TOPIC PRODUCING BEACH AND SWIM WEAR FOR THE AFRICA
PRODUCING BEACH AND SWIM WEAR FOR THE AFRICA
BARABU REBECCA NAGOR
PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF FASHION DESIGN AND
FABRIC DECORATION IN PARTIAL FULFILIMENT FOR THE
REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL
DIPLOMA IN FASHION
This is to show that this project is the handwork of Barabu Rebecca Nagor in fulfillment for the
award of Higher National Diploma in Fashion and design and it has been presented according to
the rules and regulations governing the preparation and presentation of the project in Takoradi
NAME: MRS. SCHOLASTICA AZUAH
HEAD OF DEPARTMENT
NAME: MRS EDNA PHILLIPS
I hereby declare that this project is the result of own original research work taken under the
supervision of the under signed and that all work conducted have been acknowledged.
MRS. SCHOLATICA AZUAH
BARABU REBECCA NAGOR
To Apostle M. M. Kopah. This project work is the fruit of your seeds of care, encouragement,
hope and sacrifice. I appreciate how you literally emptied yourself in order that I may be filled
with life’s treasures for my generation. Thank you.
My sincerest appreciation goes to the Almighty God for making it possible for me to execute this
project work. Also to my supervisor Mrs. Scholatica Azuah for spending precious hours of time
reading through my scripts and correcting my mistakes as well as directing me on how to go
about the whole project.
My sincerest appreciation also goes to the following individuals for their help in school, thank
you for your investment of money, time and insightful comments. Thanks also for your kindness.
Apostle E. K. Barabu,( the area head of Madina church of Pentecost), Elder Francis Adjei (area
deacon of church of Pentecost) and many other that I cannot mention names God bless you all.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STYDY
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
2.2 HISTORY OF BEACH WEARS
2.3 CONCEPTS OF BEACH WEAR
2.4 VARIOURS TYPES BEACH WEARSARSARSARS
2.5 HISTORY OF AFRICA PRINTS
2.6 INFLUENCE OF COLORS ON CHILDREN
2.7 REASONS WHY CHILDREN SHOULD SWIM
2.8 WHY DO PEOPLE SWIM
2.9 THE IMPORTANCE OF SUN PROTECTIVE BEACH WEARS
2.10 THE ADVANTAGE OF SUN PROTECTIVE BEACH WEARS
3.2 DESIGN PROCESS
3.3 THEME BOARD
3.4 MOTIF OR IDEA DEVELOPMENT BOARD
3.5 FABRIC BOARD
3.6 SAMPLE BOARD
3.7 STYLE BOARD
3.8 TECHNICAL DRAWING BOARD
3.11 LAYING OUT AND CUTTING OUT
3.12 TRANSFER OF PATTERN MARKS
3.13 SEWING OF BODYSHAPER DRESS
3.14 SEWING OF SKIRT
3. 15 FINISHING
3.16 PRESSING AND EXIBITION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Everyday people are judged by the way they dress and present themselves, failing to understand
the power of promoting personal image can underline both individual and corporate credibility.
Dressing well promotes respect and social statues, because of this people are now careful when
choosing clothes. It is therefore important for one to know what to wear to what occasion and
place such as church, work, parties, and the beach. A beach according to (Wikipedia) is a
geological landform along the shoreline of an ocean, sea, or lake, it is usually consists of loose
particles which are often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles, waves or
cobblestones. A beach is also said to be a small systems in which the rock material moves on
shore, offshore, or alongshore by the force of waves and currents.
In the researchers view, a beach is a place along the shore by the force of waves of the sea made
up of sand, gravel, shingle where people after a hard day’s work go to relax, release stress, and
take in fresh air, in addition children goes to the beach for other reasons like playing, learning
how to swim and accompany their parent. Whatever the reason, what to wear to the beach is very
important because it is not every dress that can be worn to the beach. Dressing for leisure
activities depends on the type of action undertaken; there are different types of beach wears
know as a swimsuit, bathing suit, or swimming, water polo, and diving surfing, water skiing.
A swimsuit is also said to be worn as an undergarment in sports that require a wetsuit such as
water skiing, scuba diving, surfing and wakeboarding. swimsuits are also worn when there is a
need to display as in the case of beauty pageants or bodybuilding contest. Beach wears are
dresses worn to the beach, which should be able to withstand the activities the wearer engages
such as; running, swimming, playing. In Africa (Ghana) people wear various types of clothes to
the beach such as jeans, long skirts, design tops that makes one feel hot during beaches because
of the climate weather condition. Since the rebirth of fashion, unique Africa print are seen and
adorned with pride and confidence, these unique clothes have seen itself present at many
gathering and social event, at festival, wedding, birthday parties, work place and the beach.
People look great whenever in Africa print clothes; some of which are: Kente, tie dye, batik adire
wax print. Day in, day out, people come to Ghana to buy these prints take them outside the
country and turn them into secondary commodities to fetch capital for their country and
industries at the expense of Africa and for that matter Ghana. It is in view of this that the
researcher strongly believed that since the Africa print is already selling in the world’s market, if
designer could use this opportunity to produce various articles such as parte wear, workers
uniform and children’s beach wear it will not only help gain income for the nation but also make
the child feel comfortable and confidence during excursions at the beaches.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
It has being notice that most parent buy imported beach wear for their children because of
unavailability of locally made beach wear. Some designers think that it is only adults that go to
the beach which is not true. This is because the fabric used most of the time makes the child feel
uncomfortable due to the climate condition in Ghana which is mostly of the time very hot.
Another thing is the influence of these imported clothing on our economic, the children who
wear them, and the fashion industry. Because of this imported clothing in the market, the fashion
feel there is no need to produce them and it is causing so much on the economy.
Also most of these beach wear do not suit our culture, Ghana is an Africa country and so there is
the need to use our locally made fabric to show case the culture and most of these foreign
clothing are not up to our culture believe because there are made of pant and something small to
cover the breast. Children should be encouraged to value the rich culture through the wearing of
clothes made from the local prints.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Since African print has been accepted worldwide, the researcher aims at educating designer
in Ghana to the important of using locally made fabrics to produce beach wear for the
Ghanaian child and children all over the world.
To produce a beach wear that suit Ghana’s climates and bring comfort to the Africa child with
the use of Africa print this is absorbent because of the cotton used.
To reduce taxes paid on importation of beach wear in the country and help save some money for
Tourism is now becoming more attractive to foreigner; the use of Africa print for beach for
beach will go a long way to help build the countries economic and our fashion industries.
To produce a beach wear that suit our Ghanaian culture with the use of Ghana wax print.
shoThe study uld have covered children in Accra, but it has being limited to children in East
Lagon based on what the researcher has observed in that area.
There are different types of beach wear made from various fabrics but the researcher’s focus
is on the use of Africa print for children’s beach wear.
The researcher could not cover much on the topic due to inadequate finance. The acquisition
of funds from sources was not enough, creating problems in one major area such as
transportation. Time did not allow the researcher to move from place to place to observe
what goes on at different part of the Region Accra. There were no sufficient books at the
library to research into the topic. The time to complete the research
Furthermore, the information and picture obtain from the internet and books are not enough
due to the time scheduled for submission of research work was limited
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of the study is assumed to serve as reference material for the student and lectures
of fashion design.
The study will encourage fashion designers to use and improve the way children’s wear seen
Finally the study will promote the creation of different type of beach wear for the Africa
Chapter one is all about background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the
study, delimitation, limitation, and significance of the study.
Chapter two talks about the history of beach wear, concept of beach wear, various tyoes of
beach wear, reasons why children goes to the beach or swim, the importance of sun
protection swim wear and the advantages of sun protective swim wear.
Chapter three begins with the design process and it includes theme board, motif board, fabric
book, sample board, style or design board, technical drawing. And it continues with the
construction processes which also include specification drawings, toiling, laying and cutting
out, transfer of pattern marks, sewing of dresses, finishing, pressing and presentation.
Chapter four includes summary, conclusion, recommendation and ends with bibliography.
There is the need to review literature on issues related to the study of producing beach wear for
the Africa child, the following topics have been reviewed.
History of beach wear
Concepts of beach wear
Various types of beach wear
History of Africa print
The influence of colour on children
Reason why children go’s to the beach or swim
The importance’s of sun protection swim wear and advantages of sun protection
2.2 HISTORY OF BEACH WEAR
In classical antiquity swimming and bathing was done nude. There are Roman Murals which
show women playing sports and exercising wearing two- piece suit covering the areas around
their breasts and hips in a fashion remarkably similar to a bikini o. However there is no evidence
that this was used for swimming. All classical picture of swimming show nude swimmers.
In various cultural tradition one swim, if not in the nude, in a version in suitable material of a
garment or undergarment commonly worn on land. Example a loincloth such as the Japanese
In rivers, lakes, streams and the sea men swam in the nude, where the practice was common.
Those who did not swim in the nude, stripped to their underwear. The English practice of men
swimming in the nude was banned in the United
Kingdom in 1860s. Drawers, or cal cons as they were many who protested against them and
wanted to remain in the nude. Francis Kilvert described men’s bathing suits coming into use in
the 1870s as “a pair of very short red and white stripped drawers”
Female bathing costumes were derived from those worn at bath and other spas. It would appear
that until the 1670s nude female bathing in the spas was the norm and that after that time women
In the 18th century women wore “bathing gowns” in the water; these were long dresses of fabrics
that would not become transparent when wet, with weights sewn into the hems so that they
would not rise up in the water.
In the 19th century, the women’s two piece suit became common, the two piece being a gown
from shoulder to knees plus a set of trousers with leggings going down to the ankles. In the
Victorian era, popular beach resorts were commonly equipped with bathing machines designed
to avoid the exposure of people in swimsuits, especially to people of the opposite sex.
In the United States, beauty contests of women in bathing costumes became popular from the
1880s. However, such contests were not regarded as respectable, beauty contests became more
respectable with the first modern “Miss America” contest held in 1921. Through less respectable
beauty contest continued to be held.
The first bikinis was introduced just after world war II, through the 1950s, it was though proper
for the lower part of the bikini to come up height enough to cover the navel from the 1960s on
the bikini shrank in all directions until it sometimes covered little more than the nipples and
genitalia, although less revealing models giving more support to the breast remained popular. At
the same time, fashion designer Rudi Gernreich introduced the monokini, a topless suit for
women consisting of a modest bottom supported by two thin straps. Although not a commercial
success, the suit opened eyes to new opportunities. In the 1980s the thong or “tanga” came out of
Brazil, said to have been inspired by traditional garment of native tribes in the Amaon. However,
the one-piece suit continued to be popular for its more modest approach.
Men’s swimsuit developed roughly in parallel to women’s during this period with the short
covering progressively less. Eventually racing style “Speedo” suits become popular and not just
for their speed advantages thongs, G-strings, and bikini style suits are also worn, typically these
are more popular in more tropical regions. They were also worn at public swimming pools and
inland lakes. But in 1990s, longer and baggier short become popular with the hems often
reaching to the knees. Some women prefer to engaging in water or sun activities with the torso
uncovered. The practice is often described as “hopelessness” or top freedom”. Some people
prefer not to wear any swimsuit when engaging in such activities, in some place around the
world, nude beaches have been set aside for people who choose to engage in normal beach
activities in the nude.
As an alternative to a swimsuit, some people wear trousers, under pants or a T-shirt either as a
make- shift swimsuit or because they prefer regular clothes over swimsuits. In some countries,
such as Thailand, swimming in regular, this may be more accepted than at swimming pools.
Which tend not to unlined, may become translucent and may be perceived as unclean.
2.3 CONCEPTS OF BEACH WEAR
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia defines swimsuit or bathing suit as an item of clothing designed
to be worn while engaging in water -based activity or water sports. Such as swimming, water
polo, diving, surfing, water skiing or during activities in the sun such as bathing.
A swimsuit can also be worn as an undergarment in sports that require a wetsuit such as water
skiing, scuba diving, surfing and wakeboarding. Swimsuits are also worn when there is a need to
display the body, as in the case of beauty pageants, or bodybuilding contests.
Most people like wearing beach wear clothing because it feels comfortable during beaches and
the kind of activities one engage in during beaches.
Beach wear change the lifestyle of an individual, more so beach wear do not fad and are durable,
fashionable and affordable, lastly beach wear colors are easy to mix and match and does not
require one spending a fortune when washing.
Swimsuits range from designs that almost completely cover the body to designs that expose
almost all of the body. The choice of swimsuit will depend on personal and community standards
of modesty and on consideration such as how much or how little sun protection is desired and
prevailing fashion. Almost all swimsuits cover the genitals and pubic hair, while most except
thongs cover much or all of the buttocks. Most swimsuits in western culture leave at least the
head, shoulders, arms, and lower part of the leg (below the knee) exposed. Women’s swimsuits
generally cover at least the aereola and bottom half of the breasts, but some are designed for the
top part of the swimsuit to be removed. In many countries, young girls and sometimes women
choose not to wear a swimsuit top, and this can vary with the occasion, location, age, etc. men’s
swimsuit which cover the upper body are relatively rare in western culture.
Both men and women may sometimes wear swimsuits covering more of the body when
swimming in cold water. in colder temperatures, the swimwear is needed to conserved body heat
and protect the body core from hypothermia.
Competitive swimwear: some swimsuits are designed specifically for swimming competition
where they may be constructed of a special low resistance fabric. They reduce skin drag, and can
resemble unitards. For some kinds of swimming and diving, special bodysuits called diveskins
are worn. These suits are made from spandex and provide little thermal protection, but they do
protect the skin from stings and abrasion. Most competitive swimmers also wear special
swimsuits including partial and full bodysuits, racer back styles, and jammers and racing briefs
to assist their glide through the water thus gaining a speed advantage.Unlike regular swimsuits,
which are designed mainly for the aesthetic appearances, swimsuits designed to be worn during
competitions are manufactured to assist the athlete in swim competitions. They reduce friction
and drag in the water, increasing the efficiency of the swimmer’s forward motion. The tight fits
allow for easy movement and are said to reduce muscle vibrations.
2.4 Various types of beach wear
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedias give explanation to the following types of beach wear and
how they look like.
Current swimsuit styles. In western culture, men’s swimsuits are generally described as onepiece, bikinis, or thongs. A recent innovation is the burqini, favoured by Muslim women, which
covers the whole body and head “but not face” in a manner similar to a diver’s wetsuit. These are
an updated version of full- body swimwear, which has been available for centuries; nut conforms
to Islands traditional emphasis on modest dress. In Egypt, the term “Sharia swimsuit” is used to
describe full-body swimwear
One-pieces (also known as tank suit maillot) probably the most common form of one-piece
swimsuit, the tank suit from is inspiration for the subsequent creation of the tank top as a
mainstream article of clothing. The name “tank suit” is also supposed to be derived from the
term “swimming tank”, an obsolete term for what is now called a swimming pool.
Bikini (also known as two pieces) one piece covers the breasts, the other the groin and buttocks,
leaving an uncovered area between the two. Bikini is available in many stylistic variations.
Monokini (also known as a unikini or topless swimsuit)
(1) A women’s swimsuit with one piece that exposes the breasts, originally invented by Rudi
Gernreich in 1964, available in many stylistic variation and generally refers to a bikini
bottom, or thong worn alone without a top.
(2) A recent trend in women’s one-piece swimsuit. It is typically styled so that from the front
it looks like a typical one-piece with side cut-out, but from the back it looks like a bikini.
Many monokini styles also include plunging necklines.
1858 women’s bathing suit.
Swimsuit can be skin-tight or loose-fitting. They are often lined with another layer of fabric if
the outer fabric becomes transparent when wet.
PICTURE S OF CHILDRENS BEACH WEAR
Children’s beach wear are usually made up of the two piece just like the adults Bikini but with
funny designs and interesting colors. Children go to the beach to play, have fun, and learn how to
2.5 HISTORY OF AFRICA PRINT
The Microsoft Wikipedia defines Africa print as (design fabric used produced from local designs
used by the traditional people or folks;)
Duncan darke (2002) defines Africa print as “a household Africa textile cloth which has some
special names used by the youth and elderly folks in Africa to demonstrate unity and happiness
in social event. “Chiefs and the traditional people have used to promote leadership and as a result
promoting respect and integrity in the society.
Africa print is believed to have originated from Indonesia by Alexander Dumas. Alexander went
to Holland and learns how batik was printed and later developed it into wax print. He was the
one who brought wax prints to Gold Cost, his name Dumas was given to the wax print clothes.
Different and other methods of Africa prints were developed later.
2.7 TYPES OF AFRICAN PRINTS
There two types Africa prints
Fancy or Java prints
FANCY OR JAVA PRINTS
Fancy or Java prints was introduce from the major development of the various types of direct
printing technology to producer cheapen imitations of wax prints. This land of print can be
identified easily since the design appears only one side of the fabric. It is a multicolored Africa
print with intricate designs. Technology has an advantage over resin resist printing, however it
allows finer details of design, and particularly the reproduction of photographs on the fabrics.
Designs I fancy prints are printed direct onto the fabric, no wax is used. This offers the
possibility of creating fine and detailed motif.
Apart from these motifs, the differences between fancy and java prints is feat, java is feat, java
print has intricate designs which cannot be print by the wax and fancy methods. Expensive
colour are also used for java prints
Wax prints are based on Javanese batik that was introduced in Africa during the second half of
the 19th century. It is an Africa print with simple designs which engraved on a pair of copper
This type of technique is printing a resin paste have the term wax on both side of the cotton
fabric create the wax print. The fabric is then dyed either in indigo or the now more popular
royal blue and the design appears on those areas of the cloth where the reason has not been
applied. The fabric is then treated mechanically to produce the cracking effect which allows fine
lines of colour to penetrate and then dewaxing is done. The crackling and irregularities
perceived as faults in Indonesia were regarded as essential feature of the cloth style by African
consumers and are still carefully replicated in factories today.
Difference between Java or fancy and wax prints
i fancy fabrics are more colour than wax prints
ii designs are directly on the fancy print but in wax print, resin is used.
iii simple designs are printed in wax prints but in fancy prints even the most intricate design can
Designs appears on the top surface of the fancy print but on both sides of the wax print.
2.6 INFLUENCE OF CLORS ON CHILDREN
Color is one of the most influential and exciting thins our lives. Few people are aware of the
power of color. Studies have shown that colors affect our moods and feelings as well as our
looks, color can make you look shorter, taller, slimmer or fatter. The right color can make you
feel happy and full of life.
Risk is a vibrant color, it is associated with anger,, power, danger, passion, war and love. Where
you wake up feeling grumpy, you should wear something red that increase your appetite. Have
you ever seen a red carpet in a eating place? They was not chosen accidentally, it was planned
because of the “increase- in – eating” factor related to red, perhaps you feel hungry and order
People especially children react to color in different ways, children do not care about the
meaning of these children likes colors that are brighter such as red, yellow, green, sometimes
white. A child looks at the appearances as in the brightness because colors make them happy,
cheerful, courage, friendliness, energy, hope. Children turn to like any one they see in these
colors and want to play with the person wearer them.
A beach is a place where people are most of the seen in bright colors and children of days desire
to visit the beach to feel this kind of joy and make themselves happy.
2.7 REASONS WHY CHILDREN SHOULD SWIM
Avery Ryan, Yahoo! Contributor Network Nov 19, 2007 “contributes like this.
As a part time swim lessons instructor, he said, swimming is a very important skill to know.
Mostly, he thinks all parent should enroll their in swim lessons, or teach them how to swim
because it is best to learn to swim at a young age. Here are a few reasons why it is important for
your kids to learn how to swim,
This is the most important part of learning to swim. It is very important to keep your kids safe,
and with your kids knowing how swim they can be safe. In the case where a kid accidentally
falls into a pool, they will be able to swim to the edge and hold on, climb out of the pool. Also,
kids learn pool rules, diving rules and what to do in case of an emergency.
Discipline is a big part of learning to swim too. Kids learn the pool rules, and consequences of
breaking them. This goes along with safety, because discipline will help enforce the rules which
keep the kids and everyone else safe.
Confidence is also a big part of learning how to swim. The more your child learns and the more
they are improving, the more confident they will become in the water and also confident they
become, the more things they will want to try.
Kids also learn social skills in swim lessons. They have the opportunity to interact with other
students and the instructor. They learn to take turns, share and respect each other. They talk to
one another and form friendships. They learn the importance of listening and paying attention,
along with being polite and having patience.
Learning how to swim will take your child from TV, computer, and video games for a little bit, it
will give them some exercise. With the obesity epidemic, especially in children, it is important to
get some exercise to help keep kids healthy (along with a well balanced diet)
2.8 WHY DO PEOPLE SWIM?
People swim for a variety of different reasons, starting with the health reason, and swimming is a
very good way to exercise. Unlike with some other forms of exercise, swimming works all parts
of your body, giving you a go workout. Beyond this reason of health, a lot of people swim for
one simple reason: its fun. Whether it’s splashing around at the beach or swimming laps in the
pool, some people just find it super enjoyable. Others learn to swim because they enjoy doing
gymnastics and flips in the air, which diving is one form. Diving lets you do acrobatic tricks in
the air with the extra height the spring board or platform gives you. Others just swim to learn
how in case of an emergency.
Good reason to swim for fitness
1. Heart helper, swimming provides unparalleled cardiovascular conditioning, provided you
practice consistently and with good technique.
2. Balance your build, swimming builds longer, leaner muscles that complement the shorter
denser muscles that develop from weight training. These “swimmer’s” muscles also help
boost metabolism to keep calories burning longer.
3. Cross- training, swimming not only boosts cardiovascular capacity while increasing
muscle strength, but it also gives your body a break from higher-impact activities like
4. basketball, running, and weightlifting. By creating a balanced workout routine, athletes
avoid injury by allowing their body time to heal.
5. Weight loss, people who consistently swim strenuously enough to be out of breath when
they finish and elevate their heart rate, do burn calories and lose weight
6. Other reasons are social outlet, adventure, endurance, increased flexibility, and strengthen
2.9 The importance of sun protection swims wear
Do you and your family spend time outside swimming at the pool or beach? Do you know how
to properly protect yourselves from the damaging rays of the sun?
Most people now know how important it is to wear sunscreen with a sun protection factor of at
least 15 when they are going to be outside. Yet, the majority of people believe that their
swimwear gives them adequate protection they do not need to worry about the skin is covered by
the suit. However, research has shown that people should be donning sun protection swimwear
because the harmful UV rays can penetrate the swimsuit causing damage to the skin underneath
SUN protection swimwear suit are made of fabrics specially designed and manufactured to block
the majority of the sun’s rays, fabrics such as Africa wax print which is more of cotton and also
There are many products out there, both in retail shops and online, one should only purchase sun
protection swimwear offering the maximum protection of 50+. If you are concerned about
protecting your babies, children and yourself from sun exposure.
2.10The advantages of sun protection swimwear
Durable, breathable fabrics stand up to baby, toddler and child play.
Comfortable gives you built in SPF 50 sun protection.
Wide range of styles and colors in fashionable designs.
Easy to put on and take off.
Coordinating accessories such as hats, tunics, and t-shirts makes every member of the
family look their best whiles enjoy the outdoors.
This chapter is about the methods and process the researcher used to come out with a good
finish. It begin with the design process, which includes the theme board, motif or idea
development board, fabrics board, sample board, style or design board, and the technical drawing
board and continue with the construction processes such as specification of the style, toiling,
laying out and cutting, transfer of pattern marks, sewing, finishing, pressing and presentation of
the final garment.
3.2 DESIGN PROCESS
Design is one of the most important aspects in the fashion word. Everything revolves around
designs, one need to have a feel for textures and a flair for styles, colors, and combination of the
mind’s eye should be able to put it all together before one can start a project.
3.3 THEME BOARD
Theme board contains arrangements of objects and materials, which includes colors, photographs
and picture from magazines. The researcher theme board contains pictures of different birds from
the net and it serves as a guide and inspiration in order to avoid copying when designing. The
researcher also uses birds because of their colors, the various types and shapes that blend
together with the theme birds. Design texture of the outfit was all obtained from the theme board.
3.4 MOTIF OR IDEA DEVELOPMENT BOARD
The motif is obtained from the theme board and then developed into different shapes by using
the mirror reflection and tracing paper; the shapes obtain gives different designs and ideas. This
idea selected must run through the collection.
3.5 FABRIC BOARD
This board contains or shows swatches and samples of the various types of fabric, linings and
trimmings the researcher used in designing. The fashion fabrics are arranged according to color
and texture, example is from light plain to printer deep color and heavy to light weight fabrics.
3.6 SAMPLE BOARD
The board shows six varieties of the sample to be used when designing. Samples are small piece
of work that shows how the actual work will look like and also what the researcher wish to do in
the main garment. When making sample, the researcher used the same color that will be used in
the main garment. Samples help to avoid unnecessary design details and copying.
3.7 STYLE OR DESIGN BOARD.
Design board is a board that contains the four final outfits in only the front view of the design on
a template.it show the main fabrics, the colors used and how each will be combined to obtain a
3.8 TECHNICAL DRAWING BOARD
The technical drawing board shows each outfit and it front and back view with the main design
in the middle. Technical drawing is made flat and in black and white, no color was used.
SPECIFICATION OF THE DESIGN
The researcher prepared specification on a brow paper consisting of the various parts of the
design such as the body of the garment, sleeve, cuff and facing. The basic block was first
prepared before obtaining the working pattern that was also manipulated to arrive at the final
pattern. Pattern instruction and notches were indicated before cutting it out.
BODIES BLOCK FOR BODYSHAPER
The bodies block is prepared using 1/5 scale of the actual measurement.
Shoulder to bust……………15cm
Shoulder to waist……………32cm
Nipple to nipple……………….13cm
ADAPTATION OF BODYSHAPER DRESS
This dress is sleeveless so it starts from the bust point.
On the across back line (A) measure down 0.5cm to (B) and gently curve into the arm
The dart in-between the front and back is taken out and shaped again, the part with
diagonal lines are to be cut out.
From the waist line © measure down 1.5cm (D) and draw a diagonal line to join the dart
On the front side (H) measure 0.5cm up from the bust (G) and curve into the armhole.
All diagonal lines indicated in the block means that side should be cut out.
On the front measure from the waist (I) down 1.5cm (J) and draw a diagonal line to join
the dart line (K).
ADAPTATION OF BODYSHAPER DRESS
Square down and across from 0.
0-1 neck to waist plus 1cm, square across.
1-2 body rise; square across.
0.3armhole depth plus 1.5cm; square across.
0.4 half the measurement 0-3; square across.
0.5 one fifth the measurement 0-4; square across.
0-6 one sixth neck size; square up.
6-7 1.5cm; draw in neck curve.
3-8 half back width minus 0-5cm, square up to 9 and 10, 10 -11 1cm; join 7-11.
3-12 quarter bust minus 1.5cm; square down to 13 on the waistline, 14 on the body rise line.
Draw in armhole curve, from 11 through 9 to 12.
1-15 quarter measurement 1-2; square across to 16.
16-17 3cm. 13-18 4.25cm. draw in side seam. 2-19 one eight bust measurement plus 1cm square
across 3.5cm to 20
2-21 square out 6cm for gusset line; join 21-17. Draw in back leg; curve line 21-17 outwards
o.5cm. draw in gusset curve; curved line from 21 to a point 0.5cm above 2. Add 2cm to the line
0-22 one sixth neck size minus 1cm; draw in front neck curve.
2-23 half the measurement 2-19; square across 2cm to 24; square up 2cm to 25; join 25- 17.
25- 26 half the measurement 25-17. Draw in front leg; curve line inwards 1.75cm at 26
Trace out the back and front to obtain two separate pattern piece after the dart is taken
out, trace out the style line below separate.
The cup at the front is created to make room for the breast; it is created using the
measurement of the individual. From the point A it was measured 1cm to get the line and
curve from B to C to D.
The separate piece down is also divided, cut and spaced using the same interval for
SKIRT BLOCK FOR
The block are prepared using 1/5 scale of the actual measurement
Waist to hips……………………………12cm
Waist to knee…………………………..34cm
ADAPTION OF SKIRT BLOCK
Square both ways from 0
0-1 skirt length plus 1cm: square across
0-2 waist to hips plus 1cm: square across
2-3 ¼ hip plus 1.5: square up to 4 and down to 5
0-6 ¼ waist plus1cm.
0-7 1cm; join 6-7 with a curve.
5-8 2.5cm: draw in side seam 6,3,8: curve hipline outwards 0.25cm, curve hemline up
0.25cm at 8.
Square both ways from 9.
9-10 skirt length plus 1cm: square across.
9-11 waist to hips plus 1cm: square across.
11-12 ¼ hip plus 2cm: square up to 13, down to 14.
9-15 ¼ waist plus 1.5cm.
9-16 0.5cm; join 15- 16 with a curve.
14-17 2.5cm; draw in side seam 15, 12, 17; curve hipline outwards 0.25cm, curve hemline
0.25cm at 17.
Toiling is a process where the researcher prepared a sample of the final pattern using a cheap
fabric like polyester. The toiling of the design helped the researcher to detect, correct, and avoid
mistakes on the actual garment. This is because all the mistakes identified are normally corrected
after the fitting of the toil on the model. and also on the final patterns before proceeding to the
3.11 LAYING OUT AND CUTTING OUT
Before laying out the patterns, the researcher first pressed the fashion piece goods to remove
The piece goods were first folded in half with right sides together and selvedge matching;
the patterns were then pinned to the fashion fabric economically with the straight grain
lines parallel to selvedge. The front and back bodies, the skirt and all the facing were all
cut together around the notches at one time.
Using the same patterns pieces, the researcher pinned and then cut out the lining and the
interfacing for the body shaper and the skirt. The length of the dress was reduced a little
on the lining to prevent it from showing after it is joined to the main garment.
3.12 TRANSFER OF PATTERN MARKS
Many garment parts required that notches are cut into the edges of them to enable alignment
during sewing with other garment part.
Drill and Thread marker are needed away from the edge of a garment part, such as for the
position of pockets, darts, and similar features, a hole is often drilled through all the plies of
fabric in the lay. The drill mounting includes motor, a base plate with a hole to allow the drill to
pass through and a spirit level to ensure that the base is horizontal and hence the drill vertical.
On many fabrics the drill is used cold and the hole remains visible until the sewing operator
comes to use it. There are some preparations of cut work for the sewing room; some preparation
activities are contemporaneous with cutting, for example notches and drill marking to assist the
sewing operation. The most important preparatory activities are banding, controlling shade
separation, indicating the right side of the fabrics, and work ticketing.
In the researcher’s case, the pattern instruction of the dress was transfer unto the fashion
fabric and lining; the dart and stitching lines were also transferred using dressmaker’s
chalk, pins and ruler.
The stitching line, waist and the bust line, as well as zip extension were also transfer unto
the fashion fabric and the lining from the patterns. This makes sewing faster and accurate.
3.13 SEWING OF BODYSHAPER DRESS.
The dominant process in garment assembly is sewing, still the best way of achieving strength and
flexibility in the seam as well as flexibility of manufacturing method. Much of the application of
technology to clothing manufacture is concerned with the achievement of satisfactorily sewn
According to David J. Tyler Fourth Edition, a “seam” joins two piece of material. This was the
essence of the British standard definition of seam as contained in the 1965 version of 3870:
schedule of stitches, seams stitching.
The noun “stitching” then applied to situation where there was only one piece of fabric such as
when fabrics edges were neatened or hems created and where decorative sewing was involved.
The current BS3870: part 2 1991: classification and Terminology of seam Types and the earlier
1983 edition, defined a seam as “the application of a series of stitches or stitch types to one or
several thicknesses of material.
The objective of sewing is to the construction of seams that combine the required standard of
appropriate level of economy in production.
Good appearance in a seam normally means smooth fabric joins with no missed or uneven
stitches and no damage to the material being sewn.
In this researcher work, this is the way the body shaper was sewn.
The wrong side of the fabric section of the body shaper was tucked and stays stitched
making sure the notches of the bust and waist line of the dress were all matching at both
the front and back side. The zip was fixed at the back side.
Right side of the main dress was put into the lining with the right sides together; it was
stitched together and under stitched. The dress was turned to the right side with the wrong
sides together and the inside well finished.
The zip extension of the lining was hemmed to zip leaving the teeth showing. The hems
of the lining and the main dress were knitted and a double lay was made before stitching.
3.14 SEWING OF SKIRT.
The researcher first pinned, tucked and start stitched the back dart and secondly joined
the shoulder of both the front and back bodies together with stay stitches at the wrong
side doing the same with the lining.
The researcher because of the them cut pieces of fabric in shape that looks like bird’s
feathers, this was neatened and stitched to the skirt before joining the main skirt to the
After which the facing were interfaced and joined together with a stitch, it was pinned to
the skirt with right side together, it was then stitched, snipped and under stitched before
turning the facing to be stitched flat on only the lining. This method was also used to
finish and join the lining to the main skirt.
The researcher finished the garment by cutting off remaining threads and holding down sequence
at the bust level of the front and back side as decoration. Eyelet holes were also made on some of
3.16 PRESSINING AND EXIBITION
Pressing is a process where newly sown garment are press open all seams to straightens poorly
sewn garment and make it appropriate for selling.
The researcher pressed open all seams and pressed dart towards the center during the
process of sewing. Pressing was also done after the whole garment was assembled to
make the final work look presentable.
The final garment was fitted on the model with it accessories for exhibition
All the boards were also presented for exhibition.
This is where all garments are worn on models during a fashion show. Four dresses or garment
are normally worn by this models with all the accessories on them
The use of African prints in the production of beach wear for the Africa child has been of great
concern to the researcher. The project has been designed generally to create the awareness and
acceptance of new interpretation of fashion for children. The researcher observed that novel way
of dressing children is not without problems. Its importation is faced with some problems.
Designer who wants to design beachwear have to take into consideration the climate condition,
with this the knowledge and understanding of the role of climate and its implication for the ul
designers achieved good result by using of the local prints. Again this will go a long way to
promote comfort on the part of the wearer. For example children.
The project again gives information on the choice of African prints colors for beach wear and the
fact that children like or desire brighter colors for that matter, the researcher took a look at the
influence of colors on children’s beach wear. The theme board therefore was derive from
colorful birds, which helped in creating the designs of the project. Taking the theme into
consideration, the researcher used motifs board to develop exciting and suitable style lines in a
Again it is realize that, as children visit the beach, they develop the desire to swim, for that
matter a line was designed in a way which could enable children to swim. The researcher
develop a set of collection such that children could easily take off part of the dress to enable
I must say here that this project has been very successful and I hope all fashion designers will
like to create beach and swim wear for the African child in their style lines when designing for
beaches, also this will help bring comfort to the African child since children are a blessing to
parents and the nation, fashion designers should appropriate this by designing a more
comfortable beach and swim wear for the Africa child.
The fashion trend changes rapidly, African designers should find ways of bring out new lines
with fabrics made in Africa not waiting of other continent to innovate before we also produce,
but they should be creative enough by employing effective and efficient use of Africa print for
The researcher again like to recommend that local textiles industry should provide information
on how local print should be maintained, by indicating clearly how to care and maintain the
fabrics that they make or produce. I recommend that parents and Africans should purchase beach
that are made locally because them feel comfortable, lose expensive and tell their identity.
The researcher believes that the creativity and innovativeness of the fashion designer/
entrepreneur can be sharpened through government initiative, this can be affected through the
establishment of more institutions of higher learning with a focus on master degree programs that
have modules targeted at encouraged such creativity and initiative. Fashion design academicians
and practitioners can draw the attention of the governments pivotal role in creating these high
achieving fashion designers who wants to revolutionize trends in the fashion industry. It is
believed that higher learning and advanced knowledge in fashion design and technology will
influence designers use Africa print in producing beach and swim wear without thinking of how.
1. Clothing and textiles for Senior Secondary School (1993). Publishers Ghana Education
2. Aldrich, W. (2007), Metric Pattern Cutting. Carlisle publishing ltd; United Kingdom
3. Firings, S.G. (2008), Fashion: from concept to Consumer. 9th edition; publishing service,
4. Wikipedia Dictionaries, http:// en. Wikipedia. Org/wiki/beachwear, 2011
5. Eva Naa Yemolry Laryea, (2008) the blend of western and African prints for traditional
wear for marriage ceremony in Ghana, HND project work presented to Takoradi
6. The American Heritage 2000 dictionary, fourth edition, Houghton Mifflin Company
7. Sandra Owiredu Boateng, (2008) Incorporating fullness at sections of garments as in
casual wear, HND work presented to Takoradi Polytecnic.