure 66. shows a sample of a CETI trace.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
113
TCP/IP Traces
13714696:
Have completed I/O -> To-CETI (from Scheduler)
Last touched: 33
IoDevice 0240
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 00000000
Unit Status: 80, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 0
Device status is Ready
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 1
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound msg uses 1 buffers. Msg type 33554538
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2074 PeekOnly 54042
ILANS ILANS1: Entering UpdateControlBlocks. UsedBuffs 1
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA MAC primitive type is CC31
ILANS device ILANS1: DLM_RTV_ATTRIB.confirm: Completion status 00000000
Node address: 10005A4209A0
ILANS device ILANS1: Sending DL_ACTIVATE_SAP.request
ILANS ILANS1: Entering SendCetiMessage: DataLen 88 MsgType 4 MsgFlags '00'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiSpace returns SpaceAvail 41680, Cspace 37512
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering EnableCetiRupt
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: ToCeti: Acb Received:
.
.
.
13714696:
Have completed I/O -> To-CETI (from Scheduler)
Last touched: 34
IoDevice 0240
Csw:
Keys: 00, CcwAddress: 00000000
Unit Status: 80, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 0
Device status is Ready
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 1
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound msg uses 1 buffers. Msg type 67108929
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2074 PeekOnly 16831258
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2085 PeekOnly 13482920
ILANS ILANS1: Entering UpdateControlBlocks. UsedBuffs 1
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0806'X
Arp adds translation9.67.58.226 = IBMTR: 10005A0019F5
ILANS ILANS1: Entering CheckCetiOutput. Queue sizes: 0 1
ILANS ILANS1: Entering SendCetiMessage: DataLen 63 MsgType 4 MsgFlags '00'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiSpace returns SpaceAvail 41680, Cspace 35428
ILANS ILANS1: SendCetiMessage returns 0
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering EnableCetiRupt
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: ToCeti: Acb Received:
Figure 66. A Sample of a CETI Trace
When you execute a CETI trace using the MORETRACE command, trace data is in
hexadecimal form with a MESSAGE TEXT entry, and details about IP packets are
provided. Figure 67 shows a sample of a CETI trace using MORETRACE.
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13714696:
Send datagram -> Device driver(ILANS1) (from UDP-request)
Last touched: 32
Device status is Ready
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering CheckCetiOutput. Queue sizes: 1 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering SendCetiMessage: DataLen 65 MsgType 4 MsgFlags '00'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiSpace returns SpaceAvail 41680, Cspace 35428
Message Text
000000:001E0D11 00230000 000711DA FFFFFFFF FFFFAA00 00FF0002 00210000 80008220
000020:00000008 06000608 00060400 0110005A 4209A009 433AE94E 38001616 9009433A
000040:EA000101
ILANS ILANS1: SendCetiMessage returns 0
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 2
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound msg uses 1 buffers. Msg type 67108929
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2074 PeekOnly 16831258
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2085 PeekOnly 13482920
ILANS ILANS1: Entering UpdateControlBlocks. UsedBuffs 1
Message Text
000000:001E4D11 00230000 00000000 00000000 10005A42 09A0AA01 00020021 00010220
000020:00000008 06000608 00060400 0110005A 4209A009 433AE94E 38001616 9009433A
000040:EA000101
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0806'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 1
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound msg uses 1 buffers. Msg type 67108929
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2074 PeekOnly 16831258
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2085 PeekOnly 13482920
ILANS ILANS1: Entering UpdateControlBlocks. UsedBuffs 1
Message Text
000000:001E4D11 00230000 00000000 00000000 10005A25 0858AA00 00020021 000202A0
000020:00000008 06000608 00060400 0210005A 25085809 433AEA10 005A4209 A009433A
000040:E9000101
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0806'X
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp: 0
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A250858
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: 10005A4209A0
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
Arp adds translation9.67.58.234 = IBMTR: 10005A250858
ILANS ILANS1: Entering CheckCetiOutput. Queue sizes: 1 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering SendCetiMessage: DataLen 112 MsgType 4 MsgFlags '00'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiSpace returns SpaceAvail 41680, Cspace 33344
Message Text
000000:001E0D11 00520000 000711DA 10005A25 0858AA00 00FF0000 00520000 80000000
000020:00080045 00004D00 2B00003C 1105A309 433AE909 432B6404 00003500 39ED0000
000040:01010000 01000000 00000006 52414C56 4D4D0854 43504950 44455607 52414C45
000060:49474803 49424D03 434F4D00 00010001
ILANS ILANS1: SendCetiMessage returns 0
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 1
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound msg uses 1 buffers. Msg type 67109025
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2074 PeekOnly 16831258
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2085 PeekOnly 13480744
Figure 67. A Sample of a CETI Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
115
TCP/IP Traces
ILANS ILANS1: Entering UpdateControlBlocks. UsedBuffs 1
Message Text
000000:001E4D11 00830000 00000000 00000000 10005A25 0858AA00 00020081 000302A0
000020:00000008 00450000 7C75E700 001C11AF B709432B 6409433A E9003504 000068B3
000040:B7000185 80000100 01000000 00065241 4C564D4D 08544350 49504445 56075241
000060:4C454947 48034942 4D03434F 4D000001 00010652 414C564D 4D085443 50495044
000080:45560752 414C4549 47480349 424D0343 4F4D0000 01000100 000E1000 0409432B
0000A0:7E000000
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0800'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering EnableCetiRupt
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: ToCeti: Acb Received:
13715008:
Send datagram -> Device driver(ILANS1) (from Ping process)
Last touched: 33
Device status is Ready
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering CheckCetiOutput. Queue sizes: 1 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering SendCetiMessage: DataLen 311 MsgType 4 MsgFlags '00'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiSpace returns SpaceAvail 41680, Cspace 31260
Message Text
000000:001E0D11 01190000 000711DA 10005A25 0858AA00 00FF0000 01190000 80000000
000020:00080045 00011404 D200003C 01002B09 433AE909 432B7E08 0024E300 D1450847
000040:83D5AB53 8D8B5B7F D6A37F8D 5B7BED22 725C9264 423E7918 272FED6B B96804B1
000060:0466C527 80039D78 BB4F9753 A20A5239 85D4A95D 53DAB802 6D9D1128 2B06E1DE
000080:16C95F2B CC3A08C6 7E7200BB C8C0E411 E3C5A876 C22A6D72 13476F4D F03EC934
0000A0:2902F94E 5CB88074 F30133FA 1C8BCBD9 45B79BD3 9BB35A5D A10668B3 8F20E0CC
0000C0:8250C82B 63ACBD0D 215AEE3B DBC996DB 6FB57B91 48EC5639 82E837FB 0EDFE4F3
0000E0:91D1AF3C 137D29B8 AF577323 E897B64E A2121D6B 8B7FA5CF A9642BC5 621D1D62
000100:C23B0AB5 E035128D C9E30B09 EB9E8E3C 37A51607 F08329B6 BC093AC8 40E1A184
000120:73F5F573 86971EE1 C2BA0B30 05E2D933 2136C553 75192300
ILANS ILANS1: SendCetiMessage returns 0
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 1
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound msg uses 1 buffers. Msg type 67109177
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering IlansPortInput: MsgType 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2074 PeekOnly 16831258
ILANS device ILANS1: CIOA LLC primitive type is 4D11
ILANS ILANS1: Entering GetCetiMessage: Max len 2085 PeekOnly 13480744
ILANS ILANS1: Entering UpdateControlBlocks. UsedBuffs 1
Message Text
000000:001E4D11 011B0000 00000000 00000000 10005A25 0858AA00 00020119 000402A0
000020:00000008 00450001 1404D200 003A0102 2B09432B 7E09433A E900002C E300D145
000040:084783D5 AB538D8B 5B7FD6A3 7F8D5B7B ED22725C 9264423E 7918272F ED6BB968
000060:04B10466 C5278003 9D78BB4F 9753A20A 523985D4 A95D53DA B8026D9D 11282B06
000080:E1DE16C9 5F2BCC3A 08C67E72 00BBC8C0 E411E3C5 A876C22A 6D721347 6F4DF03E
0000A0:C9342902 F94E5CB8 8074F301 33FA1C8B CBD945B7 9BD39BB3 5A5DA106 68B38F20
0000C0:E0CC8250 C82B63AC BD0D215A EE3BDBC9 96DB6FB5 7B9148EC 563982E8 37FB0EDF
0000E0:E4F391D1 AF3C137D 29B8AF57 7323E897 B64EA212 1D6B8B7F A5CFA964 2BC5621D
000100:1D62C23B 0AB5E035 128DC9E3 0B09EB9E 8E3C37A5 1607F083 29B6BC09 3AC840E1
000120:A18473F5 F5738697 1EE1C2BA 0B3005E2 D9332136 C5537519 23000000
ILANS device ILANS1: Entering DispatchTr: EtherType '0800'X
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: Entering EnableCetiRupt
ILANS ILANS1: CheckCetiIo finds inbound port has FilledBuffs 0
ILANS ILANS1: ToCeti: Acb Received:
Figure 67. A Sample of a CETI Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 2)
HANDLERS
The HANDLERS group process combines A220 handler, external interrupt handler,
I/O interrupt handler, DDN1822 I/O interrupt handler, IUCV handler, and PCCA
handler traces.
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HCH
The HCH group process combines A220 handler and A220 common routine traces.
IUCV
The IUCV group process combines IUCV handler and TOIUCV traces. It provides
information about IUCV activities. Figure 68 shows a sample of an IUCV trace in
which the local TCPIP client is TCPIP1, the other local TCPIP server is user
TCPIP2, and the device name is LOCIUVC.
Figure 68 also shows an ICMP trace. An ICMP datagram with an ICMP request
code of 8 and a PING trace executed from TCPIP2 is also shown.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
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TCPIP1 AT VMHOST01 VIA RSCS
09/26/97 14:34:12 EST
WEDNESDAY
VM TCP/IP V2R4
Initializing...
UnlockAll issuing "CP UNLOCK TCPIP1 0 DFF"
COMMAND COMPLETE
LCS devices will use diagnose 98 real channel program support
Trying to open VMHOST01 TCPIP *
Using profile file VMHOST01 TCPIP *
IUCV initializing:
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Not started
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv IssueConnect: Vm Id: TCPIP2, DWord1: XYZZY, DWord2: XYZZY
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv: Connect returns pathid 1
Telnet server: Using port 23
Telnet server: No inactivity timeout
Telnet server: Every 1800 seconds a timing mark option packet will be sent.
******************************************
Log of IBM TCP/IP Telnet Server Users started on 09/26/90 at 14:35:04
TCP-IP initialization complete.
ToIucv: Acb Received:
13592024:
IUCV interrupt -> To-IUCV (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 48
Interrupt type: Pending connection
Path id: 0
VMid: TCPIP2, User1: XYZZY, User2: XYZZY
ToIucv: Received PENDCONN. pendcuser1: XYZZY, pendcuser2: XYZZY, pendcvmid: TCPIP2,
IucvPathid: 0
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Issued connect
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
ToIucv: Severing path 1
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv: Accepting path 0
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv PackWrites: Queuesize, SavedEnv: 0 0
Telnet server: Global connection to *CCS CP System Service established
Telnet server: First line of *CCS logo is: VIRTUAL MACHINE/SYSTEM PRODUCT
ToIucv: Acb Received:
13591920:
Try IUCV connect -> To-IUCV (from Timer)
Last touched: 103
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Connected
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
ToIucv: Acb Received:
13591920:
IUCV interrupt -> To-IUCV (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 187
Interrupt type: Pending message
Path id: 0
MsgId 1586, Length 280, TrgCls: 00000000, Reply len 0, Flags 17
Figure 68. A Sample of an IUCV Trace (Part 1 of 3)
118
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TCP/IP Traces
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Connected
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv UnpackReads: bytestomove = 276
IP-up sees ICMP datagram, code 8, sub code: 0, source: HOST02, dest: HOST01, len: 256
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: IUCV UnpackReads: BlockHeader copied from InputPosition: 12672 278
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIUCV UnpackReads: PacketsInInBlock = 1
ToIucv: Acb Received:
13592440:
Send datagram -> Device driver(LOCIUCV) (from To-IUCV)
Last touched: 188
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Connected
Envelope queue size: 1
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv PackWrites: Queuesize, SavedEnv: 1 0
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: PackWrites packing packet with length 276
ToIucv: Acb Received:
13592440:
IUCV interrupt -> To-IUCV (from External interrupt handler)
Last touched: 188
Interrupt type: Pending message completion
Path id: 0
audit: 0000
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Sending message
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIUCV write complete. PacketsInOutBlock = 1
PVM IUCV LOCIUCV
: ToIucv PackWrites: Queuesize, SavedEnv: 0 0
#CP EXT
14:37:39 09/26/90 Shutdown KILL TCB #1000 (INTCLIEN) TCP/IP service is being shut down
Bytes: 0 sent, 0 received
Max use: 0 in retransmit Q
1 active client, with 1 connection in use.
I will delay shutting down for 30 seconds, so that
RSTs and shutdown notifications may be delivered.
If you wish to shutdown immediately, without warning,
type #CP EXT again.
Server Telnet closed down. Bye.
ToIucv: Acb Received:
13591816:
Device-specific activity -> To-IUCV (from Timer)
Last touched: 217
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Connected
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
Figure 68. A Sample of an IUCV Trace (Part 2 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
119
TCP/IP Traces
IUCV shutting down:
Device LOCIUCV:
Type: PVM IUCV, Status: Connected
Envelope queue size: 0
VM id: TCPIP2
UserDoubleWord 1: XYZZY, UserDoubleWord 2: XYZZY
Our PVM node: A
ToIucv: Severing path 0
UnlockAll issuing "CP UNLOCK TCPIP 0 DFF"
COMMAND COMPLETE
ShutDown at 234.795 seconds
Figure 68. A Sample of an IUCV Trace (Part 3 of 3)
PCCA
The PCCA group process combines PCCA handler and PCCA common routine
traces. It provides information about I/O operations to be performed on the
channel-attached LAN adapters. The trace output lists the device, type, CCW
address, CCW operation, number of bytes, and unit status of I/O requested
operations.
Figure 69 shows a sample of a PCCA trace in which an ACB (13715112) acquires
the home hardware address for link TR2 with ctrlcommand 04 on networktype 2,
adapter 1. Figure 69 also shows an ACB with an ARP address translation for IP
address 9.67.58.234. For more information about the commands used in this trace,
see “CCW” on page 272.
120
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13715112:
Have completed I/O -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 handler)
Last touched: 20
IoDevice 0560
Csw:
Keys: E0, CcwAddress: 007B7118
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 20402
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: Received PCCA control packet:
PccaCtrlCommand: 4, PccaCtrlNetType2: 2, PccaCtrlAdapter2: 1
PccaCtrlRetcode: 0, PccaCtrlSequence: 0, PccaCtrlFlags: 00
PccaCtrlHardwareAddress: 10005A6BAFDF
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware address 10005A6BAFDF for link TR2
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: BlockHeader copied from InputPosition: 0 76
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca UnpackReads: PacketsInInBlock = 1
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0560. First command 02, UseDiag98 True
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 0 0
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13715008:
Send datagram -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 common routine)
Last touched: 20
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 0 0
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13715008:
Send datagram -> Device driver(LCS1) (from UDP-request)
Last touched: 23
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 1
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 1 0
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: LengthOfData, BlockHeader: 54 56
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0561. First command 01, UseDiag98 True
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
Figure 69. A Sample of a PCCA Trace (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
121
TCP/IP Traces
13715008:
Have completed I/O -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 handler)
Last touched: 23
IoDevice 0561
Csw:
Keys: E0, CcwAddress: 007B70C0
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 0
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca write complete. PacketsInOutBlock = 1
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 0 0
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13715008:
Have completed I/O -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 handler)
Last touched: 23
IoDevice 0560
Csw:
Keys: E0, CcwAddress: 007B7118
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 20422
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: UnpackReads: NetType 2 AdapterNumber 0 BytesToMove 54
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: BlockHeader copied from InputPosition: 0 56
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca UnpackReads: PacketsInInBlock = 1
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0560. First command 02, UseDiag98 True
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 0 0
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13715008:
Have completed I/O -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 handler)
Last touched: 23
IoDevice 0560
Csw:
Keys: E0, CcwAddress: 007B7118
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 20422
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: UnpackReads: NetType 2 AdapterNumber 0 BytesToMove 54
Arp adds translation 9.67.58.234 = IBMTR: 10005A250858
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: BlockHeader copied from InputPosition: 0 56
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca UnpackReads: PacketsInInBlock = 1
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0560. First command 02, UseDiag98 True
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 1 0
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: LengthOfData, BlockHeader: 101 104
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0561. First command 01, UseDiag98 True
Figure 69. A Sample of a PCCA Trace (Part 2 of 2)
The PCCA trace using the MORETRACE command provides the following
additional information for Pccactrl fields:
v Command
v
v
v
v
122
Return code
Net numbers
Adapter numbers
Flags.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
Hardware addresses, IP headers, ICMP headers, and ARP headers are also
provided.
Figure 70 shows a sample of a PCCA trace using the MORETRACE command. The
following information is shown.
v ACB 13715216 receives a PCCA control packet for the first adapter on a
token-ring.
v The first command was 02 (read).
v ACB 13714696 is an ARP request from the local host to IP address 9.67.58.234.
v The CCW is 01 (write). For more information about CCW codes, see Table 23 on
page 272
v The last ACB is the ARP response from 9.67.58.234. It provides ARP packet
information: hardware type (6), hardware addresses of both hosts, and IP
addresses.
Information about LLC, such as the source SAP (AA), the destination SAP (AA),
and protocol type (0806) is also shown.
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 0 0
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13715216:
Have completed I/O -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 handler)
Last touched: 20
IoDevice 0560
Csw:
Keys: E0, CcwAddress: 00559118
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 20402
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: Received PCCA control packet:
PccaCtrlCommand: 4, PccaCtrlNetType2: 2, PccaCtrlAdapter2: 0
PccaCtrlRetcode: 0, PccaCtrlSequence: 0, PccaCtrlFlags: 00
PccaCtrlHardwareAddress: 10005A6BB806
PCCA3 device LCS1: PCCA reports home hardware address 10005A6BB806 for link TR1
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: BlockHeader copied from InputPosition: 0 76
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca UnpackReads: PacketsInInBlock = 1
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0560. First command 02, UseDiag98 True
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: Sio returned 0 on device 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 0 0
.
.
.
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13714696:
Send datagram -> Device driver(LCS1) (from UDP-request)
Last touched: 23
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 1
Address: 0560
Figure 70. A Sample of a PCCA Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 1 of 3)
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
123
TCP/IP Traces
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: Queuesizes, SavedEnv: 0 1 0
PCCA3 device LCS1: Sending envelope to PCCA:
Access control field: 60
Frame control field: 40
Token ring dest address: FFFFFFFFFFFF
Token ring src address: 90005A6BB806
Routing info: 8220
Destination SAP: AA
Source SAP: AA
Control: 03
Protocol id:000000
Ethernet type: 0806
ARP packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp: 0
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A6BB806
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: C53400D7C530
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca PackWrites: LengthOfData, BlockHeader: 54 56
PCCA3 device LCS1: StartPccaOutputIo: OutputPosition is 56
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0561. First command 01, UseDiag98 True
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: Sio returned 0 on device 0561
.
.
.
ToPcca3: Acb Received:
13714696:
Have completed I/O -> PCCA3 common routine (from PCCA3 handler)
Last touched: 23
IoDevice 0560
Csw:
Keys: E0, CcwAddress: 00559118
Unit Status: 0C, Channel Status: 00
Byte Count: 20422
Device LCS1:
Type: LCS, Status: Ready
Envelope queue size: 0
Address: 0560
PCCA3 device LCS1: UnpackReads: NetType 2 AdapterNumber 0 BytesToMove 54
PCCA3 device LCS1: Received envelope from PCCA:
Access control field: 18
Frame control field: 40
Token ring dest address: 10005A6BB806
Token ring src address: 90005A250858
Routing info: 02A0
Destination SAP: AA
Source SAP: AA
Control: 03
Protocol id:000000
Ethernet type: 0806
Figure 70. A Sample of a PCCA Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 2 of 3)
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Traces
ARP packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp: 0
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A250858
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: 10005A6BB806
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
Arpin: Processing Arp packet:
ArpHardwareType: 6
ArpProtocolType: 2048
ArpHardwareLen: 6
ArpProtocolLen: 4
ArpOp: 0
ArpSenderHardwareAddr: 10005A250858
ArpSenderInternetAddr: 9.67.58.234
ArpTargetHardwareAddr: 10005A6BB806
ArpTargetInternetAddr: 9.67.58.233
Arp adds translation 9.67.58.234 = IBMTR: 10005A250858
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: BlockHeader copied from InputPosition: 0 56
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca UnpackReads: PacketsInInBlock = 1
PCCA3 device LCS1: CallSio: Starting I/O on device 0560. First command 02, UseDiag98 True
PCCA3 device LCS1: ToPcca3: Sio returned 0 on device 0560
Figure 70. A Sample of a PCCA Trace Using MORETRACE (Part 3 of 3)
RAWIP
The RAWIP group process combines RAWIPREQUEST and RAWIPUP traces.
TCP
The TCP group process combines TCP congestion control, notify, retransmit,
round-trip, TCPDOWN, TCPREQUEST, and TCPUP traces.
TCPIP or TCP-IP
The TCPIP or TCP-IP group process combines TCP congestion control, IPDOWN,
IPREQUEST, IPUP, notify, retransmit, round-trip, TCPDOWN, TCPREQUEST, and
TCPUP traces.
UDP
The UDP group process combines UDPREQUEST and UDPUP traces.
Commonly Used Trace Options
The preceding sections have attempted to provide information and examples of the
various types of traces that can be obtained for the TCP/IP virtual machine. The
slightly more difficult task is to determine which trace options are complementary
and which are the most beneficial or most expensive in terms of obtaining viable
problem determination data. The table below provides a high-level overview of the
most commonly used trace options, along with brief explanations of the type of
events they generate and the “relative” cost of activating the trace option.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
125
TCP/IP Traces
Table 10. Commonly-used Trace Options
Option name
TRACE output
Addl MORETRACE output
ARP
Maintenance of queue of
packets waiting for ARP
response. Errors in ARP
processing.
All received ARP packets.
Can generate a lot of output
if much broadcast ARP traffic
on network.
No output caused by received
ARP broadcasts.
Internal workings of CETI
drivers (ELANS, ILANS, X.25
ICA). I/O interrupts. Length
of packets received and sent.
Device initialization.
Hex dump of received and
transmitted packets, and ARP
processing info.
CLAW
Information about CLAW
read and write channel
program processing. Start
I/O and write complete
notifications. CSW
information on I/O
completions. Data from Sense
ID channel command
execution. Statistical
information about packets.
ACB information.
MORETRACE CLAW output
adds envelope and CLAW
control packet information, IP
datagram information, and
read / write channel program
information when I/O is
started.
CONGESTION
Traces some aspects of
TCP-layer
“congestion-control”.
No additional tracing
CETI
Main disadvantage of
MORETRACE is that large
Can generate a lot of output packets increase the size of
the trace. This is mainly a
if there’s a lot of broadcast
traffic on the network, even if concern with FTP and other
bulk data transfers. But the
little activity is occurring
packet trace can be
locally on the host.
invaluable.
Usable as part of TCP or
TCPIP tracing; not useful by
itself.
CONSISTENCYCHECKER
Every 5 minutes, print
various queue sizes.
More detail.
Hyperchannel device driver
message headers, some
return codes
Queue sizes, packet sizes,
I/O interrupts.
Received ICMP packets
Additional information on
Redirect packets
MORETRACE doesn’t cost
Useful to determine free pool much more than TRACE,
status in Version 1.
since output is only every 5
minutes.
HCH
ICMP
126
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
If Hyperchannel tracing is
needed, then MORETRACE
is worthwhile. That is,
TRACE alone isn’t too useful.
TCP/IP Traces
Table 10. Commonly-used Trace Options (continued)
Option name
TRACE output
Addl MORETRACE output
IPDOWN
Errors in ICMP packet
IP headers of outbound
generation. Redirect
packets and fragments.
processing. Fragmentation of
outbound packets. Routing of
outbound packets.
IPUP
Internal IPUP activity
information, Reassembly of
fragments, Bad received
checksums, Information on
received datagrams, IP option
errors, and Packet
forwarding.
Additional details on
reassembly and redirect. IP
headers of packets other than
TCP protocol.
Note: If IP tracing is required, it is almost always worthwhile to trace IPUP and IPDOWN
together.
In two sample traces of the same traffic, MORETRACE IPUP IPDOWN generated 2.5 times
as many lines of output as TRACE IPUP IPDOWN, mainly because of the multiple-line
tracing of outbound IP headers generated by MORETRACE IPDOWN.
TRACE IPUP output includes datagram id’s of incoming packets, useful for correlating with
network monitor tracing. MORETRACE IPDOWN must be used to get datagram id’s of
outgoing packets.
IUCV
IUCV driver (PVMIUCV,
SNAIUCV, IUCV, X25NPSI
devices) details, including
path establishment
No additional tracing
IUCVSIGNON
IUCV driver, path
establishment only
No additional tracing
NOTIFY
Tracing related to sending of
notifications to the internal
client (Telnet server) and
VMCF clients (Pascal
interface and direct VMCF
interface).
Additional details.
In two sample traces of the
same traffic, MORETRACE
NOTIFY generated twice as
many lines of output as
TRACE NOTIFY. If
In addition, events involving notifications are suspected to
IUCV clients (socket interface be a problem, the extra
output is worthwhile.
and direct IUCV interface)
are processed through
TCNOTIF PASCAL, so they
will show up here too, even
though no VMCF message is
actually sent.
PCCA
LCS driver packet sizes,
Packet headers, SIO return
block headers, I/O interrupts. codes
Can generate a lot of output
if there is a lot of broadcast
traffic on the network, even if
little activity is occurring
locally on the host.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
127
TCP/IP Traces
Table 10. Commonly-used Trace Options (continued)
Option name
TRACE output
Addl MORETRACE output
PING
Traces ping requests and
No additional tracing
responses generated through
the PING command or
directly by the PingRequest
Pascal call or PINGreq VMCF
call.
RAWIPREQUEST
Traces requests using Raw IP
through the Pascal interface
or VMCF interface. Raw IP
routines include
IP packet headers as supplied
by application, before they
are completed by the
FillIpHeader routine.
v RawIpOpen (OPENrawip)
In two sample traces of the
v RawIpClose (CLOSErawip) same traffic, MORETRACE
RAWIPREQUEST generated
v RawIpSend (SENDrawip)
1.6 times as many lines of
v RawIpReceive
output as TRACE
(RECEIVErawip)
RAWIPREQUEST. The extra
output is worthwhile.
RAWIPUP
No additional tracing
Messages pertaining to
queuing received IP packets
for applications using Raw IP
interface or raw sockets.
Note: NOTIFY is also useful for looking at raw IP activity, since it traces
RAWIPpacketsDELIVERED notifications.
RETRANSMIT, REXMIT
Retransmissions by local TCP. No additional tracing
Duplicate packets received,
indicating possibly
unnecessary retransmission
by foreign TCP.
ROUNDTRIP
“Round-trip” times, i.e. time
between sending TCP packet
and receiving
acknowledgment.
No additional tracing
Not very useful by itself.
SCHEDULER
128
Lists the internal TCPIP
processes as they are called.
Listing is one per line.
Much more detail on why
each process is called.
SNMPDPI
SNMP“sub-agent” tracing.
Lists MIB queries by the
SNMP agent.
No additional tracing
SOCKET
Trace requests made through
IUCV socket interface, and
most responses.
A little extra tracing in bind()
processing
TCP
Includes TCPREQUEST,
TCPDOWN, TCPUP,
ROUNDTRIP, NOTIFY,
REXMIT, and CONGESTION.
See individual entries.
MORETRACE TCP sets
detailed tracing for all the
above names.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
MORETRACE SCHEDULER
is gives a good overall view
of what is happening in
TCPIP; quite useful as a
debugging tool.
TCP/IP Traces
Table 10. Commonly-used Trace Options (continued)
Option name
TRACE output
Addl MORETRACE output
TCPDOWN
Trace information related to
outbound TCP packets, both
data packets and
acknowledgments.
More verbose listing, can be
twice as long as TRACE
TCPDOWN.
TCPIP, TCP-IP
Includes TCPREQUEST,
TCPDOWN, TCPUP,
ROUNDTRIP, NOTIFY,
REXMIT, CONGESTION,
IPDOWN, and IPUP
See individual entries.
MORETRACE TCPIP sets
detailed tracing for all the
above names.
TCPREQUEST
Information pertaining to
execution of the following
Pascal-interface and
VMCF-interface requests:
v
v
v
v
Much of the extra output is
redundant and verbose, and
is not worthwhile, especially
if a large data transfer is to
be traced.
In two sample traces of the
same traffic, MORETRACE
TCPREQUEST generated 1.5
times as many lines of output
as TRACE TCPREQUEST. But
TcpAbort (ABORTtcp)
the extra detail, including
TcpClose (CLOSEtcp)
information on open calls,
TcpOpen and TcpWaitOpen and compact display of
(OPENtcp)
TCB’s, is worthwhile.
TcpSend (SENDtcp)
v TcpReceive (RECEIVEtcp)
v TcpStatus (STATUStcp)
v TcpFReceive and
TcpWaitReceive
(FRECEIVEtcp)
v TcpFSend and TcpWaitSend
(FSENDtcp)
v BeginTcpIp
(BEGINtcpIPservice)
v EndTcpIp
(ENDtcpIPservice)
v Handle (HANDLEnotice)
v IsLocalAddress
(IShostLOCAL)
Also traces requests produced
by the Version 1 socket
interface module,
CMSOCKET C, for stream
sockets and initialization.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
129
TCP/IP Traces
Table 10. Commonly-used Trace Options (continued)
Option name
TRACE output
Addl MORETRACE output
TCPUP
Information related to
processing of incoming TCP
packets.
In two sample traces of the
same traffic, MORETRACE
TCPUP generated 14 times as
many lines of output as
TRACE TCPUP.
This extra volume makes a
huge difference when tracing
a large data transfer. So
MORETRACE TCPUP is
probably unnecessary in the
first stage of gathering trace
information.
TELNET
The Telnet server is a TCP/IP
application program that,
unlike other applications,
runs as a process in the
TCPIP virtual machine (the
“internal client”) instead of in
its own virtual machine. So
tracing of the Telnet server
application is enabled via the
TRACE and MORETRACE
commands used in the rest of
TCPIP.
MORETRACE output adds
tracing of data, including:
Data accepted from logical
devices, data presented to
logical devices, data sent to
TCP, data received from TCP,
data sent to *CCS, data
received from *CCS. Some
data is printed one byte per
line, which greatly increases
the number of lines of trace
output, though not
necessarily the space
occupied on disk or tape.
For most Telnet server
problems, MORETRACE
TELNET is probably a good
choice.
TIMER
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Information related to
internal timeout processing
within TCPIP. Probably
useful only for debugging
internal problems.
If a timer problem is
suspected, then
MORETRACE TIMER output
would be useful to a person
familiar with TCPIP internals.
Output may be 12 times as
large as TRACE.
TCP/IP Traces
Table 10. Commonly-used Trace Options (continued)
Option name
TRACE output
Addl MORETRACE output
UDPREQUEST
Information pertaining to
execution of the following
Pascal-interface and
VMCF-interface requests:
In two sample traces of the
same traffic, MORETRACE
UDPREQUEST generated 2.5
times as many lines of output
as TRACE UDPREQUEST.
But the extra detail, including
display of UCB’s, is
worthwhile.
v UdpClose (CLOSEudp)
v UdpOpen (OPENudp)
v UdpSend (SENDudp)
v UdpNReceive
(NRECEIVEtcp)
v UdpReceive
(RECEIVEudp)
Also traces requests produced
by the Version 1 socket
interface module,
CMSOCKET C, for datagram
sockets.
UDPUP
Information about processing Port number in following
message is wrong: UptoUDP:
of inbound UDP packets.
Destination port # 65536108
Useless without
MORETRACE.
The port number is only the
high-order halfword. 65536108
= X'03E8006C', so port
number is X'3E8' = 1000.
Note: NOTIFY is also useful for looking at UDP activity, since it traces
UDPdatagramDELIVERED notifications.
Connection State
A connection state is a description of the status of a logical communication path
between two “sockets”. The terms used to describe this status vary according to
the perspective from which the connection state is viewed. The following sections
discuss the connection state as seen from the perspectives of the TCP layer, Pascal
or VMCF applications, and socket applications.
Connection State As Known by TCP
The TCP layer in the host at each end of a TCP connection keeps its own variable
containing the state of the connection, using the connection states defined in RFC
793. This is the state shown in NETSTAT output.
Ignoring state transitions, which do not tend to conform to these simplistic
definitions, the following table lists the connection states and what each typically
implies about the state of the connection. See section 3.2 of RFC 793 for more
information on connection states.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
131
TCP/IP Traces
Table 11. TCP Connection States
State name
Typical Situation
LISTEN
Waiting for a connection request from the address and port
listed in the Foreign Socket column of NETSTAT.
v “HOSTA..*” means waiting for a connection request from
any port on host HOSTA.
v “*..100” means waiting for a connection request from
port 100 on any host.
v “*..*” means waiting for a connection request from any
port on any host.
If the application uses the Pascal interface or VMCF
interface, it has done a TcpOpen (or TcpWaitOpen) with an
initial pseudo-state of LISTENING.
If the application uses the socket interface, from C or via
IUCV, it has done a listen(), and the listen backlog has not
been reached.
SYN-SENT
The application has done an “active open” and is waiting
for a response from the foreign server.
If the application uses the Pascal interface or VMCF
interface, it has done a TcpOpen (or TcpWaitOpen) with an
initial pseudo-state of TRYINGtoOPEN.
If the application uses the socket interface, from C or via
IUCV, it has done a connect().
132
SYN-RECEIVED
Represents a condition where TCP is waiting for a
confirming connection request acknowledgement after
having received and sent a connection request. This
sometimes means that a SYN was received on a connection
in LISTEN state, but connection establishment hasn’t been
able to proceed further because a routing problem prevents
the response from reaching the foreign host.
ESTABLISHED
Connection is completely established. Both sides can send
and receive data. This is the normal state for the data
transfer phase of a connection.
FIN-WAIT-1
Application has issued a TcpClose or close(). A FIN packet
was sent but not acknowledged, and a FIN hasn’t been
received from the foreign host.
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Table 11. TCP Connection States (continued)
State name
Typical Situation
FIN-WAIT-2
Application has issued a TcpClose or close(). FIN packet
was sent and has been acknowledged. TCP is now waiting
for the foreign host to send a FIN.
This is the state a connection enters when the application
closes but the application on the other end doesn’t close.
There is no timeout in this state, since the FIN has been
acknowledged.
If the foreign host sends an ACK packet in response to the
the local host’s FIN and then goes away without sending
an RST, or if the RST is lost, then the connection will stay
in this state for an indefinite period of time (until the
application aborts the connection or terminates).
In this state, data can be received but not sent. Some
applications may intentionally put the connection into this
state because they plan to send data in one direction.
However, in most cases, this is not a long-term state.
Usually, persistence of this state indicates an error
condition.
CLOSE-WAIT
The local host has received a FIN from the foreign host and
has acknowledged it, but the application hasn’t issued a
TcpClose or close().
In this state, data can be sent but not received. Some
applications may intentionally put the connection in this
state because they plan to send data in one direction.
However, in most cases, this is not a long-term state.
Usually, persistence of this state indicates an error
condition.
CLOSING
Represents waiting for a connection termination request
acknowledgement from the remote TCP. This state (and the
LAST-ACK state) indicates that both sides have closed the
connection. Data cannot be sent in either direction.
LAST-ACK
Represents waiting for an acknowledgement of the
connection termination request previously sent to the
remote TCP (which included an acknowledgement of the
remote TCP’s connection termination request). This state
(and the CLOSING state) indicates that both sides have
closed the connection. Data cannot be sent in either
direction.
TIME-WAIT
Both sides have closed the connection, and all packets have
been acknowledged. The connection stays in this state for
2 * MSL (MSL = 60 seconds) as required by the protocol
specification, to ensure that foreign host has received the
acknowledgment of its FIN.
In VM TCP/IP, connections in TIME-WAIT state do not
usually appear in the output from the NETSTAT command.
The ALLCONN or TELNET parameters must be supplied
on the NETSTAT command to see connections in this state.
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
133
TCP/IP Traces
Table 11. TCP Connection States (continued)
State name
Typical Situation
CLOSED
The connection is completely closed.
In TCP/IP for VM, connections in CLOSED state do not
usually appear in the output from the NETSTAT command.
The ALLCONN parameter must be supplied on the
NETSTAT command to see connections in this state.
Connection State As Known by Pascal or VMCF Applications
Pascal and direct VMCF applications do not see the actual TCP states described in
Table 11. Rather, the connection state in the StatusInfoType record and in
CONNECTIONstateCHANGED notifications is expressed as a “pseudo-state”. The
pseudo-state contains the connection state information needed by an application
program, while hiding protocol details that are not important to an application.
Table 12. Connection Pseudo-states
State name
Meaning, from CMCOMM
COPY
Corresponding TCP states
LISTENING
Waiting for a foreign site to
open a connection
LISTEN
TRYINGtoOPEN
Trying to contact a foreign
SYN-SENT, SYN-RECEIVED
site to establish a connection.
OPEN
Data can go either way on
the connection
Either:
v ESTABLISHED
v CLOSE-WAIT, but input
data still queued for
application
SENDINGonly
Data can be sent out but not
received on this connection.
This means that the foreign
site has done a one-way
close.
CLOSE-WAIT, and no input
data queued for application
RECEIVINGonly
Data can be received but not
sent on this connection. This
means that the client has
done a one-way close.
Either:
v FIN-WAIT-1
v FIN-WAIT-2
v LAST-ACK, but input data
still queued for application
v CLOSING, but input data
still queued for application
v TIME-WAIT, but input
data still queued for
application
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Table 12. Connection Pseudo-states (continued)
State name
Meaning, from CMCOMM
COPY
Corresponding TCP states
CONNECTIONclosing
Data may no longer be
Either:
transmitted on this
v LAST-ACK, and no input
connection since the TCP/IP
data queued for
service is in the process of
application
closing down the connection.
v CLOSING, and no input
data queued for
application
v TIME-WAIT, and no input
data queued for
application
NONEXISTENT
The connection no longer
exists.
CLOSED
Connection State As Known by Socket Applications
The socket interface does not allow for programs to see explicit connection states.
The connection state is inferred from the response to various socket calls.
v A successful return from connect() means that the connection is in an OPEN
pseudo-state. The socket returned from a successful accept() call is also assumed
to be in an OPEN pseudo-state.
v A return code of 0 from read(), recv(), etc., indicates that foreign host has done
one-way close. This is like SENDINGonly pseudo-state.
v A return code of -1 from read(), recv(), etc., with an errno value of
ECONNABORTED, ECONNRESET, or ETIMEDOUT, indicates that the
connection has been abruptly closed (reset) for the given reason.
Note that internal TCP/IP traces show CONNECTIONstateCHANGED
notifications being sent to socket programs. In fact, the notification is converted to
the proper socket state information so that the program may find out about the
state change on its next socket call.
Traceroute Function (TRACERTE)
The Traceroute function sends UDP requests with varying Time-to-Lives (TTL) and
listens for TTL-exceeded messages from the routers between the local host and the
foreign host. Traceroute uses RAW sockets, so you must have OBEYFILE authority
to use this command. The range of port numbers that Traceroute uses are normally
invalid, but you can change it if the target host is using a nonstandard UDP port.
To debug network problems, use the TRACERTE command. See the TCP/IP User’s
Guide for a complete format of the TRACERTE command.
TRACERTE
?
host_name
The following are examples of using the TRACERTE command:
Chapter 7. TCP/IP Traces
135
TCP/IP Traces
tracerte cyst.watson.ibm.com
Trace route to CYST.WATSON.IBM.COM (9.2.91.34)
1 (9.67.22.2) 67 ms 53 ms 60 ms
2 * * *
3 (9.67.1.5) 119 ms 83 ms 65 ms
4 (9.3.8.14) 77 ms 80 ms 87 ms
5 (9.158.1.1) 94 ms 89 ms 85 ms
6 (9.31.3.1) 189 ms 197 ms *
7 * * (9.31.16.2) 954 ms
8 (129.34.31.33) 164 ms 181 ms 216 ms
9 (9.2.95.1) 198 ms 182 ms 178 ms
10 (9.2.91.34) 178 ms 187 ms *
> Note that the second hop does not send Time-to-live exceeded
> messages. Also, we occasionally lose a packet (hops 6,7, and 10).
Ready;
tracerte 129.35.130.09
Trace route to 129.35.130.09 (129.35.130.9)
1 (9.67.22.2) 61 ms 62 ms 56 ms
2 * * *
3 (9.67.1.5) 74 ms 73 ms 80 ms
4 (9.3.8.1) 182 ms 200 ms 184 ms
5 (129.35.208.2) 170 ms 167 ms 163 ms
6 * (129.35.208.2) 192 ms !H 157 ms !H
> The network was found, but no host was found
tracerte 129.45.45.45
Trace route to 129.45.45.45 (129.45.45.45)
1 (9.67.22.2) 320 ms 56 ms 71 ms
2 * * *
3 (9.67.1.5) 67 ms 64 ms 65 ms
4 (9.67.1.5) 171 ms !N 68 ms !N 61 ms !N
> Could not route to that network.
Traceroute uses the site tables for inverse name resolution rather than the domain
name server. If a host name is found in the site table, it is printed along with its IP
address.
tracerte EVANS
Trace route to EVANS (129.45.45.45)
1 BART (9.67.60.85) 20 ms 56 ms 71 ms
2 BUZZ (9.67.60.84) 55 ms 56 ms 54 ms
3 EVANS (9.67.30.25) 67 ms 64 ms 65 ms
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Chapter 8. FTP Traces
This chapter describes File Transfer Protocol (FTP) traces, including the relationship
between FTP user and server functions. This chapter also describes how to activate
and interpret FTP client and server traces.
FTP Connection
A control connection is initiated by the user-Protocol Interpreter (PI) following the
Telnet protocol (x) and the server-Protocol Interpreter (PI) response to the standard
FTP commands. Figure 71 shows the relationship between user and server
functions.
┌─────────────────┐
│ ┌─────────────┐ │
┌──────────┐
│ │
User
│┼───│
User
│
│ │ Interface │ │
└──────────┘
│ └─────────────┘ │
│
]
│
┌──────────────┐
│
^
│
│ ┌──────────┐ │ FTP Commands
│ ┌─────────────┐ │
│ │ Server │┼─────────────────┼│
User
│ │
│ │
PI
│ │
FTP Replies
│ │
PI
│ │
│ └──────────┘ │
│ └─────────────┘ │
│
]
│
│
]
│
│
^
│
│
^
│
┌──────────┐
│ ┌──────────┐ │
Data
│ ┌─────────────┐ │
┌──────────┐
│
File
│───┼│ Server │┼─────────────────┼│
User
│┼───│
File
│
│ System │
│ │
DTP
│ │
Connection
│ │
DTP
│ │
│ System │
└──────────┘
│ └──────────┘ │
│ └─────────────┘ │
└──────────┘
└──────────────┘
└─────────────────┘
FTP Server
FTP User
Figure 71. The FTP Model
Note: PI is the Protocol Interpreter and DTP is the Data Transfer Process. The data
connection can be used in either direction and it does not have to be active.
Once the parameters from the data connections have been transmitted, the
user-DTP must be in listen status on the specified data port. The server initiates
the data connection using the default data port requested by the user. For VM FTP
implementations, the client issues a PORT command. The port is then assigned by
TCPIP after an open request. The format of the PORT command is:
PORT 9.67.58.127p1p2
The only parameter for the PORT command is:
Parameter
Description
9.67.58.127,p1,p2
Is the address space for the default data port.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
137
File Transfer Protocol Traces
The server initiates, maintains, and closes the data connection. However, when a
user transmits data, an end of file (EOF) closes the data connection.
FTP Client Traces
The following sections describe how to activate FTP client traces and interpret the
output.
Activating Traces
FTP client traces are activated by specifying the TRACE parameter in addition to
the usual processing parameters on invocation of the FTP command. Tracing can
also be activated interactively once an FTP session has been established by using
the DEBUG subcommand of FTP. The following is the format for the FTP TRACE
command in VM:
FTP foreignhost
portnumber
TRACE
The parameters for the FTP command are:
Parameter
Description
foreignhost
Specifies the name of the foreign host to which you
are connecting. The host may be specified by its
host name or internet address.
portnumber
Specifies the number of the port to request
connection to. This parameter is usually used for
system testing only.
EXIT
Terminates FTP when an error occurs, returning an
error code.
TRACE
Starts the generation of tracing output. TRACE is
used to assist in debugging.
TRANSLATE filename
Specifies the name of a translation table file other
than a standard table.
To enable or disable the trace mode interactively, use the DEBUG subcommand of
FTP. The format of the DEBUG subcommand is:
DEBUG
The DEBUG subcommand has no parameters.
Trace output is directed to the virtual machine console.
For more information about the FTP command and DEBUG subcommand, see the
TCP/IP User’s Guide.
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Trace Output
The output from FTP traces shows the sequence of commands requested by the
TCP/IP user. Transferred data is not traced.
You can relate FTP client and server traces if the connection has been interrupted
or closed at the client’s request or initiated by the server. TCP requests that are
traced by the client program include:
v TcpOpen
v BeginTcpIp
v TcpWaitReceive
v TcpWaitSend.
The messages issued by FTP are referenced in RFC 959. The first five significant
digit values for FTP return codes are:
1yz
Positive preliminary reply
2yz
Positive completion reply
3yz
Positive intermediate reply
4yz
Transient negative completion reply
5yz
Permanent negative completion reply.
Figure 72 shows a sample of an FTP client trace. In the trace, input from the
keyboard or a file is preceded by:
===
Information that the FTP client is sending over the control connection is preceded
by:
>>>
Action taken by the FTP client program is preceded by:
==>
The other statements in the trace flow are self-explanatory and can be found in the
source code of the FTP modules.
Chapter 8. FTP Traces
139
File Transfer Protocol Traces
FTP 9.67.43.126 TRACE
VM TCP/IP FTP V2R4
about to call BeginTcpIp
Connecting to 9.67.43.126, port 21
SysAct 0 21 155396990 CC -1
==> Active open to host 9.67.43.126 port 21
from host 0 port 65535
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4
65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 131
220-FTPSERVE at HOSTVM.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM, 08:56:14 EDT TUESDAY 10/02/97
220 Connection will close if idle for more than 5 minutes.
GetReply returns 220
USER (identify yourself to the host):
===tcpusrx
>>>USER tcpusrx
In SysSendFlush, calling TcpWaitSend with args: 0 00034260
14
In SysSendFlush, TcpWaitSend returned: OK
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4 65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 27
331 Send password, please
GetReply returns 331
Password:
===________ (non-display entry)
>>>PASS ********
In SysSendFlush, calling TcpWaitSend with args: 0 00034260 13
In SysSendFlush, TcpWaitSend returned: OK
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4 65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 56
230 SYLVAIN logged in; working directory = SYLVAIN 191
GetReplCodeText returns 230 230 SYLVAIN logged in; working directory = SYLVAIN
191
leaving dologin
Figure 72. A Sample of an FTP Client Trace (Part 1 of 2)
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File Transfer Protocol Traces
Command:
===get example.fileone
Filename: "$FTCOPY$.FTPUT1.A"
==> Passive open
Passive open successful: Fd = 3, TcpId = 1
>>>PORT 9,67,58,226,4,72
In SysSendFlush, calling TcpWaitSend with args: 0 00034260 23
In SysSendFlush, TcpWaitSend returned: OK
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4 65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 21
200 Port request OK
GetReply returns 200
>>>RETR example.fileone
In SysSendFlush, calling TcpWaitSend with args: 0 00034260 22
In SysSendFlush, TcpWaitSend returned: OK
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4 65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 36
150 Sending file 'example.fileone'
GetReplCodeText returns 150 150 Sending file 'example.fileone'
In UntilOpen: Note received:
=>TcpId 1 Connection state changed Trying to open
In UntilOpen: Note received:
=> TcpId 1 Connection state changed Open
Transferring in AsciiToRecord
In GetFromTcp, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 1002BF000 32768
In GetFromTcp, TcpWaitReceive returned: 1072
GetFromTcp: 1072 bytes in buffer
In GetFromTcp, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 1002BF000 32768
In GetFromTcp, TcpWaitReceive returned: -35
Sysclose called with fd = 3
In SysClose: Note received: => TcpId 1 Connection state changed Sending only
In SysClose: Note received: => TcpId 1 Connection state changed Connection
closing
Exiting from SysClose: fd = 3, TcpId = 1
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4 65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 37
250 Transfer completed successfully
GetReply returns 250
1072 bytes transferred. Transfer rate 2.17 Kbytes/sec.
Command:
===quit
>>>QUIT
In SysSendFlush, calling TcpWaitSend with args: 0 00034260 6
In SysSendFlush, TcpWaitSend returned: OK
In SysRead, calling TcpWaitReceive with args: 0 00035BD4 65535
In SysRead, TcpWaitReceive returned: 37
221 Quit command received. Goodbye
GetReply returns 221
Entering WaitAndClose
In WaitAndClose: Note received: => TcpId 1 Connection state changed
Nonexistent
In WaitAndClose: Note received: => TcpId 0 Connection state changed
Sending only
Figure 72. A Sample of an FTP Client Trace (Part 2 of 2)
The following describes the sequence of major events in the FTP client trace
sample output:
1. The connection to the remote host is opened through the FTP server’s listen
port.
Trace Item
Description
9.67.43.126
Address space of the remote host server.
21
Port 21, which is used for FTP connections.
Chapter 8. FTP Traces
141
File Transfer Protocol Traces
0
Local host number.
UNSPECIFIEDport, which is used to request an
available port from TCPIP with TcpOpen
functions.
2. Data is received from the remote server.
65535
Trace Item
Description
In SysRead
Name of the FTP client procedure.
TcpWaitReceive
Name of a TCPIP client procedure.
0
ID of the connection between the TCPIP and
FTP client.
00035BD4
Buffer address that contains the data or text to
be sent by the remote host.
65535
Buffer size authorized by the client.
131
Length of the data received, plus carriage
returns and line feeds (CR/LF) for:
v Outbound connections (preceding the text
line of output)
v Inbound connections (following the text line
of output); if this number is negative, it is a
return code.
3. SysSendFlush, an FTP client procedure, flushes buffered output and adds
CR/LFs.
Trace Item
Description
TcpWaitSend
Name of the TCP/IP function called.
0
Name of the control connection ID.
00034260
Buffer address of the data or command sent to
the remote host.
13
Length of the command sent plus CR/LF.
4. FTP performs a passive open to the remote host FTP server.
Trace Item
Description
Fd=3
Internal connection slot number in the FTP
client program; the Fd for the first control
connection is 1.
TcpId
Connection ID between the TCPIP and FTP
client.
Host address space, 9.67.58.226, and port
number, 1096. The port number is obtained by
converting 4 and 72 to hexadecimal (X'04' and
X'48'), and then converting X'0448' to a decimal.
5. The trace shows the evolving status of the data connection (TcpId 1) while in
routine UntilOpen. The purpose of the UntilOpen routine is to wait for the
server to complete the data connection after the open has been requested from
TCPIP. The status of the connection changes from:
9,67,58,226,4,72
TryingToOpen
to
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Open.
6. A return code (-35) signifies that the remote host is closing the connection.
7. The status of the data connection being closed by TCPIP is displayed.
FTP Server Traces
The following sections describe how to activate FTP server traces and interpret the
output.
Activating Traces
Activation of the tracing facilities within the FTP server is accomplished by
specifying a trace parameter at server initialization, or by using the FTP Server
SMSG interface to issue an SMSG TRACE ON command. For information about
the SMSG TRACE command, refer to the ’Configuring the FTP Virtual Machine’
chapter in the TCP/IP Planning and Customization. The method of specifying the
parameters varies according to operating system environment.
In the VM environment, the FTP server is activated during processing performed
in the server virtual machine when its PROFILE EXEC executes the SRVRFTP
command. Tracing is activated by specifying the TRACE parameter in addition to
the usual processing parameters on command invocation. Figure 73 demonstrates
the use of the TRACE parameter for the SRVRFTP command:
SRVRFTP
RACF
PORT 21
INACTIVE 300
PORT port_number
INACTIVE number_seconds
TRACE
ANONYMOU
Figure 73. SRVRFTP Command Invocation Parameters
The processing parameters that can be supplied are similar to those shown in
Figure 73.
Note that Figure 73 is only intended to highlight the specification of the parameter
necessary to activate tracing. Refer to the TCP/IP Planning and Customization for
information on the usage of the other parameters.
The TRACE option of FTP server provides three different types of information:
Console Output
Console output is standard for normal operations. The trace option adds
information about the general FTP server operations. For example, LINK
operations with return codes are provided. Console output is obtained in
the following format:
VM
Log
Standard console output.
The log gives information about abnormal run-time situations, such as
broken connections with TCPIP or with the remote client and remote port
that is unavailable. The following describes how to obtain the log:
VM
FTPSERVE LOG A file.
Chapter 8. FTP Traces
143
File Transfer Protocol Traces
Debug File
The debug file provides complete information about internal FTP server
activities. The following describes how to obtain the debug file:
VM
FILE DEBUGTRA A file.
Trace Output
Tracing the internal operations of the FTP server provides information about the
processes, ports, and connections. The complete text of messages sent to clients,
operations, and the status of the data and control connections are also documented.
Figure 74 shows a sample of an FTP Server Trace.
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OpenConnection(00000000,21,00000000,65535,2147483647,FALSE
AdvertizeService gets connection #0
Got note Connection state changed for #0, Trying to open
OpenConnection(00000000,21,00000000,65535,2147483647,FALSE
AdvertizeService gets connection #1
Got note Connection state changed for #0, Open
Allocating buffer of 32768 bytes
Allocating RdFromDiskBuf of 16384 bytes
Send reply '220-FTPSERVE at ENDVM23.TCPIPDEV.ENDICOTT.IBM, 18:22:54 EST THURSDAY
10/04/97'
Send reply '220 Connection will close if idle for more than 5 minutes.'
ReinitContConn(0)
GetData(0)
In GetData, TcpFReceive: Where = 1
Got note Data delivered for #0, 14 bytes
14 bytes arrived on conn #0
Send reply '230 TCPUSR1 logged in with no special access privileges'
GetData(0)
In GetData, TcpFReceive: Where = 1
Got note Data delivered for #0, 13 bytes
13 bytes arrived on conn #0
Send reply '332 Supply minidisk password using 'account''
GetData(0)
In GetData, TcpFReceive: Where = 1
Got note Data delivered for #0, 11 bytes
11 bytes arrived on conn #0
Send reply '230 Working directory is TCPUSR1 191 (ReadOnly)'
GetData(0)
In GetData, TcpFReceive: Where = 1
Got note Data delivered for #0, 22 bytes
22 bytes arrived on conn #0
Send reply '200 Port request OK.'
GetData(0)
In GetData, TcpFReceive: Where = 1
Got note Data delivered for #0, 19 bytes
19 bytes arrived on conn #0
OpenConnection(09433AE9,20,09433AE9,1029,30,TRUE
Send reply '125 List started OK'
SOpenfscb: name is: CONN-2.FTPLIST.A
SOpenFscb: ESTATE returns: 0
TidyFile: FINIS returns -450887680
GetData(0)
In GetData, TcpFReceive: Where = 1
Got note Connection state changed for #2, Open
Allocating buffer of 32768 bytes
Allocating RdFromDiskBuf of 16384 bytes
Data connection 2 open for sending
ReinitDataConn(2)
FtpFormat: A FtpMode: S FtpOptFormat: 0
RecordFormat: V RecordLength: 65535
StartTransfer for 2:
Xfread: totalread = 79 Result = 0 FByte = 1 LByte = 0
79 bytes sent on connection 2
Got note FSend response for #2, SendTurnCode = 0
Xfread: totalread = 0 Result = -12 FByte = 80 LByte = 79
Calling CMS(ERASE CONN-2 FTPLIST A)
Figure 74. A Sample of an FTP Server Trace (Part 1 of 2)
Chapter 8. FTP Traces
145
Closing connection #2
Completed CloseConnection
Got note Connection state changed for #2, Receiving only
Got note Connection state changed for #2, Connection closing
CloseCompleted on #2: OK
Send reply '250 List completed successfully.'
DataReply: Setting CmdInProgress to CUNKNOWN on conn #2, was SYST
Got note Other external interrupt received for #-48, RuptCode = 64
Aborting connection #0
CloseCompleted on #0: Software error in TCP/IP!
Error completion on #0: Software error in TCP/IP!
Figure 74. A Sample of an FTP Server Trace (Part 2 of 2)
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Chapter 9. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Traces
This chapter describes how to activate and interpret Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
(SMTP) traces.
SMTP Client Traces
The client interface to SMTP is in the form of some type of electronic mailing
handling program. There is no formal command interface. The mailing programs
(procedures) communicate with the IBM TCP/IP implementation of SMTP. The
client programming interfaces that are available for use with the TCP/IP Feature
for z/VM are the CMS SENDFILE and NOTE commands.
Activating Traces
Trace activation in the client environment is dependent on the type of mail
handling facilities made available at an installation. The client interfaces provided
with the TCP/IP product are in the form of a REXX EXEC procedures for VM.
The NOTE and SENDFILE EXEC procedures are written in the REXX procedures
language, so various levels of traces are available for use. Refer to the applicable
level of the System Product Interpreter Reference publication for more information.
The results of any chosen trace level will be directed to the user’s console.
Obtaining Queue Information
Clients can obtain information about mail that SMTP is delivering or waiting to
deliver. While this facility is not considered to be a formal diagnostic aid, it can be
used in situations where it is felt that an inordinate delay in mail delivery is
occurring to determine if further investigation is warranted.
The SMTPQUEU command is used to obtain the queue information. It causes the
SMTP virtual machine to deliver a piece of mail that lists the mail queued for
delivery at each site. The mail is spooled to the user that issued the SMPTQUEU
command. Figure 75 on page 148 shows the format of the output returned by the
SMTP server.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
147
SMTP Traces
220-ENDVMM.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP
Level nnn on Fri, 26 Jul 97 09:55:05 E
220 DT
050 VERB ON
250 Verbose Mode On
050 QUEU
250-Queues on ENDVMM.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM at 09:55:05 EDT on 07/26/97
250-Spool Queue: Empty
250-Undeliverable Queue: Empty
250-Resolution Queues:
250-Resolver Process Queue: Empty
250-Resolver Send Queue: Empty
250-Resolver Wait Queue: Empty
250-Resolver Retry Queue: Empty
250-Resolver Completed Queue: Empty
250-Resolver Error Pending Queue: Empty
250 OK
Figure 75. Sample Outout form a Mail Queue Query
SMTP Server Traces
The following sections describe how to activate and interpret SMTP server traces.
In order to help with interpreting trace output, a list of the SMTP commands that
can appear in the trace data along with descriptions of these commands is
supplied below. The SMTP server provides the interface between the internet and
IBM host systems. For more information about the SMTP protocol, see RFC 821.
Activating Traces
SMTP server traces can be activated by including a TRACE statement in the SMTP
CONFIG file, or by using the SMSG interface to the SMTP machine to issue an
SMSG TRACE command. For information on the syntax of the TRACE statement
or the SMSG TRACE command as well as information on what types of traces are
available, refer to the SMTP chapter in the VM TCP/IP Planning and
Customization manual. Sample trace data for several of the available trace
commands is provided at the end of this chapter.
SMTP Commands
SMTP commands define the mail transfer or the mail system function requested by
the user. The commands are character strings terminated by the carriage return
and line feed characters (CR/LF). The SMTP command codes are alphabetic
characters. These characters are separated by a space if parameters follow the
command or a CR/LF if there are no parameters.
Table 13 describes the SMTP commands that are helpful when interpreting SMTP
trace output.
Table 13. SMTP Commands
148
Name
Command
DATA
DATA
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Description
The receiver treats the lines following the DATA
command as mail data from the sender. This
command causes the mail data that is transferred to
be appended to the mail data buffer. The mail data
can contain any of the 128 ASCII character codes. The
mail data is terminated by a line containing only a
period, that is the character sequence CR/LF CR/LF.
SMTP Traces
Table 13. SMTP Commands (continued)
Name
Command
Description
EXTENDED
HELLO
EHLO
This command identifies the SMTP client to the
SMTP server and asks the server to send a reply
stating which SMTP Service Extensions the server
supports. The argument field contains the host name
of the client.
EXPAND
EXPN
This command asks the receiver to confirm that the
argument identifies a mailing list and, if so, to return
the membership of that list. The full name of the
users, if known, and the fully specified mailboxes are
returned in a multiline reply.
HELLO
HELO
This command identifies the sender-SMTP to the
receiver-SMTP. The argument field contains the host
name of the sender-SMTP.
HELP
HELP
This command causes the receiver to send
information to the sender of the HELP command.
The command returns specific information about any
command listed as a HELP argument.
MAIL
MAIL
This command initiates a mail transaction for mail
data that is delivered to one or more mailboxes. The
required argument field contains a reverse path. If
the EHLO command was specified, the optional SIZE
field may be used to indicate the size of the mail in
bytes, and the optional BODY field may be used to
specify whether a 7-bit message or an 8-bit MIME
message is being sent.
NOOP
NOOP
This command requests an OK reply from the
receiver. It does not affect any parameters or
previously entered commands.
QUIT
QUIT
This command requests an OK reply from the
receiver, and then it closes the transmission channel.
RECIPIENT
RCPT
This command identifies an individual recipient of
the mail data; multiple recipients are specified by
multiple RCPT commands.
RESET
RSET
This command aborts the current mail transaction.
Any stored sender, recipient, or mail data is
discarded, and all buffers and state tables are cleared.
The receiver sends an OK reply.
VERIFY
VRFY
This command asks the receiver to confirm that the
argument identifies a user. If it is a user name, the
full name of the user, if known, and the fully
specified mailbox are returned.
Figure 76 on page 150 shows the SMTP reply codes. The information shown in this
figure is from RFC 821, and RFC 1869.
Chapter 9. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Traces
149
SMTP Traces
RFC's 821 and 1869
4.2.1.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
REPLY CODES BY FUNCTION GROUPS
500 Syntax error, command unrecognized
{This may include errors such as command line too long}
501 Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502 Command not implemented
503 Bad sequence of commands
504 Command parameter not implemented
211 System status, or system help reply
214 Help message
{Information on how to use the receiver or the meaning of a
particular non-standard command; this reply is useful only
to the human user}
220 <domain> Service ready
221 <domain> Service closing transmission channel
421 <domain> Service not available,
closing transmission channel
{This may be a reply to any command if the service knows it
must shut down}
250 Requested mail action okay, completed
251 User not local; will forward to <forward-path>
450 Requested mail action not taken: mailbox unavailable
{E.g., mailbox busy}
550 Requested action not taken: mailbox unavailable
{E.g., mailbox not found, no access}
451 Requested action aborted: error in processing
551 User not local; please try <forward-path>
452 Requested action not taken: insufficient system storage
552 Requested mail action aborted: exceeded storage allocation
553 Requested action not taken: mailbox name not allowed
{E.g., mailbox syntax incorrect}
354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF>
554 Transaction failed
555 Requested action not taken:
parameters associated with a MAIL FROM
or RCPT TO command are not recgnized
Postel
{Page 35}
Figure 76. SMTP Reply Codes. From RFC 821, and RFC 1869
Sample Debug Trace
The following describes how the output from an SMTP server trace using TRACE
DEBUG is organized:
Conn_number
This is the TCP connection number. A value of 257 identifies a server
working in batch mode. This often occurs when a server is reading a file
that it has received from a local user before sending the file to the remote
host.
In/Out_char
This character indicates the way the message or command is traveling. A >
symbol indicates an outgoing message or command and a < symbol
indicates an incoming message or command.
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SMTP Traces
Cmd_line
This is the information exchanged between hosts.
Figure 77 is a sample of an SMTP server trace using the TRACE DEBUG statement.
Although all transactions between the local and remote hosts are shown, the data
transferred by the DATA command is not shown.
In Figure 77, HOSTA is the local host, and HOSTB is the remote host. All lines starting
with 257 show the SMTP server handling note 00000001 from local user TCPUSRA.
Lines starting with a connection number of 1 show note 00000001 being sent to
[email protected] Lines starting with a connection number of 0 show HOSTB sending a
note from TCPUSRB to the local host. The local host designates this note as note
00000002.
IBM VM SMTP Level nnn on Tue, 23 Oct 97 17:19:23 EST
257> 220 HOSTA.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP Level nnn on Tue, 23 Oct 97 17:19:25 EST
257< HELO HOSTA.IBM.COM
257> 250 HOSTA.IBM.COM is my domain name. Yours too, I see!
257< MAIL FROM:<[email protected]>
257> 250 OK
257< RCPT TO:<[email protected]>
257> 250 OK
257< DATA
257> 354 Enter mail body. End by new line with just a '.'
257> 250 Mail Delivered
257< QUIT
257> 221 HOSTA.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP Level nnnMX closing connection
1< 220 HOSTB.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP Level nnn on Tue, 23 Oct 90 17:22:53 EST
1> EHLO HOSTA.IBM.COM
1< 250-HOSTB.IBM.COM is my domain name.
1< 250-EXPN
1< 250-HELP
1< 250 SIZE 20000768
1> MAIL FROM:<[email protected]> SIZE=210
1< 250 OK
1> RCPT TO:<[email protected]>
1< 250 OK
1> DATA
1< 354 Enter mail body. End by new line with just a '.'
1< 250 Mail Delivered
1> QUIT
1< 221 HOSTB.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP Level nnnMX closing connection
0> 220 HOSTA.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP Level nnn on Tue, 23 Oct 90 17:23:18 EST
0< HELO HOSTB.IBM.COM
0> 250 HOSTA.IBM.COM is my domain name.
0< MAIL FROM:<[email protected]>
0> 250 OK
0< RCPT TO:<[email protected]>
0> 250 OK
0< DATA
0> 354 Enter mail body. End by new line with just a '.'
0> 250 Mail Delivered
0< QUIT
0> 221 HOSTA.IBM.COM running IBM VM SMTP Level nnnMX closing connection
Figure 77. A Sample of an SMTP Server Trace Using the DEBUG Statement
Sample LOG Information
In addition to the data that can be obtained using the TRACE command, the SMTP
server provides LOG information. This LOG information can be directed to the
console (the default), or to the SMTP LOG file on minidisk.
Chapter 9. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Traces
151
SMTP Traces
Figure 78 shows sample LOG information matching the sample trace shown in
Figure 77 on page 151 For example, the line starting with 10/23/97 17:23:18 shows
when HOSTB is connected to the local host’s port on connection 0 before sending
note 00000002.
IBM VM SMTP Level
10/23/97 17:19:24
10/23/97 17:19:25
10/23/97 17:19:25
10/23/97 17:20:31
10/23/97 17:23:18
10/23/97 17:24:21
10/23/97 17:24:23
nnn on Tue, 23 Oct 97 17:19:23 EST
Received Spool File 2289 From TCPUSRA at HOSTA
BSMTP Helo Domain: HOSTA.IBM.COM Yours too, I see!
Received Note 00000001 via BSMTP From <[email protected]>
Delivered Note 00000001 to <[email protected]>
TCP (0) Helo Domain: HOSTB.IBM.COM
Received Note 00000002 via TCP (0) From <[email protected]>
Delivered Note 00000002 to TCPUSRA at HOSTA
Figure 78. Sample LOG Output
Sample Resolver Trace
You can also enable the Resolver Trace for the SMTP server virtual machine. The
Resolver Trace displays all requests and responses for name resolution to the
console. To activate this type of tracing, add a TRACE RESOLVER statement to the
SMTP CONFIG file.
Figure 79 shows a sample of a resolver trace.
10/25/97 07:32:12
Resolving Recipient Address: <[email protected] >
10/25/97 07:32:12
Resolving Recipient Address: <[email protected]>
* * * * * Beginning of Message * * * * *
Query Id:
1
Flags:
0000 0001 0000 0000
Number of Question RRs:
1
Question
1: 9.67.58.233 MX IN
Number of Answer RRs:
0
Number of Authority RRs: 0
Number of Additional RRs: 0
* * * * * End of Message * * * * *
10/25/97 07:32:12 # 1 UDP Query Sent, Try: 1 to NS(.1.) := 14.0.0.0
10/25/97 07:32:12 # 1 Adding Request to Wait Queue
10/25/97 07:32:12 # 1 Setting Wait Timer: 30 seconds
* * * * * Beginning of Message * * * * *
Query Id:
2
Flags:
0000 0001 0000 0000
Number of Question RRs:
1
Question
1: hostvm.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM MX IN
Number of Answer RRs:
0
Number of Authority RRs: 0
Number of Additional RRs: 0
* * * * * End of Message * * * * *
Figure 79. A Sample of an SMTP Resolver Trace (Part 1 of 2)
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SMTP Traces
10/25/97 07:32:12 # 2 UDP Query Sent, Try: 1
10/25/97 07:32:12 # 2 Adding Request to Wait
10/25/97 07:32:13
UDP packet arrived, 50
* * * * * Beginning of Message * * * * *
Query Id:
2
Flags:
1000 0101 1000 0011
Number of Question RRs:
1
Question
1: hostvm.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM MX IN
Number of Answer RRs:
0
Number of Authority RRs: 0
Number of Additional RRs: 0
* * * * * End of Message * * * * *
* * * * * Beginning of Message * * * * *
Query Id:
3
Flags:
0000 0001 0000 0000
Number of Question RRs:
1
Question
1: hostvm.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM A IN
Number of Answer RRs:
0
Number of Authority RRs: 0
Number of Additional RRs: 0
* * * * * End of Message * * * * *
10/25/97 07:32:27 # 3 UDP Query Sent, Try: 1
10/25/97 07:32:27 # 3 Adding Request to Wait
10/25/97 07:32:28
UDP packet arrived, 50
* * * * * Beginning of Message * * * * *
Query Id:
3
Flags:
1000 0101 1000 0011
Number of Question RRs:
1
Question
1: hostvm.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM A IN
Number of Answer RRs:
0
Number of Authority RRs: 0
Number of Additional RRs: 0
* * * * * End of Message * * * * *
to NS(.1.) := 14.0.0.0
Queue
bytes, FullLength 50 bytes.
to NS(.1.) := 14.0.0.0
Queue
bytes, FullLength 50 bytes.
Figure 79. A Sample of an SMTP Resolver Trace (Part 2 of 2)
Sample Notification Trace
TCP/IP Notification Tracing is enabled via a TRACE NOTICE statement in the
SMTP CONFIG file. All TCP/IP notification events are traced to the console.
Figure 80 shows a sample of a notification trace.
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
12/10/97
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:14
22:59:15
22:59:15
22:59:16
22:59:16
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
TCP/IP
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Event
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
Notification:
I/O Interrupt
IUCV Interrupt
IUCV Interrupt
UDP Datagram Delivered
UDP Datagram Delivered
UDP Datagram Delivered
Connection State Changed
Data Delivered on Conn 1,
Data Delivered on Conn 1,
Data Delivered on Conn 1,
Data Delivered on Conn 1,
Data Delivered on Conn 1,
Data Delivered on Conn 1,
Connection State Changed
Connection State Changed
Connection State Changed
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
bytes
delivered=92
delivered=50
delivered=8
delivered=8
delivered=55
delivered=20
Figure 80. A Sample of a Notification Trace
Chapter 9. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Traces
153
SMTP Traces
Sample Connection Activity Trace
TCP/IP Connection Activity Tracing is enabled via a TRACE CONN statement in
the SMTP CONFIG file. All connection state changes are logged to the console.
Figure 81 shows a sample of a connection activity trace.
12/10/97 22:44:30
12/10/97 22:44:31
12/10/97 22:44:31
Connection State Change, Conn = 1, State = Open
Connection State Change, Conn = 1, State = Connection closing
Connection State Change, Conn = 1, State = Nonexistent
Figure 81. A Sample of a Connection Activity Trace
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Chapter 10. RPC Programs
This chapter describes Remote Procedure Call (RPC) programs, including call
messages and reply messages. For more information about RPC, see RFCs 1014
and 1057. This chapter also describes Portmapper.
General Information about RPC
The current version of RPC is Version 2. The layout for RPC messages is either a
CALL-MSG or REPLY-MSG. Both layouts need a transaction identifier (XID) to
identify and reliably map port numbers, and a field to identify whether the
message is a CALL-MSG or REPLY-MSG.
The following sections describe the structure of call and reply messages.
RPC Call Messages
The first word in a call message is the XID, the message identifier. The second
word indicates the type of message, which is 0 for a call message. Figure 82 shows
the structure of a call message. The offsets and their corresponding field
descriptions are:
Offset
Field Description
X'00'
XID, message identifier
X'04'
Type of message (0)
X'08'
RPC version
X'0C'
RPC program number
X'10'
Program version
X'14'
Procedure number
X'18'
Authentication credentials field
X'1C'
Byte length of Cred Data field
X'1C'+Cred-L
Authentication verifier (see Table 14 on page 156)
X'20'+Cred-L
Authentication verifier data length
Data field
Data specific to the procedure called.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
155
Remote Procedure Call Programs
Offset 0
4
8
C
┌────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
│
XID │00000000│RPC Ver │ Prog # │
├────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┤
│Prog Ver│ Proc # │ Cred │ Cred-L │
├────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┤
│
│
│
Cred Data
│
│
│
├────────┬────────┬─────────────────┤
│ Verf
│ Verf-L │
│
├────────┴────────┘
│
│
Vref Data
│
├───────────────────────────────────┤
│
│
│
Procedure specific Data
│
│
│
└───────────────────────────────────┘
Figure 82. RPC Call Message Structure
Table 14 describes the RPC credentials found in the Cred data field, shown in
Figure 82.
Table 14. RPC Credentials
Name
Number
Description
AUTH_NULL
0
The client does not know its identity or the server
does not need to know the identity of the client.
AUTH_UNIX
1
Client identifies itself as a UNIX system.
AUTH_SHORT
2
Used as an abbreviated authentication structure.
AUTH_DES
3
Used for a DES authentication.
RPC Reply Messages
The first word in a reply message is the XID. The second word indicates the type
of message, which is 1 for a reply message. There are two types of reply messages:
accepted and rejected. If the value of the reply_stat field is 0, the message has been
accepted. If the value of the reply_stat field is 1, the message has been rejected.
Accepted Reply Messages
Figure 83 shows the structure of an accepted reply message. The offsets and their
corresponding field descriptions are:
Offset Field Description
156
X'00'
XID, message identifier
X'04'
Type of message, 1
X'08'
Reply stat
X'0C'
Authentication verifier (see Table 14)
X'10'
Authentication verifier data byte length
X'14'
Accept_stat
X'18'
Acc_stat dependent data.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Remote Procedure Call Programs
Offset 0
4
8
C
┌────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
│
XID │00000001│Rep-stat│ Vref │
├────────┼────────┼────────┴────────┤
│ Vref-L │Acc-stat│
│
├────────┴────────┘
│
│
│
│
Procedure specific Data
│
│
│
└───────────────────────────────────┘
Figure 83. Structure of an RPC Accepted Reply Message
Acc_stat is a one word return code for NFS procedures that has a value described
in Table 15. If acc_stat=SUCCESS, the data is specific to the procedure. If
acc_stat=PROG_MISMATCH, two words with the latest and earliest supported
versions of the program are returned. For the other acc_stat values described in
Table 15, data is not returned. For more information about acc_stat values, see RFC
1057.
Table 15. RPC Accept_stat Values
Name
Number
Description
SUCCESS
0
RPC executed successfully.
PROG_UNAVAIL
1
Remote has not exported program.
PROG_MISMATCH
2
Program cannot support version number.
PROC_UNAVAIL
3
Program cannot support procedure.
GARBAGE_ARGS
4
Procedure cannot decode parameters.
Rejected Reply Messages
Figure 84 shows the structure of a rejected reply message. The offsets and their
corresponding field descriptions are:
Offset Field Description
X'00'
XID, message identifier
X'04'
Type of message, 1
X'08'
Reply_stat, 1
X'0C'
Reject_stat switch
X'10'
Reject_stat specific data.
Offset 0
4
8
C
┌────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
│
XID │00000001│00000001│Rej-stat│
├────────┴────────┴────────┴────────┤
│
Reject stat Dependent
│
└───────────────────────────────────┘
Figure 84. Structure of an RPC Rejected Reply Message
The reject_stat switch indicates the reason for a rejected reply message. If the value
of the reject_stat switch is 1, an RPC_MISMATCH, indicating that the version of
RPC is not supported, has occurred. The reject_stat dependent field, shown in
Figure 84, contains the latest and earliest RPC supported versions. If the value of
Chapter 10. RPC Programs
157
Remote Procedure Call Programs
the reject_stat switch is 0, an AUTH_ERROR, indicating an authentication error,
has occurred. The reject stat dependent field, shown in Figure 84, contains a one
word auth_stat value. Table 16 describes the auth_stat values. For more
information about auth_stat values, see RFC 1057.
Table 16. RPC Auth_stat Values
Name
Number
Description
AUTH_BACKRED
1
Bad credential, seal broken
AUTH_CTEDCRED
2
Client must begin new session
AUTH_ERF
3
Bad verifier, seal broken
AUTH_REJECTEDVERF
4
Verifier expired or replayed
AUTH_TOOWEAK
5
Rejected for security reasons
RPC Support
RPC supports the following functions:
Authentication
The mount service uses AUTH_UNIX and AUTH_NONE style
authentication only.
Transport Protocols
The mount service is supported on both UDP and TCP.
Port Number
Consult the server’s portmapper, described in RFC 1057, to find the port
number on which the mount service is registered. The port number is
usually 111.
Portmapper
Portmapper is a program that maps client programs to the port numbers of server
programs. The current version for RPC program 100000 (Portmapper) is Version 2.
For more information about Portmapper, see Appendix A of RFC 1057.
Portmapper Procedures
Table 17 describes Portmapper procedures.
Table 17. Portmapper Procedures
Name
158
Number
Description
PMAPROC_NULL
0
Procedure 0 is a dummy procedure that senses the
server.
PMAPROC_SET
1
Registers a program on Portmapper.
PMAPROC_UNSET
2
Removes a registered program from Portmapper.
PMAPROC_GETPORT
3
Gives client’s program and version number. The
server responds to the local port of the program.
PMAPROC_DUMP
4
Lists all entries in Portmapper. This is similar to
the RPCINFO command.
PMAPROC_CALLIT
5
Used by a client to call another remote procedure
on the same host without the procedure number.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis
RouteD is a server that implements the Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
described in RFC 1058 (RIP Version 1) and RFC 1723 (RIP Version 2). It provides an
alternative to static TCP/IP gateway definitions. When properly configured, the
z/VM host running with RouteD becomes an active RIP router in a TCP/IP
network. The RouteD server dynamically creates and maintains network routing
tables using RIP. This protocol allows gateways and routers to periodically
broadcast their routing tables to adjacent networks, and enables the RouteD server
to update its host routing table. For example, the RouteD server can determine if a
new route has been created, if a route is temporarily unavailable, or if a more
efficient route exists for a given destination.
Before RouteD was implemented for TCP/IP, static route tables were used for
routing IP datagrams over connected networks. However, the use of static routes
prevents a host from being readily able to respond to changes in the network. By
implementing the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) between a host and TCP/IP,
the RouteD server dynamically updates the internal routing tables when changes
to the network occur.
The RouteD server reacts to network topology changes on behalf of TCP/IP by
maintaining the host routing tables, processing and generating RIP datagrams, and
performing error recovery procedures.
Figure 85 on page 160 shows the RouteD environment.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
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RouteD Diagnosis
VM
SNMPD
ROUTED
TCPIP
3172
Token Ring
PS/2
TCPIP
ROUTED
SNMPREQD
Figure 85. RouteD Environment
The RouteD protocol is based on the exchange of RIP messages. There are two
types of messages:
v Request message - Sent from a client (another RIP router) as a request to
transmit all or part of the receiving host’s routing table.
v Response message - Sent from RouteD to a client (another RIP router)
containing all or part of the sending host’s routing table.
Incoming Datagram RouteD Processing
Only RIP datagrams are processed by the RouteD server, as opposed to the router
itself, which actually routes datagrams as previously described. Incoming RIP
datagrams contain one of the following commands:
v
v
v
v
Request
Response
Trace On
Trace Off
Incoming Request Datagrams
Request datagrams are requests from other routers for one or more of the
RouteD server’s routes. The internet addresses of the desired routes are
listed in the datagram. A special form of the Request datagram requests a
single route in an illegal address family (AF_UNSPEC) and lists a metric
(hop count) of 16, which is considered infinity in RIP. This request is
treated as a request for the server’s complete routing table.
Note: This form of request is issued by RouteD only during initialization.
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Incoming Response Datagrams
Response datagrams contain routing table entries, and are sent by routers
periodically and on demand. The RouteD server transmits a complete set
of routes on each attached network every thirty seconds, by using
Response datagrams.
Incoming Trace On and Trace Off Datagrams
Tracing is not officially supported in RIP, but these datagram types are
reserved and most RouteD servers choose to process them. Trace On turns
on tracing (or expands the amount of tracing currently in effect), and Trace
Off turns off tracing.
Outgoing Datagram RouteD Generation
The RouteD server transmits only Request and Response datagrams.
Outgoing Request Datagrams
Request datagrams are generated during RouteD startup, requesting
complete route tables from adjacent routers. This is the only time Request
datagrams are generated by RouteD. The other form of the Request
datagram is used by other applications to query the server route tables.
Outgoing Response Datagrams
The RouteD server transmits a complete set of routes to adjacent routers
every thirty seconds using Response datagrams. RouteD servers that are
started as passive routers collect data only; they provide routing
information only when requested via a port other than port 520.
In addition, the RouteD server replies to incoming Request datagrams by
sending Response datagrams containing the requested routing information.
RouteD Route Table and Interface List
RouteD maintains its own route table, which is similar to IP’s. While these two
tables must be synchronized, they do not need to be identical. There are cases
where routes are known to RouteD but are not known to IP, and other cases where
routes are known to IP but are not known to RouteD. Therefore, two tables must
be maintained. RouteD’s route table is implemented as a hash table, with doubly
linked lists used as hash chains to hold collisions.
RouteD also maintains an interface list, which contains all the active interfaces that
RouteD can use. When an interface’s three minute timer expires, that interface is
removed from the active interface list. When a datagram arrives on that interface,
it is again added to the active interface list. The RouteD interface list is
implemented as a linked list.
Diagnosing Problems
Problems with RouteD are generally reported under one of the following
categories:
v “Connection Problems” on page 162
v “PING Failures” on page 162
v “Incorrect Output” on page 163
v “Session Outages” on page 164
Use the information provided in the following sections for problem determination
and diagnosis of errors reported against RouteD.
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis
161
RouteD Diagnosis
Connection Problems
RouteD connection problems are reported when RouteD is unable to connect to
TCP/IP. Generally, this type of problem is caused by an error in the TCP/IP
configuration or supporting definitions.
In configurations with multiple stacks, a RouteD server must be started for each
stack that requires routing services. To associate with a particular stack, use the
PORT statement of the TCP/IP configuration file (PROFILE TCPIP) to define the
name of the RouteD server virtual machine that will service that stack. The user ID
of the RouteD server for a given stack must also be included in its OBEY list in
PROFILE TCPIP.
Documentation
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis of RouteD
connection problems:
v PROFILE TCPIP information
v TCPIP DATA information
v DTCPARMS information
v RouteD ETC GATEWAYS file information
v ROUTED CONFIG file information
v Trace output
Analysis
Refer to the TCP/IP Planning and Customization for problems related to TCP/IP
configuration.
Diagnostic steps for connection problems:
1. Verify the accuracy of the RouteD startup parameters that have been specified
in the DTCPARMS file.
2. Make sure that RouteD is configured correctly in the PROFILE TCPIP
information.
3. UDP port 520 must be reserved for RouteD. Verify that the assigned port
number and the RouteD server user ID are correct.
4. Ensure that TCPIP DATA designates the correct TCP/IP stack machine.
PING Failures
If the PING command fails on a system where RouteD is being used, a client is
unable to get a response to a PING command. Before doing anything else, run
NETSTAT GATE. This should tell you which gateways are configured. If no gateways
are configured, PING will not work. In addition to this, run NETSTAT DEVLINK, and
ensure that the device for the link of the address you are trying to PING is in
″Ready″ status. If the device status is ″Inactive″, PING will not work.
Documentation
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis of ping
failures:
v PROFILE TCPIP information
v NETSTAT GATE command results
More documentation that might be needed is described in the “Analysis” section.
Analysis
Table 18 on page 163 shows symptoms of ping failures and describes the steps
needed for initial diagnosis of the error.
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Table 18. RouteD ping Failures
ping Failure
Action Steps
Incorrect response
(ping timed out or
Network
Unreachable)
1. Make sure that the ping command contains a valid destination IP
address for the remote host.
If the destination IP address is a virtual IP address (VIPA), make
sure that VIPA is defined correctly. See the TCP/IP Planning and
Customization for information about rules and recommendations
for defining a virtual IP address.
2. Make sure that the router providing the RIP support involved in
the ping transaction is active and is running with a correct level
of some application that provides RIP support.
If the destination router is not running RIP, make sure that static
routes are defined from the destination router to the local host.
3. If the ping command was issued from a client on a z/VM server,
issue a NETSTAT GATE command to display the routing tables.
Verify that the routes and networks are correct as defined in
PROFILE TCPIP and the ETC GATEWAYS file. In addition, issue
a NETSTAT DEVLINK command to insure that the device associated
with the link for the desired IP address is in ″Ready″ status.
4. If the ping command was issued from a workstation operating
system, verify that the routes and networks are defined correctly
in the TCP/IP configuration and the ETC GATEWAYS file of
TCP/IP.
5. If there are no problems with the routes and networks, check for
broken or poorly-connected cables between the client and the
remote host. This includes checking the internet interfaces (such
as Token-Ring and Ethernet) on the server.
6. Consider whether changes may have taken place elsewhere in the
network. For example, if a second host has been added using the
same IP address as a host involved in routing your PING’s
packets, the packets may get misrouted and the PING will time
out. Likewise, failure to subnet when required can lead to
packets being incorrectly routed. Some routing hardware uses
more robust routing algorithms than others, so if hardware has
changed anywhere along the route of your PING, an
unsupported network configuration that previously functioned
might now fail.
Unknown Host
If the ping command was issued with a name, try again with the
actual IP address. If the ping command is successful with an IP
address, then the problem is with nameserving and not RouteD.
Incorrect Output
Problems with incorrect output are reported when the data sent to the client is not
seen in its expected form. This could be incorrect TCP/IP output, RIP commands
that are not valid, incorrect RIP broadcasting information, incorrect updates of
routing tables, or truncation of packets.
Documentation
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis of incorrect
output:
v TCP/IP and/or RouteD Messages
v Trace data
v PROFILE TCPIP information
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis
163
RouteD Diagnosis
Analysis
Table 19 shows symptoms of incorrect output and describes the actions needed for
initial diagnosis of the error.
Table 19. RouteD Incorrect Output
Incorrect Output
Action Steps
TCP/IP Incorrect Output
1. If the TCP/IP console shows a message, refer to TCP/IP
Messages and Codes and follow the directions for system
programmer response for the message.
2. In the event of TCP/IP loops or hangs, refer to the z/VM:
Diagnosis Guide.
RouteD Incorrect Output
If the RouteD console shows a message, refer to TCP/IP
Messages and Codes and follow the directions for system
programmer response for the message.
Session Outages
Session outages are reported as an unexpected abend or termination of a TCP/IP
connection.
Documentation
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis of session
outages:
v TCP/IP and/or RouteD Messages
v Trace data
v TCPIP PROFILE information
v NETSTAT GATE command results
Analysis
Table 20 shows symptoms of session outages and describes the steps needed for
initial diagnosis of the error.
Table 20. RouteD Session Outages
Session Outage
Action Steps
TCP/IP session
outage
1. If the TCP/IP console shows a TCP/IP error message, refer
toTCP/IP Messages and Codes and follow the directions for system
programmer response for the message.
2. In the event of a TCP/IP abend, refer to the z/VM: Diagnosis
Guide.
session outage
If an error message is displayed, refer to TCP/IP Messages and Codes
and follow the directions for system programmer response for the
message.
Activating RouteD Trace and Debug
RouteD trace facilities exist that can be useful in identifying the cause of routing
problems. This section discusses these trace and debug requests and how they can
be started and stopped.
The activation of trace facilities in RouteD is accomplished by specifying the
desired trace level parameter in addition to the usual processing parameters on
command invocation.
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You can initialize RouteD with the tracing option. The tracing option is set by
editing the DTCPARMS file, and specifying the necessary parameters for the
:Parms. tag of the DTCPARMS file.
RouteD Trace and Debug Commands
Purpose
Use the ROUTED command to enable the following trace and debug parameters.
ROUTED
–dp
(1)
–t
Notes:
The –t option can be repeated up to 4 times to achieve the desired level of
tracing.
1
Trace information is written to the spooled console of the server virtual machine.
The trace and debug parameters that can be specified for the RouteD server are:
Operands
–dp
Activates tracing of packets to and from adjacent routers in addition to RIP
network routing tables that are received and broadcasted. Packets are
displayed in data format. Output is written to the console.
–t Activates tracing of actions by the RouteD server.
–t –t
Activates tracing of actions and packets sent or received.
–t –t –t
Activates tracing of actions, packets sent or received, and packet history.
Circular trace buffers are used for each interface to record the history of all
packets traced. This history is included in the trace output whenever an
interface becomes inactive.
–t –t –t –t
Activates tracing of actions, packets sent or received, packet history, and packet
contents. The RIP network routing information is included in the trace output.
Note: Spaces are required between each –t parameter when more than one is
specified.
Usage Notes
1. For information on the remaining available RouteD parameters see the TCP/IP
Planning and Customization.
2. Parameters are separated by one or more blanks.
3. Parameters can be specified in mixed case.
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis
165
RouteD Diagnosis
RouteD Trace and Debug SMSG Commands
Purpose
Use the SMSG command to enable or disable RouteD trace and debug parameters
that may or may not have been specified at server initialization or on a previous
SMSG command. The {q} form of an operand deactivates the function associated
with that operand.
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SMSG server_id
HELP
PARMS TABLES
parms
Operands
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the virtual machine running the VM RouteD server.
HELP
Provides a list of valid SMSG commands accepted by RouteD.
PARMS
One or more of the following parameters separated by a space.
parms
–dp[q]
Activates tracing of packets to and from adjacent routers in addition to RIP
network routing tables that are received and broadcasted. Packets are
displayed in data format. Output is written to the console.
–dq
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Disables “–dp” tracing.
–t Activates tracing of actions by the RouteD server.
–t –t
Activates tracing of actions and packets sent or received.
–t –t –t
Activates tracing of actions, packets sent or received, and packet history.
Circular trace buffers are used for each interface to record the history of all
packets traced. This history is included in the trace output whenever an
interface becomes inactive.
–t –t –t –t
Activates tracing of actions, packets sent or received, packet history, and
packet contents. The RIP network routing information is included in the
trace output.
Note: Spaces are required between each –t parameter when more than one
is specified.
–tq
Disable all “–t” traces.
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TABLES
Activates the display of the following RouteD internal tables;
routing
RouteD’s routing tables
interface
Interface connections defined by ″Device and Link″ statements.
gateways options
Options as defined in the ″ETC GATEWAYS″ file
Note: This option is provided primarily for debugging purposes only.
Usage Notes
1. For information about other supported RouteD SMSG parameters see the
TCP/IP Planning and Customization.
Examples
The following SMSG command passes parameters to a RouteD server running in
the ROUTED2 virtual machine.
smsg routed2 parms –dp –t
Ready;
10:04:20 * MSG FROM ROUTED2 : PARMS –DP –T
Trace Output
Figure 86 shows an example of the output received from a RouteD server with
tracing enabled ( that is, the –dp –t –t –t –t parameter had been specified ).
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis
167
RouteD Diagnosis
DTCRUN1011E
DTCRUN1011E
DTCRTD4820I
DTCRTD4929I
DTCRTD4828I
DTCRTD4868I
DTCRTD4869I
DTCRTD4870I
DTCRTD4871I
DTCRTD4823I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD8488I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD8497I
DTCRTD8497I
DTCRTD8498I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4850I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4948I
DTCRTD4943I
DTCRTD4882I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4943I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4850I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4940I
DTCRTD4943I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4943I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4850I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4940I
DTCRTD4943I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4943I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4934I
DTCRTD4932I
DTCRTD4925I
DTCRTD4945I
DTCRTD4947I
DTCRTD4936I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4921I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4945I
DTCRTD4947I
DTCRTD4936I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4921I
DTCRTD4883I
DTCRTD4926I
DTCRTD4849I
Server started at 08:39:00 on 27 Jan 1999 (Wednesday)
Running "ROUTED -DP -T -T -T -T"
VM TCP/IP RouteD Server Level 320
Port 520 assigned to router
Input parameter(s): -DP -T -T -T -T
Tracing actions enabled Wed Jan 27 08:39:02 1999
Tracing packets enabled Wed Jan 27 08:39:02 1999
Tracing history enabled Wed Jan 27 08:39:02 1999
Tracing packet contents enabled Wed Jan 27 08:39:02 1999
Tracing debug packets enabled Wed Jan 27 08:39:02 1999
******************************************************
Opening RouteD config file (ROUTED CONFIG)
******************************************************
RIP_SUPPLY_CONTROL: RIP1
RIP_RECEIVE_CONTROL: ANY
RIP2 authentication disabled at router-wide level (all interfaces)
******************************************************
Processing interface TR1
******************************************************
This interface is not point-to-point
Adding network route for interface
Wed Jan 27 08:39:03 1999:
ADD destination 9.0.0.0, router 9.127.32.100, metric 1, flags UP, state INTERFACE|CHANGED|INTERNAL, timer 0
Adding subnetwork route for interface
ADD destination 9.127.32.0, router 9.127.32.100, metric 1, flags UP, state INTERFACE|CHANGED|SUBNET, timer 0
******************************************************
Processing interface PORTER
******************************************************
Point-to-point interface, using dstaddr
Adding subnetwork route for interface
ADD destination 9.127.68.20, router 9.127.68.21, metric 1, flags UP, state INTERFACE|CHANGED|SUBNET, timer 0
Adding host route for interface
ADD destination 9.127.68.22, router 9.127.68.21, metric 1, flags UP|HOST, state INTERFACE|CHANGED, timer 0
******************************************************
Processing interface STOUT
******************************************************
Point-to-point interface, using dstaddr
Adding subnetwork route for interface
ADD destination 9.127.68.24, router 9.127.68.25, metric 1, flags UP, state INTERFACE|CHANGED|SUBNET, timer 0
Adding host route for interface
ADD destination 9.127.68.26, router 9.127.68.25, metric 1, flags UP|HOST, state INTERFACE|CHANGED, timer 0
******************************************************
Opening ETC GATEWAYS file (ETC GATEWAYS)
******************************************************
Start of ETC GATEWAYS processing
ifwithnet: compare with PORTER
netmatch 9.127.68.22 and 9.127.68.21
Adding passive host route 9.127.68.22 via gateway 9.127.68.21, metric 1
DELETE destination 9.127.68.22, router 9.127.68.21, metric 1, flags UP|HOST, state INTERFACE|CHANGED, timer 0
Deleting route to interface PORTER? (timed out?)
ADD destination 9.127.68.22, router 9.127.68.21, metric 1, flags UP|HOST, state PASSIVE|INTERFACE|CHANGED, time
ifwithnet: compare with STOUT
netmatch 9.127.68.26 and 9.127.68.25
Adding passive host route 9.127.68.26 via gateway 9.127.68.25, metric 1
DELETE destination 9.127.68.26, router 9.127.68.25, metric 1, flags UP|HOST, state INTERFACE|CHANGED, timer 0
Deleting route to interface STOUT? (timed out?)
ADD destination 9.127.68.26, router 9.127.68.25, metric 1, flags UP|HOST, state PASSIVE|INTERFACE|CHANGED, time
End of ETC GATEWAYS processing
RouteD Server started
Figure 86. A sample RouteD Server Trace (Part 1 of 3)
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=============== Sending packet to client (length=24)
0000 01010000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000010 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
REQUEST to 9.127.32.255 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:18 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000010 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4903I
(request for full tables)
=============== Sending packet to client (length=24)
0000 01010000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000010 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
REQUEST to 9.127.68.22 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:21 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000010 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4903I
(request for full tables)
=============== Sending packet to client (length=24)
0000 01010000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000010 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
REQUEST to 9.127.68.26 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:21 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000010 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4903I
(request for full tables)
DTCRTD4829I Waiting for incoming packets
=============== Received packet from client (length=4)
0000 02010000 00000002 00eb24b0 00d33410
00000000 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
RESPONSE from 9.127.32.29 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:21 1999
=============== Received packet from client (length=24)
0000 02010000 00020000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000004 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
RESPONSE from 9.127.32.252 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:21 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00020000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000004 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4902I
destination 0.0.0.0 metric 4
DTCRTD4882I Wed Jan 27 08:39:23 1999:
DTCRTD4883I ADD destination 0.0.0.0, router 9.127.32.252, metric 5, flags UP|GATEWAY, state CHANGED|DEFAULT, timer 0
DTCRTD4829I Waiting for incoming packets
=============== Received packet from client (length=24)
0000 02010000 00020000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000004 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
RESPONSE from 9.127.32.251 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:24 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00020000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000004 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4902I
destination 0.0.0.0 metric 4
DTCRTD4829I Waiting for incoming packets
Figure 86. A sample RouteD Server Trace (Part 2 of 3)
Chapter 11. RouteD Diagnosis
169
RouteD Diagnosis
=============== Received packet from client (length=24)
0000 02010000 00020000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000004 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
RESPONSE from 9.127.32.249 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:36 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00020000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000004 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4902I
destination 0.0.0.0 metric 4
DTCRTD4829I Waiting for incoming packets
=============== Received packet from client (length=4)
0000 02010000 00020000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000005 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
RESPONSE from 9.127.32.29 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:38 1999
DTCRTD4829I Waiting for incoming packets
=============== Received packet from client (length=24)
0000 02010000 00020000 00000000 00000000
00000000 00000004 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4899I
RESPONSE from 9.127.32.250 -> 520 ver 1 Wed Jan 27 08:39:41 1999
=============== RIP net info (length=20)
0000 00020000 00000000 00000000 00000000
00000004 00000000 00000000 00000000
0020(32)
DTCRTD4902I
destination 0.0.0.0 metric 4
Figure 86. A sample RouteD Server Trace (Part 3 of 3)
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Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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MPROUTE implements the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol described in
RFC 1583 (OSPF Version 2) as well as the Routing Information Protocols (RIP)
described in RFC 1058 (RIP Version 1) and in RFC 1723 (RIP Version 2). MPROUTE
provides an alternative to the static TCP/IP gateway definitions. When configured
properly, the VM host running with MPROUTE becomes an active OSPF and/or
RIP router in a TCP/IP network. Either (or both) of these two routing protocols
can be used to dynamically maintain the host routing table. For example,
MPROUTE can determine that a new route has been created, that a route is
temporarily unavailable, or that a more efficient route exists.
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MPROUTE has the following characteristics:
v A one-to-one relationship exists between an instance of MPROUTE and a
TCP/IP stack.
v MPROUTE and ROUTED cannot run on the same TCP/IP stack concurrently.
v All dynamic routes are deleted from the routing table upon initialization of
MPROUTE.
v Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Redirects are ignored when
MPROUTE is active.
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v Unlike ROUTED, MPROUTE does not make use of the BSD Routing Parameters.
Instead, the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU), subnet mask, and destination
address parameters are configured via the OSPF_Interface, RIP_Interface, and
Interface statements in the MPROUTE configuration file.
v MPROUTE uses its virtual machine console for its logging and tracing. The
console is used for major events such as initialization, termination, error
conditions, the receipt and transmission of OSPF/RIP packets as well as
communications between MPROUTE and the TCP/IP stack.
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v If you want to communicate a routing protocol over an interface, configure the
interface to MPROUTE using the OSPF_Interface or RIP_Interface configuration
statement.
v Interfaces that are not involved in the communication of the RIP or OSPF
protocol (such as VIPA interfaces) must be configured to MPROUTE using the
INTERFACE configuration statement, unless it is a non-point-to-point interface
and all default values as specified on the Interface statement are acceptable.
v MPROUTE is enhanced with Virtual IP Addressing (VIPA) to handle network
interface failures by switching to alternate paths. The virtual routes are included
in the OSPF and RIP advertisements to adjacent routers. Adjacent routers learn
about virtual routes from the advertisements and can use them to reach the
destinations at the VM host.
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MPROUTE works best without static routes, and the use of static routes (defined
via the GATEWAY TCP/IP configuration statement) is not recommended. Static
routes may interfere with the discovery of a better route to the destination as well
as inhibit the ability to switch to another route if the destination should become
unreachable via the static route. For example, if you define a static host route
through one interface and that interface becomes unreachable, MPROUTE does not
acknowledge your static route and does not define a host route through an
alternate interface.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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If static routes must be defined, all static routes will be considered to be of equal
cost and static routes will not be replaced by OSPF or RIP routes. Use extreme care
when working with static routes and MPROUTE. Set IMPORT_STATIC_ROUTES =
YES on the AS_Boundary_Routing configuration statement or set
SEND_STATIC_ROUTES = YES on the RIP_Interface configuration statement if you
want the static routes to be advertised to other routers.
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MPROUTE must be defined correctly to TCP/IP. For detailed information about
TCP/IP definitions, refer to the chapter on configuring MPROUTE in the TCP/IP
Planning and Customization.
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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Problems with MPROUTE are generally reported under one of the following
categories:
v Abends
v MPROUTE connection problems
v Routing failures
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These categories are described in the following sections.
Abends
|
An abend during MPROUTE processing should result in messages and
error-related information being sent to the MPROUTE virtual machine’s console. A
dump of the error is needed unless the symptoms match a known problem.
|
|
|
MPROUTE Connection Problems
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
MPROUTE connection problems are reported when MPROUTE is unable to
connect to TCP/IP or to one of the ports required for OSPF or RIP communication.
Generally, an inability to connect to TCP/IP is caused by an error in the
configuration or definitions in TCP/IP. An inability to connect to one of the
required ports is generally caused by an error in the configuration or definitions in
TCP/IP or by attempting to start MPROUTE when either MPROUTE or ROUTED
is already connected to the specified stack.
|
|
If MPROUTE cannot communicate with the stack or is unable to initialize its
required ports, it issues an error message describing the problem and terminates.
Routing Failures
|
|
|
|
|
|
If a client is unable to reach its desired destination on a system where MPROUTE
is being used, the first step in diagnosis is to issue the NETSTAT GATE command.
This command displays the routes in the TCP/IP routing table and lets you
determine if the contents are as expected relative to the destination trying to be
reached.
|
|
|
|
|
Documenting Routing Failures
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis of routing
failures:
v The MPROUTE virtual machine’s console.
v Output from NETSTAT GATE.
v The file containing MPROUTE’s trace and debug information. For details, see
“MPROUTE Traces and Debug Information” on page 201.
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
v Output from appropriate MPROUTE SMSG commands as described in “Using
Privileged MPROUTE SMSG Commands”.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Analyzing Routing Failures
When analyzing routing failures, follow these guidelines:
v Make sure that the address used in attempting to contact the remote host is a
valid IP address.
v If the output from the NETSTAT GATE command does not show the expected
results relative to the desired destination, do one or more of the following:
– Make sure that the router(s) involved in providing information relative to this
destination are operational and participating in the correct routing protocol.
– Make sure that the physical connections involved in reaching the destination
are active.
– Use the MPROUTE SMSG commands described in “Using Privileged
MPROUTE SMSG Commands” to determine if anything in the configuration
or current state of MPROUTE has resulted in the absence of a route to the
destination.
|
|
|
|
|
|
Using Privileged MPROUTE SMSG Commands
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
The VM Special Message Facility (SMSG) command provides an interface for
authorized users to display OSPF and RIP configuration and state information.
Authorized users are defined in the OBEY list. See the OBEY statement in the
TCP/IP Planning and Customization chapter ″Configuring the TCP/IP Server″ for
more information on defining authorized users. SMSG command responses are
returned to the originator of the command. The following sections provide details
on the types of data that can be displayed as well as examples of the generated
output.
| Table 21.
| Command
Description
| SMSG OSPF LIST ALL
Lists all OSPF-related information.
174
| SMSG OSPF LIST AREAS
Lists all OSPF-related configured areas.
176
| SMSG OSPF LIST
| INTERFACES
Lists the IP address and configured
parameters for each OSPF interface.
177
| SMSG OSPF LIST NBMA
|
|
Lists the interface address and polling
interval for interfaces connected to
non-broadcast, multi-accessed networks.
178
Page
| SMSG OSPF LIST VLINKS Lists virtual links which have been
configured with this router as an endpoint.
|
178
| SMSG OSPF LIST
| NEIGHBORS
Lists neighbors to non-broadcast networks.
179
| SMSG OSPF LSA
|
Lists contents of a single link state
advertisement.
180
| SMSG OSPF AREASUM
|
Lists the statistics and parameters for all
OSPF areas attached to the router.
182
| SMSG OSPF EXTERNAL
|
Lists the AS external advertisements
belonging to the OSPF routing domain.
183
| SMSG OSPF DATABASE
|
Lists a description of the contents of a
particular OSPF area link state database.
184
| SMSG OSPF INTERFACE
|
Lists statistics and parameters related to
OSPF interfaces.
186
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
173
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
| Table 21. (continued)
| Command
Description
| SMSG OSPF NEIGHBOR
|
Lists statistics and parameters related to
OSPF neighbors.
188
| SMSG OSPF ROUTERS
|
|
Lists all routes to other routers that have
been calculated by OSPF and are now present
in the routing table.
190
| SMSG OSPF DBSIZE
|
Lists the number of LSAs currently in the
link state database, categorized by type.
191
| SMSG OSPF STATISTICS
|
Lists the statistics generated by the OSPF
protocol.
192
| SMSG RTTABLE
|
Lists all routes in the MPROUTE routing
table.
194
| SMSG RTTABLE DEST
Lists information about a particular route.
195
| SMSG RIP LIST ALL
|
Lists all RIP-related configuration
information.
196
| SMSG RIP LIST
| INTERFACES
Lists the IP address and configured
parameters for each RIP interface.
198
| SMSG RIP LIST
| ACCEPTED
Lists the routes to be unconditionally
accepted.
199
| SMSG RIP INTERFACE
|
Lists statistics and parameters related to RIP
interfaces.
200
| SMSG DEBUG and TRACE SMSG DEBUG changes the MPROUTE
|
internal debugging level. SMSG TRACE
|
changes the MPROUTE external tracing level.
|
Page
202
All OSPF Configuration Information
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LIST ALL
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
This SMSG command lists all OSPF-related information.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
DTCMPR7831I Global configuration
OSPF Protocol:
Enabled
External Comparison:
Type 2
AS boundary capability: Enabled
Import external routes: RIP DIR SUB
Orig. default route:
No
174
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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|
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|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Default route cost:
(1, Type 2)
Default forward. addr.: 0.0.0.0
Demand Circuits:
Enabled
DTCMPR7832I Area configuration
Area ID
AuType
0.0.0.0
0=None
2.2.2.2
0=None
--Area ranges-Area ID
Address
2.2.2.2
9.130.251.18
2.2.2.2
9.130.251.26
Stub
No
No
Default-cost Import-summaries
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mask
Advertise
255.255.255.240 Yes
255.255.255.240 Yes
DTCMPR7833I Interface configuration
IP address
Area
Cost Rtrns
10.0.0.16
0.0.0.0
1
5
9.130.249.46
0.0.0.0
7
5
9.130.251.26
0.0.0.0
5
5
TrnsDly Pri
1
1
1
3
1
2
DTCMPR7836I Virtual link configuration
Virtual endpoint
Transit area
Rtrns
9.130.251.25
0.0.0.1
20
TrnsDly Hello Dead
5
40
160
DTCMPR7835I NBMA configuration
Interface Addr
9.130.249.46
Hello
20
20
20
Dead
80
80
80
Poll Interval
120
DTCMPR7834I Neighbor configuration
Neighbor Addr
Interface Address
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.26
9.130.48.107
9.130.251.26
DR eligible
Yes
No
|
OSPF Protocol
Displays that OSPF is enabled or disabled.
|
|
|
|
External Comparison
Displays the external route type used by OSPF
when importing external information into the OSPF
domain and when comparing OSPF external routes
to RIP routes.
|
|
AS boundary capability
Indicates whether the router will import external
routes into the OSPF domain.
|
|
|
Import external routes
Indicates the types of external routes that will be
imported into the OSPF domain. Displayed only
when AS Boundary Capability is enabled.
|
|
|
|
Orig default route
Indicates whether the router will originate a
default route into the OSPF domain. The Originate
Default Route is displayed only when AS
Boundary Capability is enabled.
|
|
|
Default route cost
Displays the cost and type of the default route (if
advertised). The Default Route Cost is displayed
only when AS Boundary Capability is enabled.
|
|
|
|
Default forward addr
Displays the forwarding address specified in the
default route (if advertised). The Default
Forwarding Address is displayed only when AS
Boundary Capability is enabled.
|
|
Demand Circuits
Indicates whether demand circuit support is
available for OSPF interfaces.
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
175
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
The remainder of the SMSG <server_id> OSPF LIST ALL output is described in the
following sections:
|
|
Configured OSPF Areas and Ranges
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LIST AREAS
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command lists all information concerning configured OSPF areas and
their associated ranges.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
Area ID
Displays the area ID.
|
|
|
AuType
Displays the method used for area authentication.
“Simple-pass” means a simple password scheme is
being used for the area authentication.
|
Stub
Indicates whether the area is a stub area.
|
|
Default cost
Displays the cost of the default route configured
for the stub area.
|
|
Import summaries
Indicates whether summary advertisements are to
be imported.
|
|
Address
Displays the network address for a given range
within an area.
|
|
Mask
Displays the subnet mask for a given range within
an area.
|
|
Advertise
Indicates whether a given range within an area is
to be advertised.
DTCMPR7832I Area configuration
Area ID
AuType
0.0.0.0
0=None
2.2.2.2
0=None
--Area ranges-Area ID
Address
2.2.2.2
9.130.251.18
2.2.2.2
9.130.251.26
176
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Stub
No
No
Default-cost Import-summaries
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mask
Advertise
255.255.255.240 Yes
255.255.255.240 Yes
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
Configured OSPF Interfaces
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LIST INTERFACES
(1)
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command lists the IP address and configured parameters for each
OSPF interface.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
IP address
Indicates the IP address of the interface.
|
|
Area
Indicates the OSPF area to which the interface
attaches.
|
|
Cost
Indicates the TOS(type of service) 0 cost (or metric)
associated with the interface.
|
|
|
Rtrns
Indicates the retransmission interval, which is the
number of seconds between retransmissions of
unacknowledged routing information.
|
|
|
|
TrnsDly
Indicates the transmission delay, which is an
estimate of the number of seconds required to
transmit routing information over the interface.
The number of seconds must be greater than zero.
|
|
Pri
Indicates the interface router priority, which is used
when selecting the designated router.
|
|
Hello
Indicates the number of seconds between Hello
Packets sent from the interface.
|
|
Dead
Indicates the number of seconds after Hellos cease
to be heard that the router is declared down.
The keyword IFS can be substituted for INTERFACES
DTCMPR7833I Interface configuration
IP address
Area
Cost Rtrns
10.0.0.16
0.0.0.0
1
5
9.130.249.46
0.0.0.0
7
5
9.130.251.26
0.0.0.0
5
5
TrnsDly Pri
1
1
1
3
1
2
Hello
20
20
20
Dead
80
80
80
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
177
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
Configured OSPF Non-broadcast, Multi-access Networks
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LIST NBMA
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command lists the interface address and polling interval related to
interfaces connected to non-broadcast, multi-access networks.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
|
Interface Addr
Indicates the IP address of the interface.
|
|
|
Poll Interval
Indicates the frequency (in seconds) of hello’s sent to neighbors that are
inactive.
DTCMPR7835I NBMA configuration
Interface Addr
9.130.249.46
Poll Interval
120
Configured OSPF Virtual Links
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LIST VLINKS
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command lists all virtual links that have been configured with this
router as the endpoint.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
DTCMPR7836I Virtual link configuration
Virtual endpoint
Transit area
Rtrns
9.130.251.25
0.0.0.1
20
178
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TrnsDly Hello Dead
5
40
160
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
Virtual endpoint
Indicates the OSPF router ID of the other endpoint.
|
|
|
|
Transit area
Indicates the non-backbone area through which the
virtual link is configured. Virtual links are treated
by the OSPF protocol similarly to point-to-point
networks.
|
|
|
Rtrns
Indicates the retransmission interval, which is the
number of seconds between retransmissions of
unacknowledged routing information.
|
|
|
|
TrnsDly
Indicates the transmission delay, which is an
estimate of the number of seconds required to
transmit routing information over the interface.
The number of seconds must be greater than zero.
|
|
Hello
Indicates the number of seconds between Hello
Packets sent from the interface.
|
|
Dead
Indicates the number of seconds after Hellos cease
to be heard that the router is declared down.
|
Configured OSPF Neighbors
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LIST NEIGHBORS
(1)
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
This SMSG command lists the neighbors to non-broadcast networks.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
Neighbor Addr
Indicates the IP address of the neighbor.
|
|
Interface Address
Indicates the IP address of the interface to the
neighbor.
|
|
DR eligible
Indicates whether the neighbor is eligible to
become the designated router on the net.
The keyword NBRS can be substituted for NEIGHBORS.
DTCMPR7834I Neighbor configuration
Neighbor Addr
Interface Address
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.26
9.130.48.107
9.130.251.26
DR eligible
Yes
No
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
179
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
OSPF Link State Advertisement
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF LSA LSTYPE=ls_type LSID=lsid
|
|
|
|
ORIGINATOR=ad_router
(1)
AREAID=area_id
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command displays the contents of a single link state advertisement
contained in the OSPF database.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
|
|
LSTYPE=ls_type
Specifies the link state type of the link state advertisement. Valid values are 1
thru 5.
|
|
|
LSID=lsid
Specifies the link state ID of the link state advertisement in dotted decimal
form.
|
|
|
ORIGINATOR=ad_router
Specifies the IP address (in dotted decimal form) of the router that originated
the link state advertisement.
|
|
AREAID=area_id
Specifies the OSPF area address in dotted decimal form.
|
|
|
For a summary of all the advertisements in the OSPF database, use the following
command:
|
|
|
|
|
A link state advertisement is defined by its link state type, link state ID and its
advertising router. There is a separate link state database for each OSPF area.
Providing an area-id on the command line tells the software which database you
want to search. The different kinds of advertisements, which depend on the value
given for link-state-type, are:
The keyword ORIG can be substituted for ORIGINATOR.
SMSG <server_id> OSPF DATABASE AREAID=<area_id>
| Table 22.
| Links
Link-State
Description
| Router
1
Describes the collected states of a router’s interfaces
|
Network
2
Describes the set of routers attached to a network
|
Summary, IP network
3
Describes the inter-area routes to networks
|
Summary, ASBR
4
Describes the inter-area routes to AS boundary routers
180
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
| Table 22. (continued)
| Links
Link-State
| AS external
|
5
Description
Describes routes to destinations external to the Autonomous System
|
|
|
|
|
Note: The ORIGINATOR only needs to be specified for link-state-types three, four,
and five. The AREAID needs to be specified for all link-state-types except five.
Link State IDs, originators (specified by their router IDs), and area IDs take
the same format as IP addresses. For example, the backbone area can be
entered as 0.0.0.0
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
DTCMPR7880I LSA Details
LS age:
947
LS options
E,MC
LS type:
1
LS destination (ID): 9.130.249.46
LS originator:
9.130.249.46
LS sequence no: 0x80000002
LS checksum:
0xb0d0
LS length:
36
Router type: ABR
# router ifcs:
1
Link ID:
9.130.251.25
Link Data:
9.130.251.26
Interface type:
4
No. of metrics: 0
TOS 0 metric:
5 (0)
|
LS age
Indicates the age of the advertisement in seconds.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
LS options
Indicates the optional OSPF capabilities supported
by the piece of the routing domain described by
the advertisement. These capabilities are denoted
by E (processes type 5 externals; when this is not
set, the area to which the advertisement belongs
has been configured as a stub), T (can route based
on TOS), MC (can forward IP multicast datagrams),
and DC (can support demand circuits).
|
|
|
|
|
LS type
Classifies the advertisement and dictates its
contents: 1 (router links advertisement), 2 (network
link advertisement), 3 (summary link
advertisement), 4 (summary ASBR advertisement),
5 (AS external link).
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
LS destination
Identifies what is being described by the
advertisement. It depends on the advertisement
type. For router links and ASBR summaries, it is
the OSPF router ID. For network links, it is the IP
address of the network designated router. For
summary links and AS external links, it is a
network/subnet number.
|
LS originator
OSPF router ID of the originating router.
|
|
LS sequence number
Used to distinguish separate instances of the same
advertisement. Should be looked at as a signed
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
181
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
32-bit integer. Starts at 0x80000001, and increments
by one each time the advertisement is updated.
|
|
|
|
LS checksum
A checksum of advertisement contents, used to
detect data corruption.
|
LS length
The size of the advertisement in bytes.
|
|
|
|
|
Router type
Indicates the level of function of the advertising
router. ASBR means that the router is an AS
boundary router, ABR that the router is an area
border router, and W that the router is a wildcard
multicast receiver.
|
|
# router ifcs
The number of router interfaces described in the
advertisement.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Link ID
Indicates what the interface connects to. Depends
on Interface type. For interfaces to routers (that is,
point-to-point links), the Link ID is the neighbor’s
router ID. For interfaces to transit networks, it is
the IP address of the network designated router.
For interfaces to stub networks, it is the network’s
network/subnet number.
|
|
|
|
|
Link Data
Four bytes of extra information concerning the link,
it is either the IP address of the interface (for
interfaces to point-to-point networks and transit
networks), or the subnet mask (for interfaces to
stub networks).
|
|
|
|
Interface type
One of the following: 1 (point-to-point connection
to another router), 2 (connection to transit
network), 3 (connection to stub network), or 4
(virtual link).
|
|
|
No. of metrics
The number of nonzero TOS (Type of Service)
values for which metrics are provided for this
interface.
|
|
TOS(Type of Service) 0 metric
|
|
|
|
|
The LS age, LS options, LS type, LS destination, LS originator, LS sequence no, LS
checksum and LS length fields are common to all advertisements. The Router type
and # router ifcs are seen only in router links advertisements. Each link in the
router advertisement is described by the Link ID, Link Data, and Interface type
fields.
The cost of the interface.
OSPF Area Statistics and Parameters
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF AREASUM
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
182
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
This SMSG command displays the statistics and parameters for all OSPF areas
attached to the router.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
DTCMPR7848I Area Summary
Area ID
Authentication
0.0.0.0
None
2.2.2.2
None
#ifcs
1
2
|
Area ID
Indicates the ID of the area.
|
|
Authentication
Indicates the authentication method being used by
the area.
|
|
|
# ifcs
Indicates the number of router interfaces attached
to the particular area. These interfaces are not
necessarily functional.
|
|
|
# nets
Indicates the number of transit networks that have
been found while doing the SPF tree calculation for
this area.
|
|
|
# rtrs
Indicates the number of routers that have been
found when doing the SPF tree calculation for this
area.
|
|
|
# brdrs
Indicates the number of area border routers that
have been found when doing the SPF tree
calculation for this area.
|
|
Demand
Indicates whether demand circuits are supported in
this area.
|
#nets
0
0
#rtrs
2
1
#brdrs Demand
1 On
1 On
OSPF External Advertisements
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF EXTERNAL
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
|
|
|
|
This SMSG command lists the AS external advertisements belonging to the OSPF
routing domain. One line is printed for each advertisement. Each advertisement is
defined by the following three parameters:
|
OPERANDS
v Its link state type (always five for AS external advertisements)
v Its link state ID (called the LS destination)
v The advertising router (called the LS originator)
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
183
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
Type
Always 5 for AS external advertisements.
|
|
@
Indicates whether the originator of the LSA
supports demand circuits.
|
|
|
LS destination
Indicates an IP network/subnet number. These
network numbers belong to other Autonomous
Systems.
|
|
LS originator
Indicates the router that originated the
advertisement.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Seqno Age Xsum
It is possible for several instances of an
advertisement to be present in the OSPF routing
domain at any one time. However, only the most
recent instance is kept in the OSPF link state
database (and printed by this command). The LS
sequence number (Seqno), LS age (Age) and LS
checksum (Xsum) fields are compared to see which
instance is most recent. The LS age field is
expressed in seconds. Its maximum value is 3600.
|
|
|
|
|
At the end of the display, the total number of AS external advertisement is printed,
along with a checksum total over all of their contents. The checksum total is
simply the 32-bit sum (carries discarded) of the individual advertisement LS
checksum fields. This information can be used to quickly determine whether two
OSPF routers have synchronized databases.
DTCMPR7853I Area Link State Database
Type LS destination
LS originator
5 @0.0.0.0
9.130.48.107
5 @9.130.248.112
9.130.48.107
5 @10.0.0.0
9.130.48.107
# advertisements:
Checksum total:
Seqno
0x80000031
0x80000031
0x80000009
3
0xea9c
Age
Xsum
1776 0x554a
1776 0x6a0a
1379 0x2b48
OSPF Area Link State Database
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF DATABASE AREAID=area_id
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
|
|
This SMSG command displays a description of the contents of a particular OSPF
area link state database. AS external advertisements are omitted from the display.
A single line is printed for each advertisement. Each advertisement is defined by
the following three parameters:
v Its link state type (called Type)
v Its link state ID (called the LS destination)
|
|
184
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
v The advertising router (called the LS originator)
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
|
AREAID=area_id
Specifies the OSPF area address in dotted decimal form.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
|
|
|
Type
Separate LS types are numerically displayed: type
1 (router links advertisements), type 2 (network
links advertisements), type 3 (network summaries),
and type 4 (AS boundary router summaries).
|
|
*
Indicates whether the originator of the LSA
supports multicast OSPF function.
|
|
@
Indicates whether the originator of the LSA
supports demand circuits.
|
|
LS destination
Indicates what is being described by the
advertisement.
|
|
LS originator
Indicates the router that originated the
advertisement
|
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|
|
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|
|
Seqno Age Xsum
It is possible for several instances of an
advertisement to be present in the OSPF routing
domain at any one time. However, only the most
recent instance is kept in the OSPF link state
database (and printed by this command). The LS
sequence number (Seqno), LS age (Age) and LS
checksum (Xsum) fields are compared to see which
instance is most recent. The LS age field is
expressed in seconds. Its maximum value is 3600.
|
|
|
|
|
At the end of the display, the total number of advertisements in the area database
is printed, along with a checksum total over all of their contents. The checksum
total is simply the 32-bit sum (carries discarded) of the individual advertisement
LS checksum fields. This information can be used to quickly determine whether
two OSPF routers have synchronized databases.
DTCMPR7853I Area Link State Database
Type LS destination
LS originator
1*@9.130.48.71
9.130.48.71
1*@9.130.48.107
9.130.48.107
1 @9.130.176.198
9.130.176.198
1 @9.130.249.46
9.130.249.46
1 @9.130.251.90
9.130.251.90
2*@9.130.48.107
9.130.48.107
2*@9.130.176.1
9.130.48.71
2*@9.130.251.89
9.130.48.107
# advertisements:
Checksum total:
Seqno
0x80000046
0x80000063
0x80000014
0x80000002
0x8000000f
0x8000000d
0x80000001
0x8000000f
8
0x4de53
Age
1554
1188
1548
2949
1757
841
1554
187
Xsum
0xc449
0x630c
0xe0f8
0xb0d0
0x7627
0x4968
0xf2fc
0x72ab
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
185
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
OSPF Interface Statistics and Parameters
|
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF INTERFACE
(1)
NAME=if_name
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
|
|
This SMSG command displays statistics and parameters related to OSPF interfaces.
If no NAME= parameter is given (see Example 1), a single line is printed
summarizing each interface. If NAME= parameter is given (see Example 2), detailed
statistics for that interface will be displayed.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
|
|
NAME=if_name
Specifies the name of the interface for which detailed statistics will be
displayed.
|
EXAMPLES
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Sample outputs with explanations of entries follow:
|
Ifc Address
Interface IP address.
|
Phys
Displays the interface name.
|
assoc. Area
Attached area ID.
|
|
|
|
|
Type
Can be either Brdcst (broadcast, for example, an
Ethernet interface), P-P (a point-to-point
network-for example, a synchronous serial line),
Multi (non-broadcast, multi-access-for example, an
X.25 connection), or VLink (an OSPF virtual link).
|
|
|
|
State
Can be one of the following: 1 (down), 2 (backup),
4 (looped back), 8 (waiting), 16 (point-to-point), 32
(DR other), 64 (backup DR), or 128 (designated
router).
|
|
|
#nbrs
Number of neighbors. This is the number of
routers whose hellos have been received, plus
those that have been configured.
The keyword IF can be substituted for INTERFACE.
---- Example 1 ---DTCMPR7849I Interfaces
Ifc Address
Phys
assoc. Area
10.0.0.16
IUCVLK16 0.0.0.0
9.130.249.46
VCTC16
2.2.2.2
9.130.251.26
TR2
2.2.2.2
186
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Type
State
P-P
1
P-P
16
Brdcst 128
#nbrs
0
0
2
#adjs
0
0
0
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
Number of adjacencies. This is the number of
neighbors in state Exchange or greater. These are
the neighbors with whom the router has
synchronized or is in the process of
synchronization.
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|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
#adjs
|
Interface address
Interface IP address.
|
Attached area
Attached area ID.
|
Physical interface
Displays interface name.
|
Interface mask
Displays interface subnet mask.
|
|
|
|
|
Interface type
Can be either Brdcst (broadcast-for example, an
Ethernet interface), P-P (a point-to-point
network-for example, a synchronous serial line),
Multi (non-broadcast, multi-access-for example, an
X.25 connection) or VLink (an OSPF virtual link).
|
|
|
|
State
Can be one of the following: 1 (down), 2 (backup),
4 (looped back), 8 (waiting), 16 (point-to-point), 32
(DR other), 64 (backup DR), or 128 (designated
router).
|
Designated Router
IP address of the designated router.
|
Backup DR
IP address of the backup designated router.
|
|
DR Priority
Displays the interface router priority used when
selecting the designated router.
|
Hello interval
Displays the current hello interval value.
|
Rxmt interval
Displays the current retransmission interval value.
|
Dead interval
Displays the current dead interval value.
|
TX delay
Displays the current transmission delay value.
|
Poll interval
Displays the current poll interval value.
|
Demand circuit
Displays the current demand circuit status.
---- Example 2 ---DTCMPR7850I Interface Details
Interface address:
Attached area:
Physical interface:
Interface mask:
Interface type:
State:
Designated Router:
Backup DR:
DR Priority:
2 Hello interval:
Dead interval:
40 TX delay:
Demand circuit: Off Hello suppress:
Max pkt size:
1500 TOS 0 cost:
# Neighbors:
# Mcast floods:
MC forwarding:
1 # Adjacencies:
4 # Mcast acks:
Off
9.130.251.26
0.0.0.0
TR2
255.255.255.248
Brdcst
64
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.26
10 Rxmt interval:
1 Poll interval:
Off Suppress Req:
5
1
2
# Full adjs.:
DL unicast:
5
0
Off
1
Off
Network Capabilities:
Broadcast
Demand-Circuits
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
187
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
Hello suppress
Displays whether Hello Suppression is currently on
or off.
|
|
Suppress req
Displays whether Hello Suppression was
requested.
|
|
Max pkt size
Displays the maximum size for an OSPF packet
sent out this interface.
|
TOS(Type of Service) 0 cost
Displays the interface TOS(Type of Service) 0 cost.
|
|
|
# Neighbors
Number of neighbors. This is the number of
routers whose hellos have been received, plus
those that have been configured.
|
|
# Adjacencies
Number of adjacencies. This is the number of
neighbors in state Exchange or greater.
|
|
|
# Full adj
Number of full adjacencies. This is the number of
neighbors whose state is Full (and therefore with
which the router has synchronized databases).
|
|
# Mcast floods
Number of link state updates flooded out the
interface (not counting retransmissions).
|
|
# Mcast acks
Number of link state acknowledgments flooded out
the interface (not counting retransmissions).
|
DL unicast
OSPF packets will be sent as unicast if ON.
|
MC forwarding
If Multicast Forwarding is enabled or not.
|
Network Capabilities
Displays the capabilities of the interface.
OSPF Neighbor Statistics and Parameters
|
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF NEIGHBOR
(1)
IPADDR=ip_addr
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
|
|
This SMSG command displays the statistics and parameters related to OSPF
neighbors. If no IPADDR= parameter is given (see Example 1), a single line is
printed summarizing each neighbor. If an IPADDR= parameter is given (see Example
2), detailed statistics for that neighbor are displayed.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
|
|
ip_addr
Specifies the IP address (in dotted decimal form) of the neighbor for which
detailed statistics will be displayed.
188
The keyword NBR can be substituted for NEIGHBOR.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
EXAMPLES
|
|
|
|
|
|
Following are sample outputs with explanations of entries:
---- Example 1 ---DTCMPR7851I Neighbor Summary
Neighbor addr
Neighbor ID
9.130.251.25
9.130.48.107
State LSrxl DBsum LSreq HSup Ifc
128
0
0
0 Off TR2
|
Neighbor addr
Displays the neighbor address.
|
Neighbor ID
Displays the neighbor OSPF router ID.
|
|
|
State
Can be one of the following: 1 (Down), 2
(Attempt), 4 (Init), 8 (2-Way), 16 (ExStart), 32
(Exchange), 64 (Loading), or 128 (Full).
|
|
LSrxl
Displays the size of the current link state
retransmission list for this neighbor.
|
|
DBsum
Displays the size of the database summary list
waiting to be sent to the neighbor.
|
|
LSreq
Displays the number of more recent advertisements
that are being requested from the neighbor.
|
|
HSup
Displays whether Hello Suppression is active with
the neighbor.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Ifc
Displays the interface shared by the router and the
neighbor.
|
Neighbor IP address
Neighbor IP address.
|
OSPF Router ID
Neighbor OSPF router ID.
|
|
|
Neighbor State
Can be one of the following: 1 (Down), 2
(Attempt), 4 (Init), 8 (2-Way), 16 (ExStart), 32
(Exchange), 64 (Loading), or 128 (Full).
|
|
Physical interface
Displays interface name of the router and neighbor
common interface.
|
|
|
DR choice, Backup choice, DR Priority
Indicate the values seen in the last hello received
from the neighbor.
|
|
|
Nbr options
---- Example 2 ---DTCMPR7852I Neighbor Details
Neighbor IP address:
9.130.251.25
OSPF Router ID:
9.130.48.107
Neighbor State:
128
Physical interface:
TR2
DR choice:
9.130.251.25
Backup choice:
9.130.251.26
DR Priority:
1
Nbr options:
E,MC
DB summ qlen:
0 LS rxmt qlen:
0 LS req qlen:
Last hello:
7 No hello:
Off
# LS rxmits:
0 # Direct acks:
0 # Dup LS rcvd:
# Old LS rcvd:
0 # Dup acks rcvd:
0 # Nbr losses:
# Adj. resets:
0
0
0
0
Indicates the optional OSPF capabilities supported
by the neighbor. These capabilities are denoted by
E (processes type 5 externals; when this is not set
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
189
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
the area to which the common network belongs
has been configured as a stub), T (can route based
on TOS), MC (can forward IP multicast datagrams),
and DC (can support demand circuits). This field is
valid only for those neighbors in state Exchange or
greater.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
DB summ qlen
Indicates the number of advertisements waiting to
be summarized in Database Description packets. It
should be zero except when the neighbor is in state
Exchange.
|
|
|
LS rxmt qlen
Indicates the number of advertisements that have
been flooded to the neighbor, but not yet
acknowledged.
|
|
|
LS req qlen
Indicates the number of advertisements that are
being requested from the neighbor in state
Loading.
|
|
Last hello
Indicates the number of seconds since a hello has
been received from the neighbor.
|
|
No hello
Indicates whether Hello Suppression is active with
the neighbor.
|
|
# LS rxmits
Indicates the number of retransmissions that have
occurred during flooding.
|
|
# Direct acks
Indicates responses to duplicate link state
advertisements.
|
|
# Dup LS rcvd
Indicates the number of duplicate retransmissions
that have occurred during flooding.
|
|
# Old LS rcvd
Indicates the number of old advertisements
received during flooding.
|
|
# Dup acks rcvd
Indicates the number of duplicate
acknowledgments received.
|
|
# Nbr losses
Indicates the number of times the neighbor has
transitioned to Down state.
|
# Adj. resets
Counts entries to state ExStart.
OSPF Router Routes
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF ROUTERS
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command displays all routes to other routers that have been calculated
by OSPF and are now present in the routing table.
|
OPERANDS
190
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with an explanation of entries follows:
|
DType
DTCMPR7855I
DType RType
ASBR SPF
Fadd SPF
Fadd SPF
OSPF Routers
Destination
9.130.48.107
9.130.48.254
9.130.48.71
Area
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Cost
7
7
1
Next hop(s)
9.130.176.1
9.130.176.1
9.130.176.1
Indicates the destination type:
|
ASBR Indicates that the destination is an AS boundary router.
|
ABR
Indicates that the destination is an area border router.
|
Fadd
Indicates a forwarding address (for external routes).
|
RType
Indicates the route type and how the route was derived:
|
|
SPF
Indicates that the route is an intra-area route (comes from
the Dijkstra calculation).
|
|
SPIA
Indicates that it is an inter-area route (comes from
considering summary link advertisements).
|
Destination
Indicates the destination router’s OSPF identification.
|
Area
Displays the AS area to which it belongs.
|
Cost
Displays the cost to reach the router.
|
|
Next hop
Indicates the address of the next router on the path toward the
destination host.
|
OSPF Link State Database Statistics
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF DBSIZE
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command displays the number of LSAs currently in the link state
database, categorized by type.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
The following is a sample output:
DTCMPR7854I Link State Database Size
# Router-LSAs:
# Network-LSAs:
3
2
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
191
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Summary-LSAs:
Summary Router-LSAs:
AS External-LSAs:
Intra-area routes:
Inter-area routes:
Type 1 external routes:
Type 2 external routes:
10
1
5
10
0
0
3
OSPF Routing Protocol Statistics
|
|
|
SMSG server_id OSPF STATISTICS
(1)
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
|
|
This SMSG command displays statistics generated by the OSPF routing protocol.
The statistics indicate how well the implementation is performing, including its
memory and network utilization. Many of the fields displayed are confirmation of
the OSPF configuration.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output with explanations of entries follows:
The keyword STATS can be substituted for STATISTICS.
DTCMPR7856I OSPF Statistics
OSPF Router ID:
External Comparison:
AS boundary capability:
Import external routes:
Orig. default route:
Default route cost:
Default forward. addr.:
Attached areas:
OSPF packets rcvd w/errs:
Transit nodes freed:
LS adv. freed:
Queue headers avail:
# Dijkstra runs:
Incremental VL updates:
Unicast pkts sent:
LS adv. flushed:
Incremental ext. updates:
2
0
13
18
32
2
0
5
0
3
External LSA database:
Current state:
192
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Normal
9.130.249.46
Type 2
Yes
RIP DIR SUB
No
(1, Type 2)
0.0.0.0
OSPF packets rcvd:
Transit nodes allocated:
LS adv. allocated:
Queue headers alloc:
Maximum LSA size:
Incremental summ. updates:
Multicast pkts sent:
LS adv. aged out:
Ptrs to Invalid LS adv:
40
18
34
32
1452
0
64
0
0
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
|
|
Number of LSAs:
Number of overflows:
5
0
|
OSPF Router ID
Displays the router OSPF ID.
|
|
External Comparison
Displays the external route type used by the router
when importing external routes.
|
AS boundary capability
Displays whether external routes will be imported.
|
Import external routes
Displays the external routes that will be imported.
|
|
Orig. default route
Displays whether the router will advertise an OSPF
default route.
|
|
Default route cost
Displays the cost and type of the default route (if
advertised).
|
|
Default forward addr
Displays the forwarding address specified in the
default route (if advertised).
|
|
Attached areas
Indicates the number of areas that the router has
active interfaces to.
|
OSPF packets rcvd
Covers all types of OSPF protocol packets.
|
|
Transit nodes
Allocated to store router links and network links
advertisements.
|
|
LS adv
Allocated to store summary link and AS external
link advertisements.
|
|
|
|
|
Queue headers
Form lists of link state advertisements. These lists
are used in the flooding and database exchange
processes; if the number of queue headers allocated
is not equal to the number freed, database
synchronization with some neighbor is in progress.
|
|
Maximum LSA size
The size of the largest link state advertisement that
can be sent.
|
|
# Dijkstra runs
Indicates how many times the OSPF routing table
has been calculated from scratch.
|
|
|
|
Incremental summ updates, Incremental VL updates
Indicate that new summary link advertisements
have caused the routing table to be partially
rebuilt.
|
|
Multicast pkts sent
Covers OSPF hello packets and packets sent during
the flooding procedure.
|
|
Unicast pkts sent
Covers OSPF packet retransmissions and the
Database Exchange procedure.
|
|
|
|
LS adv. aged out
Indicates the number of advertisements that have
hit 60 minutes. Link state advertisements are aged
out after 60 minutes. Usually they are refreshed
before this time.
|
|
LS adv. flushed
Indicates the number of advertisements removed
(and not replaced) from the link state database.
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
193
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
Incremental ext. updates
|
|
|
Displays the number of changes to external
destinations that are incrementally installed in the
routing table.
MPROUTE Routing Table
|
|
SMSG server_id RTTABLE
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
This SMSG command displays all of the routes in the MPROUTE routing table.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
A sample output with explanation of entries follows:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Note: Be aware that this command displays the contents of the working table that
is used by MPROUTE, not the TCP/IP routing table. The contents of the
MPROUTE routing table may contain information different from that in the
TCP/IP routing table.
|
Type
DTCMPR7847I Routing Table
Type
Dest net
Mask
Cost
Age
Next hop(s)
SPE2
Sbnt
SPF
SPF
SPE2
SPF
SPF
SPE2
SPF
SPF
Dir*
SPF
SPF*
SPF
SPF
Dir*
2
1
11
5
2
15
6
1
15
11
1
1805
5
1805
1805
1
317
295
320
320
317
320
320
317
320
320
325
320
320
320
320
325
9.130.251.25
None
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
9.130.249.46
9.130.251.25
TR2
9.130.251.25
9.130.251.25
10.0.0.16
0.0.0.0
9.0.0.0
9.130.48.0
9.130.48.107
9.130.176.0
9.130.240.96
9.130.248.96
9.130.248.112
9.130.248.128
9.130.248.144
9.130.249.32
9.130.251.16
9.130.251.24
9.130.251.80
9.130.251.88
10.0.0.0
0
FF000000
FFFFFF00
FFFFFFFF
FFFFFF00
FFFFFFE0
FFFFFFF0
FFFFFFF0
FFFFFFF0
FFFFFFF0
FFFFFFF0
FFFFFFF8
FFFFFFF8
FFFFFFF8
FFFFFFF8
FF000000
Default gateway in use.
Type Cost
SPE2 2
Age
317
Indicates how the route was derived:
Sbnt
|
|
194
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Next hop
9.130.251.25
0 nets deleted, 0 nets inactive
Indicates that the network is subnetted; such an entry is a
placeholder only.
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
Dir
Indicates a directly connected network or subnet.
|
|
RIP
Indicates a route that was learned through the RIP
protocol.
|
DEL
Indicates the route has been deleted.
|
Stat
Indicates a statically configured route.
|
SPF
Indicates that the route is an OSPF intra-area route.
|
SPIA
Indicates that the route is an OSPF inter-area route.
|
|
SPE1, SPE2
Indicates OSPF external routes (type 1 and 2, respectively).
|
|
Rnge
Indicates a route type that is an active OSPF area address range
and is not used in forwarding packets.
|
|
*
The route type indicates that the route has a directly connected
backup.
|
|
%
The route type indicates that RIP updates are always accepted for
this network/subnet.
|
Dest net
Indicates the IP destination.
|
Mask
Indicates the IP destination subnet mask.
|
Cost
Indicates the route cost.
|
|
Age
Indicates the time that has elapsed since the routing table entry
was last refreshed.
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|
|
|
Next hop(s)
Indicates the IP address of the next router on the path toward the
destination host. A number in parentheses at the end of the column
indicates the number of equal-cost routes to the destination. Use
the SMSG <server_id> RTTABLE dest=<ip_addr> command to obtain
a list of the next hops.
|
Route Expansion Information
|
|
SMSG server_id RTTABLE DEST=ip_addr
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
Use this command to obtain information about a particular route.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
|
|
DEST=ip_addr
Specifies the destination IP address (in dotted decimal form) for which
information will be displayed.
|
EXAMPLE
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
195
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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|
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A sample output with explanation of entries follows:
|
Destination
Indicates the IP destination.
|
Mask
Indicates the IP destination subnet mask.
|
Route Type
Indicates how the route was derived:
DTCMPR7874I Route Expansion
Destination:
9.130.48.107
Mask:
255.255.255.255
Route Type:
SPF
Distance:
5
Age:
408
Next Hop(s):
9.130.251.25
(TR2)
|
|
SBNT Indicates that the network is subnetted; such an entry is a
placeholder only.
|
DIR
Indicates a directly connected network or subnet.
|
|
RIP
Indicates a route that was learned through the RIP
protocol.
|
DEL
Indicates the route has been deleted.
|
STAT
Indicates a statically configured route.
|
SPF
Indicates that the route is an OSPF intra-area route.
|
SPIA
Indicates that the route is an OSPF inter-area route.
|
|
SPE1, SPE2
Indicates OSPF external routes (type 1 and 2, respectively).
|
|
|
|
An asterisk (*) after the route type indicates that the route has a
directly connected backup. A percent sign (%) after the route type
indicates that RIP updates are always accepted for this
network/subnet.
|
|
Rnge
Indicates a route type that is an active OSPF area address range
and is not used in forwarding packets.
|
Distance
Indicates the route cost.
|
|
Age
Indicates the time that has elapsed since the routing table entry
was last refreshed.
|
|
Next hop(s)
Indicates the IP address of the next router and the interface used to
reach that router for each of the paths toward the destination host.
RIP Configuration Information
|
|
SMSG server_id RIP LIST ALL
|
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
This SMSG command lists all RIP-related configuration information.
|
OPERANDS
196
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
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A sample output follows:
|
RIP
|
|
|
RIP default origination
Indicates the conditions under which RIP supports default route
generation and the advertised cost for the default route.
|
|
Per-interface address flags
Specifies information about an interface:
DTCMPR7843I RIP Configuration
RIP: Enabled
RIP default origination: Disabled
Per-interface address flags:
ETRING
9.130.176.198
RIP Version 1
Send net and subnet routes
Receive No Dynamic host routes
RIP interface input metric: 1
RIP interface output metric: 0
Broadcast Style: Network
Broadcast Fill Pattern: Ones
VCTC9
9.130.249.39
RIP Version 1
Send net and subnet routes
Receive No Dynamic host routes
RIP interface input metric: 1
RIP interface output metric: 0
Broadcast Style: Network
Broadcast Fill Pattern: Ones
DTCMPR7844I RIP Route Acceptance
Accept RIP updates always for:
9.130.48.107
Indicates whether RIP communication is enabled.
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|
RIP Version
Specifies whether RIP Version 1 or RIP Version 2 packets
are being communicated over this interface.
|
|
Send
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Receive
|
|
|
RIP interface input metric
Specifies the value of the metric to be added to RIP routes
received over this interface.
|
|
|
RIP interface output metric
Specifies the value of the metric to be added to RIP routes
advertised over this interface.
|
|
Broadcast Style
Specifies what type of Broadcast is being used.
|
|
|
Broadcast Fill Pattern
Specifies if ones or zeroes are used for the Broadcast Fill
Pattern.
Specifies which types of routes will be included in RIP
responses sent out this interface.
Specifies which types of routes will be accepted in RIP
responses received on this interface.
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
197
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
Configured RIP Interfaces
|
|
|
SMSG server_id RIP LIST INTERFACES
(1)
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command lists IP addresses and configured parameters for each RIP
interface.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
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|
|
|
A sample output with explanations of entries follows:
|
RIP
|
|
|
RIP default origination
Indicates the conditions under which RIP supports default route
generation and the advertised cost for the default route.
|
|
Per-interface address flags
Specifies information about an interface:
The keyword IFS can be substituted for INTERFACES.
DTCMPR7843I RIP Configuration
RIP: Enabled
RIP default origination: Disabled
Per-interface address flags:
ETRING
9.130.176.198
RIP Version 1
Send net and subnet routes
Receive No Dynamic host routes
RIP interface input metric: 1
RIP interface output metric: 0
Broadcast Style: Network
Broadcast Fill Pattern: Ones
VCTC9
9.130.249.39
RIP Version 1
Send net and subnet routes
Receive No Dynamic host routes
RIP interface input metric: 1
RIP interface output metric: 0
Broadcast Style: Network
Broadcast Fill Pattern: Ones
Indicates whether RIP communication is enabled.
|
|
|
RIP Version
Specifies whether RIP Version 1 or RIP Version 2 packets
are being communicated over this interface.
|
|
Send
198
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Specifies which types of routes will be included in RIP
responses sent out this interface.
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
|
Receive
|
|
|
RIP interface input metric
Specifies the value of the metric to be added to RIP routes
received over this interface.
|
|
|
RIP interface output metric
Specifies the value of the metric to be added to RIP routes
advertised over this interface.
|
|
Broadcast Style
Specifies what type of Broadcast is being used.
|
|
|
Broadcast Fill Pattern
Specifies if ones or zeroes are used for the Broadcast Fill
Pattern.
|
Specifies which types of routes will be accepted in RIP
responses received on this interface.
RIP Routes to Be Accepted
|
|
SMSG server_id RIP LIST ACCEPTED
|
|
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
This SMSG command lists the routes to be unconditionally accepted, as configured
with the ACCEPT_RIP_ROUTE statement.
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
EXAMPLE
|
|
|
|
|
A sample output follows:
|
|
|
Accept RIP updates always for
Indicates for which destination network, networks, subnet, or
subnets RIP updates are always accepted.
DTCMPR7844I RIP Route Acceptance
Accept RIP updates always for:
9.130.48.107
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
199
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
RIP Interface Statistics and Parameters
|
|
|
SMSG server_id RIP INTERFACE
(1)
NAME=if_name
|
|
Notes:
|
|
1
|
DESCRIPTION
|
|
|
|
This SMSG command displays statistics and parameters related to RIP interfaces. If
no NAME= parameter is given (SMSG <server_id> RIP INTERFACE), a single line is
printed summarizing each interface. (See Example 1.) If a NAME= parameter is given,
detailed statistics for that interface are displayed. (See Example 2.)
|
OPERANDS
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
|
|
|
NAME=if_name
Specifies the name of the interface for which detailed statistics will be
displayed.
|
EXAMPLES
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Following are sample outputs with explanations of entries:
|
Ifc Address
Indicates the interface IP address.
|
Ifc Name
Indicates the interface name.
|
Subnet Mask
Indicates the subnet mask.
|
|
MTU
Indicates the value of the Maximum Transmission
Unit.
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|
Destination
Indicates the RIP identification for the destination
router when the interface is point-to-point.
The keyword IF can be substituted for INTERFACE.
---- Example 1 ---DTCMPR7859I RIP Interfaces
Ifc Address
Ifc Name
9.130.249.39
VCTC9
9.130.176.198
ETRING
Subnet Mask
MTU
Destination
255.255.255.240 576
9.130.48.134
255.255.255.0
1500 N/A
---- Example 2 ---DTCMPR7860I RIP Interface Details
Interface address:
9.130.176.198
Interface Name:
ETRING
Subnet Mask:
255.255.255.0
MTU
576
Destination Address:
N/A
RIP Version:
In Metric:
Receive Net Routes:
200
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
1
1
Yes
Send Pois. Rev. Routes: Yes
Out Metric:
0
Receive Subnet Routes: Yes
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
|
|
Receive Host Routes:
Send Net Routes:
Send Static Routes:
|
Interface address
Indicates the interface IP address.
|
Interface Name
Indicates the interface name.
|
Subnet Mask
Indicates the subnet mask.
|
|
MTU
Indicates the value of the Maximum Transmission
Unit.
|
|
Destination Address
Indicates the RIP identification for the destination
router when the interface is point-to-point.
|
|
RIP Version
Indicates whether RIP Version 1 or RIP Version 2
packets are communicated over this route.
|
|
|
|
Send Pois. Rev. Routes
Indicates whether poisoned reverse routes are
advertised in RIP responses sent over this interface.
A poisoned reverse route is one with an infinite
metric (a metric of 16).
|
In Metric
Indicates the RIP interface input metric.
|
Out Metric
Indicates the RIP interface output metric.
|
|
Receive Net Routes
Indicates whether network routes are accepted in
RIP responses received over this interface.
|
|
Receive Subnet Routes
Indicates whether subnet routes are accepted in
RIP responses received over this interface.
|
|
Receive Host Routes
Indicates whether host routes are accepted in RIP
responses received over this interface.
|
|
Send Default Routes
Indicates whether the default route, if available, is
advertised in RIP responses sent over this route.
|
|
Send Net Routes
Indicates whether network routes are advertised in
RIP responses sent over this interface.
|
|
Send Subnet Routes
Indicates whether subnet routes are advertised in
RIP responses sent over this interface.
|
|
Send Static Routes
Indicates whether static routes are advertised in
RIP responses sent over this interface.
|
|
Send Host Routes
Indicates whether host routes are advertised in RIP
responses sent over this interface.
|
|
No
Yes
No
Send Default Routes:
Send Subnet Routes:
Send Host Routes:
No
Yes
No
MPROUTE Traces and Debug Information
|
|
|
MPROUTE internal tracing and debugging can be started when MPROUTE is
started. Also, the SMSG command can be used to start, stop, or alter MPROUTE’s
tracing and debugging after MPROUTE has been started.
|
This section describes each of these methods.
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
201
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
Starting MPROUTE Tracing and Debugging from the VM
Console
|
|
|
|
If MPROUTE is started from the command line (using the mproute command),
parameters can be specified to indicate the level of tracing or debugging desired.
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
─tn (where n is a supported trace level)
This option specifies the external tracing level. It is intended for customers,
testers, service, or developers, and provides information on the operation
of the routing application. This option can be used for many purposes,
such as debugging a configuration, education on the operation of the
routing application, verification of testcases, and so on. The following
levels are supported:
v 1 = Provides all informational messages.
v 2 = Provides formatted packet tracing.
|
|
─dn (where n is a supported debug level)
This option specifies the internal debugging level. It is intended for service
or developers only, and provides internal debugging information needed
for debugging problems. The following levels are supported:
|
|
|
|
|
v 1 = Provides internal debugging messages.
v 2 = Provides unformatted hex packet tracing.
|
|
|
v 3 = Provides function entry/exit trace.
v 4 = Provides task add/run.
Notes:
1.
For debug, levels 3 and 4, the thread ID can be suppressed in the output by
setting the environment variable _DEBUG_NOTHREADID nefore starting
MPROUTE. For example:
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
GLOBALV SELECT CENV SETLP _DEBUG_NOTHREADID YES
2.
The trace and debug levels are cumulative; each level includes all lower levels.
For example, ─t2 provides formatted packet trace and informational messages.
You can enter more than one parameter by inserting a space after each
parameter; for example, mproute ─t1 ─d2.
Parameters can be specified in mixed case.
|
|
|
|
|
Starting MPROUTE Tracing and Debugging using the SMSG
Command
|
|
|
SMSG server_id
|
DEBUG=debug_level
TRACE=trace_level
|
|
|
Operands
|
|
server_id
Specifies the user ID of the MPROUTE server virtual machine.
202
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
|
|
DEBUG=debug_level
Sets or changes the MPROUTE internal debugging level. The following debug
levels are available:
|
debug_level
Description
|
0
Turns debug messages off.
|
1
Provides internal debugging messages.
|
2
Provides unformatted hex packet tracing.
|
3
Provides function entry/exit trace.
|
4
Provides task add/run.
|
|
|
TRACE=trace_level
Sets or changes the level of MPROUTE external tracing. The following trace
levels are available:
|
trace_level
Description
|
0
Turns MPROUTE tracing off.
|
1
Provides all informational messages.
|
2
Provides formatted packet tracing.
|
|
Note: Use of MPROUTE tracing affects the MPROUTE performance and may
require increasing the DEAD_ROUTER_INTERVAL on OSPF interfaces.
|
|
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|
Examples
1. The following SMSG command passes a trace operand to an MPROUTE server
running in the MPROUTE1 virtual machine.
smsg mproute1 trace=0
Ready;
07:02:30 * MSG FROM MPROUTE1 : MPROUTE SMSG command accepted
Destination of MPROUTE Trace and Debug Output
Output from MPROUTE’s tracing and debugging is written to the VM console.
Sample MPROUTE Trace Output
Following is a sample MPROUTE trace with descriptions for some of the trace
entries:
DTCRUN1022I
DTCRUN1022I
DTCRUN1027I
DTCRUN1021R
Console log will be sent to user TCPMAINT
Console log will be sent to user TCPMNT12
Server will use TcpipUserid TCPTES12
To cancel OSPF ROUTING DAEMON startup,
type any non-blank character and press ENTER.
To continue startup, just press ENTER.
DTCRUN1011E Server started at 10:23:48 on 19 Sep 2000 (Tuesday)
DTCRUN1011E Running "MPROUTE -T1"
1 10:23:48.803087 DTCMPR7800I MPROUTE starting
10:23:48.830997 DTCMPR7817I Using defined OSPF protocol 89
10:23:48.846173 DTCMPR8088I The (ETC GATEWAYS) file was found,
MPROUTE server will ignore it
10:23:48.847472 DTCMPR8080I Opening MPROUTE config file (MPROUTE CONFIG)
2 10:23:48.869772 DTCMPR7883I
Processing interface from stack,
address 9.130.251.82, name ETH3, index 3, flags 00000463
10:23:48.871458 DTCMPR7883I Processing interface from stack,
address 9.130.48.70, name TRING, index 2, flags 00000463
10:23:48.872693 DTCMPR7883I Processing interface from stack,
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
203
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
address 9.130.249.42, name VCTC12, index 1, flags 00000451
10:23:48.918116 DTCMPR8023I The RIP routing protocol is Enabled
10:23:48.919353 DTCMPR7937I The OSPF routing protocol is Enabled
10:23:48.921846 DTCMPR8050I Updating BSD Route Parms for link VCTC12, MTU 576,
metric 1, subnet 255.255.255.240, destination 9.130.48.134
3 10:23:48.924308 DTCMPR8057I Added network 9.130.249.32
to interface 9.130.249.42 on net 0 interface VCTC12
10:23:48.927261 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.249.32, mask
255.255.255.240 via 0.0.0.0, link VCTC12, metric 1, type 1
10:23:48.930583 DTCMPR8057I Added network 9.130.48.134 to interface
9.130.249.42 on net 0 interface VCTC12
10:23:48.932970 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.48.134, mask
255.255.255.255 via 0.0.0.0, link VCTC12, metric 1, type 129
10:23:48.935620 DTCMPR7879I Joining multicast group 224.0.0.9
on interface 9.130.249.42
10:23:48.939356 DTCMPR8050I Updating BSD Route Parms for link TRING, MTU 576,
metric 1, subnet 255.255.255.0, destination 0.0.0.0
10:23:48.942762 DTCMPR8057I Added network 9.130.48.0 to interface 9.130.48.70
on net 1 interface TRING
10:23:48.946045 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.48.0, mask
255.255.255.0 via 0.0.0.0, link TRING, metric 1, type 1
10:23:48.950529 DTCMPR7879I Joining multicast group 224.0.0.9
on interface 9.130.48.70
10:23:48.953788 DTCMPR8050I Updating BSD Route Parms for link ETH3, MTU 576,
metric 2, subnet 255.255.255.248, destination 0.0.0.0
10:23:48.956562 DTCMPR8057I Added network 9.130.251.80 to interface
9.130.251.82 on net 2 interface ETH3
10:23:48.958185 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.80, mask
255.255.255.248 via 0.0.0.0, link ETH3, metric 1, type 1
4 10:23:48.963273 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1,
destination 224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:23:48.966241 DTCMPR7879I Joining multicast group 224.0.0.5
on interface 9.130.251.82
5 DTCMPR7913I State change,
interface 9.130.251.82, new state 8, event 1
10:24:04.237526 DTCMPR7875I No default route defined
10:24:04.238927 DTCMPR7898I MPROUTE Initialization Complete
10:24:04.239913 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.251.82 org 9.130.251.82
10:24:04.240368 DTCMPR8011I send request to address 9.130.48.134
10:24:04.240503 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 9.130.48.134
10:24:04.252680 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1,
destination 224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
6 10:24:04.259310 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1
from 9.130.251.81
7 10:24:04.259883 DTCMPR7919I State change,
neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 4, event 1
8 10:24:04.260418 DTCMPR7919I State change,
neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 8, event 3
10:24:04.263533 DTCMPR7879I Joining multicast group 224.0.0.6 on
interface 9.130.251.82
10:24:04.266711 DTCMPR7913I State change,
interface 9.130.251.82, new state 64, event 3
9 10:24:04.267213 DTCMPR7949I Dijkstra calculation
performed, on 1 area(s)
10:24:04.268470 DTCMPR8011I send request to address 224.0.0.9
10:24:04.268842 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 224.0.0.9
10:24:04.271277 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:24:04.271903 DTCMPR8010I update route to net 10.0.0.0 at
metric 2 hops via router 9.130.48.107
10:24:04.272307 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 10.0.0.0, mask
255.0.0.0 via 9.130.48.107, link TRING, metric 2, type 132
10:24:04.275695 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:24:04.276223 DTCMPR8010I update route to net 9.0.0.0 at metric
2 hops via router 9.130.48.71
10:24:04.276626 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.0.0.0, mask
255.0.0.0 via 9.130.48.71, link TRING, metric 2, type 132
|
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Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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10 10:24:04.279341 DTCMPR8015I sending
packet to 9.130.48.134
10:24:04.282438 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 9.130.48.134
from 9.130.249.42 in 1 packets with 2 routes
10:24:04.285207 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 224.0.0.9
10:24:04.288531 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 224.0.0.9
from 9.130.48.70 in 1 packets with 2 routes
10:24:04.288727 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 224.0.0.9
10:24:27.321360 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 224.0.0.9
from 9.130.48.70 in 1 packets with 3 routes
10:24:27.322214 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
11 10:24:27.327888 DTCMPR7919I State change,
neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 16, event 14
12 10:24:27.328475 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast
type 2 dst 9.130.251.81 net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:27.332342 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:27.333001 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:24:27.339203 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:27.339795 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:24:27.348675 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
13 10:24:27.358541 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2
from 9.130.251.81
14 10:24:27.359384 DTCMPR7919I State change,
neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 32, event 5
15 10:24:27.360122 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 3
dst 9.130.251.81 net 2 interface ETH3
16 10:24:27.363806 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1
received from host 9.130.48.134
17 10:24:27.372827 DTCMPR7908I Received packet
type 4 from 9.130.251.81
18 10:24:27.373644 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81,
new LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.48.107 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:27.374521 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.251.18 org 9.130.251.18
10:24:27.375245 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.251.90 org 9.130.251.90
10:24:27.375837 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 2 id 9.130.251.17 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:27.376072 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 2 id 9.130.251.90 org 9.130.251.90
10:24:27.380022 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 3 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:27.393823 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:27.394657 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 0.0.0.0 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:27.395259 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.48.134 org 9.130.251.18
10:24:27.395457 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.176.0 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.104215 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.248.112 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.105120 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.249.32 org 9.130.251.18
10:24:58.106964 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 3 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:58.119069 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 5, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:58.126632 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:58.129468 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:58.130106 DTCMPR7949I Dijkstra calculation performed, on 1 area(s)
10:24:58.151811 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:58.152391 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:58.152817 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:58.153214 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
205
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
10:24:58.153635 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.176.0 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.154100 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.248.112 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.154543 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 0.0.0.0 org 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.155032 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 10.0.0.13 org 9.130.251.18
10:24:58.155508 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 10.0.0.255 org 9.130.251.18
10:24:58.155989 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 2 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:58.159573 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.160196 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:24:58.160611 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1
received from host 9.130.48.134
10:24:58.161006 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:24:58.168906 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 3 from 9.130.251.81
19 10:24:58.169519 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast
type 4 dst 9.130.251.81 net 2 interface ETH3
10:24:58.187659 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
20 10:24:58.187916 DTCMPR7919I State change,
neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 128, event 6
10:24:58.196998 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:24:58.197253 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.48.107 org 9.130.48.107
10:25:34.429596 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 2 id 9.130.251.81 org 9.130.48.107
21 10:25:34.461747 DTCMPR7895I Processing SMSG
command from TCPMNT12 - OSPF LIST INTERFACES
10:25:34.814409 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 5, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:25:34.819180 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
22 10:25:34.824804 DTCMPR7908I Received packet
type 5 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.825606 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.826427 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.827206 DTCMPR7939I Duplicate LS acknowledgment received from
neighbor 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.828454 DTCMPR7932I LS acknowledement sent directly to
neighbor 9.130.251.81
23 10:25:34.829320 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 5
dst 9.130.251.81 net 2 interface ETH3
10:25:34.835392 DTCMPR7949I Dijkstra calculation performed, on 1 area(s)
10:25:34.836706 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:25:34.837435 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from
host 9.130.48.134
10:25:34.838416 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:25:34.843751 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.851369 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.852339 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:25:34.859248 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.859867 DTCMPR7932I LS acknowledement sent directly to
neighbor 9.130.251.81
10:25:34.860339 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 5 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:25:35.450401 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement: typ 1 id
9.130.251.82 org 9.130.251.82
10:25:35.451056 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 4, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:25:35.510930 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 5 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:36.454130 DTCMPR7949I Dijkstra calculation performed, on 1 area(s)
10:25:47.543958 DTCMPR7806I Changing stack route to 9.130.251.80,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 0.0.0.0, link ETH3,
metric 2, type 1
10:25:47.554484 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
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206
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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9.130.251.80, type SPF cost 2
10:25:47.555017 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination ASBR
9.130.48.107, type SPF cost 2
24 10:25:47.555423 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack
route to 9.130.240.96,
mask 255.255.255.224 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 12, type 130
10:25:47.559097 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination
Net 9.130.240.96, type SPF cost 12
10:25:47.559632 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.96,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 3, type 130
10:25:47.564347 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination
Net 9.130.248.96, type SPF cost 3
10:25:47.564887 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.144,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 8, type 130
10:25:47.569208 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.248.144, type SPF cost 8
10:25:47.569757 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.128,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 12, type 130
10:25:47.572648 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.248.128, type SPF cost 12
10:25:47.573150 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.24,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1802, type130
10:25:47.575063 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.251.24, type SPF cost 1802
10:25:47.575567 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.48.107,
mask 255.255.255.255 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 2, type 129
10:25:47.577587 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination
Net 9.130.48.107, type SPF cost 2
10:25:47.577759 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination ASBR
9.130.251.18, type SPF cost 1802
10:25:47.577915 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.16,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1802, type 130
10:25:47.580378 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.251.16, type SPF cost 1802
10:25:47.580590 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.88,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1802, type 130
10:25:47.582401 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.251.88, type SPF cost 1802
10:25:47.582630 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:25:47.584646 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:50.615488 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:50.616079 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from
host 9.130.48.134
10:25:50.623248 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 0.0.0.0,
mask 0.0.0.0 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 2, type 136
10:25:50.626231 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.176.0,
mask 255.255.255.0 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 2, type 130
10:25:50.628565 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.112,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1, type 130
10:25:50.631036 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 10.0.0.13,
mask 255.255.255.255 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1, type 129
10:25:50.633331 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 10.0.0.0,
mask 255.255.255.0 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1, type 132
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
207
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
10:25:50.635497 DTCMPR7885I Route not added to stack routing table
- static route exists
10:25:50.636376 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.249.32 org 9.130.251.82
10:25:50.637087 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.0.0.0 org 9.130.251.82
10:25:50.637721 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.48.134 org 9.130.251.82
10:25:50.638532 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.130.48.0 org 9.130.251.82
10:25:50.639235 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 10.0.0.0 org 9.130.251.82
10:25:50.639835 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 4,
destination 224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:25:51.513644 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 5 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:56.533518 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:25:57.510318 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:25:57.511732 DTCMPR8010I update route to net 10.0.0.0 at metric
3 hops via router 9.130.48.107
10:25:57.512224 DTCMPR7806I Changing stack route to 10.0.0.0,
mask 255.0.0.0 via 9.130.48.107, link TRING,
metric 3, type 132
10:25:57.515413 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 9.130.48.134
10:25:57.523139 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address
9.130.48.134 from 9.130.249.42 in 1 packets
with 12 routes
10:26:48.893298 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 1, event 12
10:26:48.895035 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:26:48.900328 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.901154 DTCMPR7913I State change, interface 9.130.251.82,
new state 128, event 4
10:26:48.901736 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.251.82 org 9.130.251.82
10:26:48.901967 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.902125 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 4, event 1
10:26:48.906735 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 8, event 3
10:26:48.907524 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:26:48.910791 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:26:48.919435 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:26:48.924724 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.930054 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:26:48.955687 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.956264 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.956649 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.957029 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:26:48.957609 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 4,
event 10
10:26:48.958042 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:26:48.958428 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 10.0.0.0,
mask 255.0.0.0
10:26:48.962696 DTCMPR8009I network 10.0.0.0 now unreachable via router
9.130.48.107, deleted
10:26:48.963318 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:26:48.963618 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:26:48.963771 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:26:48.963958 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 9.130.48.134
10:26:48.967598 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 9.130.48.134
from 9.130.249.42 in 1 packets with 1 routes
10:26:54.164931 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 224.0.0.9
10:26:54.175180 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 224.0.0.9
from 9.130.48.70 in 1 packets with 1 routes
10:26:54.176056 DTCMPR7949I Dijkstra calculation performed, on 1 area(s)
10:26:54.176785 DTCMPR7943I Destination ASBR 9.130.48.107 now unreachable
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208
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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10:26:54.177400 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.240.96 now unreachable
10:26:54.178034 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.240.96,
mask 255.255.255.224
10:26:54.184100 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.248.96 now unreachable
10:26:54.184991 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.248.96,
mask 255.255.255.240
10:26:54.188598 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.248.144 now unreachable
10:26:54.189311 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.248.144,
mask 255.255.255.240
10:26:54.193187 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.248.128 now unreachable
10:26:54.193691 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.248.128,
mask 255.255.255.240
10:26:54.197702 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.251.24 now unreachable
10:26:54.198158 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.251.24,
mask 255.255.255.248
10:26:54.201476 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.48.107 now unreachable
10:26:54.201926 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.48.107,
mask 255.255.255.255
10:26:54.205735 DTCMPR7943I Destination ASBR 9.130.251.18 now unreachable
10:26:54.206181 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.251.16 now unreachable
10:26:54.206566 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.251.16,
mask 255.255.255.248
10:26:54.210465 DTCMPR7943I Destination Net 9.130.251.88 now unreachable
10:26:54.210918 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.251.88,
mask 255.255.255.248
10:26:54.214845 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:26:54.215057 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:26:54.215196 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:26:54.215334 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:27:21.867622 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 9.130.48.134
10:27:21.883728 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 9.130.48.134 from
9.130.249.42 in 1 packets with 13 routes
10:27:21.884754 DTCMPR7895I Processing SMSG command from TCPMNT12
- OSPF LIST INTERFACES
10:27:22.239425 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 0.0.0.0, mask 0.0.0.0
10:27:22.254767 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.176.0,
mask 255.255.255.0
10:27:22.259340 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 9.130.248.112,
mask 255.255.255.240
10:27:22.265810 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 10.0.0.13,
mask 255.255.255.255
10:27:22.278879 DTCMPR7864I Deleting all stack routes to 10.0.0.0,
mask 255.255.255.0
10:27:22.285253 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:27:22.291528 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:22.293062 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:22.293938 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:22.294496 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 8, event 3
10:27:22.295352 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:27:22.295779 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:27:22.296169 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:27:22.296551 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:27:22.296957 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 224.0.0.9
10:27:22.301825 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 224.0.0.9
from 9.130.48.70 in 1 packets with 13 routes
10:27:22.308715 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:27:22.309287 DTCMPR8010I update route to net 10.0.0.0 at metric 2 hops
via router 9.130.48.107
10:27:22.309604 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 10.0.0.0, mask 255.0.0.0
via 9.130.48.107, link TRING, metric 2, type 132
10:27:22.313109 DTCMPR8015I sending packet to 9.130.48.134
10:27:22.316817 DTCMPR8021I sending RIP2 response to address 9.130.48.134
from 9.130.249.42 in 1 packets with 4 routes
25 10:27:52.722327 DTCMPR7895I Processing SMSG
command from TCPMNT12 - TRACE=2
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
209
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
10:27:52.984676 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81, new state 16,
event 14
10:27:52.985551 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination 224.0.0.5
net 2 interface ETH3
26 10:27:52.987142 DTCMPR7876I -- OSPF Packet Sent ------ Type: Hello
10:27:52.988112 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
10:27:52.988952 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.251.82
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:27:52.990410 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: b80b
Authentication Type: 0
10:27:52.992224 DTCMPR7878I Hello_Interval: 10
Network mask: 255.255.255.248
10:27:52.993416 DTCMPR7878I Options: E
10:27:52.994251 DTCMPR7878I Router_Priority: 1
Dead_Router_Interval: 40
10:27:52.994551 DTCMPR7878I Backup DR: 0.0.0.0
Designated Router: 9.130.251.82
10:27:52.994690 DTCMPR7878I Neighbor: 9.130.48.107
10:27:53.000810 DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Database Description
10:27:53.001278 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 32
10:27:53.001668 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:27:53.002070 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: 647a
Authentication Type: 0
10:27:53.002450 DTCMPR7878I DD options: E
DD flags: I M Master
10:27:53.002802 DTCMPR7878I DD sequence no: 1715222
10:27:53.003166 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:53.003547 DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Hello
10:27:53.003922 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
10:27:53.004801 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:27:53.005092 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: af37
Authentication Type: 0
10:27:53.005247 DTCMPR7878I Hello_Interval: 10
Network mask: 255.255.255.248
10:27:53.005361 DTCMPR7878I Options: E
10:27:53.005490 DTCMPR7878I Router_Priority: 1
Dead_Router_Interval: 40
10:27:58.887508 DTCMPR7878I Backup DR: 9.130.251.81
Designated Router: 9.130.251.82
10:27:58.888695 DTCMPR7878I Neighbor: 9.130.251.82
10:27:58.889318 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:58.889941 DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Hello
10:27:58.890909 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
10:27:58.892600 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:27:58.893211 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: af37
Authentication Type: 0
10:27:58.893809 DTCMPR7878I Hello_Interval: 10
Network mask: 255.255.255.248
10:27:58.894365 DTCMPR7878I Options: E
10:27:58.894939 DTCMPR7878I Router_Priority: 1
Dead_Router_Interval: 40
10:27:58.895630 DTCMPR7878I Backup DR: 9.130.251.81
Designated Router: 9.130.251.82
10:27:58.896214 DTCMPR7878I Neighbor: 9.130.251.82
10:27:58.896783 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:58.897367 DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Database Description
10:27:58.897947 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 32
10:27:58.899073 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:27:58.899808 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: 647a
Authentication Type: 0
10:27:58.900450 DTCMPR7878I DD options: E
DD flags: I M Master
10:27:58.901156 DTCMPR7878I DD sequence no: 1715222
10:27:58.902065 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:27:58.902705 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 2 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:27:58.903185 DTCMPR7876I -- OSPF Packet Sent ------ Type: Database Description
10:27:58.903340 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 32
10:27:58.903490 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.251.82
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:27:58.903622 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: 4632
Authentication Type: 0
10:28:01.519301 DTCMPR7878I DD options: E
DD flags: I M Master
10:28:01.519762 DTCMPR7878I DD sequence no: 39c77708
10:28:01.531540 DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Hello
10:28:01.532219 DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
10:28:01.532384 DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
10:28:01.532518 DTCMPR7878I Checksum: af37
Authentication Type: 0
10:28:01.532664 DTCMPR7878I Hello_Interval: 10
Network mask: 255.255.255.248
10:28:01.541582 DTCMPR7878I Options: E
10:28:01.542374 DTCMPR7878I Router_Priority: 1
Dead_Router_Interval: 40
10:28:01.542783 DTCMPR7878I Backup DR: 9.130.251.81
Designated Router:9.130.251.82
10:28:01.543155 DTCMPR7878I Neighbor: 9.130.251.82
10:28:01.544709 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
27 10:28:01.545296 -- RIP Packet Received -- Type: Response (V2)
10:28:01.545717 Destination_Addr: 10.0.0.0
metric: 16
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210
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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10:28:01.546104
10:28:01.546469
10:28:01.546879
10:28:01.547281
10:28:01.547948
10:28:01.548374
10:28:01.548873
10:28:01.549198
10:28:01.549386
10:28:01.549526
10:28:01.549644
10:28:13.719386
10:28:13.735502
10:28:13.736044
10:28:13.736431
10:28:13.736820
10:28:13.737191
10:28:13.737570
10:28:13.737920
10:28:13.745122
10:28:13.745689
10:28:13.746076
10:28:13.746472
10:28:13.746848
10:28:13.747238
10:28:13.747600
10:28:13.747970
10:28:13.748370
10:28:13.748746
10:28:13.753529
10:28:13.754063
10:28:13.754462
10:28:13.754747
10:28:13.754902
10:28:13.755017
10:28:13.755193
10:28:23.464602
10:28:23.465576
10:28:23.465998
10:28:23.466415
10:28:23.466818
10:28:23.467314
10:28:23.468095
10:28:23.470658
10:28:23.471315
10:28:23.473243
10:28:23.473709
10:28:23.474236
10:28:23.474667
10:28:23.475050
10:28:23.475741
10:28:23.476220
10:28:23.476742
10:28:23.477171
10:28:23.477630
10:28:23.478165
10:28:23.479286
10:28:23.480235
10:28:23.480397
10:28:23.480543
10:28:23.480674
10:29:01.701219
10:29:01.701966
10:29:01.702576
10:29:01.703192
Subnet Mask: 0.0.0.0
Next Hop: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
-- RIP Packet Received -- Type: Response (V2)
Destination_Addr: 9.130.176.0
metric: 1
Subnet Mask: 0.0.0.0
Next Hop: 0.0.0.0
Destination_Addr: 9.130.48.71
metric: 1
Subnet Mask: 0.0.0.0
Next Hop: 0.0.0.0
Destination_Addr: 10.0.0.0
metric: 16
Subnet Mask: 0.0.0.0
Next Hop: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
DTCMPR7911I Retransmitting packet, type 2,
9.130.251.82 -> 9.130.251.81
DTCMPR7876I -- OSPF Packet Sent ------ Type: Database Description
DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 32
DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.251.82
Area: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I Checksum: 4632
Authentication Type: 0
DTCMPR7878I DD options: E
DD flags: I M Master
DTCMPR7878I DD sequence no: 39c77708
DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
DTCMPR7876I -- OSPF Packet Sent ------ Type: Hello
DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.251.82
Area: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I Checksum: b337
Authentication Type: 0
DTCMPR7878I Hello_Interval: 10
Network mask: 255.255.255.248
DTCMPR7878I Options: E
DTCMPR7878I Router_Priority: 1
Dead_Router_Interval: 40
DTCMPR7878I Backup DR: 9.130.251.81
Designated Router:9.130.251.82
DTCMPR7878I Neighbor: 9.130.48.107
DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Hello
DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I Checksum: af37
Authentication Type: 0
DTCMPR7878I Hello_Interval: 10
Network mask: 255.255.255.248
DTCMPR7878I Options: E
DTCMPR7878I Router_Priority: 1
Dead_Router_Interval: 40
DTCMPR7878I Backup DR: 9.130.251.81
Designated Router: 9.130.251.82
DTCMPR7878I Neighbor: 9.130.251.82
DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
DTCMPR7877I -- OSPF Packet Received -- Type: Database Description
DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 412
DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.48.107
Area: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I Checksum: 9a8c
Authentication Type: 0
DTCMPR7878I DD options: E
DD flags: Slave
DTCMPR7878I DD sequence no: 39c77708
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 94
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: Router
LS ID: 9.130.48.107
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.48.107
LS sequence no: 800000b3
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: b2bd
LS length: 144
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 616
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: Router
LS ID: 9.130.251.18
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.18
LS sequence no: 80000004
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 5077
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 148
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: Router
LS ID: 9.130.251.82
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.82
LS sequence no: 80000002
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 5672
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 1514
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: Router
LS ID: 9.130.251.90
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.90
LS sequence no: 8000003d
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 244a
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 674
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: Network
LS ID: 9.130.251.17
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.48.107
LS sequence no: 80000003
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 6951
LS length: 32
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
211
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
10:29:01.703585
10:29:01.703969
10:29:01.704358
10:29:01.704762
10:29:01.705143
10:29:01.705520
10:29:01.705915
10:29:01.706293
10:29:01.706671
10:29:01.707060
10:29:01.707451
10:29:01.707827
10:29:01.708110
10:29:01.708258
10:29:01.708403
10:29:01.708536
10:29:01.719671
10:29:01.720216
10:29:01.720383
10:29:01.720516
10:29:01.720654
10:29:04.405515
10:29:04.406478
10:29:04.407136
10:29:04.407748
10:29:04.408366
10:29:04.408973
10:29:04.409625
10:29:04.410106
10:29:04.410493
10:29:04.410892
10:29:04.411274
10:29:04.411652
10:29:04.412073
10:29:04.412478
10:29:04.412862
10:29:04.413244
10:29:04.413629
10:29:04.414021
10:29:04.414431
10:29:04.414816
10:29:04.415199
10:29:04.415501
10:29:04.415641
10:29:04.415780
10:29:04.415918
10:29:06.450867
10:29:06.451496
10:29:06.451975
10:29:06.452366
10:29:06.452759
10:29:06.453142
10:29:06.453529
10:29:06.453950
10:29:06.454251
10:29:06.454394
10:29:06.454561
10:29:06.454770
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10:29:06.461168
10:29:06.461779
10:29:06.462200
10:29:06.462627
10:29:06.463011
10:29:06.463377
10:29:06.463778
212
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 1514
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: Network
LS ID: 9.130.251.90
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.90
LS sequence no: 80000007
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 9dd0
LS length: 32
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 196
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.48.107
LS sequence no: 80000036
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 6fe4
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 119
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.48.107
LS sequence no: 80000001
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 641c
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 132
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.82
LS sequence no: 80000001
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 6865
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 132
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.48.0
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.82
LS sequence no: 80000001
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 2eed
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 614
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.48.134
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.18
LS sequence no: 80000003
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 6a69
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 132
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.48.134
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.82
LS sequence no: 80000001
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: eca8
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 196
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.176.0
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.48.107
LS sequence no: 80000036
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 44d3
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 196
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.248.112
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.48.107
LS sequence no: 80000036
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 600f
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 614
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.249.32
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.18
LS sequence no: 80000003
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 641b
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 132
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 9.130.249.32
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.82
LS sequence no: 80000001
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: e65a
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 132
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 10.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.82
LS sequence no: 80000001
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 5b71
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 614
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 10.0.0.13
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.18
LS sequence no: 80000003
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: 4cb2
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7878I LS age: 614
LS options: E DC
DTCMPR7878I LS type: AS External
LS ID: 10.0.0.255
DTCMPR7878I LS orig: 9.130.251.18
LS sequence no: 80000003
DTCMPR7878I LS checksum: ce3d
LS length: 36
DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 32, event 5
DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 3 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
DTCMPR7876I -- OSPF Packet Sent ------ Type: Link State Request
DTCMPR7878I OSPF Version: 2
Packet Length: 48
DTCMPR7878I Router ID: 9.130.251.82
Area: 0.0.0.0
DTCMPR7878I Checksum: 422a
Authentication Type: 0
DTCMPR7878I LS type: 1
DTCMPR7878I LS ID: 9.130.48.107
LS orig: 9.130.48.107
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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10:29:06.464164 DTCMPR7878I LS type: 5
10:29:06.464557 DTCMPR7878I LS ID: 9.0.0.0
LS orig: 9.130.48.107
28 10:29:06.484189 DTCMPR7895I Processing SMSG command from TCPMNT12 - TRACE=1
10:29:09.129573 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.130350 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 1, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:09.146333 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:29:09.155222 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.155939 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 8, event 7
10:29:09.156352 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:29:09.168466 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.169791 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:29:09.180147 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:29:09.200170 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.202252 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.203041 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.208393 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 16, event 14
10:29:09.208909 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 2 dst 9.130.251.81 net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:09.214439 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:29:09.215062 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:29:09.241555 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.242362 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.242907 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 4, event 10
10:29:09.243497 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:29:09.252179 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.256617 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:29:09.275331 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:09.276171 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 8, event 3
10:29:09.276703 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 16, event 14
10:29:09.276894 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 2 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:09.280565 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:29:10.894256 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:10.901888 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:29:10.916350 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:29:10.925170 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.107
10:29:10.934491 DTCMPR8004I response received from host 9.130.48.71
10:29:10.944098 DTCMPR8019I Mismatch version 1 received from host 9.130.48.134
10:29:14.910804 DTCMPR7911I Retransmitting packet, type 2, 9.130.251.82 -> 9.130.251.81
10:29:14.929241 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:14.932698 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 32, event 5
10:29:14.933988 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 3 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:14.953815 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:14.959537 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.48.107 org 9.130.48.107
10:29:14.961200 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 5 id 9.0.0.0 org 9.130.48.107
10:29:14.962011 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 2 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:14.978328 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 3 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:14.980400 DTCMPR7909I Sending unicast type 4 dst 9.130.251.81
net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:14.998352 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:15.001213 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 2 id 9.130.251.81 org 9.130.48.107
10:29:15.012526 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 2 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:15.017431 DTCMPR7919I State change, neighbor 9.130.251.81,
new state 128, event 6
10:29:15.022555 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement: typ 1 id
9.130.251.82 org 9.130.251.82
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
213
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
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10:29:15.025219 DTCMPR7934I Originating LS advertisement: typ 2 id
9.130.251.82 org 9.130.251.82
10:29:15.025783 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 4, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:15.037198 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 4 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:15.037536 DTCMPR7928I from 9.130.251.81, new LS advertisement:
typ 1 id 9.130.48.107 org 9.130.48.107
10:29:18.186670 DTCMPR7910I Sending multicast, type 5, destination
224.0.0.5 net 2 interface ETH3
10:29:18.192005 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 5 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:18.193123 DTCMPR7908I Received packet type 1 from 9.130.251.81
10:29:18.193680 DTCMPR7929I from 9.130.251.81, Old acknowledgement
for advertisement: typ 1 id 9.130.251.82 org 9.130.251.82
10:29:18.194140 DTCMPR7933I Flushing advertisement: typ 2 id 9.130.251.81
org 9.130.48.107
10:29:18.194606 DTCMPR7949I Dijkstra calculation performed, on 1 area(s)
10:29:18.195050 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination ASBR
9.130.48.107, type SPF cost 2
10:29:18.195461 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.240.96,
mask 255.255.255.224 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 12, type 130
10:29:18.198358 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.240.96, type SPF cost 12
10:29:18.198904 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.96,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 3, type 130
10:29:18.201833 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.248.96, type SPF cost 3
10:29:18.202440 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.144,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 8, type 130
10:29:18.205121 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.248.144, type SPF cost 8
10:29:18.205517 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.248.128,
mask 255.255.255.240 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 12, type 130
10:29:18.207985 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.248.128, type SPF cost 12
10:29:18.208257 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.24,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1802, type 130
10:29:18.211328 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.251.24, type SPF cost 1802
10:29:18.211914 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.48.107,
mask 255.255.255.255 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 2, type 129
10:29:18.214474 DTCMPR7885I Route not added to stack routing table
- static route exists
10:29:18.214645 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.48.107, type SPF cost 2
10:29:18.214773 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination ASBR
9.130.251.18, type SPF cost 1802
10:29:18.214929 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.16,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1802, type 130
10:29:18.217506 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.251.16, type SPF cost 1802
10:29:27.095295 DTCMPR7827I Adding stack route to 9.130.251.88,
mask 255.255.255.248 via 9.130.251.81, link ETH3,
metric 1802, type 130
10:29:27.106326 DTCMPR7935I New MPROUTE route to destination Net
9.130.251.88, type SPF cost 1802
|
Following are brief explanations of numbered items in the trace:
|
1
214
MPROUTE initializing (trace level 1 was specified at startup)
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
|
2
MPROUTE learns of TCP/IP stack interfaces
|
3
Direct routes are added for each TCP/IP stack interface
|
4
OSPF Hello packet sent out OSPF interface
|
5
OSPF Interface transitions to state ″point-to-point″
|
6
OSPF Hello packet received from OSPF neighbor
|
7
OSPF neighbor transitions to state ″Init″
|
8
OSPF neighbor transitions to state ″2-Way″
|
9
OSPF Dijkstra calculation is performed
|
10
RIP Requests Responses begin being sent out RIP interface
|
11
OSPF neighbor transitions to state ″ExStart″
|
12
OSPF Database Description packet sent out OSPF interface
|
13
OSPF Database Description received from OSPF neighbor
|
14
OSPF neighbor transitions to state ″Exchange″
|
15
OSPF Link State Request packet sent out OSPF interface
|
16
MPROUTE configured for RIP V2 only ignores RIP V1
|
17
OSPF Link State Update packet received from OSPF neighbor
|
18
Link State Advertisements from received Update packet are processed
|
19
OSPF Link State Update packet sent out OSPF interface
|
20
OSPF neighbor transitions to state ″Full″
|
21
Request received to display OSPF Interface configuration information
|
22
OSPF Link State Acknowledgment packet received from OSPF neighbor
|
23
OSPF Link State Acknowledgement packet sent out OSPF interface
|
24
Learned route is added to TCP/IP stack route table
|
25
Request received to change tracing level to 2 (adds formatted packets)
|
26
Formatted OSPF packet
|
27
Formatted RIP packet
|
28
Request received to change tracing level back to 1
Chapter 12. Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
215
Diagnosing MPROUTE Problems
216
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
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|
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis
|
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|
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This chapter describes some of the debugging facilities for the Secure Socket Layer
(SSL) server. SSL trace facilities exist that can be useful in identifying the cause of
SSL server problems. This section discusses these trace requests and how they can
be started and stopped. Included are descriptions of traces as well as examples of
how these traces are invoked.
|
|
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|
|
The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) server provides the processing that allows secure
(encrypted) communication between a remote client and a VM TCP/IP server (in
this context known as the application server). The application server must be
listening on a port identified as secure by the installation, and the remote client
must support the SSL protocol. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the Internet
Standards protocol based on SSL and is described in RFC 2246.
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|
|
Figure 87 expresses the viewpoint of the client and the server that there is a
connection between them.
Server
Security Server
Socket
Stack
|
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|
|
Socket
Client
Figure 87. SSL Client and Server Environment
The reality is that the client has a connection with the SSL server and the SSL
server has a connection with the server as illustrated in Figure 88 on page 218:
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
217
SSL Diagnosis
|
Server
Security Server
Socket
Socket
Socket
Socket
Stack
|
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|
Client
Figure 88. TCP/IP Stack View of connection
SSL component Flow
The following diagram illustrates how the SSL server and stack work together to
provide SSL processing on behalf of a secure server:
|
|
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|
Client
1
2
Security Server
Connect
(secure port)
Client Hello
Key Exchange
Change Cipher Spec
Finished
3
4
Send
Close
encrypted data
encrypted data
Accept
Connect
Accept
Server Hello
Certificate
Hello Done
Change Cipher Spec
Finished
Send
Send
Close
Close
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|
Secure Server
decrypted data
unencrypted data
Send
Close
Figure 89. SSL processing flow
An SSL session consists of the following general processing steps:
|
1Connect
|
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|
|
The SSL session is maintained as two separate connections: the connection from the
remote client to the SSL server, and the connection from the SSL server to the
application server. The intervention of the SSL server is transparent to the client
and the application server; to them, it seems that they are communicating directly
with each other.
218
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
SSL Diagnosis
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2Client Hello
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After its connect request is accepted, the client initiates a handshake protocol to
produce the cryptographic parameters for the session. The SSL server (representing
the application server) responds to the handshake and sends the application
server’s certificate to the client. The client and the SSL server agree on a protocol
version, select cryptographic algorithms (known as cipher suites), and use
asymmetric (public-key) encryption techniques to generate shared secrets. From the
shared secrets, the SSL server and the client generate the symmetric (private) keys
to be used for the encryption and decryption of data sent on the connection.
|
3Send
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|
When the handshake completes, the client sends encrypted data over the network.
The SSL server receives the encrypted data from the client, decrypts it, and sends it
to the application server. The application server responds by sending unencrypted
data to the SSL server. The SSL server receives the unencrypted data from the
application server, encrypts it, and sends it to the client.
|
4Close
|
|
When a close is received from either the client or the application server, the SSL
server sends a close to the other party and cleans up the connection.
|
Invoking Trace Activity on the SSL Server
|
|
The type of activity that can be traced on the SSL Server consists of the following:
v TRACE NORMAL
|
|
v TRACE CONNECTIONS
v TRACE FLOW
|
|
Note: Traces can be refined and limited by specifying the connection number, IP
address or port.
|
|
|
There are two methods for initiating trace facilities. One is to begin tracing SSL
server activities when the server starts, the other is to start or stop trace activity
after the server has been initialized and is running.
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|
|
|
To begin tracing SSL server activities when the server starts, you need to use the
TRACE operand on the VMSSL command. This command can be entered either at
the console upon start up, or, can be invoked upon start up by specifying the
TRACE parameter in the DTCPARMS file.
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When the SSL server is started, the initialization program searches the DTCPARMS
files for configuration definitions that apply to this server. Tags that affect the SSL
server are:
|
|
If the SSL entry in the DTCPARMS is unaltered, then default operands for the
command are used. If you want to override the default VMSSL command
:nick.SSLSERV
:nick.ssl
:type.server
:class.ssl
:type.class
:name.SSL daemon
:command.VMSSL
:diskwarn.YES
:parms.maxusers 50 TRACE
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis
219
SSL Diagnosis
|
|
operands, you should modify the DTCPARMS file for the SSL server and specify
the operands you want on the :parms tag.
|
|
The format of the VMSSL and SSLADMIN commands along with the debug trace
operands are described below:
|
VMSSL Command
|
|
NOTRACE
|
VMSSL
TRACE
NORMAL
CONNECTIONS
FLOW
ALL
NODATA
DATA
ip_address
:port
ip_address:port
|
|
|
|
SSLADMIN TRACE/NOTRACE Command
|
|
|
|
As mentioned earlier, the alternate method of starting and stopping trace activity
on the SSL server is with the SSLADMIN command. Use the SSLADMIN
TRACE/NOTRACE command to dynamically start or stop tracing SSL server
activities while the server is running.
|
|
SSLadmin
|
|
|
|
TRACE
NORMal
CONNections
NOTRACE
FLOW
ALL
NODATA
DATA
ip_address
:port
ip_address:port
connection_number
|
|
|
|
Operands:
|
|
TRACE
specifies that tracing is to be performed.
|
|
|
NORMAL
specifies that a trace entry is recorded to indicate a successful connection. This
is the default if TRACE is specified.
|
|
|
CONNECTIONS
specifies that a trace entry is recorded for connection state changes and
handshake results.
220
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
SSL Diagnosis
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|
NODATA
specifies that no data is displayed for send and receive trace entries. This is the
default if CONNECTIONS is specified.
|
|
|
DATA
specifies that the first 20 bytes of data are displayed for send and receive trace
entries.
|
|
FLOW
specifies that flow of control and system activity are traced.
|
|
|
ALL
specifies that tracing is done for all connections. This is the default if TRACE is
specified.
|
|
ip_address
specifies that tracing is done only for activity associated with this IP address.
|
|
port
|
|
|
|
connection_number
specifies that tracing is done only for activity associated with this connection
number. The connection number can be obtained by issuing NETSTAT CONN.
This operand is supported only on SSLADMIN.
|
|
NOTRACE
specifies that all tracing is turned off. This is the default on VMSSL.
|
|
|
|
|
specifies that tracing is done only for activity associated with this port.
Diagnosing Problems
The following provides information about problems that you might encounter with
the SSL server and suggestions for diagnosing the problem.
Symptom - The SSL server could not be started
|
|
|
|
|
|
Documentation
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Analysis
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis:
v TCPIP DATA information
v Messages from the SSL server console
v DTCPARMS information
v Trace output
If the server could not connect to the TCP/IP virtual machine:
1. Verify that the TCP/IP server ID specified in the start up message DTCSSL080I
has the correct user ID for your stack. If not, correct the TCPIPUSERID entry in
TCPIP DATA.
2. Verify that the TCP/IP server is started.
3. Check the messages from the TCP/IP server console for indications of
problems. Refer to theTCP/IP Messages and Codes and follow the directions for
the system programmer response for the particular message.
4. Use Trace Normal or Trace Flow to gather further debug information. Update
the parms tag in DTCPARMS for the SSL server with Trace Normal or Trace
Flow and start the server. This will provide debug information during the
server start up.
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis
221
SSL Diagnosis
Symptom - The SSL server is restarted by the stack at regular
intervals
|
|
|
|
|
The most common cause of this condition is that the server is in the AUTOLOG
list and also has a PORT statement reserving a TCP port but does not have a
listening connection.
|
|
|
|
|
Documentation
|
|
|
|
|
Analysis
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis:
v PROFILE TCPIP
v ETC SERVICES
v SSL trace output from the TCP/IP server
1. Verify that the port number for the SSL server in PROFILE TCPIP matches the
port number for SSLADMIN in the ETC SERVICES file. The SSL server gets the
port number from ETC SERVICES and the stack monitors the port listed in
PROFILE TCPIP.
2. Trace the SSL process in the TCP/IP server to determine if there were errors on
socket calls from the SSL server.
3. Determine if the SSLADMIN port in the ETC SERVICES was or was not passed
to the SSL server. See which VMSSL parms do not get applied from the
DTCPARMS file.
|
|
|
|
|
Symptom - The correct parameters are not being passed to
the SSL server
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Documentation
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Analysis
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis:
v SSLADMIN QUERY STATUS output
v DTCPARMS information
v Messages from the SSL server console
1. Issue SSLADMIN QUERY STATUS to determine what options are in effect.
2. Check that the parameters are correctly specified on the parms tag of the
DTCPARMS for the SSL server entry.
3. Check the VMSSL start up message DTCSSL080I for a list of the DTCPARMS
arguments used at start up time.
4. Check for other messages from the SSL server console giving information about
the parameters.
Symptom - The inability to connect to an application server
listening on a secure port
|
|
Documentation
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis:
v NETSTAT CONNECTIONS output
v SSLADMIN QUERY SESSIONS output
v Messages from the SSL server console
v Trace output from the SSL server
v Trace output from the TCP/IP server
222
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
SSL Diagnosis
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Analysis
1. Issue NETSTAT CONNECTIONS to verify that both the application server and
the SSL server are listening. Start the servers if necessary.
2. Issue SSLADMIN QUERY STATUS to determine the number of active sessions
and the maximum number of sessions allowed.
When the maximum is reached, the TCP/IP server rejects any further
connections for the SSL server until the number of active sessions is less than
the maximum. The number of maximum sessions can be specified with
MAXUSERS on the DTCPARMS parms tag for the SSL server.
3. Check the messages from the SSL server console for indications of problems.
4. Issue SSLADMIN TRACE CONNECTION and try the connection again.
5. Trace the SSL process and the TCPUP process in the TCP/IP server in order to
gather more debug information.
Symptom - Connections close due to errors
|
|
|
|
|
|
Documentation
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Analysis
|
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis:
v TCPIP PROFILE
v SSLADMIN QUERY CERTIFICATE * output
v Messages from the SSL server console
v Trace output from the SSL server
1. Verify that the label specified on the PORT statement is correct and issue
SSLADMIN QUERY CERT label to ensure that it exists in the certificate
database. Note that the SSL server must be restarted to activate new certificates.
2. Check the messages from the SSL server console for indications of problems.
3. Issue SSLADMIN TRACE CONNECTIONS and try the connection again.
Trace connections will display messages that will indicate what happened to
the connections it receives. You may want to consider limiting the trace to an ip
address or port.
Symptom - Incorrect input or output
|
|
|
|
|
Documentation
|
|
Analysis
|
|
|
|
|
|
The following documentation should be available for initial diagnosis:
v SSLADMIN QUERY SESSIONS
v Messages from the SSL server console
v Trace connections data output from the SSL server
1. Verify that your connection has been established.
2. Verify that the data is flowing correctly through the SSL server.
3. Check the messages from the SSL server for indications of problems.
4. Issue SSLADMIN TRACE CONNECTIONS DATA and try the connection again.
Trace Connections Data will display messages that will indicate what might
have happened with the connections it receives and their data. You may want
to consider limiting the trace to an ip address or port.
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis
223
SSL Diagnosis
|
|
Trace Output
The following trace examples show output received from an SSL server when
tracing normal, connections, data, and flow specified on the SSLADMIN
command. It may be beneficial to refer to the processing flow in Figure 89 on
page 218, when studying the following trace examples.
|
|
|
|
Trace Normal
|
|
|
|
|
|
Administrative Console
|
|
|
|
|
|
SSL Server Console
|
Explanation
|
|
|
|
1
ssladmin trace
DTCSSL047I Trace established
Ready; T=0.03/0.03 13:35:39
DTCSSL003I SSLADMIN received: TRACE
NORMAL ALL
DTCSSL047I Trace established
1
Client 9.130.57.56:1159 Port 9997 Label SNIFCERT
Cipher RC4_128_MD5 Connection established
This is the client that has connected to the SSL server. It includes its IP
address and port as well as the server’s port. Label is the name of the
certificate used and Cipher is the name of the Cipher Suite. This entry gets
displayed after the handshake.
Trace Connections NODATA
|
|
|
|
|
|
Administrative Console
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
SSL Server Console
|
Explanation
|
|
1
ssladmin trace connections
DTCSSL047I Trace established
Ready; T=0.03/0.03 13:36:07
DTCSSL003I
DTCSSL047I
SSLADMIN received: TRACE
CONNECTIONS NODATA ALL
Trace established
1
DTCSSL019I Connection received from
Thread
Client_Socket_Address Connection Label
1
9.130.57.56:1174
1006
SNIFCERT
2
DTCSSL020I Connection accepted by
Thread
Server_Socket_Address
1
9.130.249.34:9997
3
DTCSSL021I Handshake successful
Thread Client_Socket_Address Server_Socket_Address
Connection Cipher
1
9.130.57.56:1174
9.130.249.34:9997
1006
RC4_128_MD5
4
DTCSSL023I Connection closed
Thread Client_Socket_Address Server_Socket_Address Connection
1
9.130.57.56:1174
9.130.249.34:9997
1006
224
Displays the Thread number and Connection number. This event occurs
after the client has been accepted.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
SSL Diagnosis
|
|
|
2
Displays the Application server IP address and Port number, together with
the thread number. This event occurs after the SSL server has connected to
the application server.
|
|
|
3
After the Handshake completes, either a status of handshake successful or
handshake unsuccessful is displayed. The agreed upon Cipher Suite is
displayed as well.
|
|
4
Upon the closing of connections, Connection closed for this particular
client-server connection is indicated.
|
Trace Connections DATA
|
|
|
|
Administrative Console
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
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|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
SSL Server Console
|
Explanation
|
|
|
|
|
1
|
|
|
|
|
ssladmin trace connections data
DTCSSL047I Trace established
Ready; T=0.03/0.03 13:36:38
1
DTCSSL003I SSLADMIN received: TRACE
CONNECTIONS DATA ALL
DTCSSL047I Trace established
DTCSSL019I Connection received from
Thread Client_Socket_Address
Connection Label
2
9.130.57.56:1175
1015
SNIFCERT
DTCSSL020I Connection accepted by
Thread
Server_Socket_Address
2
9.130.249.34:9997
DTCSSL021I Handshake successful
Thread Client_Socket_Address
Server_Socket_Address
Connection Cipher
2
9.130.57.56:1175
9.130.249.34:9997
1015
RC4_128_MD5
DTCSSL025I Data received
Thread Client_Socket_Address
Server_Socket_Address
Connection Bytes
2
9.130.57.56:1175
9.130.249.34:9997
1015
388
Data: GET /devpages/roden/
DTCSSL024I Data sent
Thread Client_Socket_Address
Server_Socket_Address
Connection Bytes
2
9.130.57.56:1175
9.130.249.34:9997
1015
136
Data: HTTP/1.0 304 Not Mod
DTCSSL023I Connection closed
Thread Client_Socket_Address
Server_Socket_Address
Connection
2
9.130.57.56:1175
9.130.249.34:9997
1015
Same as Trace Connections NODATA with Data Byte count along with the
first 20 bytes of data in clear text. Also shown is the direction in which
data flows. Data Received is data received from the client and sent to the
server. Data Sent is data sent to the client after coming from the server.
Bytes represents the data count and is a count of the unencrypted bytes.
Trace FLOW
Administrative Console
DTCSSL003I SSLADMIN received: TRACE
DTCSSL047I Trace established
Ready; T=0.03/0.03 13:36:39
FLOW
ALL
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis
225
SSL Diagnosis
SSL Server Console
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13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
13:37:07
1
13:37:13
2
13:37:13
3
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13:37:13
4
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13:37:13
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13:37:13
13:37:13
13:37:13
13:37:13
13:37:13
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13:37:13
13:37:13
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13:37:13
13:37:13
13:37:13
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13:37:13
13:37:13
226
Admin
updateThread() ended
SSL
updateThread() ended
0
updateThread() ended
1
updateThread() ended
2
updateThread() ended
Admin
updateThreads() ended
Admin handleAdmin(handleTrace) Done t:0
Admin
handleAdmin() ended rc: 0
Admin adminMain(close)Stop:0 rc2:0 errno:4 sock:7
SSL
mainSSL(accept) NS: 7 errno: 4
SSL
displaySockSSL() started
SSL
SSL
displaySockSSL(mainSSL() after accept)
fromIP: 9.130.57.56:1176 len:13:37:13 SSL
toIP: 9.130.249.34:9997 fam: tcb:93976544 lab:SNIFCERT
SSL
displaySockSSL() ended
SSL
placeInToDoList() started
SSL
placeInToDoList() ended
SSL
setupToDo started
SSL
setupToDo ended
SSL
signalWorker() started
0
getFirstToDo() started
0
getFirstToDo() ended
0
updateThread() started ThB 4c94b0
0
updateThread() ended
0 workerThread(1): myToDo: 482560
0 workerThread(before gsk__open): client: 7
0 workerThread(gsk__open) rc: 0 envH: 4202a8 sslH: 7f5ffcc0
0 workerThread(GSK_OK) GSK_OK: 0
0 workerThread(gsk__set_n) client: 7 rc: 0
0 workerThread(gsk__set_b, label) rc: 0
0 workerThread(gsk__set_b, userData) rc: 0
0 workerThread(1) rc: 0: errno: 4
0
connectServer() started
SSL
signalWorker() ended
SSL
mainSSL(): newToDo: 42d1b8 pClientA: 42d1c4 cLen: 36
SSL
displaySockSSL() started
0
connectServer() socket() s = 8: errno: 4
SSL
displaySockSSL(mainSSL() before accept)
SSL
fromIP: 0.0.0.0:0 len:13:37:13 0
connectServer(setsockopt) rc: 0: errno: 4
0
displaySockSSL() started
0
displaySockSSL(mainSSL() before connect)
0
fromIP: 9.130.57.56:1176 len:13:37:13 0
toIP: 9.130.249.34:9997
fam: tcb:93976544 lab:SNIFCERT
0
displaySockSSL() ended
SSL
toIP: 0.0.0.0:0 fam: tcb:0 lab:13:37:13
SSL
displaySockSSL() ended
SSL
mainSSL before accept s:6 pC:42d1c4 cLen:36
0
connectServer(connect) rc = 0: errno: 4
0
displaySockSSL() started
0
displaySockSSL(mainSSL() after connect)
0
fromIP: 9.130.57.56:1176 len:13:37:13 0
toIP: 9.130.249.34:9997
fam: tcb:93976544 lab:SNIFCERT
0
displaySockSSL() ended
0
connectServer() ended s: 8
0 workerThread(rtn from connServer)
0 workerThread(before gsk_soc_init) sslHdl: 4bac18
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
SSL Diagnosis
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vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 5 errno: 4
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 93 errno: 4
vmsslWrite(send) fd: 7 rc: 79 errno: 4
vmsslWrite(send) fd: 7 rc: 6 errno: 4
vmsslWrite(send) fd: 7 rc: 61 errno: 4
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 5 errno: 4
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 1 errno: 4
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 5 errno: 4
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 56 errno: 4
13:37:13 0 workerThread(gsk_soc_init) rc: 0
13:37:13 0
UpdateSSLKitMs() started
13:37:13 0
GetCipherType() started Cipher: 04
13:37:13 0
GetCipherType() ended CipherType: 0
13:37:13 0
UpdateSSLKitMs()
ended RC: 0
13:37:13 0 workerThread(select) rc2: 1: errno: 4
13:37:13 0 workerThread() client: 7 server: 8
13:37:13 0 clientSocket input
13:37:13 0
clientToServer() started client: 7 server: 8
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 5 errno: 4
vmsslRead(recv) fd: 7 rc: 404 errno: 4
13:37:13 0
clientToServer(recv1) rc: 0 lenRd: 388
13:37:13 0
clientToServer(send) rc:388 errno:4 len:388
13:37:13 0
clientToServer() ended stopMe: 0
13:37:14 0 workerThread(select) rc2: 1: errno: 4
13:37:14 0 workerThread() client: 7 server: 8
13:37:14 0 serverSocket input
13:37:14 0
serverToClient() started
13:37:14 0
serverToClient(recv) rc: 136 errno: 4
vmsslWrite(send) fd: 7 rc: 157 errno: 4
13:37:14 0
serverToClient(send) rc: 0 lenWri: 136
13:37:14 0
serverToClient() ended stopMe: 0
13:37:14 0 workerThread(select) rc2: 1: errno: 4
13:37:14 0 workerThread() client: 7 server: 8
13:37:14 0 serverSocket input
13:37:14 0
serverToClient() started
13:37:14 0
serverToClient(recv) rc: 0 errno: 4
13:37:14 0
serverToClient() ended stopMe: 2
13:37:14 0
closeToDo() started pToDo: 482560
13:37:14 0
workerThread(): client socket: 7 closed rc: 0
13:37:14 0
workerThread(): server socket: 8 closed rc: 0
13:37:14 0
closeToDo() ended
13:37:14 0
updateThread() started ThB 4c94b0
13:37:14 0
updateThread() ended
13:37:14 0 workerThread(gsk to soc_close) sslH: 7f5ffcc0
13:37:14 0 workerThread(): GSK client socket closed rc: 0
13:37:14 0
getFirstToDo() started
13:37:14 0
getFirstToDo() ended
13:37:14 0 workerThread(0): myToDo: 0
13:37:14 0 workerThread(): locking myToDo: 0
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Explanation
The following can be used as a general guideline when interpreting Trace Flow
output:
v The first word is a time stamp in hh:mm:ss format
v The second word is the thread ID specifying one of the following:
|
Admin
Administrative thread
|
SSL
The main SSL Thread
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Number
The Worker thread
v The third word is the routine that is running. Parenthesis may contain unique
information that can be used as a reference point. The rest of the entry contains
other relevant data.
Chapter 13. SSL Server Diagnosis
227
SSL Diagnosis
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1
Shows an SSL thread with routine name of mainSSL running during accept
processing. Also indicates NS (new socket) number and errno: 4. Errno is
only valid if NS is negative.
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2
Indicates displaySocketSSL routine has started. Note that any subsequent
routine that is called is displayed with a two space indentation. Upon
completion of the routine, the indentation in the entry is removed.
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3
Displays relevant data.
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4
Indicates ″end of routine″.
Displaying Local Host Information
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There are times when it may be helpful to use the the NETSTAT command to
display information about active TCP/IP host connections. Below is an example of
output displayed upon invoking the NETSTAT command.
|
Explanation
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1
This line shows the connection from the telnet server to the real client.
Both the client and application server share this view.
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2
The lines represented by 2 and 3, respectively, show the further
breakdown of the primary connection into two connections: the line
represented by 2 being the connection from the SSL server to the real
client, and the line represented by 3 as being the connection from the
SSL server to the application server.
netstat conn
VM TCP/IP Netstat Level 3A0
Active Transmission Blocks
User Id Conn Local Socket
---- -- ---- ----- -----INTCLIEN 1000 *..TELNET
INTCLIEN 1006 *..423
1
INTCLIEN 1001 GDLVMK1-4..423
ROUTED4 UDP
*..520
---SSLSERV 1002 127.0.0.0..9999
SSLSERV 1004 *..1024
2
SSLSERV 1003 GDLVMK1-4..1024
1005
3
SSLSERV 1005 GDLVMK1-4..1025
1003
Ready; T=0.02/0.04 19:57:41
228
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Foreign Socket
------- -----*..*
*..*
State
----Listen
Listen
9.130.58.177..1208
*..*
Established
UDP
*..*
*..*
Listen
Listen
9.130.58.177..1208
Established
GDLVMK1-4..423
Established
|
Chapter 14. Network File System
This chapter describes debugging facilities for NFS. Included are descriptions of
traces as well as the different procedures implemented for TCP/IP VM.
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VM NFS Client Support
Activating Traces for NFS Client
Debugging the NFS client is activated by the OPENVM DEBUG command. For
more information on the OPENVM DEBUG command, see the z/VM:
OpenExtensions Command Reference.
VM NFS Server Support
NFS Protocol
The VM NFS server supports NFS protocol, program 100003, at the Version 2 and
Version 3 levels. These are described by RFCs 1094 and 1813.
Mount Protocol
The VM NFS server supports MOUNT protocol, program 100005, at the Version 1
and Version 3 levels. These are also described by RFCs 1094 and 1813.
In addition to procedures 0-5 described in the RFCs, VM defines Mount protocol
procedure 6 for MOUNTPW.
PCNFSD Protocol
The VM NFS server supports PCNFS protocol, program 150001, at the Version 1
and Version 2 levels. Only procedures PCNFSD_NULL (0) and PCNFSD_AUTH
(Version 1 – 2, Version 2 – 13) are supported.
General NFS Debugging Features
NFS has several features for debugging. Here is a general list of some of the
debugging features.
1. Several levels of trace information are available. You can ask to write trace
information to the VM NFS server machine console. Use the M start up
parameter or the SMSG MASK command to set the mask and write trace
information to the server machine console. Several mask values result in
console information:
500
Displays information about processing to decode names,
particularly the name translation that takes place for SFS and
minidisk files when the names=trans option is used on mount.
501
Shows NFS requests (e.g., nfsread or lookup) received by the
VM NFS server, and the responses to those requests. This
shows the high level flow of requests between NFS client and
server.
502
Displays information related to mount requests, including
PCNFSD and translation table processing.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
229
Network File System (NFS)
503
Displays information about initialization and SMSG REFRESH
CONFIG processing.
504
Displays error messages describing the errors received by the
VM NFS server when processing SFS and BFS files and
directories. These are the error codes given on routines such as
DMSOPEN for SFS files, and the open() function call for BFS
files.
505
Displays information related to internal tasks being dispatched.
506
Displays information related to NFS requests, but with more
details than the M 501 trace.
507
Causes the VM NFS server to call VMDUMP and write
information to the console for all SFS and BFS errors except 'file
not found'. In addition to the 507 mask value, the VMNFS
DUMP_REQ file must contain the correct value. See note 6 on
page 231.
508
Displays information related to sockets used in the VM NFS
server.
509
Displays file I/O related information.
510
Displays buffers related to sockets used in the VM NFS server.
999
Includes all of the above except mask value 510.
The M parameter may be used multiple times on the start up command. For
example, you can specify the following in the DTCPARMS file:
:parms.M 501 M 504
2.
3.
4.
5.
230
You may specify only one mask value at a time on a MASK command
delivered via CP SMSG, but the settings are cumulative. Specifying ’SMSG
VMNFS M MASK 0’ clears all previously set mask values.
VMNFS maintains information and usage data about client mounts. You can
see this information using the SMSG VMNFS M QUERY command. 'SMSG
VMNFS M QUERY' shows you summary counts for the entire VM NFS server.
Use the DETAILS option on the 'SMSG VMNFS M QUERY RESOURCE'
command to see usage counts for individual mount points.
Note that sometimes the display can contain misleading information. The
counts are reset if the VM NFS server is restarted. A negative mount count
could be seen if an UNMOUNT is done following a server restart. Also, in
response to a person’s request to MOUNT, or for any other service, the NFS
client may send several requests to the server. (Duplicate requests may be sent
depending on network speed, for example.)
The VM NFS server maintains a limited amount of host error information for
SFS and BFS directories. This can assist in determining the real reason for an
NFSERR_IO return code (for example) given to an NFS client. See the SMSG
VMNFS M ERROR command in the TCP/IP User’s Guide or more information.
Console messages about invalid calls to program number 200006 are
suppressed, unless the mask controlling internal tracing (M 505) is active. These
calls are emitted by AIX® Version 3 clients.
The SIGERROR function will automatically write the internal trace table to disk
(file name SIGERROR.TRACEV) if the trace mask is non-zero. A save-area
traceback will also be written to the console when the trace mask is non-zero,
or when the call to SIGERROR is other than the normal termination of the VM
NFS server by an external interrupt.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Network File System (NFS)
6. In the event of a programming logic error in the NFS server machine, facilities
exist to enable a virtual machine dump (in VMDUMP format) to be taken.
During abnormal termination or other error events, the default handling is for
no storage dumps to be taken. To enable the taking of a dump, simply create
and place a file with the following file name and file type on the A-disk of the
NFS server virtual machine.
VMNFS DUMP_REQ
The first line of this file should contain the mask value of X'FFFFFFFF'. This
will enable dumps for all classes of errors within the NFS server machine. If
you are experiencing problems with NFS and have called the IBM Software
Support Center for assistance, it is likely that you may be requested to produce
a storage dump in the above mentioned manner to help aid with problem
isolation. Comments may be added to the VMNFS DUMP_REQ file to keep as
a history log. Comments may be in any form, as long as the first line contains
the mask value.
Activating Traces for NFS Server
In the NFS server virtual machine, tracing is activated by specifying either the G
or g option on the :parms tag for VMNFS in the DTCPARMS file.
:parms.G
The following demonstrates the use of the trace option when used with the
VMNFS command:
VMNFS G
VMNFS g
Note that the trace option is not delimited from the command by a left parenthesis.
The trace output is written to the VMNFS LOG file (on the server’s A disk). The
log file contains the calls and responses processed by VMNFS. Each entry written
to the log file consists of the following two records:
v a header record specifying the client address and message length
v a record containing the actual message.
The log file is normally not closed until the server has been terminated. Once
started, VMNFS waits for client requests, but the program may be terminated
manually by an external interrupt created by the CP command EXTERNAL. It is
possible to close the log file without terminating the VM NFS server by using a
CMS command sent by an authorized user to the VMNFS virtual machine with
SMSG:
SMSG VMNFS M CMS FINIS * * A
Chapter 14. Network File System
231
Network File System (NFS)
The VMNFS module also supports the use of a D or d option. The tracing
provided by d is a superset of that provided by g, therefore, there is no
requirement to specify both. This option causes various debugging messages to be
written to the server’s spooled console, and generates the same log file on disk as
the g option. These messages indicate the results of activities performed by the
NFS server, such as task dispatching operations. There can be many messages
during normal operation of the VM NFS server, which can make it tedious to
locate more interesting messages among the mass of debug messages. The D
option is therefore most useful in circumstances where it is necessary to learn
whether any client requests are received by the server, because this option causes
console output for each such request.
The VMNFS LOG file generated by running with tracing activated contains binary
data. A utility program, PRINTLOG, is provided to format the VMNFS LOG file
into a VMNFS PRINT file, suitable for examination. A sample of formatted output
is shown in Figure 90 on page 235.
Additional Trace Options
Additional trace options for the NFS server are described in the following sections.
|
Trace Tables
An internal trace facility is called from various places in the code to record
information about the details of processing client requests. Data is written to a
table in storage, with enough descriptive information included to make it possible
to extract and format useful information without many dependencies on the actual
storage address at which the program is loaded or on the particular order or
location of the routines that are combined to produce the executable file.
There are actually two internal trace tables. The original one contains fixed-length
entries and is located from pointers that have the external name TRACEPTR. The
newer facility is more versatile, and uses variable-length entries. These features
gave rise to the name TRACEV. The external name TRACEVAD identifies a pointer
to a structure defining the newer trace table.
The original trace routine is still called, but from fewer locations because many of
the original calls to ″trace″ were changed to call ″tracev″ in later releases. Both of
the internal trace tables share the characteristic that they wrap: new information is
written over old data when the capacity of the table is exceeded.
In order to make better use of the available space in the tracev table, calls are
assigned to various classes and a mask is used to select which classes of call will
result in trace data actually recorded in the table. Calls to tracev that specify
classes that have zero mask bits return immediately and no data is saved as a
result of those calls. This mask is a 32-bit field that has the external name
[email protected] (the internal name is tracev_m). The mask is zero by default, in order
to eliminate most of the trace overhead in the majority of times when no one is
interested in the data.
The command TWRITE may be sent by CP SMSG to the VMNFS virtual machine
to request it to write the current contents of the trace tables to a disk file or SFS
directory. The default fileid for this file is TRACEV FILE A1, but another name
may be specified in the TWRITE command. For example:
CP SMSG VMNFS M T DARK TDATA G
232
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Network File System (NFS)
will write the file DARK TDATA G1. If a disk file with the specified (or default)
name exists when the TWRITE command is issued, the old file is erased before the
new data is written to disk. The TVPRINT Utility can be used to decode some of
this file’s data into a readable format.
There are several ways to set the tracev mask field. The command line option M
may be used, or the mask field may be dynamically set during operation of the
VM NFS server by use of a MASK command delivered using CP SMSG. The mask
value 0xFFFFFFFF enables all tracing. See file TRACEV.H for trace classes and
related information.
The default mask value may be changed by re-compiling the TRACEV.C file and
rebuilding the VMNFS executable file. For example:
CC TRACEV C (DEFINE TMASK(0XFFFFFFFF)
will enable all tracing by default.
The trace data file (for example, TRACEV DATA) contains binary information.
Care must be taken when transmitting it so that no data transformations are
performed by code-sensitive programs such as mail processing agents.
Trace Output
The VMNFS PRINT file provides complete information about messages that have
been sent and received. This information includes the name of the programs and
procedures called and the associated versions, IP addresses, and ports used. The
file includes authentication information (passwords) used by clients to identify
themselves to the NFS server, and therefore may be subject to local security
controls pertaining to such information.
Figure 90 on page 235 shows a sample of an NFS trace of a mount request that is
rejected because of invalid authentication data. When the NFS server starts, a series
of 8 messages are exchanged with the Portmapper. These messages are written to
the log file in a somewhat different format than transactions with NFS clients, but
the PRINTLOG program understands this. There are two messages sent to
Portmap to unregister the NFS and MOUNT programs (in case VMNFS is
restarting), then two messages to register these programs. Each call message is
followed by its reply message. Only the last of these 4 interactions (messages 7 and
8) are shown in this sample.
Some of the message fields are described below to assist the reader in
understanding the format of the VMNFS PRINT file. For a complete description of
the NFS message formats, consult RFC 1057 and RFC 1094 (see “Chapter 10. RPC
Programs” on page 155).
v For message 9:
Offset
Field Description
X'0000'
XID, X'290D3D97'
X'0004'
X'00000000' This is a call message.
X'0008'
RPC version 2.
X'000C'
Program number, X'186A5'=100005 (MOUNT).
X'0010'
Program version 1.
Chapter 14. Network File System
233
Network File System (NFS)
X'0014'
Procedure number 6 (a procedure added to the MOUNT
program so that VMNFS can service the mountpw request from
a client).
X'0018'
Credential authentication type is 0 (null).
X'001C'
Length of authentication data is zero.
X'0020'
Verifier authentication type is 0 (null).
X'0024'
Length of authentication data is zero.
X'0028'
Counted string argument length is 19 characters.
X'002C'
Start of string data.
v For message 10:
Offset
Field Description
X'0000'
XID
X'0004'
This is a reply message.
X'0008'
Reply status = accepted message.
X'000C'
RPC accepted message status = executed successfully.
X'0010'
Verifier authentication type 0 (null).
X'0014'
Authentication length is zero.
X'0018'
Value of the called procedure is zero, indicating successful
execution.
v For message 11:
Offset
Field Description
X'0014'
Procedure number 1 (add mount)
X'0018'
Credential authentication type is 1 (Unix).
X'001C'
Length of authentication data is 32 bytes.
X'0040'
Verifier authentication type is 0 (null).
X'0044'
Length of authentication data is zero.
X'0048'
Counted string argument length is 14 characters.
X'004C'
Start of string data.
v For message 12:
234
Offset
Field Description
X'0018'
Value of the called procedure is 13, NFSERR_ACCES (access
denied).
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Sent to
014.000.000.000 port
Message number
7
0000
00000004 00000000 00000002
A................A
0010
00000002 00000001 00000000
A................A
0020
00000000 00000000 000186A3
A................A
0030
00000011 00000801
A........
A
111
length 56
time 811
000186A0
E..............f.E
00000000
E................E
00000002
E..........ft....E
234881024 111 28 811
Message number
8
0000
00000004 00000001 00000000 00000000
A................A
0010
00000000 00000000 00000001
A............
A
Received from 129.034.138.022 port 2298 length
XID 290D3D97 program 100005 procedure 6
Message number
9
0000
290D3D97 00000000 00000002 000186A5
A).=.............A
0010
00000001 00000006 00000000 00000000
A................A
0020
00000000 00000000 00000013 72657865
A............rexeA
0030
63642E31 39312C70 3D726561 64697400
Acd.191,p=readit.A
E........
E
E................E
E............
64
E
time 973
E...p..........fvE
E................E
E................E
E.........../....E
Sent to
129.034.138.022 port 2298 length 28 time 973
XID 290D3D97 reply_stat 0 accept_stat 0 NFS stat 0
Message number
10
0000
290D3D97 00000001 00000000 00000000
E...p............E
A).=.............A
0010
00000000 00000000 00000000
E............
E
A............
A
Received from 129.034.138.022 port 813 length 92 time 4
XID 290223BE program 100005 procedure 1
Message number
11
0000
290223BE 00000000 00000002 000186A5
E..............fvE
A).#.............A
0010
00000001 00000001 00000001 00000020
E................E
A............... A
0020
290C2594 00000006 6E667372 696F0000
E...m.........?..E
A).%.....nfsrio..A
0030
00000000 00000000 00000001 00000000
E................E
A................A
0040
00000000 00000000 0000000E 72657865
E................E
A............rexeA
0050
63642E31 39312C72 3D6E0000
E................E
Acd.191,r=n..
A
Sent to
129.034.138.022 port 813 length 28 time 4
XID 290223BE reply_stat 0 accept_stat 0 NFS stat 13
Message number
12
0000
290223BE 00000001 00000000 00000000
E................E
A).#.............A
0010
00000000 00000000 0000000D
E............
E
A............
A
Figure 90. A Sample of an NFS Trace of a Bad Mount
Chapter 14. Network File System
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Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces
The following sections describe the tracing capabilities available in the client and
server functions provided with the Remote Printing implementation in TCP/IP for
VM.
Remote Printing Client Traces
The client interface to Remote Printing is through the following series of
commands:
v LPR – Route a specific file to a designated, possibly remote, printer.
v LPQ – Interrogate the print queue on the designated printer.
v LPRM – Remove a job from the print queue on the designated printer.
Activating Remote Printing Client Traces
In the client virtual machine, tracing is activated by specifying the TRACE
parameter in addition to the usual processing parameters on command invocation.
The following demonstrates the use of the TRACE parameter for each of the client
Remote Printing commands:
LPR fn ft
LPQ
LPRM
jobid
jobid
fm
print_options
printer_info
printer_info
TRACE
TRACE
TRACE
Note that the above examples are meant only to highlight the specification of the
TRACE parameter. They are not meant to be all inclusive examples of the
parameters available for use. Refer to the TCP/IP User’s Guide for information on
the full parameter set available for the commands.
Remote Printing Client Trace Output
The output from the client traces shows the sequence of interactions with the
Remote Printing server. Transferred data is not traced.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
237
Remote Printing Traces
Figure 91 shows an example of output received from a client trace of the LPR
command. Trace output from the other client commands is similar. In the trace, the
output has been artificially separated to highlight the various processing sections
involved during command execution.
---------- Section 1 ---------lpr doit exec a (trace
Printer name from global variable PRINTER = "FSC3820"
Host name from global variable PRTHOST = "VM1"
lpr to printer "FSC3820" at host "VM1"
Requesting TCP/IP service at 06/04/97 on 13:34:26
Granted
TCP/IP service at 06/04/97 on 13:34:27
---------- Section 2 ---------Resolving VM1 at 06/04/97 on 13:34:27
Host VM1 name resolved to 9.67.58.225 at 06/04/97 on 13:34:27
TCP/IP turned on.
Host "VM1" Domain "TCP.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM" TCPIP Service Machine TCPIP
Trying to open with local port 721 at 06/04/91 on 13:34:27
Connection open from local port 721 to foreign port 515 at 06/04/97 on 13:34:27
Control file name is cfA164VM1
Data file name is dfA164VM1
---------- Section 3 ---------Sending command 2 argument: "FSC3820"
Command successfully sent
Receiving ACK
Notification: Data delivered
ConnState:
Open
ReceiveACK: TRUE for byte value 00
Byte size check starts on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Byte size check ends
on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Send command
starts on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Sending command 3 argument: "405 dfA164VM1"
Command successfully sent
Receiving ACK
Notification: Data delivered
ConnState:
Open
ReceiveACK: TRUE for byte value 00
Send command
ends
on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
---------- Section 4 ---------Send data
starts on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Send data
ends
on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Send ACK
starts on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Sending ACK
ACK successfully sent
Send ACK
ends
on 06/04/97 at 13:34:27
Receiving ACK
Notification: Data delivered
ConnState:
Open
ReceiveACK: TRUE for byte value 00
Data file sent.
Figure 91. A Sample of an LPR Client Trace (Part 1 of 2)
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---------- Section 5 ---------Queuing control line "HVM1"
Queuing control line "PTCPMAINT"
Queuing control line "JDOIT.EXEC"
Queuing control line "CVM1"
Queuing control line "LTCPMAINT"
Queuing control line "fdfA164VM1"
Queuing control line "UdfA164VM1"
Queuing control line "NDOIT.EXEC"
Sending command 2 argument: "74 cfA164VM1"
Command successfully sent
Receiving ACK
Notification: Data delivered
ConnState:
Open
ReceiveACK: TRUE for byte value 00
---------- Section 6 ---------Control file sent
Sending ACK
ACK successfully sent
Receiving ACK
Notification: Data delivered
ConnState:
Open
ReceiveACK: TRUE for byte value 00
Control file sent.
---------- Section 7 ---------Sending ACK
ACK successfully sent
Receiving ACK
Notification: Connection state changed
NewState:
Receiving only
ReceiveACK: TRUE for byte value 00
Connection closed.
Figure 91. A Sample of an LPR Client Trace (Part 2 of 2)
The following provides a brief description of each of the sections identified in the
above sample output:
Section 1
The LPR command is issued to print the file “DOIT EXEC A”.
Since the invocation parameters did not include the target printer, printer and
host names are resolved through GLOBALV calls.
The LPR module establishes a connection with the TCP/IP virtual machine,
requesting TCP/IP services.
Section 2
The host name “VM1” is resolved to its IP address.
A connection to the Remote Printing server virtual machine (LPSERVE) is
established. This server had previously performed a passive open on port 515.
The source port will be in the range 721 to 731, inclusive.
Unique names for the control and data files to be shipped to the server are
generated. These names will conform to a specific format as follows:
– will begin with “cfA” (control file) or “dfA” (data file)
– followed by a unique three digit number in range 000 - 999 (to be used as
the job number for the print request)
– followed by the host name of the system which constructs the files.
Section 3
Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces
239
Remote Printing Traces
A “Receive a printer job” command (command code 2) is sent to the server,
specifying the printer name “FSC3820”.
After successfully sending the command, the client waits for, and receives, the
server’s (positive) acknowledgement.
The client computes the size of the file to be printed (in octets) and sends a
“Receive data file” subcommand (command code 3) to the server, specifying file
size (405) and data file name (dfA164VM1).
After successfully sending the command, the client waits for, and receives, the
server’s (positive) acknowledgement.
Section 4
The client processes the entire data file, sending 405 octets to the server across
the established connection.
When all data has been sent, an octet of binary zeros is sent as an ACK
(indication) that the file being sent is complete.
After successfully sending the ACK, the client waits for, and receives, the
server’s (positive) acknowledgement.
Section 5
The client constructs a control file according to the standard format, computes
its size in octets, and sends a “Receive control file” subcommand (command
code 2) to the server, specifying file size (74) and control file name
(cfA164VM1).
After successfully sending the command, the client waits for, and receives, the
server’s (positive) acknowledgement.
Section 6
The client processes the entire control file, sending 74 octets to the server across
the established connection. Note that the trace line Control file sent (without
a trailing period) is written out when the transfer of the control data is
complete.
When all data has been sent, a byte (octet) of binary zeros is sent as an ACK
(indication) that the file being sent is complete.
After successfully sending the ACK, the client waits for, and receives, the
server’s (positive) acknowledgement.
Completion of control file processing is signified by the trace line Control file
sent. (with a trailing period).
Section 7
After transferring all of the data and control information, an octet of binary
zeros is sent as a final ACK (indication) that the processing is complete.
After successfully sending the ACK, the client waits for, and receives, the
server’s (positive) acknowledgement.
The connection state changes from “Open” to “Receiving only” after the final
ACK.
The connection with the server is subsequently closed, and the file transfer is
considered complete.
Remote Printing Server Traces
The Remote Printing server is activated during processing performed in the
LPSERVE virtual machine when its PROFILE EXEC executes the LPD command.
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Activating Remote Printing Server Traces
In the server virtual machine, tracing is activated by one of the following
mechanisms:
v specifying TRACE as a parameter on the LPD command invocation,
v including the DEBUG statement in the LPD CONFIG file, or
v by means of the TRACE ON command of the SMSG interface to the Remote
Printing server.
Remote Printing Server Trace Output
The output from the server traces shows the sequence of interactions with the
clients as well as server-specific processing. Transferred data is not traced.
Figure 92 shows an abridged example of output received from a server trace. In the
trace, the output has been artificially separated to highlight the various processing
sections involved during command execution. The first section deals with trace
output pertaining to initialization processing. The remaining sections of the trace
depict the server processing associated with the the corresponding LPR Client trace
described previously.
---------- Section 1 ---------IBM LPD Version V2R4 on 06/04/97 at 13:31:09
LPD starting with port 515
Starting TCP/IP service connection
TCP/IP turned on.
Host "VM1" Domain "TCP.ENDICOTT.IBM.COM" TCPIP Service Machine TCPIP
Host VM1 name resolved to 9.67.58.225
RSCS name is RSCS.
LOCAL added with address 191
FSC3820 added with address 191
FSD3820 added with address 191
FSE3820 added with address 191
lp added with address 191
Host "RIOS" resolved to 9.67.30.50. Printer name is "lp".
PUNCH added with address 191
...End of Printer chain...
Passive open on port 515
06/04/97 13:31:10 Ready
Figure 92. A Sample of a Remote Printing Server Trace (Part 1 of 3)
Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces
241
Remote Printing Traces
---------- Section 2 ---------GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Connection state changed
New connection state Trying to open on connection 1 with reason OK.
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Connection state changed
New connection state Open on connection 1 with reason OK.
Passive open on port 515
Connection open. Reading command.
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Data delivered
Timer cleared for connection 1
New command 2 data "FSC3820".
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification FSend response
---------- Section 3 ---------Reading additional data on 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Data delivered
Timer cleared for connection 1
New subcommand 3 operands "405 dfA164VM1".
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification FSend response
Reading additional data on 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Data delivered
Timer cleared for connection 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Data delivered
Timer cleared for connection 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification FSend response
---------- Section 4 ---------Reading additional data on 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Data delivered
Timer cleared for connection 1
New subcommand 2 operands "74 cfA164VM1".
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification FSend response
Reading additional data on 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Data delivered
Timer cleared for connection 1
:
:
:
:
:
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification
Timer cleared for connection 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification
---------- Section 5 ---------Reading additional data on 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification
Timer cleared for connection 1
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification
New connection state Sending only on connection
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification
Closing connection 1
:
:
Data delivered
FSend response
Data delivered
Connection state changed
1 with reason OK.
FSend response
Figure 92. A Sample of a Remote Printing Server Trace (Part 2 of 3)
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GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Connection state changed
New connection state Connection closing on connection 1 with reason OK.
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
GetNextNote returns. Connection 1 Notification Connection state changed
New connection state Nonexistent on connection 1 with reason OK.
End Connection 1 for OK.
---------- Section 6 ---------06/04/91 13:34:42 Job 164 received
FSC3820 9.67.58.225
Job 164 added to work queue
06/04/91 13:34:42 Job 164 scheduled
FSC3820 9.67.58.225
Released storage at 00351000
ProcessWork starting on job queue
Work Queue start
164 JOBstartPRINTING
Work Queue end
Job 164 for FSC3820 dispatched in state JOBstartPRINTING
06/04/91 13:34:42 Job 164 printing
FSC3820 9.67.58.225
PRINTER 020 defined
Spooling 020 this way " TO TCPUSR5".
Tagging 020 with "BTP311S6 N23R1 ".
ProcessWork end with queue
Work Queue start
164 JOBcontinuePRINTING
Work Queue end
---------- Section 7 ---------GetNextNote with ShouldWait of FALSE
ProcessWork starting on job queue
Work Queue start
164 JOBcontinuePRINTING
Work Queue end
Job 164 for FSC3820 dispatched in state JOBcontinuePRINTING
flpNewBlock: State build
IsAtEof FALSE
flpNewBlock: State check last IsAtEof FALSE
flpNewBlock: State call
IsAtEof FALSE
:
:
:
:
:
flpNewBlock: State build
IsAtEof FALSE
flpNewBlock: State check last IsAtEof TRUE
flpNewBlock: State call
IsAtEof TRUE
06/04/91 13:34:47 Job 164 sent
FSC3820 9.67.58.225
ProcessWork end with queue
Work Queue start
164 JOBfinishPRINTING
Work Queue end
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of FALSE
---------- Section 8 ---------ProcessWork starting on job queue
Work Queue start
164 JOBfinishPRINTING
Work Queue end
Job 164 for FSC3820 dispatched in state JOBfinishPRINTING
Job 164 removed from work queue
06/04/91 13:34:47 Job 164 purged
FSC3820 9.67.58.225
ProcessWork end with queue
Work Queue start
Work Queue end
GetNextNote with ShouldWait of TRUE
Figure 92. A Sample of a Remote Printing Server Trace (Part 3 of 3)
The following provides a brief description of each of the phases identified in the
above sample output:
Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces
243
Remote Printing Traces
Section 1
The Remote Printing server announces the start of initialization activities.
The server establishes a connection with the TCP/IP virtual machine,
requesting TCP/IP services.
The host name “VM1” is resolved to its IP address.
The configuration file is processed to build the control tables representing the
supported printers (and possibly punches). Note that system names are
resolved to their respective IP addresses at initialization time.
The server records the date and time that it completes initialization plus the
port it is listening on in the console log.
Section 2
The server establishes a connection with the client requesting remote printing
services.
A “Receive a printer job” command (command code 2) is received from the
client with a specified printer name of “FSC3820”.
The server validates the printer name and its availability and sends an
acknowledgement to the client.
Section 3
A “Receive data file” subcommand (command code 3) is received from the
client with a specified file size of 405 octets and a data file name of
“dfA164VM1”.
The server acknowledges the receipt of this subcommand from the client.
The 405 octets of data are received, followed by the receipt of an octet of binary
zeros signifying the end of file transfer.
The server acknowledges the receipt of the “end of file” indicator from the
client.
Section 4
A “Receive control file” subcommand (command code 2) is received from the
client with a specified file size of 74 octets and a control file name of
“cfA164VM1”.
The server acknowledges the receipt of this subcommand from the client.
The 74 octets of data are received, followed by the receipt of an octet of binary
zeros signifying the end of file transfer.
The server acknowledges the receipt of the “end of file” indicator from the
client.
Section 5
A “final” octet of binary zeros is received from the client to signify the end of
all data transmission.
The connection state is modified from an “Open” to a “Sending only” status.
The server acknowledges the receipt of the “end of transmission” indicator
from the client.
The connection state is marked “Nonexistent” and the connection with the
client is terminated, marking the completion of the “file transfer” portion of the
operation.
Section 6
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Remote Printing Traces
The received print job is placed onto the queue for the designated printer. The
printer name was passed as an argument on the “Receive a printer job”
command (FSC3820). The “job id” is taken from the arguments passed to the
server on the “Receive data file” and “Receive control file” subcommands. The
IP address of the system on which the printer is located was determined (and
saved) during server initialization.
The placement of an entry on the printer queue triggers the ProcessWork
routine to receive control.
The status of the job is modified from “scheduled” to “JOBstartPRINTING”.
A virtual printer is defined and initialized according to the parameters either
passed with the print request or extracted from the configuration file entry for
the target printer.
Section 7
The actual “printing” of the job is initiated and its status is modified from
“JOBstartPRINTING” to “JOBcontinuePRINTING”.
The file to be printed is processed on a block-by-block basis. Note that the
example shows an abridged version of the tracing for this phase of the
operation.
When an end-of-file condition is encountered, the status is is modified from
“JOBcontinuePRINTING” to “JOBfinishPRINTING”.
Section 8
The “JOBfinishPRINTING” status causes the job to be removed from the work
queue and purged.
The virtual printer defined for processing the print request is detached.
A final interrogation of the work queue indicates that there is no more work to
be performed.
The print server returns to a passive wait state, awaiting the next print request.
For additional information on the command codes and the format of the control
file lines, see RFC 1179, Line Printer Daemon Protocol.
Chapter 15. Remote Printing Traces
245
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Chapter 16. Remote Execution Protocol Traces
The following sections describe the tracing capabilities available in the client and
server functions provided with the Remote Execution Protocol implementation in
TCP/IP for VM.
Remote Execution Protocol Client Traces
The client interface to the Remote Execution Protocol is through the REXEC
command. This command provides the capability to execute a specified command
on a foreign host and receive the results on the local host.
Activating Remote Execution Protocol Client Traces
In the client virtual machine, tracing is activated by specifying the -d parameter in
addition to the usual processing parameters on command invocation. The
following demonstrates the use of the -d parameter for the REXEC command:
REXEC
-?
-d
-t timeout
-s512
-p password
-s port
-n
-l userid
foreignhost command
Specification of the -d parameter will cause the trace output to be written to the
client’s console. Note that the trace processing does not suppress passwords
supplied with the command or extracted from a NETRC DATA file, so the
resultant trace output file should be treated as “company confidential” material.
The above example is intended only to highlight the specification of the parameter
necessary to activate tracing. Refer to the TCP/IP User’s Guide for information on
the usage of the other parameters.
Remote Execution Protocol Client Trace Output
Figure 93 shows an example of the output received from a client trace of the
REXEC command, specifying a “q n” (Query Names) command to be executed on
the remote host. The entered command and the response are highlighted in order
to differentiate that data from the trace information.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
247
Remote Execution Protocol Traces
rexec -d -l guest -p guest vm1 q n
parms is -d -l guest -p guest vm1 q n
Variables have the following assignments:
fhost
: vm1
userid : guest
passwd : guest
command : q n
calling GetHostResol with vm1
Connecting to vm1 , port REXEC (512)
Figure 93. A Sample of a Remote Execution Client Trace (Part 1 of 2)
Passive Conn - OK on local port
passive open complete on port
Active Conn - OK on local port
active open complete on port
rexec invoked
sending: 601 guest guest q n
D2 len
20
getnextnote until DD
Connection state changed
Trying to open
Connection state changed
Open
Data delivered
Bytes in
1
Data delivered
Bytes in
374
OPERATOR - 601, NETVPPI - DSC,
GCS3
- DSC, GCS2
- DSC,
X25IPI
- DSC, TCPMAINT - 602,
VMKERB
- DSC, VMNFS
- DSC,
SMTP
- DSC, FTPSERVE - DSC,
SNMPQE
- DSC, TCPIP
- DSC,
VSM - TCPIP
Connection state changed
Sending only
returning from REXEC_UTIL
rexec complete
601
0
601
1
GCS5
GCS
LPSERVE
NAMESRV
REXECD
RXAGENT1
-
DSC,
DSC,
DSC,
DSC,
DSC,
DSC
GCS4
SQLDBA
ADM_SERV
PORTMAP
SNMPD
-
DSC
DSC
DSC
DSC
DSC
Figure 93. A Sample of a Remote Execution Client Trace (Part 2 of 2)
Remote Execution Protocol Server Traces
The Remote Execution Protocol server (REXECD) is activated during processing
performed in the server virtual machine when its PROFILE EXEC executes the
REXECD command.
Activating Remote Execution Protocol Server Traces
In the server virtual machine, tracing is activated by specifying the -d parameter in
addition to the usual processing parameters on command invocation. The
following demonstrates the use of the -d parameter for the REXECD command:
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Remote Execution Protocol Traces
REXECD
-?
-t 240
-t timeout
-d
-r
-e 512
-e port
-s agent_id
-h 514
-h port
Specification of the -d parameter will cause the trace output to be written to the
server’s console.
The above example is intended only to highlight the specification of the parameter
necessary to activate tracing. Refer to the TCP/IP Planning and Customization for
information on the usage of the other parameters.
Remote Execution Protocol Server Trace Output
Figure 94 shows an abridged example of the output received from a server trace.
The section of the trace shown depicts the server processing which transpired
when the “q n” command was issued from the client and correlates with the trace
information from the client trace shown previously.
Chapter 16. Remote Execution Protocol Traces
249
.
.
Connection: 0
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Trying to open
Reason: OK
Connection: 0
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Open
Reason: OK
Tcp passive open for rexec conn 2
Connection: 0
Notification: Data delivered
Bytes delivered: 20
Push flag:
1
active connection: 3using first free agent agent RXAGENT1 is free
cmd - MSG RXAGENT1 q n
len - 16
Notification: IUCV interrupt
IUCV interrupt incountered at 160600
received IUCV interrupt - from user RXAGENT1
iucv type is - pending connectionNotification: IUCV interrupt
IUCV interrupt incountered at 160600
received IUCV interrupt - from user
iucv type is - pending
(priority) msgclearing actconn 3
Notification: IUCV interrupt
IUCV interrupt incountered at 160600
received IUCV interrupt - from user
iucv type is - sever connectionclose conn = 0close actconn 3
RXAGENT1 to fpool
clearing actconn 3
Connection: 0
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Receiving only
Reason: OK
Connection: 3
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Receiving only
Reason: OK
Connection: 0
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Nonexistent
Reason: Foreign host aborted the connection
bye to conn = 0
destroy actconn 3
Connection: 3
Notification: Connection state changed
New state: Nonexistent
Reason: Foreign host aborted the connection
bye to conn = 3
.
.
Figure 94. A Sample of a Remote Execution Protocol Server Trace
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Chapter 17. TFTP Client Traces
TCP/IP for VM implements a Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) client function.
The client interface is through the TFTP command. This command provides a
simple method to get files from, and send files to, a foreign host. TFTP cannot list
directories and has no provision for user authentication. The following sections
describe how to activate and interpret TFTP client traces.
Activating Traces
In the client virtual machine, tracing is activated (and deactivated) by means of the
TRACE subcommand once a TFTP session has been established. The subcommand
acts as a toggle switch to enable or disable the tracing of TFTP packets. When
tracing is enabled, information is displayed about each TFTP packet that is sent or
received.
Trace Output
Figure 95 shows an example of a TFTP session that includes the output obtained
from executing the TFTP TRACE subcommand. An explanation of the trace data
format follows the example.
tftp elmer
Command:
trace
Packet tracing is enabled.
Command:
get config.sys config.sys
Sending: ( 22) <RRQ> config.sys NETASCII
Received: (516) <DATA> Block Number = 1
Sending: ( 4) <ACK> Block Number = 1
Received: (516) <DATA> Block Number = 2
Sending: ( 4) <ACK> Block Number = 2
Received: (516) <DATA> Block Number = 3
Sending: ( 4) <ACK> Block Number = 3
Received: (111) <DATA> Block Number = 4
Sending: ( 4) <ACK> Block Number = 4
1643 bytes transferred in 4.825 seconds. Transfer rate 0.341 Kbytes/sec.
Command:
get startup.cmd startup.cmd
Sending: ( 23) <RRQ> startup.cmd NETASCII
Received: ( 36) <DATA> Block Number = 1
Sending: ( 4) <ACK> Block Number = 1
32 bytes transferred in 3.399 seconds. Transfer rate 0.009 Kbytes/sec.
Command:
get autoexec.bat autoexec.bat
Sending: ( 24) <RRQ> autoexec.old NETASCII
Received: (140) <DATA> Block Number = 1
Sending: ( 4) <ACK> Block Number = 1
136 bytes transferred in 4.475 seconds. Transfer rate 0.030 Kbytes/sec.
Command:
quit
Ready; T=0.14/0.36 17:54:57
Figure 95. A Sample of a TFTP Client Trace
All trace entries for TFTP have the same general format:
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
251
TFTP Client Traces
direction (size) kind per-packet-information
where:
Field
Description
direction
Is either Sending or Received.
(size)
Is the number of bytes in the packet.
kind
Is the type of TFTP packet. The TFTP packet types
are:
per-packet-information
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RRQ
Read request
WRQ
Write request
Data
Data packet
ACK
Acknowledgement packet
Error
Error packet.
Is other data contained in the packet. The type of
information displayed about each packet is:
RRQ
Foreign filename, transfer mode
WRQ
Foreign filename, transfer mode
Data
Block number
ACK
Block number
Error
Error number, error text (if any).
Chapter 18. TFTPD Traces
TCP/IP for VM implements a Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon (TFTPD)
function. The daemon interface is through the TFTPD command. The following
sections describe how to activate and interpret TFTPD traces.
Activating Traces
In the daemon virtual machine, tracing is activated (and deactivated) by means of
the TRACE subcommand once a TFTPD session has been established. The
subcommand acts as a toggle switch to enable or disable the tracing of TFTPD
operations. When tracing is enabled, information is displayed about major
operation checkpoints. For example, trace output is created when read requests are
received and complete or when errors are detected.
You can also use the TRACE operand on the TFTPD command to enable the
tracing of TFTPD operations.
Trace Output
Figure 96 shows an example of a TFTPD session that includes the output obtained
from executing the TFTPD TRACE subcommand. An explanation of the trace data
format follows the example.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
253
TFTPD Traces
TRACE
TFTPD Ready;
1000 9.100.20.99
1685 (........) 05/15/97 09:27:50 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/kernel
1000 9.100.20.43
1065 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:11 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O H 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/kernel
1500 9.100.20.99
1685 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:12 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=252
FILE SIZE=2044868
1000 9.100.20.99
1662 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:20 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/StationConfig/standard.nsm
1000 9.100.20.99
1663 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:20 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/StationConfig/required.nsm
1500 9.100.20.99
1663 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=3
FILE SIZE=1916
1000 9.100.20.99
1664 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/StationConfig/control.nsm
1000 9.100.20.99
1665 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/SysDefaults/ibmwall.xbm
1500 9.100.20.99
1665 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=3
FILE SIZE=3041
1000 9.100.20.99
1666 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/SysDefaults/ibmwall.xbm
1500 9.100.20.99
1666 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=3
FILE SIZE=3041
1500 9.100.20.99
1664 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=3
FILE SIZE=1042
4000 9.100.20.99
1667 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 FILE NOT VALID RESPONSE
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/StationConfig/hosts.nsm
1500 9.100.20.99
1662 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:21 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=3
FILE SIZE=174
1000 9.100.20.99
1678 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:26 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/mods/libxm.nws
1500 9.100.20.43
1065 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:36 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=252
FILE SIZE=2044868
1500 9.100.20.99
1678 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:36 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=155
FILE SIZE=1252482
1000 9.100.20.99
1680 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:36 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/mods/actlogin.nws
1000 9.100.20.99
1681 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:37 READ REQUEST ACCEPT SENT
O M 8192
/QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/mods/export.nws
1500 9.100.20.99
1681 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:37 READ COMPLETED
PKTS=7
FILE SIZE=36671
5100 9.100.20.99
1680 (........) 05/15/97 09:28:38 ERROR DATAGRAM RECEIVED
ERROR=0 File read terminated by client
Figure 96. A Sample of a TFTPD Client Trace
Formats of TFTPD Trace Records
TFTPD trace entries identify 5 basic events and TCP/IP errors:
v Acceptance of a read or write request
v Resending of packets due to a timeout
v Dropping of a client due to resend limit being exceeded
v Sending or reception of error packets
v Socket related errors.
The first line of the trace entry contains:
v A 4 digit trace code
v A description of the trace code
v Time and date stamp and
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v Client identification information (when the entry relates to a client). This can
include:
– IP address of the client
– Port number used by the client
– User ID associated with the client.
Depending upon the trace entry, additional lines of information may be displayed;
such lines are indented under the first line.
The following example shows the format of the first line of a client related trace
entry.
code xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss description of trace code
where:
code
is a 4 digit trace code.
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx
is the IP address of the client in dotted decimal notation.
port
is the port that the client is using.
userid
is the user ID associated with the IP address; This association is determined by
the TFTPD USERLIST file. If the client IP address is not listed in this file, then
“........” is displayed.
mm/dd/yy
is the date portion of the timestamp, where mm is the month, dd is the day and
yy is the year.
hh:mm:ss
is the time portion of the timestamp, where hh is the hour (in 24 hour format),
mm is the minutes and ss is the seconds.
description of trace code
is a 25 character description of the trace code
TFTPD Trace Codes:
The trace codes are:
1000
A read request was accepted.
1500
A read operation has completed.
2000
A write request was accepted.
2500
A write operation has completed.
3000
Timeout; a response was resent.
3500
Timeout; the timeout limit was reached, and the client dropped.
4000
A file not valid response was sent.
4100
A missing BLKSIZE response was sent.
4200
An Access Violation response was sent.
4300
A Bad XFER (transfer) Mode response was sent.
5000
A spurious ACK was received and has been ignored.
5100
An error datagram was received.
5200
An unknown datagram was received.
6100
An unexpected RECVFROM error occurred.
6200
An unexpected SENDTO error occurred.
6300
An unexpected SOCKINIT error occurred.
6301
An unexpected SOCKET error occurred.
6302
An unexpected IOCTL error occurred.
6303
An unexpected BIND error occurred.
6304
An unexpected SELECT error occurred.
Chapter 18. TFTPD Traces
255
TFTPD Traces
6305
An unexpected CANCEL error occurred.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 1000
This trace code is the result of accepting a READ request.
1000 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss READ ACCEPTED DATA SENT
x c blksize
pathname
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
x indicates the transfer mode, “N” for NETASCII and “O” for OCTET mode.
c is a hit or miss indicator, indicating whether the file was in cache when
requested (a hit) or whether it had to be loaded (a miss). ″H″ indicates that the
file was in cache. ″M″ indicates that the file was not in cache.
Note: A miss would be indicated for a file in cache that is marked for a drop
by the DROPFILE subcommand. Subsequent read requests would
require a new copy of the file to be obtained.
blksize
is the blocksize being used for the transfer.
pathname
is the name of the file being transferred.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 1500
This trace code is the result of receiving an ACK associated with a client read
operation. The ACK indicates the client received the last packet of a transmitted
file.
1500 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss READ COMPLETED
PKTS=pkts
FILE SIZE=filesize
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
pkts
number of packets sent.
filesize
size of the file in bytes.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 2000
This trace code is the result of accepting a WRITE request.
2000 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss WRITE ACCEPTED DATA SENT
x
blksize
pathname
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
x indicates the transfer mode, “N” for NETASCII and “O” for OCTET mode.
blksize
is the blocksize being used for the transfer.
pathname
is the name of the file that is being transferred.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 2500
This trace code is the result of receiving the DATA packet on a client write request.
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2500 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss WRITE COMPLETED
PKTS=pkts
FILE SIZE=filesize
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
pkts
number of packets sent.
filesize
size of the file, in bytes.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 3000
This trace code is the result of determining that time has expired for a client to
send or receive a packet so that the response must be resent.
3000 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss TIMEOUT - RESPONSE RESENT
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 3500
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon determining that a timeout
occurred, but that the maximum number of resends was reached so the client was
dropped.
3500 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss TIMEOUT - CLIENT DROPPED
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4000
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon determining that the file to be
sent to the client was not valid.
4000 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss FILE NOT VALID RESPONSE
pathname
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
pathname
is the name of the file that was not valid.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4100
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon receiving a request which
contained the BLKSIZE parameter, but no value for that parameter.
4100 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss MISSING BLKSIZE RESPONSE
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4200
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon receiving a read request for a
file that the client was not permitted to access.
4200 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss ACCESS VIOLATION RESPONSE
Chapter 18. TFTPD Traces
257
TFTPD Traces
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254 .
TFTPD Trace Entry: 4300
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon receiving a READ or WRITE
request with the transfer mode parameter specified, but not valid.
4300 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD XFER MODE RESPONSE
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 5000
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon receiving an unexpected ACK
which it ignored.
5000 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss SPURIOUS ACK IGNORED
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 5100
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon receiving an error datagram
from a client.
5100 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss ERROR DATAGRAM RECEIVED
ERROR=errnum errdesc
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
errnum
is the error number received from the client.
errdesc
is the error description sent by the client in the error datagram.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 5200
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon receiving an unknown
datagram.
5200 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss UNKNOWN DATAGRAM RECEIVED
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6100
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET RECVFROM operation.
6100
RC=rc
ERRNO=errno
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD RECVFROM ERROR
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the RECVFROM function.
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TFTPD Traces
errno
is the error number set by the RECVFROM function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6200
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET SENDTO operation.
6200 xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx port (userid ) mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD SENDTO ERROR
RC=rc
ERRNO=errno
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the SENDTO function.
errno
is the error number set by the SENDTO function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6300
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET initialization operation.
6300
RC=rc
REASON=reason
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD SOCKINIT ERROR
SOCKETS=socket
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the Socket Initialize function.
reason
is the reason code set by the Socket Initialize function.
socket
is the socket number (if any) returned by the Socket Initialize function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6301
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET SOCKET operation.
6301
SOCKET=socket
ERRNO=errno
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD SOCKET ERROR
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
socket
is the socket number.
errno
is the error number set by the SOCKET function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6302
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET IOCTL operation.
6302
RC=rc
ERRNO=errno
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD IOCTL ERROR
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the IOCTL function.
Chapter 18. TFTPD Traces
259
TFTPD Traces
errno
is the error number set by the IOCTL function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6303
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET BIND operation.
6303
RC=rc
ERRNO=errno
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD BIND ERROR
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the BIND function.
errno
is the error number set by the BIND function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6304
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET SELECT operation.
6304
RC=rc
ERRNO=errno
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD SELECT ERROR
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the SELECT function.
errno
is the error number set by the SELECT function.
TFTPD Trace Entry: 6305
This trace code is the result of the TFTPD daemon encountering an unexpected
error on a SOCKET CANCEL operation.
6305
RC=rc
ERRNO=errno
mm/dd/yy hh:mm:ss BAD CANCEL ERROR
The first line of the entry was explained in “Formats of TFTPD Trace Records” on
page 254. The additional lines consist of:
rc is the return code set by the CANCEL function.
errno
is the error number set by the CANCEL function.
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Chapter 19. BOOT Protocol Daemon (BOOTPD) Traces
TCP/IP for VM implements the BOOTP daemon to respond to client requests for
boot information using information contained in a BOOTP machine file. The
daemon interface is through the BOOTPD command. The following sections
describe how to activate and interpret BOOTPD traces.
Activating Traces
In the daemon virtual machine, tracing is activated (and deactivated) by means of
the TRACE command once the BOOTP daemon has been installed and a BOOTPD
session has been established. The subcommand acts as a toggle switch to enable or
disable tracing of BOOTPD operations. When tracing is enabled, information is
displayed about each BOOTPD packet that is sent or received.
You can also use the TRACE operand on the BOOTPD command to enable tracing
of BOOTPD operations.
Trace Output
Figure 97 on page 262 shows an example of a BOOTPD session that includes the
output obtained from executing the BOOTPD TRACE subcommand. An
explanation of the trace data format follows the example.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
261
BOOTPD Traces
TRACE
BOOTPD Ready;
9000 Time: 09:18:36.744586 ON 19970515
1100 FORWARDED REQUEST RECEIVED FROM 67 AT 9.100.20.110 THRU 9.100.30.75:
OP
= 1
CIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HTYPE
= 6
YIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HLEN
= 6
SIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HOPS
= 1
GIADDR = 9.100.20.110
XID
= 000001BE CHADDR = 0000E5E82CFF
SNAME
=
FILE
=
OPTIONS
= 638253632B0E49424D414354205620312E302E30FF00000000200011FFFA81440
00090000000000000000000FFFB367E0000000081007DE8CC000000FF
3100 REPLYING TO GATEWAY BY 67 AT 9.100.20.110 THRU 9.100.30.75
OP
= 2
CIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HTYPE
= 6
YIADDR = 9.100.20.43
HLEN
= 6
SIADDR = 9.100.30.75
HOPS
= 1
GIADDR = 9.100.20.110
XID
= 000001BE CHADDR = 0000E5E82CFF
SNAME
=
FILE
= /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/kernel
OPTIONS
= 638253630104FFFFFF000204FFFFB9B00304096414FD04040964144B050409641
9FC0604096414FC0F10656E6469636F74742E69626D2E636F6D11012FFF
9000 Time: 09:21:27.423501 ON 19970515
1100 FORWARDED REQUEST RECEIVED FROM 67 AT 9.100.20.110 THRU 9.100.30.75:
OP
= 1
CIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HTYPE
= 6
YIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HLEN
= 6
SIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HOPS
= 1
GIADDR = 9.100.20.110
XID
= 000001BD CHADDR = 0000E5E8DC61
SNAME
=
FILE
=
OPTIONS
= 638253632B0E49424D414354205620312E302E30FF00000000200011FFF8F3380
00090000000000000000000FFFB367E0000000081007DE8CC000000FF
3100 REPLYING TO GATEWAY BY 67 AT 9.100.20.110 THRU 9.100.30.75
OP
= 2
CIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HTYPE
= 6
YIADDR = 9.100.20.99
HLEN
= 6
SIADDR = 9.100.30.75
HOPS
= 1
GIADDR = 9.100.20.110
XID
= 000001BD CHADDR = 0000E5E8DC61
SNAME
=
FILE
= /QIBM/ProdData/NetworkStation/kernel
OPTIONS
= 638253630104FFFFFF000204FFFFB9B00304096414FD04040964144B050409641
9FC0604096414FC0F10656E6469636F74742E69626D2E636F6D11012FFF
Figure 97. A Sample of a BOOTPD Client Trace
BOOTPD Trace Records
BOOTPD trace entries identify 5 basic events:
v Time at which BootPD began processing a set of requests
v Reception of a datagram from a client or gateway
v Declining to respond to a client or gateway due to some error or limit
v Forwarding of a request to another BootP daemon
v The attempt to respond to a client or gateway.
BOOTPD Trace Record Format
The first line of trace entry consists of a trace code followed by a description of the
event along with other pertinent information. Additional lines of information may
be displayed, indented under the first line.
BOOTPD Trace Codes
The trace codes are:
1000
Received a request sent by a client
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BOOTPD Traces
1100
1900
3000
3100
32xx
40xx
9000
Received a request which was forwarded by a BootP daemon
Unrecognized request was received; the opcode was neither request or
reply.
A BootP reply was sent to a client
A BootP reply was sent to another BootP daemon, to be passed to a client.
Request is being forwarded to another BootP daemon. The xx subcodes
indicate the reasons for forwarding:
01
Forwarding was specified, but no entry exists in the machine table.
02
Always forward was specified.
03
Client specified a server to which to forward the request.
00
Reason for forwarding was not known.
The BootP daemon is declining to respond to a request. The xx subcodes
that follow indicate the reasons for declining to respond:
01
Entry was not found in the machine table.
02
Request received on an adapter that was partially excluded, for
which the entry matches the exclusion criteria.
03
Unrecognized packet opcode was received
04
Could not forward because the hop count expired.
05
Could not determine the client IP address.
06
Could not determine the bootfile pathname.
07
Target server is on the same cable.
08
Unable to determine the adapter over which to reply.
00
Reason for declining is not known.
Time Stamp, including the time and date in standard format.
Trace events which relate to the transmission of BOOT requests or replies, include
information about the packet.
OP
HTYPE
HLEN
HOPS
XID
SNAME
FILE
VEND
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
opcode
htype
hlen
hops
xid
servname
bootfile
venddata
CIADDR
YIADDR
SIADDR
GIADDR
CHADDR
=
=
=
=
=
ipaddr
ipaddr
ipaddr
ipaddr
chaddr
where
OP = opcode
indicates the operation code: 1 for a request or 2 for a reply.
CIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the client IP address, if specified by the client.
HTYPE = htype
indicates the network hardware type.
YIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the IP address of the client.
HLEN = hlen
indicates the length of the hardware address.
SIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the Server IP address.
HOPS = hops
indicates the current hops count.
GIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the gateway IP address.
XID = xid
indicates the current transaction ID specified by the client.
Chapter 19. BOOT Protocol Daemon (BOOTPD) Traces
263
BOOTPD Traces
CHADDR = chaddr
indicates the client hardware address. This field may be a maximum of 16
bytes long.
SNAME = servname
indicates the Server Host Name. This field may be a maximum of 64 bytes
long.
FILE = bootfile
indicates the boot file name. This field may be a maximum of 128 bytes long.
VEND = venddata
indicates the current contents of the vendor-specific area. This field may be a
maximum of 64 bytes long.
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Chapter 20. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Daemon
(DHCPD) Traces
TCP/IP for VM implements the DHCP daemon to respond to client requests for
boot information using information contained in a DHCP machine file. The
daemon interface is through the DHCPD command and DHCPD subcommands.
The following sections describe how to activate and interpret DHCPD traces.
Activating Traces
In the daemon virtual machine, tracing is activated (and deactivated) by means of
the TRACE subcommand once the DHCPD daemon has been installed and a
DHCPD session has been established. The TRACE subcommand acts as a toggle
switch to enable or disable tracing of DHCPD operations. When tracing is enabled,
information is displayed about each DHCPD packet that is sent or received.
You can also use the TRACE operand on the DHCPD command to enable tracing
of DHCPD operations.
Trace Output
Figure 98 shows an example of a DHCPD session that includes the output obtained
from executing the DHCPD TRACE subcommand. An explanation of the trace data
format follows the example.
9000 TIME: 13:58:46.115502 ON 19970819
1100 FORWARDED REQUEST RECEIVED FROM 67 AT 9.100.20.88 THRU 9.100.30.75:
OP
= 1
CIADDR = 9.100.20.126
DHCPTYPE = DHCPDISCOVER
HTYPE
= 6
YIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HLEN
= 6
SIADDR = 0.0.0.0
HOPS
= 1
GIADDR = 9.100.20.88
SECS
= 100
FLAGS
= 0
XID
= 00000A56 CHADDR = 0000E5E83CC0
SNAME
=
FILE
=
OPTIONS
= 63825363350101390202404D0C49424D4E534D20312E302E303C1349424D204E6
574776F726B2053746174696F6EFF
5300 ICMP ECHO REQUEST TO 9.100.20.126 THRU 9.100.30.75
9000 TIME: 13:58:51.669942 ON 19970819
5000 ICMP TIMER EXPIRED
3100 REPLYING TO GATEWAY BY 67 AT 9.100.20.88 THRU 9.100.30.75
OP
= 2
CIADDR = 0.0.0.0
DHCPTYPE = DHCPOFFER
HTYPE
= 6
YIADDR = 9.100.20.126
HLEN
= 6
SIADDR = 9.100.30.75
HOPS
= 0
GIADDR = 9.100.20.88
SECS
= 0
FLAGS
= 0
XID
= 00000A56 CHADDR = 0000E5E83CC0
SNAME
=
FILE
=
OPTIONS
= 6382536335010233040000012C360409641E4B0104FFFFFF000204FFFFC7C0030
4096414FD040C09641E4B09010A0D098203030504098219FC0604098219FC0C05
4144414D470F10656E6469636F74742E69626D2E636F6D3A04000000963B04000
000FF420747444C564D4B3443242F5149424D2F50726F64446174612F4E657477
6F726B53746174696F6E2F6B65726E656CFF
Figure 98. A Sample of a DHCPD Client Trace
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
265
DHCPD Traces
DHCPD Trace Records
DHCPD trace entries identify 6 basic events:
v Time at which DHCPD began processing a set of requests
v Reception of a datagram from a client or gateway
v Declining to respond to a client or gateway due to some error or limit
v Forwarding of a request to another DHCP/BootP daemon
v The attempt to respond to a client or gateway.
v Timer expiration and related activities
DHCPD Trace Record Format
The first line of trace entry consists of a trace code followed by a description of the
event along with other pertinent information. Additional lines of information may
be displayed, indented under the first line.
DHCPD Trace Codes
The DHCPD trace codes are:
1000
Received a request sent by a client
1100
Received a request that was forwarded by a BootP daemon
1900
Unrecognized request was received; the opcode was neither request or
reply
3000
A BootP/DHCP reply was sent to a client
3100
A BootP/DHCP reply was sent to another BootP/DHCP daemon, to be
passed to a client
32xx
Request is being forwarded to another BootP/DHCP daemon. The xx
subcodes that follow indicate the reasons for forwarding:
01
Forwarding was specified, but no entry exists in the machine table
02
Always forward was specified
03
Client specified a server to which to forward the request
00
Reason for forwarding was not known
40xx
The DHCP daemon is declining to respond to a request. The xx subcodes
that follow indicate the reasons for declining to respond:
01
Entry was not found in the machine table
02
Request received on an adapter that was partially excluded, for
which the entry matches the exclusion criteria
03
Unrecognized packet opcode was received
04
Could not forward because the hop count expired
05
Could not determine the client IP address
06
Could not determine the bootfile pathname
07
Target server is on the same cable
08
Unable to determine the adapter over which to reply
09
SupportBootP is NO
10
Client is on a different subnet than the requested address
11
Requested address is restricted
12
Requested address is in use by another client
13
Internal error
14
Requested address is differs from machine table entry
15
No address is available
16
SupportUnlistedClients is NO
17
Client is not recognized
18
Client is not in a valid state
19
Request is not correctly formatted
20
Not selected as the server
21
Ignore any DHCPOffer messages
22
Address is being declined
23
Address is being released
24
Ignore any DHCPAck messages
266
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
DHCPD Traces
5000
5100
5300
5500
9000
9900
9950
9951
25
Ignore any DHCPNack messages
26
Nothing possible for DHCPInform
27
Client statement specified: NONE
28
Waiting for ICMP Echo to complete
29
No address available
30
Client is on a subnet that is not supported
31
Unrecognized DHCP message type
00
Reason for declining is not known
ICMP Timer expired with a response reply due
Received an ICMP Echo reply
Sending an ICMP Echo request
Lease expired for an address
Time Stamp, including the time and date in standard format
Indicates the time when DHCPD concluded a particular unit of work
The start time when a packet is attempted to be sent (in the SendPacket
routine)
The time when a packet send completes
Trace events which relate to the transmission of BOOT requests or replies, include
information about the packet.
OP
HTYPE
HLEN
HOPS
XID
SNAME
FILE
OPTIONS
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
opcode
CIADDR
htype
YIADDR
hlen
SIADDR
hops
GIADDR
xid
CHADDR
servname
bootfile
optiondata
=
=
=
=
=
ipaddr DHCPTYPE = msgtype
ipaddr
ipaddr
ipaddr
chaddr
where
OP = opcode
indicates the operation code: 1 for a request or 2 for a reply.
CIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the client IP address, if specified by the client.
DHCPTYPE = msgtype
indicates the type of DHCP message. This parameter is shown only for DHCP
protocol requests and replies.
HTYPE = htype
indicates the network hardware type.
YIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the IP address of the client.
HLEN = hlen
indicates the length of the hardware address.
SIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the Server IP address.
HOPS = hops
indicates the current hop count.
GIADDR = ipaddr
indicates the gateway IP address.
XID = xid
indicates the current transaction ID specified by the client.
CHADDR = chaddr
indicates the client hardware address. This field may be a maximum of 16
bytes long.
SNAME = servname
indicates the Server Host Name. This field may be a maximum of 64 bytes
long. When “SNAME” is followed by “(O)”, the field contains configuration
Chapter 20. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Daemon (DHCPD) Traces
267
DHCPD Traces
options instead of only SNAME data. The data shown is a hexadecimal
representation of the contents of the field.
FILE = bootfile
indicates the boot file name. This field may be a maximum of 128 bytes long.
When “FILE” is followed by “(O)”, the field contains configuration options
instead of only FILE data. The data shown is a hexadecimal representation of
the contents of the field.
OPTIONS = optiondata
indicates the current contents of the option area. This field may be a maximum
of 64 bytes long.
268
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Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions
This chapter describes PCCA and CETI devices. These devices support Local Area
Networks (LANs).
You can trace LAN events in two ways: sniffer traces and CCW traces. Sniffer
traces are attached directly to LANs, and are not dependent on the operating
system. This chapter describes the CCW traces, which are the most common I/O
traces implemented on IBM/370-based LANs.
PCCA Devices
The following sections describe the PCCA block structure, control messages, LAN
messages, token-ring frames, and 802.2 LLC frames.
PCCA Block Structure
You should understand the PCCA block structure to interpret CCW traces. The
PCCA block is a series of messages. Figure 99 shows the PCCA block structure. The
first two bytes of each message is an integer value that determines the offset in the
block of the next message. The last offset value, X'0000', designates the end of the
message. The first two bytes of each data packet indicate the LAN and adapter
numbers.
Message #1
Message #2
Message #N
────────────────── ──────────────────
──────────────────
┌────────┬───────────┬────────┬───────────┐
┌────────┬───────────┬────────┐
│ Offset │ Data Pckt │ Offset │ Data Pckt │...│ Offset │ Data Pckt │ 0000 │
└────────┴───────────┴────────┴───────────┘
└────────┴───────────┴────────┘
──────
2 bytes
Figure 99. PCCA Block Structure
The PCCA block can be divided into two modes. Figure 100 shows a sample of a
PCCA block with a series of messages. All highlighted halfwords in Figure 100 are
offset fields in the block and denote the beginning of the new message. The last
offset is X'0000'.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
269
Hardware Trace Functions
3C TRAPID ENTRY
**MP** 3C080000 01000000 E3C3D740 40404040
TRAPID = TCP, TRAPSET = IOSET, IODATA = 500
TRAPTYPE = IO, USER = TCPIP, I/O OLD PSW = 0FC318
DEVICE ADDRESS = 561, CSW = E05590C0 0C000000,
-> CCW(1) = 01559028 240000AA, CCW ADDRESS = 5590B8, ** IDA **
-> IDAW(1) = 14A020,
DATA = 001C0000 01000000 00030100 00380000 *................*
0003D3C3 E2F100D7 C6B800D7 00380000 *..LCS1.PF..P....*
04000000 00030100 00380000 0003D3C3 *..............LC*
E2F100D7 C6B800D7 00540000 01000000 *S1.PF..P........*
00030200 00380000 0003D3C3 E2F100D7 *..........LCS1.P*
C6B800D7 00700000 04000000 00030200 *F..P............*
00380000 0003D3C3 E2F100D7 C6B800D7 *......LCS1.PF..P*
008C0000 01000000 00030201 00380000 *................*
0003D3C3 E2F100D7 C6B800D7 00A80000 *..LCS1.PF..P.y..*
04000000 00030201 00380000 0003D3C3 *..............LC*
E2F100D7 C6B800D7 0000
*S1.PF..P..
*
20 TOD STAMP
**MP** 20000000 00000000 A298CC1A 19EA1000
CP
CP
Figure 100. A Sample of a PCCA Control Message Block
Control Messages
Control messages perform functions, such as starting the LAN and obtaining the
hardware addresses of the LAN adapters. Figure 101 shows the structure of a
PCCA control message, which has three fields.
The following are descriptions of the fields shown in Figure 101.
v Net Type (1 byte); X'00' for control messages
This field helps to determine whether the packet is used for control or LAN
operations.
v Adapter Number (1 byte); X'00', ignored for control messages
v Control field
– Control command (1 byte)
- X'00' Control Timing (sent by PCCA)
- X'01' Start LAN
- X'02' Stop LAN
- X'04' LAN Stats
- X'08' Shutdown
– Control flags (1 byte)
- X'00' From host
- X'01' From PCCA
– Control sequence (1 halfword)
– Return code (1 halfword)
– Net type_2 (1 byte)
–
–
–
–
This is the net type of the adapter referred to by the control packet.
Adapter number_2 (1 byte)
This is the number of the adapter referred to by the control packet.
Count (1 halfword)
This occurs at startup. It is used for block size or a count of items in the data
field (general control packet has 56 bytes, X'38').
Control reserved
Ignored (1 halfword)
– Hardware address (6 bytes).
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Hardware Trace Functions
┌──────┬──────┬────────────────────────┐
│ X'00'│ X'00'│ Control information
│
└──────┴──────┴────────────────────────┘
Figure 101. PCCA Control Message Structure
LAN Messages
LAN messages are used to send and receive LAN information or data to and from
other LANs. PCCA LAN messages have three fields.
v Net Type (1 byte)
– X'01' for Ethernet and 802.3
– X'02' for token-ring
– X'07' for FDDI networks
v Adapter Number (1 byte), X'00' or X'01'
v Data for the adapter.
Figure 102 shows a sample of a trace started by a CPTRAP IO command issued on
a VM/SP6 system.
┌─────────┬─────────┬───────────────────────┐
│ LAN No. │ ADP No. │ Data to send on a LAN │
└─────────┴─────────┴───────────────────────┘
Figure 102. PCCA LAN Messages Structure
PCCA token-ring packets conform to the canonical 802 standards if they are
specified in a PROFILE TCPIP file. If the PCCA packet is sent to a token-ring, use
the 802.x or Ethernet layout.
Token-Ring Frames
Figure 103 shows the most common layout for token-ring packets. The components
of the token-ring packet are:
v SD - Starting delimiter (1 byte)
v AC - Access control (1 byte)
v FD - Frame control (1 byte)
v DA - Destination address (6 bytes)
v SA - Source address (6 bytes)
v Data - Data field, including LLC frame (variable length)
v ED - End of frame (6 bytes).
Trace output does not include the starting delimiter or the end of frame.
┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬──────┬────┐
│
│
│
│
│
│
│
│
│ SD │ AC │ FD │ DA │ SA │ data │ ED │
│
│
│
│
│
│
│
│
└────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴──────┴────┘
]
]
└────Trace Information─────┘
Figure 103. Common Layout of a Token-Ring Packet
CCW traces provide all fields from AC to Data fields for token-ring frames.
Note: When the first bytes of the source address are ORed with X'80', the frame
contains routing information.
Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions
271
Hardware Trace Functions
802.2 LLC Frame
An 802.2 LLC frame incorporates token-ring and 802.3 packets. This frame is a
SNAP fashion frame for internet protocols and has the following layout:
1. DSAP and SSAP (2 bytes) X'AAAA' designates a SNAP frame
2. Control field (1 byte)
3. Origin/Port (1 byte)
4. Ether type, which has the values:
v X'0800' IP protocol
v X'0806' ARP protocol
v X'8035' RARP protocol.
The data fields for the upper protocol follow the LLC frame.
CCW
There are three main sections of CCW trace output:
v CSW/CCW
v Hexadecimal representation of data
v EBCDIC character representation of data.
Table 23 lists the functions of the PCCA CCW codes.
Table 23. PCCA CCW Codes
Code
Function
X'01'
X'02'
X'03'
X'04'
X'C3'
X'E4'
Write PCCA.
Read PCCA.
Nop PCCA.
Sense PCCA.
Set X mode PCCA.
Sense ID PCCA.
The length of the CCW data field is usually X'5000' for runtime operations, and the
CSW count cannot be zero.
Samples of CCW Traces
Figure 104 and Figure 105 show samples of traces started by a CPTRAP IO
command issued on a VM/SP6 system. The data output, which is in hexadecimal
format, is displayed in four columns. X'3C' entries represent the CCW and data.
X'20' entries are the Time Of Day clock stamp associated with the CCW. For more
information on CPTRAP, see the CP System Commands Guide.
Figure 104 is a sample of a VM CCW trace for I/O 560-561. The layout for this
trace is:
272
Offset
Field Description
X'0038'
PCCA offset
X'02'
PCCA, network type (token-ring)
X'00'
PCCA, adapter number
X'6040'
Token-ring, AC and FD
X'FFFFFFFFFFFF'
Token-ring, destination address (broadcast)
X'90005A6BB806'
Token-ring, source address (ORed with 8000)
X'8220'
Token-ring, routing information
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Hardware Trace Functions
X'AAAA'
802.2 DSAP and SSAP (snap mode)
X'03'
802.2 control field
X'000000'
802.2 Prot/Org code
X'0806'
802.2 ether type (ARP type)
X'0006'
Beginning of ARP packet
X'0000'
Last offset, PCCA packet end delimiter.
3C TRAPID ENTRY
**MP** 3C080000 00900000 E3C3D740 40404040
TRAPID = TCP, TRAPSET = IOSET, IODATA = 500
TRAPTYPE = IO, USER = TCPIP, I/O OLD PSW = 0F5C40
DEVICE ADDRESS = 561, CSW = E05590C0 0C000000,
-> CCW(1) = 01559028 2400003A, CCW ADDRESS = 5590B8, ** IDA **
-> IDAW(1) = 14A020,
DATA = 00380200 6040FFFF FFFFFFFF 90005A6B *....- ........!,*
B8068220 AAAA0300 00000806 00060800 *..b.............*
06040001 10005A6B B8060943 3AE9C534 *......!,.....ZE.*
00D7C530 09433AEA 0000
*.PE.......
*
20 TOD STAMP
**MP** 20000000 00000000 A298CC1D B04DE000
CP
CP
Figure 104. A Sample of an ARP Frame on a PCCA Token-Ring
Figure 105 shows a sample trace of an IP/ICMP packet on a PCCA token-ring. The
layout for this trace is:
Offset
Field Description
X'0068'
PCCA offset
X'02'
PCCA, network type
X'00'
PCCA, adapter number
X'6040'
Token-ring, AC and FD
X'10005A250858'
Token-ring, destination address
X'000000000000'
Token-ring, source address
X'AAAA03000000'
802.2 frame
X'0800'
802.2 ether type (IP)
X'45'
Beginning of IP packet (version and IP header
length)
X'00'
IP type of service
X'004D'
IP total length
X'002B'
IP datagram identification
X'0000'
IP flags and fragment offset
X'3C'
Time to live
X'11'
IP protocol (ICMP)
X'05A3'
Header checksum
X'09433AE9'
Source IP address
X'09432B64'
Destination IP address
X'0000'
Last offset, PCCA packet end delimiter.
Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions
273
Hardware Trace Functions
3C TRAPID ENTRY
**MP** 3C080000 00C00000 E3C3D740 40404040
TRAPID = TCP, TRAPSET = IOSET, IODATA = 500
TRAPTYPE = IO, USER = TCPIP, I/O OLD PSW = 0F5C40
DEVICE ADDRESS = 561, CSW = E05590C0 0C000000,
-> CCW(1) = 01559028 2400006A, CCW ADDRESS = 5590B8, ** IDA **
-> IDAW(1) = 14A020,
DATA = 00680200 60401000 5A250858 00000000 *....- ..!.......*
0000AAAA 03000000 08004500 004D002B *.............(..*
00003C11 05A30943 3AE90943 2B640400 *.....t...Z......*
00350039 ED000001 01000001 00000000 *................*
00000652 414C564D 4D085443 50495044 *.....<.((...&;&;*
45560752 414C4549 47480349 424D0343 *.....<.......(..*
4F4D0000 010001C3 0000
*|(.....C..
*
20 TOD STAMP
**MP** 20000000 00000000 A298CC1E 01BE0000
CP
CP
Figure 105. A Sample of an IP/ICMP Packet on a PCCA Token-Ring
Figure 106 on page 275 shows a sample of PCCA block encapsulating an IP/TCP
packet on an Ethernet LAN. The trace was run on a VM/SP5 system. The data
output, which is in hexadecimal format, is displayed in three columns. In SP4-5
CCW traces, ignore the first three words. The following is a description of the
highlighted fields that mark the beginning of blocks or packets:
274
Field
Description
X'00F6'
Next message offset
X'45'
Starting of IP packet
X'0616'
Starting of TCP packet
X'0000'
Last offset, PCCA packet end delimiter.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Hardware Trace Functions
I/O
CUU =0AE0 CSW = E0930DC0 0C004F08 PSW ADDR = 20D694
17:19:41/378927
CCW = 0291D928 24005000
(930DB8)
C9C4C1E6 0091B920 00000000 *IDAW.J......*
00F60100 00DD0102 33C102CF *.6.......A..*
1F600887 08004500 00E437B3 *...G.....U..*
00004006 397C2C4A 01102C4A *.. .........*
01180616 00C80000 02212F4D *.....H......*
E9995018 111C1D4F 0000084C *ZR..........*
00000100 00003C00 00000250 *............*
0000BC00 00004442 53000000 *............*
69777331 34007361 30303130 *............*
00000000 00000000 54532053 *............*
43490000 0200FFFF FFFF0100 *............*
00007800 00002F75 73722F74 *............*
6573742F 30313233 34353637 *............*
000034AD 0A0020AD 0A002CFC *............*
F70014FC F70034FC F7007A9E *7...7...7...*
02004AFF F7000100 73613031 *....7.......*
20707264 000044AD 0A0038FC *............*
F70038FC F70040FC F700906D *7...7. .7...*
02002900 00000100 00000000 *............*
00000200 00000000 00000000 *............*
00000000 0000B601 00000000 *............*
00000000 F7000000 00000000 *....7.......*
Figure 106. A Sample of a VM/SP4-5 CCW Trace
Figure 107 shows the IP header format. For more information about IP headers, see
RFC 791, which is represented with 32-bit words. This sample trace has the same
IP header shown in Figure 106.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
4
5
0
0
0
0
E
4
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
|Version| IHL |Type of Service|
Total Length
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
3
7
B
3
0
0
0
0
0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
|
Identification
|Flags|
Fragment Offset
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
4
0
0
6
3
9
7
C
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
| Time to Live |
Protocol
|
Header Checksum
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
44.74.1.16
2
C
4
A
0
1
1
0
0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
|
Source Address
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
44.74.1.24
2
C
4
A
0
1
1
8
0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
|
Destination Address
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Options
|
Padding
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 107. IP Header Format
Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions
275
Hardware Trace Functions
Figure 108 shows the TCP header format.
0
1
2
3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
0
6
1
6
0
0
C
8
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
|
Source Port
|
Destination Port
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
0
0
0
0
0
2
2
1
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
|
Sequence Number
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
2
F
4
D
E
9
9
9
0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
|
Acknowledgment Number
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
5
0
1
8
1
1
C
1
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
| Data |
|U|A|P|R|S|F|
|
| Offset| Reserved |R|C|S|S|Y|I|
Window
|
|
|
|G|K|H|T|N|N|
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
1
D
4
F
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
|
Checksum
|
Urgent Pointer
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|
Options
|
Padding
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
L
0
8
4
C
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
|
data
|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 108. TCP Header Format
CETI Devices
CETI devices are Ethernet, token-ring, and X.25 internal adapters for the
IBM/9370.
CETI traces provide the data that is transferred on CETI devices in the trace
output. Table 24 lists the functions of the CCW command codes for CETI devices.
276
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Hardware Trace Functions
Table 24. CCW Command Codes for CETI Devices
Code
Functions
X'00'
X'03'
X'04'
X'08'
X'C1'
X'C2'
X'C4'
X'C5'
X'C6'
X'C7'
X'C9'
X'CB'
X'CD'
X'E4'
TestIO.
Nop.
Sense adapter state.
Transfer in channel.
Write data buffer.
Read data buffer.
Sense adapter state.
Write control block.
Read control block.
Data synchronization.
Write data parameters.
Set CETI mode on.
Interrupt write parameters.
Sense ID.
Matching CCW Traces and TCP/IP Traces
TCPIP and CCW traces can be matched in numerous ways by using the following:
v The CCW address, which is provided in PCCA and CETI traces
v The device address and first command (CCW code)
v The IP packets ID (IP traces)
v All fields identified by decimal integers in TCPIP internal traces can be
converted to hexadecimal values and matched with the values in the CCW trace
or text output if it is provided by the trace.
Chapter 21. Hardware Trace Functions
277
278
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Appendix A. Return Codes
This appendix describes return codes sent by TCP/IP to the local client and return
codes for User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
TCP/IP Return Codes
Table 25 describes the return codes sent by TCP/IP to servers and clients through
the Virtual Machine Communication Facility (VMCF).
Table 25. TCP/IP Return Codes Sent to Servers and Clients
Return Message
OK
Value
Description
0
ABNORMALcondition
−1
This indicates a VMCF error that is
not fatal.
ALREADYclosing
−2
Connection is closing.
BADlengthARGUMENT
−3
Length parameter is invalid.
CANNOTsendDATA
−4
CLIENTrestart
−5
CONNECTIONalreadyEXISTS
−6
DESTINATIONunreachable
−7
ERRORinPROFILE
−8
FATALerror
−9
This is a fatal VMCF error.
HASnoPASSWORD
−10
Errors ...
INCORRECTpassword
−11
...in opening
INVALIDrequest
−12
INVALIDuserID
−13
...file
INVALIDvirtualADDRESS
−14
...used
KILLEDbyCLIENT
−15
LOCALportNOTavailable
−16
MINIDISKinUSE
−17
...by
MINIDISKnotAVAILABLE
−18
...MonCommand
NObufferSPACE
−19
NOmoreINCOMINGdata
−20
NONlocalADDRESS
−21
NOoutstandingNOTIFICATIONS
−22
NOsuchCONNECTION
−23
NOtcpIPservice
−24
NOTyetBEGUN
−25
Client has not called BeginTcpIp.
NOTyetOPEN
−26
Client has not called TcpOpen.
OPENrejected
−27
PARAMlocalADDRESS
−28
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
Returned from the remote site or
gateway.
Invalid...
279
Return Codes
Table 25. TCP/IP Return Codes Sent to Servers and Clients (continued)
Return Message
Value
Description
PARAMstate
−29
...values...
PARAMtimeout
−30
...specified...
PARAMunspecADDRESS
−31
...in connection
PARAMunspecPORT
−32
...information record
PROFILEnotFOUND
−33
RECEIVEstillPENDING
−34
REMOTEclose
−35
REMOTEreset
−36
SOFTWAREerror
−37
TCPipSHUTDOWN
−38
TIMEOUTconnection
−39
TIMEOUTopen
−40
TOOmanyOPENS
−41
UNAUTHORIZEDuser
−43
UNEXPECTEDsyn
−44
UNIMPLEMENTEDrequest
−45
UNKNOWNhost
−46
UNREACHABLEnetwork
−47
UNSPECIFIEDconnection
−48
VIRTUALmemoryTOOsmall
−49
WRONGsecORprc
−50
The request does not have the
necessary security or priority.
X25tooCongested
−51
No virtual circuits are available.
YOURend
−55
ZEROresources
−56
Foreign client is closing.
This is a WISCNET software error.
There is a lack of information in
the tables.
UDP Error Return Codes
Table 26 describes errors that are specific to UDP.
Table 26. UDP Error Return Codes
Return Message
280
Value
Description
UDPlocalADDRESS
−57
Invalid local address.
UDPunspecADDRESS
−59
Unspecified local address.
UDPunspecPORT
−60
Unspecified local port.
UDPzeroRESOURCES
−61
No space available to continue.
FSENDstillPENDING
−62
TcpFSend is still outstanding.
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Appendix B. Related Protocol Specifications
IBM is committed to industry standards. The internet protocol suite is still evolving
through Requests for Comments (RFC). New protocols are being designed and
implemented by researchers, and are brought to the attention of the internet
community in the form of RFCs. Some of these are so useful that they become a
recommended protocol. That is, all future implementations for TCP/IP are
recommended to implement this particular function or protocol. These become the
de facto standards, on which the TCP/IP protocol suite is built.
Many features of TCP/IP for VM are based on the following RFCs:
RFC
Title
Author
768
User Datagram Protocol
J.B. Postel
791
Internet Protocol
J.B. Postel
792
Internet Control Message Protocol
J.B. Postel
793
Transmission Control Protocol
J.B. Postel
821
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
J.B. Postel
822
Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages
D. Crocker
823
DARPA Internet Gateway
R.M. Hinden, A. Sheltzer
826
Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol: or Converting Network Protocol Addresses D.C. Plummer
to 48.Bit Ethernet Address for Transmission on Ethernet Hardware
854
Telnet Protocol Specification
J.B. Postel, J.K. Reynolds
856
Telnet Binary Transmission
J.B. Postel, J.K. Reynolds
857
Telnet Echo Option
J.B. Postel, J.K. Reynolds
877
Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over Public Data Networks
J.T. Korb
885
Telnet End of Record Option
J.B. Postel
903
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
R. Finlayson, T. Mann, J.C.
Mogul, M. Theimer
904
Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification
D.L. Mills
919
Broadcasting Internet Datagrams
J.C. Mogul
922
Broadcasting Internet Datagrams in the Presence of Subnets
J.C. Mogul
950
Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure
J.C. Mogul, J.B. Postel
952
DoD Internet Host Table Specification
K. Harrenstien, M.K. Stahl,
E.J. Feinler
959
File Transfer Protocol
J.B. Postel, J.K. Reynolds
974
Mail Routing and the Domain Name System
C. Partridge
1009
Requirements for Internet Gateways
R.T. Braden, J.B. Postel
1013
X Window System Protocol, Version 11: Alpha Update
R.W. Scheifler
1014
XDR: External Data Representation Standard
Sun Microsystems
Incorporated
1027
Using ARP to Implement Transparent Subnet Gateways
S. Carl-Mitchell, J.S.
Quarterman
1032
Domain Administrators Guide
M.K. Stahl
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
281
RFCs
|
RFC
Title
Author
1033
Domain Administrators Operations Guide
M. Lottor
1034
Domain Names—Concepts and Facilities
P.V. Mockapetris
1035
Domain Names—Implementation and Specification
P.V. Mockapetris
1042
Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over IEEE 802 Networks
J.B. Postel, J.K. Reynolds
1044
Internet Protocol on Network System’s HYPERchannel: Protocol Specification
K. Hardwick, J.
Lekashman
1055
Nonstandard for Transmission of IP Datagrams over Serial Lines: SLIP
J.L. Romkey
1057
RPC: Remote Procedure Call Protocol Version 2 Specification
Sun Microsystems
Incorporated
1058
Routing Information Protocol
C.L. Hedrick
1091
Telnet Terminal-Type Option
J. VanBokkelen
1094
NFS: Network File System Protocol Specification
Sun Microsystems
Incorporated
1112
Host Extensions for IP Multicasting
S. Deering
1118
Hitchhikers Guide to the Internet
E. Krol
1122
Requirements for Internet Hosts-Communication Layers
R.T. Braden
1123
Requirements for Internet Hosts-Application and Support
R.T. Braden
1155
Structure and Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP-Based
Internets
M.T. Rose, K. McCloghrie
1156
Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based
Internets
K. McCloghrie, M.T. Rose
1157
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP),
J.D. Case, M. Fedor, M.L.
Schoffstall, C. Davin
1179
Line Printer Daemon Protocol
The Wollongong Group, L.
McLaughlin III
1180
TCP/IP Tutorial,
T. J. Socolofsky, C.J. Kale
1183
New DNS RR Definitions (Updates RFC 1034, RFC 1035)
C.F. Everhart, L.A.
Mamakos, R. Ullmann, P.V.
Mockapetris,
1187
Bulk Table Retrieval with the SNMP
M.T. Rose, K. McCloghrie,
J.R. Davin
1188
Proposed Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams over FDDI Networks
D. Katz
1198
FYI on the X Window System
R.W. Scheifler
1207
FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked Experienced
Internet User Questions
G.S. Malkin, A.N. Marine,
J.K. Reynolds
1208
Glossary of Networking Terms
O.J. Jacobsen, D.C. Lynch
1213
Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-Based
Internets: MIB-II,
K. McCloghrie, M.T. Rose
1215
Convention for Defining Traps for Use with the SNMP
M.T. Rose
1228
SNMP-DPI Simple Network Management Protocol Distributed Program
Interface
G.C. Carpenter, B. Wijnen
1229
Extensions to the Generic-Interface MIB
K. McCloghrie
1230
IEEE 802.4 Token Bus MIB IEEE 802 4 Token Bus MIB
K. McCloghrie, R. Fox
1231
IEEE 802.5 Token Ring MIB IEEE 802.5 Token Ring MIB
K. McCloghrie, R. Fox, E.
Decker
282
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RFCs
RFC
Title
Author
1267
A Border Gateway Protocol 3 (BGP-3)
K. Lougheed, Y. Rekhter
1268
Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Internet
Y. Rekhter, P. Gross
1269
Definitions of Managed Objects for the Border Gateway Protocol (Version 3)
S. Willis, J. Burruss
1293
Inverse Address Resolution Protocol
T. Bradley, C. Brown
1270
SNMP Communications Services
F. Kastenholz, ed.
1323
TCP Extensions for High Performance
V. Jacobson, R. Braden, D.
Borman
1325
FYI on Questions and Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked New Internet
User Questions
G.S. Malkin, A.N. Marine
1350
TFTP Protocol
K.R. Sollins
1351
SNMP Administrative Model
J. Davin, J. Galvin, K.
McCloghrie
1352
SNMP Security Protocols
J. Galvin, K. McCloghrie, J.
Davin
1353
Definitions of Managed Objects for Administration of SNMP Parties
K. McCloghrie, J. Davin, J.
Galvin
1354
IP Forwarding Table MIB
F. Baker
1356
Multiprotocol Interconnect on X.25 and ISDN in the Packet Mode
A. Malis, D. Robinson, R.
Ullmann
1374
IP and ARP on HIPPI
J. Renwick, A. Nicholson
1381
SNMP MIB Extension for X.25 LAPB
D. Throop, F. Baker
1382
SNMP MIB Extension for the X.25 Packet Layer
D. Throop
1387
RIP Version 2 Protocol Analysis
G. Malkin
1389
RIP Version 2 MIB Extension
G. Malkin
1390
Transmission of IP and ARP over FDDI Networks
D. Katz
1393
Traceroute Using an IP Option
G. Malkin
1397
Default Route Advertisement In BGP2 And BGP3 Versions of the Border
Gateway Protocol
D. Haskin
1398
Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like Interface Types
F. Kastenholz
1440
SIFT/UFT:Sender-Initiated/Unsolicited File Transfer
R. Troth
1483
Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5
J. Heinanen
1540
IAB Official Protocol Standards
J.B. Postel
OSPF Version 2
J.Moy
1647
TN3270 Enhancements
B. Kelly
1700
Assigned Numbers
J.K. Reynolds, J.B. Postel
1723
RIP Version 2 — Carrying Additional Information
G. Malkin
1813
NFS Version 3 Protocol Specification
B. Callaghan, B.
Pawlowski, P. Stauback,
Sun Microsystems
Incorporated
2225
Classical IP and ARP over ATM
M. Laubach, J. Halpern
| 1583
These documents can be obtained from:
Appendix B. Related Protocol Specifications
283
RFCs
Government Systems, Inc.
Attn: Network Information Center
14200 Park Meadow Drive
Suite 200
Chantilly, VA 22021
Many RFCs are available online. Hard copies of all RFCs are available from the
NIC, either individually or on a subscription basis. Online copies are available
using FTP from the NIC at nic.ddn.mil. Use FTP to download the files, using the
following format:
RFC:RFC-INDEX.TXT
RFC:RFCnnnn.TXT
RFC:RFCnnnn.PS
Where:
nnnn
Is the RFC number.
TXT
Is the text format.
PS
Is the PostScript format.
You can also request RFCs through electronic mail, from the automated NIC mail
server, by sending a message to [email protected] with a subject line of
RFC nnnn for text versions or a subject line of RFC nnnn.PS for PostScript versions.
To request a copy of the RFC index, send a message with a subject line of
RFC INDEX.
For more information, contact [email protected] Information is also available
through http://www.internic.net.
284
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A.
IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in
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products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM
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be used instead. However, it is the user’s responsibility to evaluate and verify the
operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service.
IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter
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This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors.
Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be
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Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for
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IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it
believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you.
Licensees of this program who wish to have information about it for the purpose
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© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
285
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information which has been exchanged, should contact:
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Attention: Information Request
Such information may be available, subject to appropriate terms and conditions,
including in some cases, payment of a fee.
The licensed program described in this document and all licensed material
available for it are provided by IBM under terms of the IBM Customer Agreement,
IBM International Program License Agreement or any equivalent agreement
between us.
Any performance data contained herein was determined in a controlled
environment. Therefore, the results obtained in other operating environments may
vary significantly. Some measurements may have been made on development-level
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Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of
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IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of
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All statements regarding IBM’s future direction or intent are subject to change or
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These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM,
therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these
programs.
286
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Trademarks
The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines
Corporation in the United States, or other countries, or both:
AIX
BookManager
C/370
ES/9000
ES/9370
GDDM
NetView
SP
OS/2
PROFS
S/390
AS/400
Common User Access
DB2
Enterprise System/9000
ESCON
IBM
Office Vision/VM
OpenExtensions
PC Network
RACF
z/VM
NetView is a registered trademark in the United States and other countries licensed
exclusively through Tivoli.
Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks
of others.
Notices
287
288
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Glossary
This glossary describes the most common terms
associated with TCP/IP communication in an
internet environment, as used in this book.
If you do not find the term you are looking for,
see the IBM Dictionary of Computing, New York:
McGraw-Hill, 1994.
For abbreviations, the definition usually consists
only of the words represented by the letters; for
complete definitions, see the entries for the
words.
Numerics
3172. IBM Interconnect Controller.
3174. IBM Establishment Controller.
3270. Refers to a series of IBM display devices; for
example, the IBM 3275, 3276 Controller Display Station,
3277, 3278, and 3279 Display Stations, the 3290
Information Panel, and the 3287 and 3286 printers. A
specific device type is used only when a distinction is
required between device types. Information about
display terminal usage also refers to the IBM 3138,
3148, and 3158 Display Consoles when used in display
mode, unless otherwise noted.
37xx Communication Controller. A network interface
used to connect a TCP/IP for VM or MVS network that
supports X.25 connections. NCP with X.25 NPSI must
be running in the controller, and VTAM must be
running on the host.
6611. IBM Network Processor.
8232. IBM LAN Station.
9370. Refers to a series of processors, namely the IBM
9373 Model 20, the IBM 9375 Models 40 and 60, and
the IBM 9377 Model 90 and other models.
A
abend. The abnormal termination of a program or
task.
abstract syntax. A description of a data structure that
is independent of machine-oriented structures and
encodings.
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1). The OSI
language for describing abstract syntax.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
active gateway. A gateway that is treated like a
network interface in that it is expected to exchange
routing information, and if it does not do so for a
period of time, the route associated with the gateway is
deleted.
active open. The state of a connection that is actively
seeking a service. Contrast with passive open.
adapter. A piece of hardware that connects a computer
and an external device. An auxiliary device or unit
used to extend the operation of another system.
address. The unique code assigned to each device or
workstation connected to a network. A standard
internet address uses a two-part, 32-bit address field.
The first part of the address field contains the network
address; the second part contains the local address.
address mask. A bit mask used to select bits from an
Internet address for subnet addressing. The mask is 32
bits long and selects the network portion of the Internet
address and one or more bits of the local portion. It is
sometimes called a subnet mask.
address resolution. A means for mapping network
layer addresses onto media-specific addresses. See ARP.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). A protocol used
to dynamically bind an internet address to a hardware
address. ARP is implemented on a single physical
network and is limited to networks that support
broadcast addressing.
address space. A collection of bytes that are allocated,
and in many ways managed, as a single entity by CP.
Each byte within an address space is identified by a
unique address. An address space represents an extent
of storage available to a program. Address spaces
allocated by VM range in size from 64KB to 2GB.
Advanced Interactive Executive (AIX). IBM’s licensed
version of the UNIX operating system.
Advanced Program-to-Program Communications
(APPC). The interprogram communication service
within SNA LU 6.2 on which the APPC/VM interface
is based.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). Now
called DARPA, its the U.S. Government agency that
funded the ARPANET.
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
(ARPANET). A packet switched network developed in
the early 1970’s that is the forerunner of today’s
Internet. It was decommissioned in June 1990.
289
agent. As defined in the SNMP architecture, an agent,
or an SNMP server is responsible for performing the
network management functions requested by the
network management stations.
AIX. Advanced Interactive Executive.
American National Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII). The standard code, using a
coded character set consisting of 7-bit coded characters
(8 bits including parity check), used for information
interchange among data processing systems, data
communication systems, and associated equipment. The
ASCII set consists of control characters and graphic
characters. The default file transfer type for FTP, used
to transfer files that contain ASCII text characters.
American National Standards Institute (ANSI). An
organization consisting of producers, consumers, and
general interest groups that establishes the procedures
by which accredited organizations create and maintain
voluntary industry standards in the United States.
ANSI is sponsored by the Computer and Business
Equipment Manufacturer Association and is responsible
for establishing voluntary industry standards.
ANSI. American National Standards Institute.
API. Application Program Interface.
APPC. Advanced Program-to-Program
Communications.
application. The use to which an information
processing system is put, for example, a payroll
application, an airline reservation application, a
network application.
application layer. The seventh layer of the OSI (Open
Systems Interconnection) model for data
communication. It defines protocols for user or
application programs.
Application Program Interface (API). The formally
defined programming-language interface between an
IBM system control program or licensed program and
its user. APIs allow programmers to write application
programs that use the TCP, UDP, and IP layers of the
TCP/IP protocol suite.
argument. A parameter passed between a calling
program and a called program.
ARP. Address Resolution Protocol.
ARPA. Advanced Research Projects Agency.
ARPANET. Advanced Research Projects Agency
Network.
ASCII. American National Standard Code for
Information Interchange. The default file transfer type
for FTP, used to transfer files that contain ASCII text
characters.
290
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ASN.1. Abstract Syntax Notation One.
ASYNC. Asynchronous.
asynchronous (ASYNC). Without regular time
relationship; unexpected or unpredictable with respect
to the execution of program instruction. See
synchronous.
asynchronous communication. A method of
communication supported by the operating system that
allows an exchange of data with remote device, using
either a start-stop line or an X.25 line. Asynchronous
communications include the file transfer and the
interactive terminal facility support.
Athena Widgets. The X Window widget set developed
by MIT for Project Athena.
Attachment Unit Interface (AUI). Connector used
with thick Ethernet that often includes a drop cable.
AUI. Attachment Unit Interface.
attention key. A function key on terminals that, when
pressed, causes an I/O interruption in the processing
unit.
authentication server. The service that reads a
Kerberos database to verify that a client making a
request for access to an end-service is the client named
in the request. The authentication server provides an
authenticated client ticket as permission to access the
ticket-granting server.
authenticator. Information encrypted by a Kerberos
authentication server that a client presents along with a
ticket to an end-server as permission to access the
service.
authorization. The right granted to a user to
communicate with, or to make use of, a computer
system or service.
B
backbone. In a local area network multiple-bridge
ring configuration, a high-speed link to which rings are
connected by means of bridges. A backbone can be
configured as a bus or as a ring. In a wide area
network, a high-speed link to which nodes or data
switching exchanges (DSES) are connected.
background task. A task with which the user is not
currently interacting, but continues to run.
baseband. Characteristic of any network technology
that uses a single carrier frequency and requires all
stations attached to the network to participate in every
transmission. See broadband.
Basic Encoding Rules (BER). Standard rules for
encoding data units described in ASN.1. Sometimes
incorrectly grouped under the term ASN.1, which
correctly refers only to the abstract description
language, not the encoding technique.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS). A set of routines
that permanently resides in read-only memory (ROM)
in a PC. The BIOS performs the most basic tasks, such
as sending a character to the printer, booting the
computer, and reading the keyboard.
functional unit that connects two local area networks
(LANs) that use the same logical link control (LLC)
procedures but may use different medium access
control (MAC) procedures.
batch. An accumulation of data to be processed. A
group of records or data processing jobs brought
together for processing or transmission. Pertaining to
activity involving little or no user action. See interactive
broadband. Characteristic of any network that
multiplexes multiple, independent network carriers
onto a single cable. This is usually done using
frequency division multiplexing. Broadband technology
allows several networks to coexist on one single cable;
traffic from one network does not interfere with traffic
from another, because the “conversations” happen on
different frequencies in the ether, similar to a
commercial radio system.
Bayonet Neill-Concelman (BNC). A standardized
connector used with Thinnet and coaxial cable.
broadcast. The simultaneous transmission of data
packets to all nodes on a network or subnetwork.
Because It’s Time NETwork (BITNET). A network of
hosts that use the Network Job Entry (NJE) protocol to
communicate. The network is primarily composed of
universities, nonprofit organizations, and research
centers. BITNET has recently merged with the
Computer and Science Network (CSNET) to form the
Corporation for Research and Educational Networking
(CSNET). See CSNET.
broadcast address. An address that is common to all
nodes on a network.
BER. Basic Encoding Rules.
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD). Term used
when describing different versions of the Berkeley
UNIX software, as in “4.3BSD UNIX”.
BFS. Byte File System.
big-endian. A format for storage or transmission of
binary data in which the most significant bit (or byte)
comes first. The reverse convention is little-endian.
BIOS. Basic Input/Output System.
BITNET. Because It’s Time NETwork.
block. A string of data elements recorded, processed,
or transmitted as a unit. The elements can be
characters, words, or physical records.
blocking mode. If the execution of the program
cannot continue until some event occurs, the operating
system suspends the program until that event occurs.
BNC. Bayonet Neill-Concelman.
BOOTPD. Bootstrap Protocol Daemon.
Bootstrap Protocol Daemon (BOOTPD). The BOOTP
daemon responds to client requests for boot
information using information contained in a BOOTP
machine file.
bridge. A router that connects two or more networks
and forwards packets among them. The operations
carried out by a bridge are done at the physical layer
and are transparent to TCP/IP and TCP/IP routing. A
BSD. Berkeley Software Distribution.
bus topology. A network configuration in which only
one path is maintained between stations. Any data
transmitted by a station is concurrently available to all
other stations on the link.
byte-ordering. The method of sorting bytes under
specific machine architectures. Of the two common
methods, little endian byte ordering places the least
significant byte first. This method is used in Intel**
microprocessors. In the second method, big endian byte
ordering, the most significant byte is placed first. This
method is used in Motorola microprocessors.
Byte File System (BFS). A file system in which a file
consists of an ordered sequence of bytes rather than
records. BFS files can be organized into hierarchical
directories. Byte file systems are enrolled as file spaces
in CMS file pools.
C
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection (CSMA/CD). The access method used by
local area networking technologies such as Ethernet.
case-sensitive. A condition in which entries for an
entry field must conform to a specific lowercase,
uppercase, or mixed-case format to be valid.
CCITT. Comite Consultatif International
Telegraphique et Telephonique.
channel. A path in a system that connects a processor
and main storage with an I/O device.
channel-attached. pertaining to attachment of devices
directly by data channels (I/O channels)to a computer.
Pertaining to devices attached to a controlling unit by
cables, rather than by telecommunication lines.
Synonymous with local, locally attached.
Glossary
291
CICS. Customer Information Control System.
Common Link Access to Workstation (CLAW). A
continuously executing duplex channel program
designed to minimize host interrupts while maximizing
channel utilization.
Class A network. An internet network in which the
high-order bit of the address is 0. The host number
occupies the three, low-order octets.
communications adapter. A hardware feature that
enables a computer or device to become a part of a
data network.
Class B network. An internet network in which the
high-order bit of the address is 1, and the next
high-order bit is 0. The host number occupies the two
low-order octets.
community name. A password used by hosts running
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) agents
to access remote network management stations.
checksum. The sum of a group of data associated with
the group and used for checking purposes.
Class C network. An internet network in which the
two high-order bits of the address are 1 and the next
high-order bit is 0. The host number occupies the
low-order octet.
CLAW. Common Link Access to Workstation.
client. A function that requests services from a server,
and makes them available to the user. In MVS, an
address space that is using TCP/IP services.
client-server model. A common way to describe
network services and the model user processes
(programs) of those services. Examples include the
name server and resolver paradigm of the DNS and file
server/file client relationships such as NFS and diskless
hosts.
client-server relationship. Any device that provides
resources or services to other devices on a network is a
server. Any device that employs the resources provided
by a server is a client. A machine can run client and
server processes at the same time.
CLIST. Command List.
CLPA. Create Link Pack Area.
CMS. Conversational Monitor System.
Comite Consultatif International Telegraphicque et
Telephonique (CCITT). The International Telegraph
and Telephone Consultative Committee. A unit of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) of the
United Nations. CCITT produces technical standards,
known as “recommendations,” for all internationally
controlled aspects of analog and digital communication.
command. The name and any parameters associated
with an action that can be performed by a program.
The command is entered by the user; the computer
performs the action requested by the command name.
Command List (CLIST). A list of commands and
statements designed to perform a specific function for
the user.
command prompt. A displayed symbol, such as [C:\]
that requests input from a user.
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compile. To translate a program written in a
high-level language into a machine language program.
The computer actions required to transform a source
file into an executable object file.
compiler. A program that translates a source program
into an executable program (an object program).
Computer and Science Network (CSNET). A large
computer network, mostly in the U.S. but with
international connections. CSNET sites include
universities, research labs, and some commercial
companies. It is now merged with BITNET to form
CREN. See BITNET.
connection. An association established between
functional units for conveying information. The path
between two protocol modules that provides reliable
stream delivery service. In an internet, a connection
extends from a TCP module on one machine to a TCP
module on the other.
Control Program (CP). The VM operating system that
manages the real processor’s resources and is
responsible for simulating System/370s or 390s for
individual users.
conversational monitor system (CMS). A virtual
machine operating system that provides general
interactive time sharing, problem solving, and program
development capabilities, and operates only under
control of the VM//ESA control program.
Corporation for Research and Educational
Networking (CREN). A large computer network
formed from the merging of BITNET and CSNET. See
BITNET and CSNET.
CP. Control Program.
Create Link Pack Area (CLPA). A parameter specified
at startup, which says to create the link pack area.
CREN. Corporation for Research and Educational
Networking.
CSMA/CD. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with
Collision Detection.
CSNET. Computer and Science Network.
Customer Information Control System (CICS). An
IBM-licensed program that enables transactions entered
at remote terminals to be processed concurrently by
user written application programs. It includes facilities
for building, using, and maintaining databases.
D
daemon. A background process usually started at
system initialization that runs continuously and
performs a function required by other processes. Some
daemons are triggered automatically to perform their
task; others operate periodically.
DASD. Direct Access Storage Device.
DARPA. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
DATABASE 2 (DB2). An IBM relational database
management system for the MVS operating system.
database administrator (DBA). An individual or
group responsible for the rules by which data is
accessed and stored. The DBA is usually responsible for
database integrity, security, performance and recovery.
datagram. A basic unit of information that is passed
across the internet, it consists of one or more data
packets.
Defense Data Network (DDN). Comprises the
MILNET and several other Department of Defense
networks.
destination node. The node to which a request or data
is sent.
DHCPD. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Daemon.
Direct Access Storage Device (DASD). A device in
which access to data is independent of where data
resides on the device.
directory. A named grouping of files in a file system.
Disk Operating System (DOS). An operating system
for computer systems that use disks and diskettes for
auxiliary storage of programs and data.
display terminal. An input/output unit by which a
user communicates with a data-processing system or
sub-system. Usually includes a keyboard and always
provides a visual presentation of data; for example, an
IBM 3179 display.
Distributed Program Interface (DPI). A programming
interface that provides an extension to the function
provided by the SNMP agents.
DLL. Dynamic Link Library.
data link layer. Layer 2 of the OSI (Open Systems
Interconnection) model; it defines protocols governing
data packetizing and transmission into and out of each
node.
data set. The major unit of data storage and retrieval
in MVS, consisting of a collection of data in one of
several prescribed arrangements and described by
control information to which the system has access.
Synonymous with file in VM and OS/2.
DB2. DATABASE 2.
DBA. Database administrator.
DBCS. Double Byte Character Set.
DDN. Defense Data Network.
decryption. The unscrambling of data using an
algorithm that works under the control of a key. The
key allows data to be protected even when the
algorithm is unknown. Data is unscrambled after
transmission.
default. A value, attribute, or option that is assumed
when none is explicitly specified.
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA). The U.S. government agency that funded
the ARPANET.
DNS. Domain Name System.
domain. In an internet, a part of the naming hierarchy.
Syntactically, a domain name consists of a sequence of
names (labels) separated by periods (dots).
Domain Name System (DNS). A system in which a
resolver queries name servers for resource records
about a host.
domain naming. A hierarchical system for naming
network resources.
DOS. Disk Operating System.
dotted-decimal notation. The syntactic representation
for a 32-bit integer that consists of four 8-bit numbers,
written in base 10 and separated by periods (dots).
Many internet application programs accept dotted
decimal notations in place of destination machine
names.
double-byte character set (DBCS). A set of characters
in which each character is represented by two bytes.
Languages such as Japanese, Chinese, Korean, which
contain more symbols than can be represented by 256
code points, require double-byte character sets. Because
each character requires 2 bytes, the typing, display, and
printing of DBCS characters requires hardware and
programs that support DBCS.
Glossary
293
doubleword. A contiguous sequence of bits or
characters that comprises two computer words and is
capable of being addressed as a unit.
DPI. Distributed Program Interface.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Daemon
(DHCPD). The DHCP daemon (DHCPD server)
responds to client requests for boot information using
information contained in a DHCP machine file. This
information includes the IP address of the client, the IP
address of the TFTP daemon, and information about
the files to request from the TFTP daemon.
dynamic resource allocation. An allocation technique
in which the resources assigned for execution of
computer programs are determined by criteria applied
at the moment of need.
dynamic link library (DLL). A module containing
dynamic link routines that is linked at load or run time.
E
EBCDIC. Extended binary-coded decimal interchange
code.
EGP. Exterior Gateway Protocol.
encapsulation. A process used by layered protocols in
which a lower-level protocol accepts a message from a
higher-level protocol and places it in the data portion
of the low-level frame. As an example, in Internet
terminology, a packet would contain a header from the
physical layer, followed by a header from the network
layer (IP), followed by a header from the transport
layer (TCP), followed by the application protocol data.
encryption. The scrambling or encoding of data using
an algorithm that works under the control of a key. The
key allows data to be protected even when the
algorithm is unknown. Data is scrambled prior to
transmission.
ES/9370 Integrated Adapters. An adapter you can use
in TCP/IP for VM to connect into Token-Ring networks
and Ethernet networks, as well as TCP/IP networks
that support X.25 connections.
Ethernet. The name given to a local area
packet-switched network technology invented in the
early 1970s by Xerox**, Incorporated. Ethernet uses a
Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD) mechanism to send packets.
EXEC. In a VM operating system, a user-written
command file that contains CMS commands, other
user-written commands, and execution control
statements, such as branches.
extended binary-coded decimal interchange code
(EBCDIC). A coded character set consisting of 8-bit
coded characters.
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extended character. A character other than a 7-bit
ASCII character. An extended character can be a 1-bit
code point with the 8th bit set (ordinal 128-255) or a
2-bit code point (ordinal 256 and greater).
Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). A reachability
routing protocol used by gateways in a two-level
internet.
eXternal Data Representation (XDR). A standard
developed by Sun Microsystems, Incorporated for
representing data in machine-independent format.
F
FAT. File Allocation Table.
FDDI. Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Also used to
abbreviate Fiber Optic Distributed Data Interface.
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). The ANSI
standard for high-speed transmission over fiber optic
cable.
Fiber Optic Network. A network based on the
technology and standards that define data transmission
using cables of glass or plastic fibers carrying visible
light. Fiber optic network advantages are: higher
transmission speeds, greater carrying capacity, and
lighter, more compact cable.
file. In VM and OS/2, a named set of records stored
or processed as a unit. Synonymous with data set in
MVS.
File Allocation Table (FAT). A table used to allocate
space on a disk for a file.
File Transfer Access and Management (FTAM). An
application service element that enables user
application processes to manage and access a file
system, which may be distributed.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP). A TCP/IP protocol used
for transferring files to and from foreign hosts. FTP also
provides the capability to access directories. Password
protection is provided as part of the protocol.
foreign host. Any machine on a network that can be
interconnected.
foreign network. In an internet, any other network
interconnected to the local network by one or more
intermediate gateways or routers.
foreign node. See foreign host.
frame. The portion of a tape on a line perpendicular
to the reference edge, on which binary characters can
be written or read simultaneously.
FTAM. File Transfer Access and Management.
FTP. File Transfer Protocol.
fullword. A computer word. In System/370, 32 bits or
4 bytes.
halfword. A contiguous sequence of bits or characters
that constitutes half a fullword and can be addressed as
a unit.
HASP. Houston automatic spooling priority system.
G
HDLC. High-level Data Link Control.
gadget. A windowless graphical object that looks like
its equivalent like-named widget but does not support
the translations, actions, or pop-up widget children
supplied by that widget.
header file. A file that contains constant declarations,
type declarations, and variable declarations and
assignments. Header files are supplied with all
programming interfaces.
gateway. A functional unit that interconnects a local
data network with another network having different
protocols. A host that connects a TCP/IP network to a
non-TCP/IP network at the application layer. See also
router.
High-level Data Link Control (HDLC). An ISO
protocol for X.25 international communication.
gather and scatter data. Two related operations.
During the gather operation, data is taken from
multiple buffers and transmitted. In the scatter
operation, data is received and stored in multiple
buffers.
GC. Graphics Context.
GContext. See Graphics Context.
GCS. Group Control System.
GDDM. Graphical Data Display Manager.
GDDMXD. Graphical Data Display Manager interface
for X Window System. A graphical interface that
formats and displays alphanumeric, data, graphics, and
images on workstation display devices that support the
X Window System.
GDF. Graphics data file.
Graphical Display Data Manager (GDDM). A group
of routines that allows pictures to be defined and
displayed procedurally through function routines that
correspond to graphic primitives.
Graphics Context (GC). The storage area for graphics
output. Also known as GC and GContext. Used only
with graphics that have the same root and depth as the
graphics content.
Group Control System (GCS) . A component of
VM/ESA, consisting of a shared segment that you can
Initial Program Load (IPL) and run in a virtual
machine. It provides simulated MVS services and
unique supervisor services to help support a native
SNA network.
High Performance File System (HPFS). An OS/2 file
management system that supports high-speed buffer
storage, long file names, and extended attributes.
hop count. The number of gateways or routers
through which a packet passes on its way to its
destination.
host. A computer connected to a network, which
provides an access method to that network. A host
provides end-user services and can be a client, a server,
or a client and server simultaneously.
Houston automatic spooling priority system (HASP).
A computer program that provides supplementary job
management, data management, and task management
functions such as control of job flow, ordering of tasks,
and spooling.
HPFS. High Performance File System.
HYPERchannel Adapter. A network interface used to
connect a TCP/IP for VM or MVS host into an existing
TCP/IP HYPERchannel network, or to connect TCP/IP
hosts together to create a TCP/IP HYPERchannel
network.
I
IAB. Internet Activities Board.
ICMP. Internet Control Message Protocol.
IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
IETF. Internet Engineering Task Force.
IGMP. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).
IGP. Interior Gateway Protocol.
H
include file. A file that contains preprocessor text,
which is called by a program, using a standard
programming call. Synonymous with header file.
handle. A temporary data representation that
identifies a file.
IMS. Information Management System.
Glossary
295
Information Management System (IMS). A
database/data communication (DB/DC) system that
can manage complex databases and networks.
goods and services, and develop cooperation in
intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic
activity.
initial program load (IPL). The initialization
procedure that causes an operating system to
commence operation.
internet or internetwork. A collection of packet
switching networks interconnected by gateways,
routers, bridges, and hosts to function as a single,
coordinated, virtual network.
instance. Indicates a label that is used to distinguish
among the variations of the principal name. An instance
allows for the possibility that the same client or service
can exist in several forms that require distinct
authentication.
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
(IEEE). An electronics industry organization.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). A
digital, end-to-end telecommunication network that
supports multiple services including, but not limited to,
voice and data.
interactive. Pertaining to a program or a system that
alternately accepts input and then responds. An
interactive system is conversational; that is, a
continuous dialog exists between user and system. See
batch.
Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP). The protocol used to
exchange routing information between collaborating
routers in the Internet. RIP is an example of an IGP.
Internet. The largest internet in the world consisting
of large national backbone nets (such as MILNET,
NSFNET, and CREN) and a myriad of regional and
local campus networks all over the world. The Internet
uses the Internet protocol suite. To be on the Internet,
you must have IP connectivity (be able to TELNET to,
or PING, other systems). Networks with only electronic
mail connectivity are not actually classified as being on
the Internet.
Internet Activities Board (IAB). The technical body
that oversees the development of the Internet suite of
protocols (commonly referred to as TCP/IP). It has two
task forces (the IRTF and the IETF) each charged with
investigating a particular area.
Internet address. A 32-bit address assigned to hosts
using TCP/IP. An internet address consists of a
network number and a local address. Internet addresses
are represented in a dotted-decimal notation and are
used to route packets through the network.
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). One of the
task forces of the IAB. The IETF is responsible for
solving short-term engineering needs of the Internet.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
An organization of national standards bodies from
various countries established to promote development
of standards to facilitate international exchange of
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internet address. The unique 32-bit address
identifying each node in an internet. See also address.
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP). The part
of the Internet Protocol layer that handles error
messages and control messages.
Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). IGMP
is used by IP hosts to report their host group
memberships to multicast routers.
Internet Protocol (IP). The TCP/IP layer between the
higher level host-to-host protocol and the local network
protocols. IP uses local area network protocols to carry
packets, in the form of datagrams, to the next gateway,
router, or destination host.
interoperability. The capability of different hardware
and software by different vendors to effectively
communicate together.
Inter-user communication vehicle (IUCV). A VM
facility for passing data between virtual machines and
VM components.
intrinsics X-Toolkit. A set management mechanism
that provides for constructing and interfacing between
composite X Window widgets, their children, and other
clients. Also, intrinsics provide the ability to organize a
collection of widgets into an application.
IP. Internet Protocol.
IP datagram. The fundamental unit of information
passed across the Internet. An IP datagram contains
source and destination addresses along with data and a
number of fields that define such things as the length
of the datagram, the header checksum, and flags to say
whether the datagram can be (or has been) fragmented.
IPL. Initial Program Load.
ISDN. Integrated Services Digital Network.
ISO. International Organization for Standardization.
IUCV. Inter-User Communication Vehicle.
J
JCL. Job Control Language.
JES. Job Entry Subsystem.
JIS. Japanese Institute of Standards.
Job Control Language (JCL). A problem-oriented
language designed to express statements in a job that
are used to identify the job or describe its requirements
to an operating system.
local network. The portion of a network that is
physically connected to the host without intermediate
gateways or routers.
Job Entry Subsystem (JES). An IBM System/370
licensed program that receives jobs into the system and
processes all output data produced by the jobs.
logical character delete symbol. A special editing
symbol, usually the at (@) sign, which causes CP to
delete it and the immediately preceding character from
the input line. If many delete symbols are consecutively
entered, the same number of preceding characters are
deleted from the input line.
JUNET. The Japanese Academic and Research
Network that connects various UNIX operating
systems.
Logical Unit (LU). An entity addressable within an
SNA-defined network. LUs are categorized by the types
of communication they support.
K
LPD. Line Printer Daemon.
Kanji. A graphic character set consisting of symbols
used in Japanese ideographic alphabets. Each character
is represented by 2 bytes.
katakana. A character set of symbols used on one of
the two common Japanese phonetic alphabets, which is
used primarily to write foreign words phonetically. See
also kanji.
Kerberos. A system that provides authentication
service to users in a network environment.
Kerberos Authentication System. An authentication
mechanism used to check authorization at the user
level.
L
LaMail. The client that communicates with the OS/2
Presentation Manager to manage mail on the network.
LAN. Local area network.
Line Printer Client (LPR). A client command that
allows the local host to submit a file to be printed on a
remote print server.
Line Printer Daemon (LPD). The remote printer
server that allows other hosts to print on a printer local
to your host.
little-endian. A format for storage or transmission of
binary data in which the least significant bit (or byte)
comes first. The reverse convention is big-endian.
local area network (LAN). A data network located on
the user’s premises in which serial transmission is used
for direct data communication among data stations.
local host. In an internet, the computer to which a
user’s terminal is directly connected without using the
internet.
LPR. Line Printer Client.
LU. Logical Unit.
LU-LU session. In SNA, a session between two logical
units (LUs). It provides communication between two
end users, or between an end user and an LU services
component.
LU type. In SNA, the classification of an LU-LU
session in terms of the specific subset of SNA protocols
and options supported by the logical units (LUs) for
that session.
M
MAC. Media Access Control.
mail gateway. A machine that connects two or more
electronic mail systems (often different mail systems on
different networks) and transfers messages between
them.
Management Information Base (MIB). A standard
used to define SNMP objects, such as packet counts
and routing tables, that are in a TCP/IP environment.
mapping. The process of relating internet addresses to
physical addresses in the network.
mask. A pattern of characters used to control retention
or elimination of portions of another pattern of
characters. To use a pattern of characters to control
retention or elimination of another pattern of
characters. A pattern of characters that controls the
keeping, deleting, or testing of portions of another
pattern of characters.
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). The largest
possible unit of data that can be sent on a given
physical medium.
media access control (MAC). The method used by
network adapters to determine which adapter has
access to the physical network at a given time.
Glossary
297
Message Handling System (MHS). The system of
message user agents, message transfer agents, message
stores, and access units that together provide OSI
electronic mail.
MHS. Message Handling System.
MIB. Management Information Base.
microcode. A code, representing the instructions of an
instruction set, which is implemented in a part of
storage that is not program-addressable.
MILNET. Military Network.
Military Network (MILNET). Originally part of the
ARPANET, MILNET was partitioned in 1984 to make it
possible for military installations to have reliable
network service, while the ARPANET continued to be
used for research. See DDN.
minidisk. Logical divisions of a physical direct access
storage device.
modem (modulator/demodulator). A device that
converts digital data from a computer to an analog
signal that can be transmitted on a telecommunication
line, and converts the analog signal received to data for
the computer.
Motif. see OSF/Motif.
mouse. An input device that is used to move a pointer
on the screen and select items.
MPROUTE. Multi-Path Routing. Implements the
OSPF protocol described in RFC 1583, 1058, and 1723.
MTU. Maximum Transmission Unit.
multicast. The simultaneous transmission of data
packets to a group of selected nodes on a network or
subnetwork.
multiconnection server. A server that is capable of
accepting simultaneous, multiple connections.
Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS). Implies MVS/370,
the MVS/XA product, and the MVS/ESA product.
multitasking. A mode of operation that provides for
the concurrent performance execution of two or more
tasks.
MVS. Multiple Virtual Storage.
N
name server. The server that stores resource records
about hosts.
National Science Foundation (NSF). Sponsor of the
NSFNET.
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National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET). A
collection of local, regional, and mid-level networks in
the U.S. tied together by a high-speed backbone.
NSFNET provides scientists access to a number of
supercomputers across the country.
NCP. Network Control Program.
NDB. Network Database.
NDIS. Network Driver Interface Specification.
Netman. This device keyword specifies that this
device is a 3172 LAN Channel Station that supports
IBM Enterprise-Specific SNMP Management
Information Base (MIB) variables for 3172. TCP/IP for
VM supports SNMP GET and SNMP GETNEXT
operations to request and retrieve 3172
Enterprise-Specific MIB variables. These requests are
answered only by those 3172 devices with the
NETMAN option in the PROFILE TCPIP file.
NetView. A system 390-based, IBM-licensed program
used to monitor, manage, and diagnose the problems of
a network.
network. An arrangement of nodes and connecting
branches. Connections are made between data stations.
Physical network refers to the hardware that makes up
a network. Logical network refers to the abstract
organization overlaid on one or more physical
networks. An internet is an example of a logical
network.
network adapter. A physical device, and its associated
software, that enables a processor or controller to be
connected to a network.
network administrator. The person responsible for the
installation, management, control, and configuration of
a network.
Network Control Program (NCP). An IBM-licensed
program that provides communication controller
support for single-domain, multiple-domain, and
interconnected network capability.
network database (NDB). An IBM-licensed program
that provides communication controller support for
single-domain, multiple-domain, and interconnected
network capability. NDB allows interoperability among
different database systems, and uses RPC protocol with
a client/server type of relationship. NDB is used for
data conversion, security, I/O buffer management, and
transaction management.
Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS). An
industry-standard specification used by applications as
an interface with network adapter device drivers.
network elements. As defined in the SNMP
architecture, network elements are gateways, routers,
and hosts that contain management agents responsible
for performing the network management functions
requested by the network management stations.
network file system (NFS). The NFS protocol, which
was developed by Sun Microsystems, Incorporated,
allows computers in a network to access each other’s
file systems. Once accessed, the file system appears to
reside on the local host.
Network Information Center (NIC). Originally there
was only one, located at SRI International and tasked to
serve the ARPANET (and later DDN) community.
Today, there are many NICs operated by local, regional,
and national networks all over the world. Such centers
provide user assistance, document service, training, and
more.
Network Job Entry (NJE). In object distribution, an
entry in the network job table that specifies the system
action required for incoming network jobs sent by a
particular user or group of users. Each entry is
identified by the user ID of the originating user or
group.
network layer. Layer 3 of the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model; it defines protocols
governing data routing.
network management stations. As defined in the
SNMP architecture, network management stations, or
SNMP clients, execute management applications that
monitor and control network elements.
NFS. Network file system.
NIC. Network Information Center.
NJE. Network Job Entry.
node. In a network, a point at which one or more
functional units connect channels or data circuits. In a
network topology, the point at an end of a branch.
nonblocking mode. If the execution of the program
cannot continue until some event occurs, the operating
system does not suspend the program until that event
occurs. Instead, the operating system returns an error
message to the program.
NPSI. X.25 NCP Packet Switching Interface.
Offload system. Represents both the MVS host where
TCP/IP for MVS is installed and the Offload host that
is handling the TCP/IP Offload processing.
open system. A system with specified standards and
that therefore can be readily connected to other systems
that comply with the same standards.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The
interconnection of open systems in accordance with
specific ISO standards. The use of standardized
procedures to enable the interconnection of data
processing systems.
Operating System/2 (OS/2). Pertaining to the IBM
licensed program that can be used as the operating
system for personal computers. The OS/2 licensed
program can perform multiple tasks at the same time.
OS/2. Operating System/2.
OSF/Motif. OSF/Motif is an X Window System toolkit
defined by Open Software Foundation, Inc. (OSF),
which enables the application programmer to include
standard graphic elements that have a 3-D appearance.
Performance of the graphic elements is increased with
gadgets and windowless widgets.
OSI. Open Systems Interconnection.
OSPF. Open Shortest Path First. An Interior Gateway
Protocol that distributes routing information within a
single Autonomous System.
out-of-band data. Data that is placed in a secondary
channel for transmission. Primary and secondary
communication channels are created physically by
modulation on a different frequency, or logically by
specifying a different logical channel. A primary
channel can have a greater capacity than a secondary
one.
OV. OfficeVision.
P
packet. A sequence of binary digits, including data
and control signals, that is transmitted and switched as
a composite whole.
NSFNET. National Science Foundation Network.
Packet Switching Data Network (PSDN). A network
that uses packet switching as a means of transmitting
data.
O
parameter. A variable that is given a constant value
for a specified application.
octet. A byte composed of eight binary elements.
parse. To analyze the operands entered with a
command.
NSF. National Science Foundation.
Offload host. Any device that is handling the TCP/IP
processing for the MVS host where TCP/IP for MVS is
installed. Currently, the only supported Offload host is
the 3172-3.
passive open. The state of a connection that is
prepared to provide a service on demand. Contrast
with active open.
Glossary
299
Partitioned data set (PDS). A data set in direct access
storage that is divided into partitions, called members,
each of which can contain a program, part of a
program, or data.
PC. Personal computer.
PCA. Personal Channel Attach.
PC Network. A low-cost, broadband network that
allows attached IBM personal computers, such as IBM
5150 Personal Computers, IBM Computer ATs, IBM
PC/XTs, and IBM Portable Personal Computers to
communicate and to share resources.
PDS. Partitioned data set.
PDN. Public Data Network.
PDU. Protocol data unit.
port. An endpoint for communication between
devices, generally referring to a logical connection. A
16-bit number identifying a particular Transmission
Control Protocol or User Datagram Protocol resource
within a given TCP/IP node.
PORTMAP. Synonymous with Portmapper.
Portmapper. A program that maps client programs to
the port numbers of server programs. Portmapper is
used with Remote Procedure Call (RPC) programs.
Post Office Protocol (POP). A protocol used for
exchanging network mail.
presentation layer. Layer 6 of the Open Systems
Interconnections (OSI) model; it defines protocols
governing data formats and conversions.
peer-to-peer. In network architecture, any functional
unit that resides in the same layer as another entity.
Presentation Manager (PM). A component of OS/2
that provides a complete graphics-based user interface,
with pull-down windows, action bars, and layered
menus.
Personal Channel Attach (PCA). see Personal System
Channel Attach.
principal name. Specifies the unique name of a user
(client) or service.
Personal Computer (PC). A microcomputer primarily
intended for stand-alone use by an individual.
PostScript. A standard that defines how text and
graphics are presented on printers and display devices.
Personal System Channel Attach (PSCA). An adapter
card to connect a micro-channel based personal
computer (or processor) to a System/370 parallel
channel.
process. A unique, finite course of events defined by
its purpose or by its effect, achieved under defined
conditions. Any operation or combination of operations
on data. A function being performed or waiting to be
performed. A program in operation; for example, a
daemon is a system process that is always running on
the system.
physical layer. Layer 1 of the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model; it details protocols
governing transmission media and signals.
physical unit (PU). In SNA, the component that
manages and monitors the resources, such as attached
links and adjacent link stations, associated with a node,
as requested by an SSPC via an SSPC-PU session. An
SSPC activates a session with the physical unit in order
to indirectly manage, through the PU, resources of the
node such as attached links.
PING. The command that sends an ICMP Echo
Request packet to a host, gateway, or router with the
expectation of receiving a reply.
PM. Presentation Manager.
PMANT. In OS/2, the 3270 client terminal emulation
program that is invoked by the PMANT command.
polling. On a multipoint connection or a
point-to-point connection, the process whereby data
stations are invited one at a time to transmit.
Interrogation of devices for such purposes as to avoid
contention, to determine operational status, or to
determine readiness to send or receive data.
POP. Post Office Protocol.
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Professional Office Systems (PROFS). IBM’s
proprietary, integrated office management system used
for sending, receiving, and filing electronic mail, and a
variety of other office tasks. PROFS has been replaced
by OfficeVision. See OfficeVision.
PROFS. Professional Office Systems.
protocol. A set of semantic and syntactic rules that
determines the behavior of functional units in achieving
communication. Protocols can determine low-level
details of machine-to-machine interfaces, such as the
order in which bits from a byte are sent; they can also
determine high-level exchanges between application
programs, such as file transfer.
Protocol data unit (PDU). A set of commands used by
the SNMP agent to request management station data.
protocol suite. A set of protocols that cooperate to
handle the transmission tasks for a data communication
system.
PSCA. Personal System Channel Attach.
PSDN. Packet Switching Data Network.
PU. Physical unit.
Public Data Network (PDN). A network established
and operated by a telecommunication administration or
by a Recognized Private Operating Agency (RPOA) for
the specific purpose of providing circuit-switched,
packet-switched, and leased-circuit services to the
public.
Q
QDIO. Queued Direct I/O.
queue. A line or list formed by items in a system
waiting for service; for example, tasks to be performed
or messages to be transmitted. To arrange in, or form, a
queue.
R
RACF. Resource access control facility.
RARP. Reverse Address Resolution Protocol.
read-only access. An access mode associated with a
virtual disk directory that lets a user read, but not write
or update, any file on the disk directory.
read/write access. An access mode associated with a
virtual disk directory that lets a user read and write
any file on the disk directory (if write authorized).
realm. One of the three parts of a Kerberos name. The
realm specifies the network address of the principal
name or instance. This address must be expressed as a
fully qualified domain name, not as a “dot numeric”
internet address.
recursion. A process involving numerous steps, in
which the output of each step is used for the successive
step.
reduced instruction-set computer (RISC). A computer
that uses a small, simplified set of frequently used
instructions for rapid execution.
reentrant. The attribute of a program or routine that
allows the same copy of a program or routine to be
used concurrently by two or more tasks.
Remote Execution Protocol (REXEC). A protocol that
allows the execution of a command or program on a
foreign host. The local host receives the results of the
command execution. This protocol uses the REXEC
command.
remote host. A machine on a network that requires a
physical link to interconnect with the network.
remote logon. The process by which a terminal user
establishes a terminal session with a remote host.
Remote Procedure Call (RPC). A facility that a client
uses to request the execution of a procedure call from a
server. This facility includes a library of procedures and
an eXternal data representation.
Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem
(RSCS). An IBM-licensed program that transfers spool
files, commands, and messages between VM users,
remote stations, and remote and local batch systems,
through HASP-compatible telecommunication facilities.
Request For Comments (RFC). A series of documents
that covers a broad range of topics affecting
internetwork communication. Some RFCs are
established as internet standards.
resolver. A program or subroutine that obtains
information from a name server or local table for use
by the calling program.
resource access control facility (RACF). An
IBM-licensed program that provides for access control
by identifying and by verifying the users to the system,
authorizing access to protected resources, logging the
detected unauthorized attempts to enter the system,
and logging the detected accesses to protected
resources.
resource records. Individual records of data used by
the Domain Name System. Examples of resource
records include the following: a host’s Internet Protocol
addresses, preferred mail addresses, and aliases.
response unit (RU). In SNA, a message unit that
acknowledges a request unit. It may contain prefix
information received in a request unit. If positive, the
response unit may contain additional information such
as session parameters in response to BIND SESSION. If
negative, it contains sense data defining the exception
condition.
Restructured Extended Executor (REXX) language. A
general purpose programming language, particularly
suitable for EXEC procedures, XEDIT macros, or
programs for personal computing. Procedures, XEDIT
macros, and programs written in this language can be
interpreted by the Procedures Language VM/REXX
interpreter.
return code. A code used to influence the execution of
succeeding instructions. A value returned to a program
to indicate the results of an operation requested by that
program.
Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP). A
protocol that maintains a database of mappings
between physical hardware addresses and IP addresses.
REXEC. Remote Execution Protocol.
REXX. Restructured Extended Executor language.
RFC. Request For Comments.
Glossary
301
RIP. Routing Information Protocol.
RISC. Reduced instruction-set computer.
router. A device that connects networks at the ISO
Network Layer. A router is protocol-dependent and
connects only networks operating the same protocol.
Routers do more than transmit data; they also select the
best transmission paths and optimum sizes for packets.
In TCP/IP, routers operate at the Internetwork layer.
See also gateway.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP). The protocol that
maintains routing table entries for gateways, routers,
and hosts.
routing table. A list of network numbers and the
information needed to route packets to each.
RPC. Remote Procedure Call.
RSCS. Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.
RU. Response unit.
users on different systems. SMTP specifies how mail
systems interact and the format of control messages
they use to transfer mail.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). A
protocol that allows network management by elements,
such as gateways, routers, and hosts. This protocol
provides a means of communication between network
elements regarding network resources.
simultaneous peripheral operations online (SPOOL).
(Noun) An area of auxiliary storage defined to
temporarily hold data during its transfer between
peripheral equipment and the processor. (Verb) To use
auxiliary storage as a buffer storage to reduce
processing delays when transferring data between
peripheral equipment and the processing storage of a
computer.
single-byte character set (SBCS). A character set in
which each character is represented by a one-byte code.
Contrast with double-byte character set.
SMI. Structure for Management Information.
S
SMTP. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.
SAA. Systems Application Architecture.
SNA. Systems Network Architecture.
SBCS. Single Byte Character Set.
SNALINK. SNA Network Link.
SDLC. Synchronous data link control.
SNA Network Link. An SNA network link function of
TCP/IP for VM and MVS hosts running TCP/IP to
communicate through an existing SNA backbone.
Sendmail. The OS/2 mail server that uses Simple
Mail Transfer Protocol to route mail from one host to
another host on the network.
serial line. A network media that is a de facto
standard, not an international standard, commonly
used for point-to-point TCP/IP connections. Generally,
a serial line consists of an RS-232 connection into a
modem and over a telephone line.
semantics. The relationships of characters or groups of
characters to their meanings, independent of the
manner of their interpretation and use. The
relationships between symbols and their meanings.
server. A function that provides services for users. A
machine can run client and server processes at the
same time.
SFS. Shared File System.
Shared File System (SFS). A part of CMS that lets
users organize their files into groups known as
directories and selectively share those files and
directories with other users.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). A TCP/IP
application protocol used to transfer mail between
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SNMP. Simple Network Management Protocol.
SOA. Start of authority record.
socket. An endpoint for communication between
processes or applications. A pair consisting of TCP port
and IP address, or UDP port and IP address.
socket address. An address that results when the port
identification number is combined with an internet
address.
socket interface. An application interface that allows
users to write their own applications to supplement
those supplied by TCP/IP.
SPOOL. Simultaneous peripheral operations online.
spooling. The processing of files created by or
intended for virtual readers, punches, and printers. The
spool files can be sent from one virtual device to
another, from one virtual machine to another, and to
read devices.
SQL. Structured Query Language.
SQL/DS. Structured Query Language/Data System.
SSL. Secure Sockets Layer. Provides the secure
(encrypted) communication between a remote client
and a TCP/IP server.
start of authority record (SOA). In the Domain Name
System, the resource record that defines a zone.
stream. A continuous sequence of data elements being
transmitted, or intended for transmission, in character
or binary-digit form, using a defined format.
Structured Query Language (SQL). Fourth generation
English-like programming language used to perform
queries on relational databases.
Structured Query Language/Data System (SQL/DS).
An IBM relational database management system for the
VM and VSE operating systems.
Structure for Management Information (SMI). The
rules used to define the objects that can be accessed
through a network management protocol. See also MIB.
subagent. In the SNMP architecture, a subagent
provides an extension to the utility provided by the
SNMP agent.
subdirectory. A directory contained within another
directory in a file system hierarchy.
subnet. A networking scheme that divides a single
logical network into smaller physical networks to
simplify routing.
subnet address. The portion of the host address that
identifies a subnetwork.
subnet mask. A mask used in the IP protocol layer to
separate the subnet address from the host portion of
the address.
Systems Network Architecture (SNA). The
description of the logical structure, formats, protocols,
and operational sequences for transmitting information
units through, and controlling the configuration and
operation of, networks.
T
TALK. An interactive messaging system that sends
messages between the local host and a foreign host.
TCP. Transmission Control Protocol.
TCP/IP. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol.
Telnet. The Terminal Emulation Protocol, a TCP/IP
application protocol for remote connection service.
Telnet allows a user at one site to gain access to a
foreign host as if the user’s terminal were connected
directly to that foreign host.
terminal emulator. A program that imitates the
function of a particular kind of terminal.
Terminate and Stay Resident (TSR) program. A TSR
is a program that installs part of itself as an extension
of DOS when it is executed.
TFTPD. Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon.
ticket. Encrypted information obtained from a
Kerberos authentication server or a ticket-granting
server. A ticket authenticates a user and, in conjunction
with an authenticator, serves as permission to access a
service when presented by the authenticated user.
ticket-granting server. Grants Kerberos tickets to
authenticated users as permission to access an
end-service.
subnetwork. Synonymous with subnet.
subsystem. A secondary or subordinate system,
usually capable of operating independent of, or
asynchronously with, a controlling system.
SYNC. Synchronous.
synchronous (SYNC). Pertaining to two or more
processes that depend on the occurrences of a specific
event such as common timing signal. Occurring with a
regular or predictable time relationship. See
asynchronous.
synchronous data link control (SDLC). A data link
over which communication is conducted using the
synchronous data protocol.
Systems Application Architecture (SAA). A formal
set of rules that enables applications to be run without
modification in different computer environments.
Time Sharing Option (TSO). An operating system
option; for System/370 system, the option provides
interactive time sharing from remote terminals
time stamp. To apply the current system time. The
value on an object that is an indication of the system
time at some critical point in the history of the object.
In query, the identification of the day and time when a
query report was created that query automatically
provides on each report.
TN3270. An informally defined protocol for
transmitting 3270 data streams over Telnet.
token. In a local network, the symbol of authority
passed among data stations to indicate the station
temporarily in control of the transmission medium.
token-bus. See bus topology.
token ring. As defined in IEEE 802.5, a
communication method that uses a token to control
Glossary
303
access to the LAN. The difference between a token bus
and a token ring is that a token-ring LAN does not use
a master controller to control the token. Instead, each
computer knows the address of the computer that
should receive the token next. When a computer with
the token has nothing to transmit, it passes the token to
the next computer in line.
token-ring network. A ring network that allows
unidirectional data transmission between data stations
by a token-passing procedure over one transmission
medium, so that the transmitted data returns to the
transmitting station.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The TCP/IP
layer that provides reliable, process-to-process data
stream delivery between nodes in interconnected
computer networks. TCP assumes that IP (Internet
Protocol) is the underlying protocol.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP). A suite of protocols designed to allow
communication between networks regardless of the
technologies implemented in each network.
transport layer. Layer 4 of the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model; it defines protocols
governing message structure and some error checking.
TRAP. An unsolicited message that is sent by an
SNMP agent to an SNMP network management station.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol Daemon (TFTPD). The
TFTP daemon (TFTPD server) transfers files between
the Byte File System (BFS) and TFTP clients. TFTPD
supports access to files maintained in a BFS directory
structure that is mounted.
TSO. Time Sharing Option.
TSR. Terminate and stay resident. TSR usually refers
to a terminate-and-stay-resident program.
virtual address. The address of a location in virtual
storage. A virtual address must be translated into a real
address to process the data in processor storage.
Virtual Machine (VM). Licensed software whose full
name is Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems
Architecture (VM/ESA) It is a software operating
system that manages the resources of a real processor
to provide virtual machines to end users. It includes
time-sharing system control program (CP), the
conversational monitor system (CMS), the group
control system (GCS), and the dump viewing facility
(DVF).
Virtual Machine Communication Facility (VMCF). A
connectionless mechanism for communication between
address spaces.
Virtual Machine/System Product (VM/SP). An
IBM-licensed program that manages the resources of a
single computer so that multiple computing systems
appear to exist. Each virtual machine is the functional
equivalent of a real machine.
virtual storage. Storage space that can be regarded as
addressable main storage by the user of a computer
system in which virtual addresses are mapped into real
addresses. The size of virtual storage is limited by the
addressing scheme of the computing system and by the
amount of auxiliary storage available, not by the actual
number of main storage locations.
Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM).
An IBM-licensed program that controls communication
and the flow of data in an SNA network. It provides
single-domain, multiple-domain, and interconnected
network capability.
VM. Virtual Machine.
VMCF. Virtual Machine Communication Facility.
U
UDP. User Datagram Protocol.
user. A function that uses the services provided by a
server. A host can be a user and a server at the same
time. See client.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP). A datagram level
protocol built directly on the IP layer. UDP is used for
application-to-application programs between TCP/IP
hosts.
user exit. A point in an IBM-supplied program at
which a user routine may be given control.
user profile. A description of a user, including user
ID, user name, defaults, password, access authorization,
and attributes.
304
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
VM/ESA. Virtual Machine/Enterprise System
Architecture
VMSES/E. Virtual Machine Serviceability
Enhancements Staged/Extended.
VTAM. Virtual Telecommunications Access Method.
W
WAN. Wide area network.
well-known port. A port number that has been
preassigned for specific use by a specific protocol or
application. Clients and servers using the same protocol
communicate over the same well-known port.
wide area network (WAN). A network that provides
communication services to a geographic area larger
than that served by a local area network.
widget. The basic data type of the X Window System
Toolkit. Every widget belongs to a widget class that
contains the allowed operations for that corresponding
class.
window. An area of the screen with visible boundaries
through which a panel or portion of a panel is
displayed.
working directory. The directory in which an
application program is found. The working directory
becomes the current directory when the application is
started.
Z
ZAP. To modify or dump an individual text file/data
set using the ZAP command or the ZAPTEXT EXEC.
ZAP disk. The virtual disk in the VM operating
system that contains the user-written modifications to
VTAM code.
zone. In the Domain Name System, a zone is a logical
grouping of domain names that is assigned to a
particular organization. Once an organization controls
its own zone, it can change the data in the zone, add
new tree sections connected to the zone, delete existing
nodes, or delegate new subzones under its zone.
X
X Client. An application program which uses the X
protocol to communicate windowing and graphics
requests to an X Server.
XDR. eXternal Data Representation.
XEDIT. The CMS facility, containing the XEDIT
command and XEDIT subcommands and macros, that
lets a user create, change, and manipulate CMS files.
X Server. A program which interprets the X protocol
and controls one or more screens, a pointing device, a
keyboard, and various resources associated with the X
Window System, such as Graphics Contexts, Pixmaps,
and color tables.
X Window System. The X Window System is a
protocol designed to support network transparent
windowing and graphics. TCP/IP for VM and MVS
provides client support for the X Window System
application program interface.
X Window System API. An application program
interface designed as a distributed,
network-transparent, device-independent, windowing
and graphics system.
X Window System Toolkit. Functions for developing
application environments.
X.25. A CCITT communication protocol that defines
the interface between data terminal equipment and
packet switching networks.
X.25 NCP Packet Switching Interface (X.25 NPSI). An
IBM-licensed program that allows users to
communicate over packet switched data networks that
have interfaces complying with Recommendation X.25
(Geneva** 1980) of the CCITT. It allows SNA programs
to communicate with SNA equipment or with non-SNA
equipment over such networks.
Glossary
305
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z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Bibliography
This bibliography lists the publications that
provide information about your z/VM system.
The z/VM library includes z/VM base
publications, publications for additional facilities
included with z/VM, and publications for z/VM
optional features. For abstracts of z/VM
publications and information about current
editions and available publication formats, see
z/VM: General Information.
z/VM Base Publications
Evaluation
v z/VM: Licensed Program Specifications, GC24-5943
v z/VM: General Information, GC24-5944
Installation and Service
v z/VM: Installation Guide, GC24-5945
v z/VM: Service Guide, GC24-5946
v z/VM: VMSES/E Introduction and Reference,
GC24-5947
Planning and Administration
v z/VM: Planning and Administration, SC24-5948
v z/VM: CMS File Pool Planning, Administration,
and Operation, SC24-5949
v z/VM: Migration Guide, GC24-5928
v VM/ESA: REXX/EXEC Migration Tool for
VM/ESA, GC24-5752
v z/VM: Running Guest Operating Systems,
SC24-5950
v VM/ESA: Connectivity Planning, Administration,
and Operation, SC24-5756
v z/VM: Group Control System, SC24-5951
v z/VM: Performance, SC24-5952
Customization
v z/VM: CP Exit Customization, SC24-5953
Operation
v z/VM: System Operation, SC24-5954
v z/VM: Virtual Machine Operation, SC24-5955
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
Application Programming
v z/VM: CP Programming Services, SC24-5956
v z/VM: CMS Application Development Guide,
SC24-5957
v z/VM: CMS Application Development Guide for
Assembler, SC24-5958
v z/VM: CMS Callable Services Reference, SC24-5959
v z/VM: CMS Macros and Functions Reference,
SC24-5960
v z/VM: CMS Application Multitasking, SC24-5961
v VM/ESA: REXX/VM Primer, SC24-5598
v z/VM: REXX/VM User’s Guide, SC24-5962
v z/VM: REXX/VM Reference, SC24-5963
v z/VM: OpenExtensions POSIX Conformance
Document, GC24-5976
v z/VM: OpenExtensions User’s Guide, SC24-5977
v z/VM: OpenExtensions Command Reference,
SC24-5978
v z/VM: OpenExtensions Advanced Application
Programming Tools, SC24-5979
v z/VM: OpenExtensions Callable Services Reference,
SC24-5980
v z/VM: Reusable Server Kernel Programmer’s Guide
and Reference, SC24-5964
v z/VM: Enterprise Systems Architecture/Extended
Configuration Principles of Operation, SC24-5965
v C for VM/ESA: Library Reference, SC23-3908
v OS/390: DFSMS Program Management,
SC27-0806
v z/VM: Program Management Binder for CMS,
SC24-5934
v Debug Tool User’s Guide and Reference, SC09-2137
v External Security Interface (RACROUTE) Macro
Reference for MVS and VM, GC28-1366
v VM/ESA: Programmer’s Guide to the
Server-Requester Programming Interface for VM,
SC24-5455
v VM/ESA: CPI Communications User’s Guide,
SC24-5595
v Common Programming Interface Communications
Reference, SC26-4399
v Common Programming Interface Resource Recovery
Reference, SC31-6821
307
End Use
Language Environment®
v z/VM: CP Command and Utility Reference,
SC24-5967
v VM/ESA: CMS Primer, SC24-5458
v z/VM: CMS User’s Guide, SC24-5968
v z/VM: CMS Command Reference, SC24-5969
v z/VM: CMS Pipelines User’s Guide, SC24-5970
v z/VM: CMS Pipelines Reference, SC24-5971
v CMS/TSO Pipelines: Author’s Edition, SL26-0018
v Language Environment for OS/390 & VM:
Concepts Guide, GC28-1945
v Language Environment for OS/390 & VM:
Migration Guide, SC28-1944
v Language Environment for OS/390 & VM:
Programming Guide, SC28-1939
v z/VM: XEDIT User’s Guide, SC24-5972
v z/VM: XEDIT Command and Macro Reference,
SC24-5973
v z/VM: Quick Reference, SC24-5986
v Language Environment for OS/390 & VM:
Programming Reference, SC28-1940
v Language Environment for OS/390 & VM: Writing
Interlanguage Communication Applications,
SC28-1943
v Language Environment for OS/390 & VM:
Debugging Guide and Run-Time Messages,
SC28-1942
Diagnosis
v z/VM: System Messages and Codes, GC24-5974
v z/VM: Diagnosis Guide, GC24-5975
v z/VM: VM Dump Tool, GC24-5887
Publications for Optional
Features
v z/VM: Dump Viewing Facility, GC24-5966
CMS Utilities Feature
v VM/ESA: CMS Utilities Feature, SC24-5535
Publications for Additional
Facilities
DFSMS/VM
®
v VM/ESA: DFSMS/VM Function Level 221
Planning Guide, GC35-0121
v VM/ESA: DFSMS/VM Function Level 221
Installation and Customization, SC26-4704
v VM/ESA: DFSMS/VM Function Level 221 Storage
Administration Guide and Reference, SH35-0111
v VM/ESA: DFSMS/VM Function Level 221
Removable Media Services User’s Guide and
Reference, SC35-0141
v VM/ESA: DFSMS/VM Function Level 221
Messages and Codes, SC26-4707
v VM/ESA: DFSMS/VM Function Level 221
Diagnosis Guide, LY27-9589
OSA/SF
v S/390: Planning for the S/390 Open Systems
Adapter (OSA-1, OSA-2) Feature, GC23-3870
v VM/ESA: Open Systems Adapter Support Facility
User’s Guide for OSA-2, SC28-1992
v S/390: Open Systems Adapter-Express Customer’s
Guide and Reference, SA22-7403
308
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
TCP/IP Feature for z/VM
v z/VM: TCP/IP Level 3A0 Planning and
Customization, SC24-5981
v z/VM: TCP/IP Level 3A0 User’s Guide, SC24-5982
v z/VM: TCP/IP Level 3A0 Programmer’s Reference,
SC24-5983
v z/VM: TCP/IP Level 3A0 Messages and Codes,
GC24-5984
v z/VM: TCP/IP Level 3A0 Diagnosis Guide,
GC24-5985
OpenEdition® DCE Feature for
VM/ESA®
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Introducing the
OpenEdition Distributed Computing Environment,
SC24-5735
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Planning,
SC24-5737
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Configuring and
Getting Started, SC24-5734
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Administration
Guide, SC24-5730
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Administration
Reference, SC24-5731
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Application
Development Guide, SC24-5732
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Application
Development Reference, SC24-5733
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: User’s Guide,
SC24-5738
v OpenEdition DCE for VM/ESA: Messages and
Codes, SC24-5736
LANRES/VM
v LAN Resource Extension and Services/VM:
Licensed Program Specifications, GC24-5617
v LAN Resource Extension and Services/VM: General
Information, GC24-5618
v LAN Resource Extension and Services/VM: Guide
and Reference, SC24-5622
v "Network Management of TCP/IP Networks:
Present and Future," A. Ben-Artzi, A. Chandna,
V. Warrier.
v "Special Issue: Network Management and
Network Security,"ConneXions-The
Interoperability Report, Volume 4, No. 8, August
1990.
v The Art of Distributed Application: Programming
Techniques for Remote Procedure Calls, John R.
Corbin, Springer-Verlog, 1991.
v The Simple Book: An Introduction to Management
of TCP/IP-based Internets, Marshall T Rose,
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey,
1991.
CD-ROM
The following CD-ROM contains all the IBM
libraries that are available in IBM BookManager®
format for current VM system products and
current IBM licensed programs that run on VM. It
also contains PDF versions of z/VM publications
and publications for some related IBM licensed
programs.
v Online Library Omnibus Edition: VM Collection,
SK2T-2067
Note: Only unlicensed publications are included.
Other TCP/IP Related
Publications
This section lists other publications, outside the
z/VM 3.1.0 library, that you may find helpful.
v TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview,
GG24-3376
v TCP/IP Illustrated, Volume 1: The Protocols,
SR28-5586
v Internetworking with TCP/IP Volume I: Principles,
Protocols, and Architecture, SC31-6144
v Internetworking With TCP/IP Volume II:
Implementation and Internals, SC31-6145
v Internetworking With TCP/IP Volume III:
Client-Server Programming and Applications,
SC31-6146
v DNS and BIND in a Nutshell, SR28-4970
v "MIB II Extends SNMP Interoperability," C.
Vanderberg, Data Communications, October 1990.
v "Network Management and the Design of SNMP,"
J.D. Case, J.R. Davin, M.S. Fedor, M.L.
Schoffstall.
Bibliography
309
310
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
Index
Numerics
802.2 LLC frame 272
9370 internal adapter 40, 113
A
abend
described 6
problem category 6
abends
MPROUTE 172
activating traces
directing output
to a file 53
to the screen 53
first-level trace 51
second-level trace 52
ALL process 113
applications, functions, and protocols
BOOTPD 261
DHCPD 265, 269
FTP 137
NFS 157
Remote Printing 237, 245
REXEC 247, 249
RouteD 159, 171
RPC 155, 159
SMTP 147, 155
Telnet 137
TFTP 251, 253
TFTPD 261
ARP
frame 273
process 33, 54, 58
B
BOOTPD
client traces
trace output
261, 265
C
CCS
process 58
role in VM structure 17
CCW
general information 272
matching traces with TCP/IP
traces 277
samples of CCW traces 272, 276
CETI
devices 276
driver 40, 41
process 113, 116
CLAW trace process 58
commands
DUMP 11
PORT 137
VMDUMP 11
© Copyright IBM Corp. 1987, 2001
commands (continued)
VMFPLC2 11
commonly used trace options 125
congestion process 64, 125
CONNECT request 43
Connection States
as know by Pascal/VMCF
applications 134
as know by socket applications 135
as know by TCP 131
CONSISTENCYCHECKER process 33,
65
CTCP 49
D
Data Transfer Process (DTP) 137
DDN1822 process 33
DEBUG,
FTP subcommand 138
NFS subcommand 231
debugging
in VM
executing traces 51
diagnostic task
Step 1. Does the problem originate
from TCP/IP 2
Step 2. Try to fix the problem 3
Step 3. Describe the problem using
categories
abend 6
documentation 10
incorrect output 8
loop 7
message 6
performance 9
wait state 8
Step 4. Reporting the problem to
Service Support 3
Step 5. Implement the solution 3
directing output
to a file 53
to the screen 53
documentation problems 10
Dump Viewing Facility 11
E
ELANS process 67, 113
EREP 47, 48, 49
error return codes
UDP 280
EXTERNALHANDLER process 116
F
FILE DEBUGTRA file 144
FILE statement 53
first-level trace 51
frame
802.2 LLC 272
frame (continued)
ARP 273
IP 275
TCP 276
token-ring 271
FROM1822 process 33
FTP
client traces
activating traces 138
trace output 139
connection 137
DEBUG subcommand 138
DTP 137
model 137
PI 137
PORT command 137
server traces
activating traces 143
trace output 144
FTPSERVE LOG file 143
G
GATEWAY statement 46
use with MPROUTE 171
group processes
ALL 113
CETI 113, 116
HANDLERS 116
HCH 117
IUCV 117, 120
PCCA 120, 125
RAWIP 125
TCP 125
TCPIP 125
UDP 125
H
HANDLERS process 116
HCH process 117
header
IP 275
TCP 276
HYPERchannel
driver
described 41, 42
failure 47, 48
packet-blocking 42
SLS/720 datagram 42
I
I/O
CETI driver 40, 41
HYPERchannel driver 41, 42
IUCV links
PVM IUCV 42
SNA IUCV 43, 48
IBM 8232 41
ICMP process 67, 117
311
IGMP process 68, 69
ILANS process 69, 113
incorrect output problems 8
INITIALIZE process 70, 73
internal
activities 36, 40
procedures 33, 35
queues 35, 36
internal tracing statements
FILE 53
in TCPIP.PROFILE.TCPIP 51
LESSTRACE 53, 54, 113
MORETRACE 52, 54, 113
NOTRACE 52, 54, 113
SCREEN 53
TRACE 51, 54, 113
Internet
protocols, ICMP 117
IOHANDLER process 116
IP
frame 275
header 275
IPDOWN process 33, 73, 125
IPREQUEST process 125
IPUP process 33, 73, 125
IUCV
links
PVM 42
SNA 43, 48
process 117, 120
role in VM structure 17
trace output 117
IUCVHANDLER process 116
L
LAN
messages 271
support devices for 269
LDSF
role in VM structure 17
LESSTRACE statement 53, 54, 113
LLC 113, 272
loop problems 7
M
machine readable documentation
guidelines 11
message problems 6
MONITOR process 33, 74, 76
MORETRACE statement 52, 54, 113
MPROUTE
abends 172
client cannot reach destination 172
connection problems 172
overview 171
MULTICAST process 76, 77
N
netstat command
MPROUTE problem diagnosis 172
NetView 47, 48, 49
NFS
activating traces 231
function 157
312
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
NFS (continued)
trace output 233
NOPROCESS process 77
NOTIFY process 33, 77, 79, 125
NOTRACE statement 52, 54, 113
O
OBEYFILE 51, 79
open shortest path first (OSPF) 171
OSPF (open shortest path first) 171
output,
directing to a file 53
directing to the screen 53
problem category 8
P
PARSE-TCP process 79
Pascal 33, 35
PCCA
CCW
general information 272
matching traces with TCP/IP
traces 277
samples of CCW traces 272, 276
devices 269, 276
PCCA block structure
802.2 LLC frame 272
control messages 270
general information 269
information about token-ring
frames 271
LAN messages 271
process 120, 125
performance problems 9
PING command 46
PING process 33, 46, 117
PORT command 137
Portmapper 158
problem categories
abend 6
documentation 10
incorrect output 8
loop 7
message 6
performance 9
wait state 8
processes
group
ALL 113
CETI 113, 116
HANDLERS 116
HCH 117
IUCV 117, 120
PCCA 120, 125
RAWIP 125
TCP 125
TCPIP 125
UDP 125
single
ARP 33, 54, 58
CCS 58
CONGESTION 64, 125
CONSISTENCYCHECKER 33, 65
DDN1822 33
ELANS 67, 113
processes (continued)
single (continued)
EXTERNALHANDLER 116
FROM1822 33
ICMP 67, 117
IGMP 68, 69
ILANS 69, 113
INITIALIZE 70, 73
IOHANDLER 116
IPDOWN 33, 73, 125
IPREQUEST 125
IPUP 33, 73, 125
IUCVHANDLER 116
MONITOR 33, 74, 76
MULTICAST 76, 77
NOPROCESS 77
NOTIFY 33, 77, 79, 125
PARSE-TCP 79
PING 33, 80, 117
RAWIPREQUEST 33, 125
RAWIPUP 125
RETRANSMIT 125
REXMIT 125
ROUNDTRIP 81, 125
SCHEDULER 33, 82, 85
SHUTDOWN 33, 85
SNMPDPI 86
SOCKET 86
STATUSOUT 33
TCPDOWN 33, 88, 90, 125
TCPREQUEST 33, 94, 99, 125
TCPUP 33, 90, 94, 125
TELNET 99, 108
TIMER 33, 108
TO1822 33
TOIUCV 33
TOX25ICA 113
UDPREQUEST 33, 110, 125
UDPUP 112, 125
PROFILE TCPIP 51, 79
Protocol Interpreter (PI) 137
Pseudo-state, connection
CONNECTIONclosing 135
LISTENING 134
NONEXISTENT 135
OPEN 134
RECEIVINGonly 134
SENDINGonly 134
TRYINGtoOPEN 134
PVM
CONNECT request 43
local 43
remote 43
Q
queues 35, 36
R
RAWIP process 125
RAWIPREQUEST process 33, 125
RAWIPUP process 125
related protocols 281
remote printing
client traces
activating traces 237
remote printing (continued)
trace output 237
server traces
activating traces 241
trace output 241
RETRANSMIT process 125
return codes
TCP/IP 279
UDP Error 280
REXEC
activating traces 247
trace output 247
REXECD
activating traces 248
trace output 249
REXMIT process 125
RIP (routing information protocol)
MPROUTE implementation 171
ROUNDTRIP process 81, 125
RouteD
diagnosing problems 161
trace output 167
traces and debug information 164
routing information protocol (RIP)
MPROUTE implementation 171
RPC programs
call messages 155
function 155
Portmapper 158
reply messages
accepted 156
rejected 157
support 158
S
SCHEDULER process 33, 82, 85
SCREEN statement 53
second-level trace 52
SHUTDOWN process 33, 85
SMSG command
with MPROUTE 173
SMTP
client traces
activating traces 147
querying SMTP queues 147
server traces
activating traces 148
commands 148
SNA
CONNECT request 43
IUCV failure 48, 51
SNMPDPI process 86
SOCKET process 86
SSL
Diagnosing problems 217
trace output 224
SSLADMIN TRACE/NOTRACE
command 220
state, connection
CLOSE-WAIT 133
CLOSED 134
CLOSING 133
ESTABLISHED 132
FIN-WAIT-1 132
FIN-WAIT-2 133
LAST-ACK 133
state, connection (continued)
LISTEN 132
SYN-RECEIVED 132
SYN-SENT 132
TIME-WAIT 133
statements
FILE 53
GATEWAY 46
LESSTRACE 53, 54, 113
MORETRACE 52, 54, 113
NOTRACE 52, 54, 113
SCREEN 53
TRACE 49, 54, 113
STATUSOUT process 33
T
TCP
frame 276
header 276
process 125
TCP/IP
internal
activities 36, 40
procedures 33, 35
queues 35, 36
matching traces with CCW
traces 277
nodes, failure to connect 45, 47
return codes 279
TCPDOWN process 33, 88, 90, 125
TCPIP
process 125
TCPIPX25 49
TCPREQUEST process 33, 94, 99, 125
TCPUP process 33, 90, 94, 125
TCTOA22 41
TCTOPC3 41
Telnet
failure to connect 45, 47
process 99, 108
TFTP
client traces
trace output 251
TFTPD
client traces
activating traces 251, 253, 261,
265
TIMER process 33, 108
TO1822 process 33
TOIUCV process 33
token-ring 271
TOX25ICA process 113
trace
DHCPD 265, 269
first-level 51
FTP
client 138, 143
server 143
IUCV 117
remote printing 237, 245
REXEC 247, 248
REXECD 248, 249
RouteD 159, 171
second-level 52
SMTP
client 147, 148
server 148, 155
trace (continued)
TCPIP 125
Telnet 99
TFTP 251, 253
TFTPD 261
TRACE statement 49, 51, 54, 113
TRACERTE command 135
U
UDP
error return codes 280
UDPREQUEST process 33, 110, 125
UDPUP process 112, 125
V
VIPA (virtual IP address) 171
virtual IP address (VIPA) 171
virtual machines 15
VM
debugging
executing traces 51
structure
CCS and LDSF 17
IUCV 17
virtual machines 15
VMCF 16
VMCF
role in VM structure 16
VMSSL command
Command Format 220
W
wait state problems 8
worksheet for reporting problems 14
X
X.25 NPSI
configuration 48, 49
GATE 49
Index
313
314
z/VM: TCP/IP Diagnosis Guide
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TCP/IP Level 3A0
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