Compilation of country papers report - UNESCO



Compilation of country papers report - UNESCO
SEAMEO VOCTECH in collaboration with UNESCO-UNEVOC held Experts Meeting
attended by TVET experts from Southeast Asian (SEA) countries and Nepal
(enclosed the compilation of country paper report).
In conjunction with The International Conference
“The Excellence in Teacher Education and Research Innovation”
Under the Project of
“The 120th Thai Education Anniversary Celebration”
To Honor His Majesty the King: “The Teacher of the Land”
On the Occasion of His Majesty the King's 85th Birthday Anniversary
25-28 December 2012
Royal Orchid Sheraton Hotel & Towers, Bangkok, Thailand
Wei Keh CHIN
Universiti Brunei Darussalam
Email: [email protected]
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) plays an important role in the
social and economic development of Brunei. It has also proven to be a rewarding
pathway for students in terms of employment and further education. It is widely
acknowledge that the effectiveness of any TVET system strongly depends on the quality
of its teachers. Qualified, trained and motivated teachers and trainers are essential for
effective learning which are at the heart of TVET quality. Recognizing this, the Brunei
government has taken initiative in recent years to improve the quality of the teaching
staff by upgrading the only teacher education institution in the country into a graduate
school. This means that all the teachers will be trained at only graduate level such as
Master of teaching (MTeach), Master of Education, Doctor of Philosophy and Graduate
Diploma in Education. TVET teachers are not exempted from this policy changes. This
paper will focus on the changes on TVET teacher education in Brunei Darussalam
following this recent policy transformation and share some of the challenges ahead.
Keywords: Quality of teacher, TVET teacher education, MTeach, Brunei Darussalam
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) plays an important role
in the social and economic development of Brunei. TVET in Brunei has a very short
history with formal TVET started with the establishment of two trade schools in 1970
offering United Kingdom based craft level programs to meet the needs of the Form
Three school levers. The establishment of the two trade schools marks the beginning of
a separate VTE system led by the Organizer of Technical Education now known as the
Department of Technical Education (DTE). Technician level programmes were
introduced in 1982 to meet the needs of Form Five school leavers. Since then, TVET
continued to expand in the last two decades and many more TVET institutions were
built to meet the growing manpower requirements of the country. To date there are
seven TVET institutions under the day-to-day administrative authority of the Ministry of
Education (MOE) through the DTE. Throughout the years TVET programmes has also
proven to be a rewarding pathway for students in terms of employment and further
education (Chin, 2012).
2 | P a g e Overview of TVET teacher education
Initially, majority of the TVET teachers in the early years of establishment
comprised of foreign professionals from different specialization employed to deliver the
programmes. Experienced expatriates teachers were required to bring in knowledge
and skills in areas not available locally (Chong & Mohd Ali, 2012). However during the
expansion period, TVET institutions had seen an increasing number of local TVET
teachers joining its workforce which is in line with the government localization policy. In
the year 2010, out of the total 424 teaching staff in all the seven TVET institutions, 342 or
81% comprised of local (Table 1). Recruited TVET teachers are mainly fresh graduates
with minimum qualification i.e. higher qualification than the taught programmes of the
related field. Instructors teaching Diploma programmes must have at least a Higher
National Diploma or Advanced Diploma to qualify them. Most of the local TVET
teachers are recruited first before being sent to do their teaching qualification. A large
proportion of the local TVET teachers comprised of graduates from local or foreign
institutions whom are bonded to work for the government. Only a small proportion of
these local TVET teachers have industrial experience. As can be seen, the training and
recruitment of TVET teachers in Brunei is based on the in-service model, in which the
teacher’s qualification is acquired within the first few years usually probationary, phase
of employment. Typically, the in-service model of teacher education does not take into
account the respective subject matter. Instead, it is mainly focused on psychological
and basic educational knowledge, and on teaching methods and techniques with
some variations (Grollmann, 2008).
Table 1. Number of Foreign and Local TVET Staff in the year 2010.
TVET Institutions
Total Staff
Maktab Teknik Sultan Saiful Rijal
Maktab Kejuruteraan Jefri Bolkiah
Sekolah Vokasional Nakhoda Ragam
Sekolah Vokasional Sultan Bolkiah
Pusat Latihan Makanik
Sekolah Vokasional Wasan
Sekolah Perdagangan
Source: Data extracted from DTE, 2011
In the eighties, most of the local TVET teachers were send to do their teaching
certification overseas for a period of one year in countries such as Australia or United
Kingdom. Recognizing the need to provide local based TVET teacher training, Sultan
Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education (SHBIE) the only teacher training intuition in
Brunei began to offer TVET teaching certification in the late nineties in the form of
Certificate in Technical Education (CTE) and Post-Graduate Certificate in Technical
Education (PGCTE) programmes (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, 1997). Both CTE and
PGCTE provide initial teacher education that caters for technical teachers who do not
3 | P a g e have a teaching qualification. For entrance to CTE programme, candidates were
required to have at least an Ordinary National Diploma or Higher National Diploma in a
relevant technical field and recommendation by the DTE of the Ministry of Education.
As for eligible for CTE award, students were required to complete 2 semesters full-time,
required to complete 8 core course; 2 education electives and a period of teaching
practice totaling 30 units.
For PGCTE the difference lies in the entry requirement where by candidates are
required to have a degree in a relevant technical field and recommendation by the
DTE of the Ministry of Education. Table 2 shows the module offering for both CTE and
PGCTE. All the taught courses have a 60:40 course work to examination ratio. This ratio
was changed to 70:30 a few years later.
Table 2. Modules offering for Certificate in Technical Education and Post-Graduate Certificate
in Technical Education in the year 1997
Modules for January semester
Module for August semester
Psychology of Learning and Teaching
Curriculum Development in Technical
Assessment in Schools
Educational Technology
Computer Used in Technical Education
MOT Technical Subjects II
MOT Technical Subjects I
Education Elective I
Critical Review of Technical Education in
Brunei Darussalam
Education elective II
Teaching Practice
Source: SHBIE handbook 1997/1998
Since the students were in-service, it has been a norm for all the local TVET
teachers without teaching qualification to enroll into either CTE or PGCTE programme
(depending on their academic qualification), a one year TVET teaching certification
programme within the 3 years of their probation period. Some of the modules in Table 2
had gradually evolved to meet the changing needs of the local demands. An example
was the abolishment of educational elective and the introduction of the module English
for technical and vocational teaching to cater for the needs of local TVET teachers.
Critical review of technical education in Brunei Darussalam has been replaced by
current issues and trends in TVET, while the previous teaching practice was embedded
into the methods of teaching modules.
SHBIE ceased to offer CTE and PGCTE programmes in the year 2009 after the
introduction of the initial teacher preparation at master level also known as master of
teaching (MTeach) in the year 2009.
4 | P a g e In brief, before the introduction of MTeach programmes a TVET teacher with a
degree or master will be enrolled into PGCTE while those with Higher National Diploma
or Advance Diploma holders will be enrolled into CTE programmes for their teacher
certification course. The subsequent paragraphs will give an overview of the current
TVET teacher education routes taken by TVET teachers with different qualifications after
the introduction of MTeach programme.
Current Policy and Practices
Education reform in Brunei Darussalam has led to the introduction of a new
national curriculum intended to equip Bruneians with the knowledge, marketable skills
and entrepreneurial traits to meet the social and economic challenges of the 21st
century. In order to ensure the success of the reform a step change is required in the
way Bruneian teachers are prepared for the classroom.
SHBIE one of the faculties of the University of Brunei Darussalam charged with the
responsibilities of training teachers has been upgraded to a graduate school in the year
2009. This change was aligned with the Ministry of Education aims of ensuring high
quality teachers in the school system and at the same time uplifting teachers’
professional standard and image as “first choice profession” (Abdul Rahman Taib, 2009).
This new policy in teacher education means that SHBIE will only train teachers at
graduate level such as master of teaching (MTeach) and graduate diploma in
education (GradDipEd) for initial teacher preparation and master of education (MEd)
and doctoral courses (PhD) in the area of teachers’ professional development.
One of the important highlight of these changes was the upgrade of the initial
professional teaching qualification to Masters level through MTeach programme. This
change was intended to align the teaching profession in Brunei Darussalam with
international best practices whereby studies have found that the best performing
education systems in the world are supported by teachers who hold a professional
qualification at Masters level. The Ministry of Education, as SHBIE’s major stakeholder,
deemed that this change was necessary to improve the quality of the outcomes of the
education system in Brunei Darussalam. Thus SHBIE was assigned the mission to prepare
the finest teachers and to provide the best in-service professional development possible
to support the development of all learners.
Master of Teaching (MTeach)
The key features of the MTeach are:
o Extensive practical experience in the learning environment from the beginning of
o Focus on research-based teaching
o Mentoring by experienced teachers and professionals in partner schools
o Deep understanding of the learning process and the design of teaching
o Integration of the disciplinary knowledge of graduate entry students with
masters-level study of how to teach
5 | P a g e This upgrade of initial teacher education to master level was implemented all
across the different levels of teacher education ranging from early childhood, primary,
secondary, TVET and higher education. Currently, there are two offering for MTeach
programmes that is in August and January. Table 3 shows the modules offering of the
MTeach programme for TVET area of specialization for August intake. MTeach is a
master programme offered at Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) level 7 or Australian
Qualification Framework (AQF) level 9.
The educational research methodology module is a programme core module
common across all specialisation areas. The frameworks for learning and design of
instruction; technology, pedagogy and content knowledge; assessment for learning;
language and teaching; leading, managing and institutionalizing change modules are
programme option modules for the students. Learning area modules allow students to
choose from a list of specialization core or specialization option modules according to
their area of specialties. The current offerings for learning area modules TVET
specialization area are learning in vocational context 1 and 2.
The research exercise module provides students with the opportunity to conduct
site-based research under supervision. It will enable the students to link research with
the improvement of practice in a chosen area of investigation.
The professional practice and seminar module provide students with practical
experiences in teaching within a classroom. The focus is on class management and
effective teaching and learning of the content area. Specifically, the module aims to
enhance the students’ abilities to apply professional criteria to their own teaching and
professional activity. Candidates are able to experience the classroom environment
and organize and teach groups and whole classes to facilitate learning. In addition,
candidates are able to synthesise their theoretical and practical understanding of
teaching. They will learn to use constructive criticism and discussion to evaluate and
reflect on values and practices in relation to professional practice and to communicate
effectively with other professionals, and provide feedback to students to assist learning.
The entrance requirements for admission to MTeach are as follows:
o holding a recognized university degree with at least second class honours in an
appropriate subject;
o achievement of the University language requirement (at least an IELTS score of
6.0 or a TOEFL score of 550 or a credit in the GCE ‘O’ Level English Language)
o successful performance at interview
6 | P a g e Table 3. Master of Teaching (TVET)–full-time:1year; 48credits; QAA Level 7/AQF Level 9*)
Professional Practice & Seminar 1
Professional Practice & Seminar 2
Research Exercise
(2 days a week in appropriate
institutions + 15 day block both
supervised by institutional mentor
and SHBIE staff. Seminar Series)
(2 days a week in appropriate
institutions + 15 day block both
supervised by institutional mentor
and SHBIE staff. Seminar Series)
(completion and submission of
research focused on a specific
learning area. Supervised by
SHBIE staff)
(8) 8 credits
Frameworks for Learning and
Design of Instruction
Educational Research
(provides a conceptual
framework for understanding
learning, teaching and
(provides guidance on the
truture, use and design of
research in education)
Technology, Pedagogy and
Content Knowledge
Assessment for Learning
(provides a conceptual and
practical framework for teaching
and learning with technology)
(prepares participants for
assessment and reporting linked
to teaching, classroom learning
and curriculum)
Language and Teaching
Leading, Managing and
Institutionalizing Change
(introduces participants to the
literacy demands of subject
(provides knowledge and skills to
support change in educational
Learning Area (Learning in
Vocational Context 1)
Learning Area (Learning in
Vocational Context 2)
(prepares participants to teach in
a specialist subject)
(prepares participants to teach in
a specialist subject)
(4) 20 credits
20 credits
* &
Graduate Diploma in Education (GradDipEd)
The Graduate Diploma in Education is a one-year full-time initial teacher
preparation programme introduced in the year 2012, that qualify graduates for
employment as educators.
The GradDipEd is a one year 40 modular credits
programme offered in the area of early childhood education, primary education,
secondary education, TVET, counselling in education and special educational needs.
7 | P a g e Currently there are two intakes per year starting August and starting January for
the GradDipEd programmes. Table 4 shows the modules offering for GradDipEd TVET for
the August intake. The practicums, practicum project and professional seminars are
area of study core modules carried out according to subject specialization. Learners,
pedagogy and curriculum; assessment, learning and teaching; technologies for
teaching and learning; and social and professional contexts are programme core
modules common across different specialization areas.
GradDipEd is a graduate programmes offered at graduate level but not at
master standard. It is a programme at Quality Assurance Agency (QAA) level 6 or
Australian Qualification Framework (AQF) level 8. The entrance requirements for
GradDipEd are as follows:
o a university degree in an appropriate subject
o achievement of the university language requirement
o successful performance at interview
Table 4. Graduate Diploma in Education (TVET)–full-time: 1year; 40credits; QAA Level 6/AQF
Level 8*)
Practicum 1 (TVET)
Practicum 2 (TVET)
Practicum Project (TVET)
(2 days a week in appropriate
institutions + 15 day block both
supervised by institutional mentor
and SHBIE Clinical Specialist.
Professional Portfolio)
(2 days a week in appropriate
institutions + 15 day block both
supervised by institutional mentor
and SHBIE Clinical Specialist.
Professional Portfolio)
(5 days per week in an
appropriate institution supported
by institutional mentor and SHBIE
staff. Project report)
Professional Seminar 1 (TVET)
Professional Seminar 2 (TVET)
(provide a general conceptual
framework for understanding
learning, teaching and
(provide a general conceptual
framework for understanding
learning, teaching and
Learners, Pedagogy & Curriculum
Assessment, Learning and
(provide a critical understanding
of the relationship between the
interpretation of a curriculum
specification and the enactment
of teaching and learning
sequences in context)
(4) 4 credits
(prepares participants for
assessment and reporting linked
to teaching, classroom learning
and curriculum)
Technologies for Teaching &
Social and Professional Contexts
(provides a conceptual and
practical framework for teaching
and learning with technology )
(provides a framework for
reflecting on the role of the
teacher in social and professional
18 credits
18 credits
* &
8 | P a g e Diploma in Technical Education
The Diploma in Technical Education is a one year programme designed to cater
for those TVET teachers who need a teaching qualification but their educational
background failed to meet the entrance requirement of the University such as those
with a Higher National Diploma. Currently, the Diploma in Technical Education
programme is run under the Continuing Education Centre of University of Brunei
Table 5 shows the current modules offering for the Diploma in Technical
Education. The institutional-based supervised teaching practice is carried out one day
a week at TVET institution. All the courses have mixture of either 70:30 or 60:40 course
works to exam ratio.
Table 5. Modules offering for Diploma in Technical Education for the year 2011
Modules for semester I
ICT Applications in VTE
Curriculum Design and Development
in VTE
General Methods of Teaching VTE Subjects
Special Methods of Teaching VTE
Assessment and Evaluation in VTE
Supervised Teaching Practice in VTE
( Institution-based Teaching Practice)
Plus any one of the following options:
Current Issues and Trends in VTE
Introduction to VTE Teaching
based Teaching Practice)
Module for semester II
Guidance and Counseling in VTE
Competency-based Training
Education and Work
In summary, it can be said that there are currently three different types of initial
teacher preparation for TVET teachers in Brunei. From the entrance requirement
perspective, the master level, MTeach cater for those TVET teachers with a 2.2 or higher
classification degree at relevant field of study. The GradDipEd cater for degree holders
at relevant field of study, while the Diploma in Technical Education caters for those TVET
teachers with Higher National Diploma qualification. Although the programme structure
for all three initial teacher preparation programmes are very different, one common
observation is the content of the programmes do not provide teaching of the subject
matter. It can also be seen that both the MTeach and GradDipEd provide students with
more institutional placement time as compared to the Diploma in Technical Education.
The current model for MTeach and GradDipEd requires students to be place twice a
9 | P a g e week three weeks school placement block. The school mentor also plays a greater role
in the professional development of initial teachers. The MTeach programmes provide
TVET teachers with research skills to improve teaching and learning for the students. The
need to develop research as a learning culture within TVET teacher education, citing
the shifting expectation that research will become increasingly important in higher
education and research should be a central part of any teacher’s education was also
highlighted in the recent online forum on organized by UNESCO-UNEVOC on
“Strengthening TVET teacher education”( Bukit, 2012). The GradDipEd programme also
provides TVET teachers certain degree of research skills.
Challenges and strategies
One of the obvious challenges for the current TVET initial teacher education
programmes is the need to expose the teachers to the industries. The current MTeach,
GradDipEd and Diploma in Technical Education programmes fail to address this issue.
Initial TVET teachers do not have an industrial background and working experience,
and therefore often lack the understanding or motivation to engage with industries thus
it is important to provide them with some sort of guidance and exposure during their
initial teacher preparation phase. TVET teacher education should offer a clear
pedagogic distinction compared with other areas of teacher preparation, and should
better incorporate current practices, standards and technologies used within industry.
Initial teacher education should greater accommodate the specific teaching style of
TVET, customized to meet the requirement of industries. Furthermore, pedagogic
programs should be accommodated to meet the nature of TVET congruent with the
unique world of work.
Although there are some positive changes in the TVET initial teacher preparation
programmes, very little emphasis has been placed on the professional development of
existing TVET teachers. Professional development of existing teacher should be in line
with the changes in initial teacher preparation programmes. Existing TVET teachers
should also be upgraded with the new research skills obtained by the new teachers
through the MTeach and GradDipEd programmes. This is to ensure that there will not be
an imbalance in the eco-system that would cause resistance in the development of a
research culture among TVET system. TVET institutes have to ensure that conditions are
conducive to developing research activities.
Another issue would be TVET teachers striving to obtain a higher academic
degree at the expense of professional development. Academic degree should not be
seen as the only route for continuing professional development, because in certain
cases attainment of an academic degree does not prepare for TVET teachers for all
aspects of their role, including changing technology. To make thing worst, large
numbers of TVET teachers obtaining higher academic degrees has been promoted to
do administrative work. Continuing professional development in TVET context should be
part of a lifelong learning education which recognition of prior learning taken into
10 | P a g e Conclusions and recommendations
In conclusion, it can be said that the new initial teacher preparation
programmes for TVET teachers follows the teacher preparation framework of general
education. Although the current framework inherit some of the strengths such as
increase exposure time to institutional placement and the development of research
capable TVET teachers, there are some areas distinct to TVET teachers that are lacking
in the current framework. One obvious example is the exposure of initial TVET teachers
to the industries or the world of work. Although one might argue that this can be done
through different ways, the author would like to place emphasis of the importance of
learning how to develop linkages with the industries during initial teacher preparation
programme. TVET teacher preparation should be developed more distinctly from other
areas of teacher preparation, with specific emphasis on the unique nature of TVET and
the realities of the world of work.
Continuing professional development for TVET teachers is also another area that
should not be misunderstood. There should not be an over emphasis on attaining higher
academic degrees, as compared to relevant and applicable knowledge and skills in
terms of changing technology and working practices.
Abdul Rahman Taib. (2009). Professional Development for Teachers. The 44th SEAMEO
Council Conference. Phuket, Thailand, 5-8 April 2009 (pp 159-161). Retrieved from
Bukit, M. (2012). Strengthening TVET teacher education: report of the UNESCO-UNEVOC
online conference, 25 June to 6 July 2012.
Chin, W.K. (2012). Vocational and Technical Education in Brunei Darussalam:
Transformation and Challenges Ahead. China-ASEAN Vocational Education Forum.
Tongren, China.
Chong, M.S. & Mohd Ali, T. (2012, March). Country TVET overview: BRUNEI DARUSSALAM.
Paper presented at the East Asia Summit (EAS) Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (TVET) Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) Workshop, Canberra,
Department of Technical Education. (2011, September 3). Department of Technical
Education, Brunei Darussalam. PowerPoint lecture presented in Conference room,
Department of Technical Education, Gadong.
Grollmann, P. (2008). The Quality of Vocational Teachers: teacher education,
institutional roles and professional reality. European Educational Research Journal, 7
(4). 535-547.
Universiti Brunei Darussalam. (1997). Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education
handbook 1997/1998. Bandar Seri Begawan: Educational Technology Centre.
11 | P a g e Universiti Brunei Darussalam. (2005). Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education
handbook2005-2006 PGCTE/CTE Programmes. Bandar Seri Begawan: Educational
Technology Centre.
Zhao, Z. (2006). TVET teacher education on the threshold of Internationalisation. F.
Bünning (Ed.). InWEnt, Internat. Weiterbildung und Entwicklung gGmbH.
Mr. Chhar Khemarin
National Technical Training Institute
Education system in Cambodia is divided into four levels, Pre-School Education, Primary
Education, Secondary Education (lower and upper), and Higher Education (UNESCO,
2008). The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) has set the goal to help children get
basic education at least at grade ninth. After completed grade 9, students can either
go to upper secondary schools or secondary vocational training program provided by
Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training (MOLVT). After completing upper secondary
schools, student can either enter vocational training or universities (UNESCO, 2008). This
shows the two main streams of education in Cambodia, Academic and TVET education.
Regarding to Teacher education in Cambodia, there are two difference types of
teacher education as well, Academic and TVET teacher education. Academic
teachers education are conducted by National Institute of Education (NIE) which is
under the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoEYS), and TVET teacher education is
conducted by Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MoLVT) and National
Technical Training Institute (NTTI) is the only institution under the umbrella of MoLVT
which has the main duty to train TVET Teachers for the whole country. Currently, 300
hundreds of TVET teachers are recruited and trained at NTTI every year.
Keywords: Higher education, academic, Technical and vocational training
The educational human resources of Cambodia were lost over the past 30 years
due to conflict and instability. In 1979, after the Khmer Rouge regime, the national
education started from zero, and has gradually been developed until present. In 1996
the Cambodian educational system has been reformed to 12 years (6+3+3) for General
In Cambodia, we have two institutes which are currently offering teacher
training program. One is based at National Institute of Education which is under the
supervision of Ministry of Education, Youths and Sports and another is under the
umbrella of Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training. National Technical Training
Institute (NTTI) has been offering its extensive course on Technical Vocational Education
and Training (TVET).
The primary objective of this program is to ensure an effective supply of teachers
for all technical levels so as to respond to the education system expansion through
upgrading the competencies of teachers, institute principals and other key staffs of the
13 | P a g e The second objective is to ensure that the number of new intakes of all teachers
and the subsequent deployment of new teachers should favorably respond to the
growing demand for teachers in rural/remote and disadvantaged areas through the
recruitment and training of teacher trainees from these targeted areas as well as from
the areas inhabited by ethnic minority people.
The third objective is to improve the quality of teaching through expansion of inservice teacher training.
There are 38 TVET institutions run by Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training
(MLVT) in Cambodia and those institutions are separated as Provincial Training Centers
(PTCs), Regional Training Centers (RTCs), and TVET institutes (MOLVT, DTVETM). TVET
teachers education are trained by the National Technical Training Institute (NTTI) which
is one of the TVET institution under the umbrella of MOLVT and it is the only institution
which has the main duty to train TVET teachers both Senior and Junior level for all of the
38 TVET institutions throughout the country. Since 2005, the MOLVT has set the policy to
recruit three 300 of TVET teacher trainees every year.
Cambodia at a Glance
Cambodia is a developing country in Southeast Asia. Three decades of civil
unrest and conflicts destroyed the infrastructure, diminished the production potential
and damaged the country’s social fabric. During the last decade and half, Cambodia
has recovered dramatically in terms of both human resources and infrastructural
development. Based on the General Population Census of Cambodia 2008 (Provisional
Population Totals), the population of Cambodia was approximately 13.4 million (as of 3
March 2008). Cambodia accounts for 2.3% of the Southeast Asian population. The
annual growth rate of the population during the last decade is 1.54% with the
population increasing by 1.95 million in the last decade. Urbanization has increased
over the last decade from 17.4% in 1998 to 19.5% in 2008.
14 | P a g e Table 1. General Information of Cambodia
15 | P a g e Table 2. TVET Enrollments – Total, Gender and by Level
Overview of TVET Teacher Education in Cambodia
About NTTI
The National Technical Training Institute was officially founded in Phnom Penh on
29/12/1999 by Sub-Degree no 109 dated 24/10/2001 in the post of the department of
Ministry of Education, Youths and Sports. The institute was originally known as Preach
Kossomak Technical and Vocational Training Centre until 1999 when it became
Technical Training Center. On 29/12/1999, the center was granted institute status by the
Ministry of Education, Youths and Sports and has hence been known as the National
Technical Training Institute.
Currently, National Technical Training Institute is a state-owned education
institute under the direction of Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training, which has
taken over the control of the institute since 2004. The inspiration for the establishment of
this institute came from the founder’s desire to establish an educational institution to
train students in theoretical and practical experiment, and academic ability.
To become an excellent leading university of polytechnics in field of Technical
Vocational Education and Training in Cambodia
 Create the opportunities for students by providing high quality and competency
(Theories, Practice and Ethics) of Technical Vocational Education and Training
 Provide a unique of technical and vocational training to prepare them within
technical skills to entrance the current and future needs of labor market.\
TVET teachers training at NTTI
TVET teacher training in NTTI is a one year training program consisting of 37
credits. All TVET teachers must come and get educated in NTTI and NTTI is the only
institution that has the main duty to train TVET teachers of the country. In order to
participate in TVET teacher training program at, all candidates who hold Associate
degree, Bachelor degree or higher, must come and apply for the entrance
examination prepared by NTTI with the cooperation from MOLVT. After successfully
16 | P a g e passed the entrance examination, all candidates must come for a one-year training
program consisting of 37 credits. Candidates then become the Teacher Trainees. There
are two different levels of Teacher trainees, Junior level – for associate degree, and
Senior level – for Bachelor degree or higher.
The training program is separated into three main sections, Semester I for 4
months. After completing semester I, all teacher trainees will be sent to do the
Practicum for 2 months, second, they are compulsorily have to attend Semester II for 4
other months. Teacher trainees are assessed through these three sections and their final
grade will be judged by adding the result of each section together and then divided
by 3.
Challenge and Issues
Based on observations and discussions, issues are categorized according to key
areas of operations of TVET institutions, namely:
Issues/Findings On Management
i) Lack of empirical data about the needs of industry and demand for
skilled/technical workers;
ii) Sustainability of the TVET program vis-a-vis the course preference of the
youth and young adults; attractiveness of salary and benefits for
skilled/technical workers; and recruitment policies of industry;
iii) Resistance to change by teachers to shift their teaching from traditional to
management to adopt the competency-based education and training
operating at a limited resources (e.g.budget and qualified manpower,
iv) Availability of incentives for institutions to implement innovations thru own
initiatives or
directives from MoLVT in developing and implementing TVET programs that
are market-driven;
v) Determination of institution’s internal effectiveness through a third party
vi) Adoption of an accreditation system for maintaining quality of TVET
vii) Formulation of an honest-to-goodness school business plan that will guide
the institution’s management to maximize resources to achieve its vision
and mission;
viii) Initiative to benchmark with local and international training providers; and
ix) Adoption of a well defined monitoring and evaluation system for the
institution’s growth and sustainability.
B. Issues/Findings on Linkages
i) Designation of a qualified school personnel to link school with the industry;
ii) Social acceptance of TVET programs among industry leaders, local
government officials, students, parents, and investors;
17 | P a g e iii) Establishment of linkages with various stakeholders, e.g. chamber of
commerce and industry, mass media (print and broadcast media),
employers’ associations, workers’organizations, civil societies, and others for
the promotion of TVET programs.
iv)There is also very little coordination between the training institutions and the
industry or the employers.
v)Many training courses often take place outside of any clear employment
vi) Entrepreneurial training is frequently divorced from formal TVET courses; and
vii)There is very little help provided to the students to find employment after
obtaining their qualification. The issue of career guidance is vital.
c. Issues/Findings on Resources
i) High cost of procurement, obsolescence and maintenance of equipment
especially for highly technical trade areas;
ii) Relevance of teaching/learning materials to current technology used by the
industry; and
iii) Adoption and implementation of a development plan to improve the quality and
quantity of learning resource materials.
d. Issues/findings on Personnel
i) Technical qualifications and practical experience of teachers to teach hard skills
for entry-level and advanced level of training;
ii) Attraction of industry experts to teach the skills development component of the
iii) Consciousness of safety and hygiene among school administrators, teachers
and students; and
iv) Adoption and implementation of a training and development plan for
professional growth and development of teachers.
e. Issues/Findings on Programs
i) Determination of manpower demand of industry to support development of new
training programs or sustaining current programs;
ii) Appropriateness of the theory-practice mix of current program;
iii) Adoption and implementation of complimentary strategies, e.g. on-the-job
training, cooperative education, dual training system and other training modality
to enhance students’ job exposure;
iv) Determination of career options for graduates of the non-formal programs and
articulation of acquired competencies towards the formal program;
v) Training is not subjected to adequate quality assurance and control – no courses
are accredited;
vi) The mechanisms for determining knowledge/skills/attitude development needs
(for the courses) are inadequate, which leads to a provider-driven system;
vii) The formal TVET sector comprises a diverse mix of planned and unplanned
training courses catering to a variety of students. Furthermore, there is very little
standardization of TVET courses and even courses with the same titles can have
different contents, duration, and training strategies;
18 | P a g e viii) The integration of ‘employability competencies’ in the curriculum and in the
training courses is also lacking; and
ix) Courses are generally input-based (numbers of trainees per program) rather
than outcome-based. Institutions are attracted to run fee paying courses.
(especially Bachelor level programs, for example, at present there are about
2600 students studying Bachelor level courses at NTTI which was established to be
the focal center for teacher training. CIEDC which was establish to train students
in entrepreneurship is planning to have 750 students in their bachelor courses).
f. Issues/Findings on Financing
i) Readiness of industry to invest in training by providing scholarships, training subsidy,
providing training places and shouldering the cost of training;
ii) Adoption and implementation of a business plan to utilize current school
resources for income generating activities; and
iii) Allocation of the national government for a bigger budget for the continuous
development of all national centers of competence (NCCs)
Questions for Discussion
According to you, how could we devlop a TVET System which is suitable for
Cambodia? Provide us your ideas and recommendations.
In your country, how do you improve access to TVET?
Is there anything to do in TVET for sustainable development.
Ivan Hanafi
Universitas Negeri Jakarta
Jalan Rawamangun Muka, Jakarta, 13220, Indonesia
[email protected], [email protected]
Teacher certification is a program based on Law of Indonesian Republic Number 14
Year 2005 about Teacher and Lecturer. Teacher certification aims at guaranteeing the
mastery of teacher competence to improve the education quality nationally.
Certification for in-service Teacher gives an optimism that the education product will
be more qualified because schools including Vocational High Schools (SMK) have
teachers who get educator certificates and teach profesionally. Certified teachers
have four competences required to be professional teacher in accordance with the
requirement of the acts, that are a pedagogic competence, a personality
competence, a social competence and a professional competence. The process of
teacher certification is conducted through four patterns (1) direct teacher certification
grant (PSPL) (2) portfolio assessment (PF), (3) teaching profession training and
workshop (PLPG), and (4) teaching profession education (PPG). Teachers, themselves,
can determine the certification pattern which are suitable for their capabality and
capacity. Since 2011, the implementation of in service teacher is led to the PLPG
pattern, although there is always an opportunity for them to follow certification
through PSPL or PF with certain requirement. Along with the certification, to produce
vocational education teachers who have teacher certificate and professional skills on
vocational field is being pioneered by the PPG colloborative pre-service teacher
certification program.
Keynote: Teacher competence, vocational high schools, certification
Teachers have a central role in learning process at schools, from pre-schools to
high schools. Teachers hold a key of successful education at schools because they are
in the front line of school system. Beside teaching in front of class, teachers also face
and solve the various problems of their students directly, both in academic aspects and
nonacademic ones. The success of students in absorbing knowledge and in sharpening
their skills depends on teachers in providing guidances, demands, directions, and a
model. Hattie’s result of the study (2003) strengthens the previous statement that
teachers give big contribution (>30%) toward the learning quality improvement and
students’ achievements at schools. There is no doubt that the qualified and professional
teacher availability is an absolute demand that people believe will give a supporting
contribution and become a key of success toward the achievement of national
20 | P a g e Anticipating the demand on teachers’ quality and professionalism, the
Government of Indonesia together with the Houses of Parliament (DPR) issue the Law
Number 14 Year 2005 about Teachers and Lecturers (UUGD), which arranges the
qualification, the competencies, and teacher certification. In UUGD, it is stated that a
teacher must have an academic qualification, a competency, an educator certificate,
be health mentally and physically, and also have the capability to realize the purpose
of national education. The academic qualification for a teacher is minimally an
undergraduate (S1) or a diploma (D-IV), and has pedagogic, personality, social, and
professional competences. The part of regulation which is not less important is a
teacher shall have an educator certificate obtained after fulfilling the determined
requirement as an evidence being a professional educator.
The Law Number 14 Year 2005 gives a new prospect for education world,
especially for more qualified basic and secondary education level because the
students will be educated by teachers who get professional teacher certificates. Under
the Law, teachers of elementary schools till teachers of secondary schools must have
educator certificates to guarentee their competence mastery. Besides, teacher
certification aims to (1) detemine the teacher’s feasibility in doing a duty as a
professional educator, (2) to develop the process of and the result of learning (3) to
enhance teachers’ welfare/prosperity, (4) to improve the teacher status in order to
realize the qualified nasional education.
By teacher certification, a teacher can use various teaching methods in class to
encourage the students’ motivation and improve their knowledge and skills. In the
future, a teacher is expected to be a professional educator, not only being able to
teach well but also becoming a model, enhancing students motivation, giving a
valuable learning experience and improving students’ potential in accordance with
his/her capacity (Jalal, 2007).
Current Policy and Practices
Teacher certification program is an implementation of the Law Number 14 Year
2005 about Teachers and Lecturers. Furthermore, the Minister of National Education
issues a regulation Number 18 Year 2007 about Certification for In-Service Teachers and
Number 40 Year 2007 about Certification for In-Service Teachers throughout the
Education Line. To strengthen the implementation of teacher certification, the Minister
of National Education issues two Decrees, that are Number Nomor 056/O/2007 about
the establishment of Teacher Certification Consortium (KSG) and Number 057/O/2007
about the decision of Higher Institutions as the Organizers for In-Service Teacher
Certification. By the Law Number 20 Year 2003 about National Education System,
Government Regulation Number 19 Year 2005 about National Standard of Education,
Regulation of National Education Minister Number 16 Year 2005 about Qualification and
Teacher Competence Standards are legal instruments being used as the basis for the
implementation teacher certification.
In 2008 the Government of Indonesia issued Government Regulation Number 74
about Teachers, that declares a teacher is a professional educator and an educator
cercificate is a formal evidence as the approval given to a teacher as a professional
21 | P a g e educator. The educator certificate is obtained through teacher certification program
both for in-service teachers and pre-service teachers. For in-service teachers who fulfill
the requirements, they can follow the certification program through four patterns (1)
direct teacher certification grant (PSPL) (2) portfolio assessment (PF), (3) teaching
profession training and workshop (PLPG), and (4) teaching profession education (PPG).
However, for pre-service teachers, there is no choice except they should take a oneyear education which is called by PPG.
PSPL pattern requires that not only must a teacher have the academic
qualification of Magister or Doctor taken from the acredited higher institutions in
education or relevant subject, but also fulfill the requirement of sufficient teaching
experience. Meanwhile, PF pattern is conducted by assessing the documents reflecting
the teacher competence. For PLPG, the implemntation is held by Teacher Education
and Training Institute (LPTK) through ten-day lecturers and workshops. And the last, the
certification process of PPG is conducted during 1–2 semesters by Subject Specific
Pedagogy (SSP) workshop approach and Field Practice to guarantee the graduates
can fulfill the four competences required by the regulations.
The Government gives teachers an opportunity to select and follow one of the
appropriate certification patterns. However, for pre-service teachers and in-service
teachers who are just innagurated after the endorsement/ratification of the Law
Number 14 Year 2005, that is after December 30, 2005, they are only allowed to follow
PPG pattern.
Challenges and Strategies: Certification of SMK Teachers
Vocational High Schools (SMK) is a type of education at the secondary
education level that especially prepares the students to get into a job world. At SMK, it
consists of three groups of teachers: a normative group, an adaptive group and a
productive group (skill subject). The three groups have a main different duty for each
other in accordance with the role and the responsibility given to each group of
Specially for the teachers of productive groups, the teacher’s competence and
experience is absolutely needed to educate, to train, and to assist the students in
producing the real work beside producing a certain knowledge and skills given to the
students for their capital to get into a job world. The achievement indicators of the
vocational education graduates are the graduates are accepted working in industry or
the students implement their knowledge and skills working in the society to gain the
deserved income for themselves and nationally can support the economy grow.
Certification of SMK in-service teachers is also conducted by using the four
patterns of teacher certification as explained previously. For the pre-service SMK
teachers on the uncommon subjects, a pattern of teacher certification through
teacher profession education (PPG) which is a collaboration between LPTK and a
partner education institution that has a relevant study program is just begin to make.
22 | P a g e Portfolio Assessment
Portfolio assessment (PF) in the teacher certification process is an approval on
teacher professional experience in doing the main duties as a teacher. In teacher
certification process the portfolio assessment is grouped into 10 components including
(1) academic qualification, (2) education and training, (3) teaching experience, (4)
learning plan and implementation, (5) the asessement from manager and supervisor,
(6) academic achievement, (7) works on the profession development, (8) participation
in scientific forum (9) organization experience in social and education field, and (10)
relevant education awards. The ten components of portfolio are intended as the
description of a track record of the teacher’s experience, achievement, competence
in conducting his/her duty as a learning agent at school, and are also as the basis of
assessment to determine the level of teacher’s professionalism.
Besides, the ten components are intended as a reflection of the four teacher
competencies, that are a pedagogic competence, a personality competence, a
social competence and a professional competence. Every component of portfolio
assessment gives a description of the competence and quality of a certified teacher.
A pedagogic competence is defined as the capability to manage the student
learning comprising (1) the comprehension toward the students, (2) lesson planning
and implementing, (3) learning evaluation, and (4) the development of student
potential. A personality competence refers to the personal capability, including (1)
persistent, (2) stabil, (3) mature, (4) wise, (5) charismatic, (6) religious, dan (7) be a
model; A social competence is defined as the teacher competence to communicate
and interact effectively with (1) students, (2) colleagues, (3) educational administrators,
(4) parents/student’s representative, and (5) the surrounded community; and A
pedagogic competence is defined as the capability in mastering the learning material
broadly and deeply that enabling a teacher to assist the students in fulfilling the
competence standard which have been decided in national education standards .
Mapping among the ten components and the four teacher competences is
made in a table as the Table1 below
Table1. Mapping of Portfolio Components in Teacher Competence Context
Portfolio Components
Academic qualification
Education and training
Teaching experience
Learning plan and
Asessement from manager and
Academic Achievement
Works on the profession
Participation in scientific forum
Organization experience in
social and education field,
Relevant education awards
Teacher Competence
Source: Book 3 In-Service Teacher Certification 2011, DGHE.
23 | P a g e If the PF is observable deeply, there are some components which indirectly
assess the teacher’s main duty. The components which are assumed inappropriate to
assess the teacher’s main task are: academic competition and works, research article
and research, and participation on scientific forum. To meet the demand of the
components, some of SMK teachers get obstacles. On one side, teachers conduct the
main task as their resposibility to be a teacher, while on the other side, they cannot
optimally fulfill the demand of teacher certification on rewards toward works.
Consequently, some teachers cannot fulfill the demand of the four components of
teacher certification through portfolio assessmnet.
Teacher Profession Training and Workshop (PLPG)
The objectives of PLPG are (1) to improve the competence and professionalism
of cher as the certification participants who have not achieved the minimal score of
portfolio passing grade; (2) to determine the passing grade of the teacher certification
rticipants through a competence test at the end of the program. The implementation
of PLPG which is conducted relatively in short time, that is around ten days with the time
allocation 90 hours, is dealt with the guidance book. Teachers assume that the
implementation of PLPG is so tight that they feel so tired and lack of time to internalize
the new lesson and knowledge given by the instructors.
Learning material given for adaptive and productive subjects to SMK teachers
are considered inappropriate (< 20 hours) because it is divided into theories and
practices. It needs more detail efforts so that the implementation of PLPG can provide
a broad insight for SMK teachers, especially the job world and industry. If it is necessary,
PLPG can invite the instructors from the industry circle to train SMK teachers so that the
material given are more suitable with the need of job world and relate to the subject
Nevertheless, some participants admitted that by following PLPG they get
additional insight and knowledge from the lectures/instructors, especially on the
Classroom Action Research, innovative learning models and the use of more various
teaching media. Moreover, at the end of PLPG, the participants must be tested by an
examination on theories and practices as the teacher performance test in teaching at
class. The test will, clearly, give an enhancement toward the pedagogic and
professional competences although it has not reached fully the two other
competences, that are the social and personality competences.
The enhancement of social competence is defined as the teacher capability to
communicate and interact effectively with the students through the simulation
mechanism of peer teaching. It is not easy to develop dynamic learning process in
improving learning quality in relativley short time. This also happens in the demand
toward the personality competence which are obtained indirectly in formal education
24 | P a g e Collaborative of PPG for SMK
Colaborative SMK Teacher Profession Education (PPG) Program is a pioneer of
teacher profession education program which is held in one year and the program
implementaion will cooperate with Teacher Education and Teaching Institute (LPTK)
and Universities or Polytechnic that have human resources relevant to a certain
vocational study program. This program aims to produce a teacher education model
which is expected to born the excelllent and competent pre-service teachers as a
professional teacher in vocational subject.
The vocational subjects which are prioritized in this program are the study
program which LPTK has not prepared yet and get into the uncommon category
among others Agriculture, Freezing and Air Conditioning Technique, Aeronautical
Engineering, Marine Engeneering, Textile Engineering Graphics Engineering, Mining
Geology, Tourism, Water Resourse Agribusiness, Farming Agribusiness, Automotive
Engineering, Information and Comunication Technology, and Navigation.
In the implemantation, this program needs some requirements among others are
(1) recruitment of the candidates, they must come from the relevant study program,
(2) LPTK as an organizer must collaborate with partner institutions, (3) LPTK with the
partner institutions determine the pattern of partnership, make a collaborative
curriculum and an evaluation that are able to guarantee the graduates having the
competence in education and in vocational subjetcs. After accomplishing the study,
the participants will get two certificates, an educator certificate and a vocational
The implementation of teacher certification, either through PF, PLPG, or PPG aims
to develop a qualified national education. Teacher is the frontier and keeps a central
role in the process of the improvement of education quality. By determining the
feasibility standard of teacher professionalism through the certification process,
teachers will be motivated to improve their knowledge and develop their self capacity
continuously so that they can enhance the achievemant of education target which is
in turn being able to improve national education quality.
Teacher certification through collaborative SMK PPG Program, is a pioneer of
teacher profession education program which is specified to develop the pattern of
teacher profession education in vocational subjects, especially for the uncommon
subjects and have not been prepared yet by LPTK. By a colloboration between LPTK as
a teacher provider and partner education institutions and polytechnics as the
institutions having the relevant vocational subjects, it is expected that collaborative
PPG can produce competent vocational teachers and they have excelent skills to be
a teacher at vocational high schools.
25 | P a g e References
DGHE (2012). Guidelines for Pilot Collaborative Program of PPG SMK. Ministry of
Education and Culture.
DGHE (2011). In-service Teacher Certification (Book 2): Guidelines for Teachers
Certification through Portfolio Assessment. Ministry of Education and Culture.
DGHE (2011). In-service Teacher Certification (Book 3): Guidelines for Portfolio
Development. Ministry of Education and Culture.
DGHE (2011). In-service Teacher Certification (Book 4): Implementation Guidelines for
Teacher Profession Training and Workshop. Ministry of Education and Culture.
DGHE (2006). Academic Paper for Revitalization of Teacher Professional Education.
Jakarta: Directorate of Human Resources, DGHE, MoEC.
Hattie, J. (2003). Teachers Make a Difference: What is the research evidence?
Jalal, F. (2007). Teacher Certification (Professional), An Ideals and Hope. Jurnal Materi
Hukum-Warta Hukum dan Perundang-undangan, Vol.8, No.1, April 2007.
Soulikhamkone SISOULATH
Director, Vocational Education Development Center (VEDC)
Currently, TVET teachers in public TVET schools have, in principle, the status of
permanent employees and the decision of recruiting them is made by the central
government. Meanwhile, the VEDC and the National University of Lao PDR (NUOL) have
been playing a critical role in pre-service TVET teacher training. The Faculty of
Engineering of the NUOL was training the theory TVET teachers at Bachelor level (20 per
year), whereas, VEDC was training the practical TVET teachers and trainers at Higher
Diploma and Bachelor (continuous) level (50-60 per year). This capacity was assessed
as not in accordance with the ambitious target of TVET expansion set by the
government. Thus, the MOES decided since 2008 to expand the TVET teachers training
capacity to some selected TVET institutions, 9 in total but only 7 in operation. In total, 600
new teachers will be trained each year during the next five years and the MOES is
ready to allocate appropriate resources based on a yearly plan and curricula
submitted by schools that are approved by them.
As for the in-service training, during 2008-2010, 65 separate training or study
programmes were undertaken by TVET directors, officers and teachers in a range of
TVET areas, with durations ranging from one day to one year, either in Lao PDR or
abroad. Currently, the VEDC and some major TVET schools conduct in-service training
for TVET teachers (pedagogy and technical field). Around 150 teachers are trained
annually, but nevertheless more than 1,500 teachers from the MOES have yet to
undergo pre-service training.
Keynote: Technical and Vocational Education Training, institutions
The development of TVET teachers in the Lao PDR dates back to last century. The
first TVET teacher institute was established in 1983 at the same location of today’s VEDC.
In 1998, the institute was replaced by setting up Vocational Education Development
Center (VEDC). The center consists of five major tasks as: curriculum development,
instructional media development, TVET teacher training (in-service), research and
analysis and skill upgrading. Due to expanding and increasing number of TVET schools,
the government decided to restart the pre-service training for teacher again in 2003 at
the higher diploma level. The training lasts for two years for those who already obtain
technical diplomas from TVET schools nationwide. The aim of the training was to
produce practical teaching staff for public and private schools. The training programs
comprised five occupational fields such as agriculture, business administration,
construction, general mechanic and electric-electronic.
27 | P a g e Currently, TVET teachers in public TVET schools have, in principle, the status of
permanent employees and the decision of recruiting them is made by the central
government. Meanwhile, the VEDC and the National University of Lao PDR (NUOL) have
been playing a critical role in pre-service TVET teacher training. Until 2008, the Faculty of
Engineering of the NUOL was training the theory TVET teachers at Bachelor level (25 per
year), whereas VEDC was training the practical TVET teachers and trainers at Higher
Diploma and Bachelor (continuous) level (50-60 per year). This capacity was assessed
as not in accordance with the ambitious target of TVET expansion set by the
government1. Thus, the MOES decided since 2008 to expand the TVET teachers training
capacity to some selected TVET institutions. In total, 600 new teachers will be trained
each year during the next five years and the MOES is ready to allocate appropriate
resources based on a yearly plan and curricula submitted by schools that are
approved by them.
As for the in-service training of TVET teachers, while considerable in-service
training and continuous development of teachers and managers occurs, it appears to
be implemented in a somewhat random and uncoordinated manner (ADB, 2010).
During 2008-2010, 65 separate training or study programmes were undertaken by TVET
directors, officers and teachers in a range of TVET areas, with durations ranging from
one day to one year, either in Lao PDR or abroad. Currently, the VEDC conducts inservice training for TVET teachers (pedagogy and technical field). 150 teachers are
trained annually, but nevertheless more than 1,500 teachers from the MOES have yet to
undergo pre-service training. The VEDC also made proposals for increasing teachers’
qualification through dedicated training during vacations but no clear evidence on the
progress of such initiative has been seen. Under STVET Project2, TVET teachers need to
be retrained in both technical and pedagogical aspects to serve the newly approved
CBT curricula of four occupational areas, construction, cabinet maker, basic business
and mechanic, which consisting of 17 Jobs. At present, three types of in-service training
programs covering skills upgrading, pedagogical and management training are being
prepared, some already undergone.
Current Policy and Practices
Since 2005, several policy efforts, strategies and plans have been initiated,
including the National Growth and Poverty Eradication Strategy in 2006, the National
Socio-Economic Development Plan 2006-2010, the National Education System Reform
Strategy 2006-2015, the Education for All (EFA) National Plan for Action 2003-2015
followed by the EFA Mid–Decade Assessment in 2008. These strategies and plans were
integrated into the Education Sector Development Framework (ESDF) 2009-2015 and
agreed to by the Government and development partners. Expanding equitable access,
improving quality and relevance, and strengthening planning and management
capacities are the major areas of action.
GIZ (2011) prognosticated in 2011 that up to 5,000 teachers and trainers had to be trained and employed
from 2010 to 2020, more than tenfold higher than the current capacities.
2 STVET project is ADB Grant which will last for 5 years focusing on 4 occupation areas, 8 public institutions
and 3 private were involved. Competency Based Approach to training will be deployed.
28 | P a g e More recently, the 7th National Socio Economic Development Plan (NSEDP) 20112015 clearly emphasises the importance of education development and considers it a
high priority. Concretely, it states the need to continue reforms in the national
education system, uplift its quality, widen access to opportunities for the people and
develop education to be the core pillar of the society while supporting human
resources and regarding people as decisive elements in development. Some targets of
the education sector related to TVET are as follows:
 Build at least 3 technical schools in districts that have rapid economic growth.
 Increase technical students to at least 50,000, of which 50 percent are women
and 20 percent are from remote areas and/or poor families.
Based on the above legal frameworks and qualification system, TVET is being
provided through various channels:
 Under the MOES, there are 22 TVET institutions and 8 IVET schools. In 2008-2009, 59
percent of the nearly 18,000 students enrolled in MOES public TVET institutions
were in high diploma programmes. In contrast, only 40 percent of all TVET
students were enrolled in diploma programmes, while less than 1 percent were
enrolled in certificate programmes.3
 MOES universities also provide formal accredited TVET programmes. In 2007-2008,
2,500 high diploma students graduated in forestry, engineering and agriculture
at the National University of Lao PDR in Vientiane, and 300 high diploma students
in agriculture, business and engineering at the University of Champasak. As for
private TVET institutions, total student enrolment in 2008-2009 was approximately
22,000 across all programmes in 86 national private schools. These schools
typically delivered TVET diploma-level courses in English learning, IT, business,
mechanics, food processing, automotive and electrical engineering.4
 Non-formal TVET is implemented under the management of the MOES in IVET
schools (see above) but also in 3 centres in Vientiane, Luang Prabang and
Champasak, as well as in 321 Community Learning Centres (CLCs) across the
country. In 2008-2009, the 3 centres provided skills training courses of 5 days to 3
months for a total of 1,154 persons through short courses providing basic
vocational skills in wood processing, construction, chicken, frog and fish raising,
mushroom cultivation, cookery and beauty (ADB, 2010).
 The MOLSW runs 4 skills development centres offering short and long term training
courses in IT, auto repair, carpentry, furniture, garment, electronics, electricity,
hospitality and construction, mainly for school drop-outs and unskilled adults. In
2008-2009, a total of 2,660 enrollments were registered in short courses provided
by skills development centers. Also, some centers like the Lao-Korean VT Centre
are providing short-fee courses on computing.
3Source: ADB Lao PDR Preparing the Strengthening Technical Vocational Education and Training Project Final Sector
Assessment Report, 2010
4 Source: ADB Lao PDR Preparing the Strengthening Technical Vocational Education and Training Project Final Sector
Assessment Report, 2010
29 | P a g e There are now two types of institutions in the formal system: TVET Institutions and
Integrated Vocational Education and Training (IVET) Schools.
 TVET Institutions cover technical, vocational or technical/vocational schools or
colleges where the traditional divisions between vocational and technical or
between school and college have been blurred. They offer up to three-year
programmes for lower secondary school graduates and a variety of
programmes at post-secondary level for upper-secondary school graduates.
TVET institutions are administered by several governmental bodies (Ministry of
Education, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Transportation
and Ministry of Culture and Health).
 IVET schools deliver formal TVET and non-formal basic vocational training to
different target groups including adults. This refers to a new concept of TVET
schools in rural areas developed with the support of GIZ. So far, there are 9 IVET
schools under the MOES which have been supported by the German
Government under the financial and technical cooperation programs.
The pre-service training of TVET teachers consists of two levels Higher Diploma and
Bachelor’s Degree. The former is offering in 7 institutions and the later is undergoing at
three separate institutions VEDC, Polytechnic College and NUOL. Since 2008, the
Department of Technical and Vocational Education (TVED) initiated a teacher training
program, higher diploma level, in order to produce more TVET teacher. 9 TVET
institutions were selected to join the pilot program. Due to budget constraint and the
readiness of the institutions in terms of human and technical resources only 6 schools
have active involved. VEDC is considered as forerunner and one of the major providers
of Higher Diploma in Vocational Teaching. See table 1 and 2 below.
30 | P a g e Table 1. TVET Teacher trained by VEDC (continuous programs)
Training Fields/trades
Source: VEDC
Table 2. TVET Teacher Trained by Other TVET Institutions
TVET Institutions
1. construction
2. business
3. hostelry
1. construction
2. hostelry
1. construction
2. hostelry
1. automotive
2. electric
Source: TVED
Note: Regular program lasts for 3 years (or 11+3), continuous program lasts for 2 years or (Diploma + 2)
31 | P a g e The pre-service training of TVET teacher at Bachelor’s Degree in Vocational Teaching is
offering by 3 institutions as presented in table 3 below:
Table 3. TVET Teachers of Bachelor Level Trained by Approved Institutions
department of
BA regular
 Agriculture
 Electricelectronic
 Construction
 Mechanical
 Business
20 (2007)
40 (2008)
31 (2010)
22 (2011)
 Mining
 Electric
 Land
Grand Total
Current number
60 (12 will be graduated
by 2013)
63 (21 will be graduated
by 2013)
Source: VEDC and TVED
Note: regular program lasts for 4 years (or 11/12+4); continuous program lasts 2 years (or High Diploma+2)
The in-service training program for TVET teachers undergoes both in country and
abroad. The training has been focused on two aspects pedagogy and skill upgrading
training. In-country training, VEDC is the key training organisation that undertakes the inservice training on pedagogy and skills upgrading. From 2000 to 2011 there are 2230
teachers trained by VEDC on pedagogical know-how and in the past 7 years more
than 300 people on skills upgrading. In collaboration with donor agencies, TVED has
sent 432 teachers to neighbouring countries, mainly Thailand, for skills upgrading in a
period of 4 years.
Challenges and Strategies
1) Low Qualification of TVET Teachers
So far, the qualification level of TVET teachers is very limited. For example,
according to the Master Plan, in 2007, within the whole teaching staff involved in TVET
in the MOES, 2 had a PhD, 29 a master degree, 160 a bachelor’s degree while 793
possessed a higher diploma qualification or lower. Many of these teaching were found
to be lacking real working experience. The 2010 ADB assessment report confirms this
finding by showing that in 2009, only 20 percent of the teachers were degree holders,
42 percent high diploma holders and 37 percent had diploma or lower qualifications
32 | P a g e (ADB 2010). Thus, at present, students enrolled in high diploma programmes aimed are
being taught by teachers who have the same level of qualification.
Furthermore, teachers lack relevant pedagogical preparation. As part of the 4
years of the bachelor’s degree programme, students are only required to complete 4
weeks of internship in one TVET school and 4 weeks in company. Combined with the
limited relevance of the practical training available in TVET schools, this reinforces the
theory-based orientation of the TVET system which undermines its labour market
relevance as well limits its attractiveness to students who are not inclined towards
heavily theoretical programmes.
In addition, the higher diploma holders that were trained by selected TVET
institutions and VEDC are equivalent in terms of qualification but might be different in
terms of skills and professional competency. VEDC is applying the continuous program
which lasts for 2 years and diploma holders are accepted whereas graduates of other
TVET institutions did not have any vocational training background. Moreover, teachers
who are delivering pedagogy aspects at TVET schools are the former graduates of
2) Limited Co-operation Between TVET Teacher Providers
Until present there has been limited coordination between the Faculty of
Engineering of NUOL and other TVET institutions. Although both institutions are in close
proximity to each other in the University campus in Vientiane, their activities tend to
overlap and little coordination was seen between them. The cooperation between
VEDC and other TVET institutions providing teacher training programs are also very
limited. In an effort to address this situation, a policy workshop was organised in
September 2010 in cooperation with the MOES, NUOL and GIZ, where suggestions were
made concerning a new model for TVET teacher training, including the clarification of
roles and the complementarity among all institutions involved.
3) Low Salary of TVET Teachers
Attracting good quality teachers is at the core of policies aimed at increasing the
quality of TVET. However, there is evidence that being a TVET teacher is not an
attractive profession. A tracer study done by GIZ in 2010 about the career development
of graduates in TVET teaching courses suggests that only 42 percent of graduates are
teaching at a vocational school (GIZ 2011). Interviewees highlighted that work
conditions, wage structure and career opportunities were not attractive enough
compared to the positions available on the labour market where on the average,
salaries are about three times higher. However, in April 2012, the government decided
to separate teacher’s career from other government staff. The salary structure of
teachers is also different from general staff. In addition, teachers can get additional
benefit up to 25% on top of their salary if they teach at primary education. Additionally,
the government has increased for all government officials by 24% that effective from
October 2012. Nevertheless, the improvement of teachers’ salaries remains a pressing
policy issue, as well as their selection and recruitment. An option would be to conduct
33 | P a g e pre-recruitment procedures, with the objective of training only the applicants that are
truly committed to move on to the teaching profession.
4) Limited Movement of TVET teachers
Another issue arises from the fact that upward career growth is not possible for
teachers in schools where they are initially employed, and their career development is
static. It is possible for TVET institutions to hire teachers for a short period, but this
happens very rarely. Even in the non-formal centres almost all teachers are permanent
staff, although some courses are organised for a few weeks or months a year in their
teaching field. The vertical movement of TVET teachers are also very limited. Thanks to
VEDC that has initiated bachelor degree for higher diploma holders. In most cases, TVET
schools are permitted to offer up to higher diploma level only. If someone intends to get
higher qualification must go to universities and have to attend the bridging courses
before undertaking professional subjects. The continuous program at universities can
last between 3 to 3.5 years meaning that the TVET pathway is very time consuming.
5) Not unified teacher training system
The higher diploma in general disciplines and teacher education for general
education lasts only 2 years after grade 12, whereas higher diploma in vocational
training including vocational teacher training lasts at least 3 years. For the bachelor
level, including teacher education, it lasts 4 years after year 12 of secondary education.
However, vocational teacher education at this level undertakes between 5 to 6 years
or 12+3+2 and 2+2+2 system. This makes TVET teacher training not attractive in terms
time spent and benefit gained since the salary is paid according to the educational
qualification. In this connection, TVET teacher training has been considered as one of
the least popular jobs for school leavers or as 5th class student populations (university
education 1st class, teacher education for general schooling 2nd, TVET 3rd, private
education 4th). Therefore the shortages of qualified TVET teachers are not avoidable.
Strategies and plans of TVET Teacher Development
Until present, TVET development is being pursued in accordance to the several
strategic plans prepared by the government in cooperation with development
partners, covering diverse issues of TVET policy areas. The key strategic plans of TVET
which are guiding current government initiatives include the TVET Master Plan, the
Education Sector Development Framework and the Education Sector Development
Plan (2011-2015). Based on the TVET Strategy 2006-2020 released in June 2007, the Lao
government prepared the Master Plan for the Development of TVET for 2008–2015. With
assistance from the Luxembourg government, this TVET Master Plan was developed by
an inter-ministerial team in order to provide clear directions and performance indicators
to relevant stakeholders. Both the TVET Strategy and the Master Plan are underpinned
by three key concepts which are used as guidelines for the development of the
Education Sector Development Framework (ESDF):
 Equitable access
 Quality and relevance
 Management and administration
34 | P a g e Within these key issues, seven strategic projects have been identified: (i)
Construction renovation and expansion; (ii) Expand offer and approaches; (iii)
Development and improvement of teachers and Staff; (iv) Quality assurance; (v)
Information system; (vi) Organisational structure; (vii) Formulation of policy and tools at
macro level. These projects are detailed in 31 main outcomes or indicators and 130
activities, each with its own indicators, responsible organisation, budget, and
implementation plan.
Another strategic plan is the 7th 5-year Education Sector Development Plan
(2011-2015) which once again emphasized the following issues:
Introduction of vocational stream in upper secondary schools
Increased access by ethnic girls and women to TVET through a voucher system
and dormitory accommodation
Increased private sector involvement in TVET strategy and delivery
Identification of national skill standards
Social marketing campaign to improve the poor public perception of TVET
Strengthen the TVET policy and regulatory framework so that funding for TVET is
more demand-side based
Greater flexibility in employment arrangements for TVET teachers
Development of information system to provide data on skill shortages and salary
levels for TVET trained workers
Establish at least 3 vocational training centers at district levels
Targets for TVET were set up for 2015:
40 percent of TVET students receive scholarships from 2010
New curriculum programs meeting labour market demand e.g. CBT
A focus on 4 priority areas (construction, mechanical maintenance and repair,
furniture making, basic business skills)
Minimum of 50,000 students by 2015 with 50 percent female and 20 percent from
the poorest families
Increased enrolment of students in different types of TVET schools and colleges
including upper secondary vocational schools
300 new TVET graduate instructors and teachers per annum from 2012
One TVET college in each province with pathways and articulation to advanced
Introduction of a voucher system to students, targeting girls and ethnic groups
from poor families and provision of dormitory accommodation
35 | P a g e Plan for the development of TVET teachers
In the real situation, TVET teachers in Laos are classified into two types: theory and
practice instructors. Mostly, theory teachers are those who completed universities in the
country or overseas without any teaching experiences. For practical instructors, on the
other hand, are those have learned from TVET institutions. Among these some were
selected to join the higher diploma program at VEDC. The following strategies will be
deployed for future development of TVET teachers/instructors in Laos.
a) Pre-service Training
Higher Diploma Level: to be conducted by VEDC
 Model 1: with Certificate 4 , or 9+3 system, as minimum entry requirements
Table 4. The Structure of Higher Diploma Program
Training Programs
Skills +
Skills +
+Pedagogy +
+ project
Model 2: 12+3 system as conducted by selected TVET institutions until now will be
Model 3: Diploma + 2 years will be continued by VEDC.
For the bachelor’s degree level it should be undertaken by the universities with two concepts:
4 years program (12+4) at the Department of TVET Teacher Education, NUOL
2 years program (higher diploma +2) or (12+3)+2 years (might be undertaken by VEDC
for some more batches).
36 | P a g e Table 5. Structure of Bachelor’s Program (continuous)
Training Phase
18 weeks
18 weeks
Field related
Training & transfer phase
14 weeks
Field related
Modern media
OJT or
18 weeks
Field related
18 weeks
• Teaching
• Dissertation
For the master’s program it is planned to collaborate with external universities
under such concept as Regional Cooperation Platform (RCP) involving 5 countries
China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia.
b) In-service Training:
The in-service training will be followed the TVET reform closely, that is moving towards
Competency Based Training (CBT). The following strategies are being deployed.
Implement Teaching Competency Standard
In 2011, teaching competency standard has been drafted by VEDC and approved
by TVED. The standard consists of 4 levels, with totally 43 teaching competency units,
level 1 is the lowest and 4 is the highest level, and will be named as junior teacher,
experienced teacher, expert teacher and senior expert teacher. Table 6 below
presents the structure for future TVET teachers.
Table 6. The Structure of Proposed TVET Teacher/Educator
Teacher Education
No of teaching
competency units
TVET Qualification
Teacher Qualification
Master Craftsman
Graduate Diploma
(Specialist 1)
Official name
Junior Teacher
Expert Teacher
Senior Expert Teacher
Parallel to this development, TVET teachers who are working for the non-project
schools will be trained on the multiplier training scheme (MTS). The trained participants
will certified as junior, senior/core, expert/moderator and senior/training advisor (see
the pyramidal structure below).
37 | P a g e Training Advisor (25%)
Moderator (40%)
(60%) Junior Trainers (100%)
1. Skills Upgrading: Contract Training Scheme
Based on competency units of Competency Based Curriculum teachers working
for the project supported schools (11 in total) will be sent to companies in the
country or to the neighboring countries to gain hands-on experiences under
contract training scheme. The scheme has been supported by STVET project
which is financed by ADB. With the support of through GIZ, TICA and some
foreign companies that investing in Laos, some elected teachers working at IVET
schools and other technical schools will also be upgraded.
2. Teaching License
It was found that teachers in most TVET schools are not subject experts (VEDC
2011). One person might have to teach 3-4 subjects without depth
understanding of its content. Teachers have taught according to he or she has
learnt before. Syllabi are very abstract that creates difficulty for developing a
teaching plan of most teachers, especially those working in provinces. Thus
teaching License is aimed to create unified teaching contents on the same
subjects nationwide and to develop subject experts. Individual teachers will be
trained on specific subject(s) according to the approved curriculum. The training
might be undertaken 3-4 weeks and focused on theory and practice instructors/
trainers. Successfully trained teacher can obtain a license that is similar to a
driving license.
Conclusion and Recommendation
TVET teacher training in Laos has long tradition. Both pre-and in-service training
programs are available. Around 1900 TVET teachers are working at 22 TVET institutions
under MOES but less than 500 people produced systematically in the country of
38 | P a g e abroad. The in-service training on pedagogy and professional is highly needed in order
to improve the quality of delivering. NUOL, VEDC and Polytechnic College in Vientiane
are the major providers on bachelor degree level but co-ordination and co-operation
between them are still lack. Similarly the co-operation between TVET institutions
providing higher diploma in vocational teaching is very limited. Major challenges to
TVET teachers include: low qualification, limited cooperation between providers, low
salary, limited movement especially vertical, not unified training system. Policy and
strategies have been described very nicely but very difficult to realise due to lack of
budget from the government and limited support from donor agencies.
1. There are 8 teacher training colleges nationwide that produce teacher for
general education subsector. It is time now to establish TVET teacher training
institute for Laos in order to produce qualified teacher for TVET sub-sector.
2. The Higher Diploma should be the (9+3)+3 or certificate 4 plus 3 years and follow
the model 1 structure mentioned above.
3. VEDC should serve as a hub in providing TVET teacher training programs in order
to have a unify system and qualification especially on teaching related subjects.
See diagram below.
4. For the bachelor’s degree level the University Of Laos (NOUL) should works
closely with other two institutions in terms of sharing resources. NUOL should focus
on academic stream whereas other two should concentrate on real work.
39 | P a g e NUOL
5. It is recommended that a number of studies need to be conducted. The
following themes might be considered as:
o Demand and Supply of TVET teacher to meet the vocationalisation’s
policy of the government
o Training Need of TVET teachers to cope with TVET Reform,
o Application of CBT issues and Challenges for TVET teachers
Asian Development Bank, 2010, Preparing the Strengthening TVET project: Final sector
assessment report.
DVV international, 2011, Life skills, learning needs, training inputs: News from the field of
working with partners of DVV international in Lao PDR.
GIZ, 2011, Institutional Development of Vocational Teacher Education in Lao PDR 20102020.
Ministry of Education, 2007, Strategic plan for the Development of Technical and
Vocational Education and Training from 2006 to 2020.
Ministry of Education, 2008, Master Plan for the Development of TVET 2008-2015.
Ministry of Education, 2010, Report on Monitoring of 2008-2015 TVET Master Plan
Ministry of Education, 2011, Education Sector Development Plan.
Ministry of Education, 2011, Strategy for Promoting Private Education.
Ministry of Education. 2010, Education Quality Assurance Strategic Plan for 2011-2020.
Prime Minister’s Office, 2009 Decree on Approval of the Education Sector Development
Framework, 04 April 2009.
Prime Minister’s Office, 2010, Decree on TVET and Skills development, 22 January 2010.
Prime Minister’s Office, 2012, Decree on Teacher, 17 April 2012.
Vocational Education Development Center (VEDC) 2011, Report on the Situation of
TVET teachers in Public Schools, October 2011.
40 | P a g e Technical and Vocational Education (TVET) Teachers in Malaysia
Razali Hassan, Wahid Razzaly & Maizam Alias
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
The paper explains about the structure and function of the training needs for Technical
and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) teachers in Malaysia. TVET programmes
in Malaysia prepare youths for employment in various industrial trades. They mostly run
by government agencies. Several private initiatives complement the government's
efforts in producing the skilled workers needed by industry. The main government
agencies involved in TVET teachers training are Ministry of Education (MoE), Ministry of
Higher Education (MoHE), The Ministry of Human Resources (MoHR), Ministry of Youth
and Sports (MYS) and Majlis Amanah Rakyat (MARA). Qualification and quality of the
TVE training have become issues in teachers training. By the year 2020 all teachers must
possess a first degree before they can join the teaching profession to ensure all
teachers passing their ‘quality criteria’ before leaving the training institute. Malaysia
should have the new National TVET-Teacher Qualification Standards and training in
conjunction to the transformation of vocational education system. Skills accreditation
programs for TVET teachers (initially as part of training) need to be strengthen for the
new models of TVET teachers to fulfill high standards of teacher’s quality and market
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is a branch of education that
has been introduced into the mainstream education system and transformed recently
as part of the government initiatives to promote access, equity, quality of education
which is ultimately aimed at providing the necessary local workforce who possess the
necessary skills and competences for achieving the high income nation status by 2020
(Mohd Zain, 2008). The term TVET as used in Malaysia is synonymous with the term
technical and vocational education as often used by the United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).
Technical Teachers Training College (TTTC) was first established on 17 May 1962, after
the arrival of a group of technical and vocational teachers from Canada, led by Mr.
B.F. Addy. TTTC first building located at Jalan Damansara, Kuala Lumpur. The building is
the former Malay College Girl (Malay Girl's College) which had moved to Seremban.
Then, at the end of 1967 when the service personnel from Canada ends, all the
responsibility for managing the college was taken over by the local officials. The role of
this college has become increasingly important with the implementation of the
Comprehensive Education System in 1965 that introduced four new subjects at lower
secondary school level, the Industrial Arts, Agricultural Science, Commerce and
Economic Science.
41 | P a g e The role of TTTC conducted the trade courses began in early 1970, when the
department at Teachers College Carpentry in Kuantan moved. In 1972 Trade Studies
courses were initiated when the Department of Trade Specialist Teachers Training
College (STTC) transferred to the Technical College in order to combine the technical
and vocational fields. TTTC also runs teacher training courses in the three components
of Life Skills: Home Economics, Advance and Agricultural Living Skills since 1989 until the
courses are transferred to Batu Pahat Teachers College in 1992. TTTC has been
appointed by Ministry of Education as crucial training institute to the development of
TVET teachers’ provider in Malaysia. In early 2011 the new TVET systems introduce by
Ministry of Education. The change to modernize and introduce transforming TVET system
in Malaysia has been decided to improve and rebrand the TVET system. The existing
TVET teachers training system has been revised to be seen as value added to suit with
the new TVET system.
Technical and Vocational Education teacher provider in Malaysia is conducted by
many different ministries, agencies and organizations, both public and private. The
various TVET teacher training providers often operate as required by the Ministry of
Education and Ministry of Human Resource. There are numerous TVET teachers
providers in Malaysia. The Government is the main provider, having several ministries
and agencies involved. These are:
Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) – TVE teachers is offered by several public and
private universities. Most of the universities provide Education Diplomas, Post Graduate
Teaching Certificate, Bachelour Degree, Masters and Doctor of Philosophy. The public
Universities include;
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM).
University of Technology Malaysia (UTM).
Education University of Sultan Idris (UPSI).
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM).
Ministry of Education (MoE) - TVE teachers training was trained by Teachers’ Institute of
Education (IPG). There were three IPG involved in TVE development. The institute
provides TVE Teaching Certificate, Education Diploma and certification for in-service
courses. Currently IPG has limited program at degree level in Technology Design for
primary school. The three IPG are IPG Technical (Trade), IPTI (Living skills) and IP Tuanku
Bainun (Living skills).
Ministry of Human Resource - Centre for Instructor and Advanced Skill Training (CIAST) is
located in Shah Alam, Selangor. CIAST is one of the key players in TVET teacher
development. However, CIAST were focusing on developing skills trainer which do
responsible to supply TVET instructor to their TVET institutes such as Institute of Industrial
Training (ITI), Advance Technology of Education Centre (ADTEC) and private training
centre recognized by Department of Skills Development (DSD).
42 | P a g e Ministry of Rural and Regional Development (MARA), is an agency of the Ministry of
Rural and Regional Development. MARA responsible to support, promote, stimulate,
facilitate and undertake economic and social development in the federal and
particularly in rural areas. The developments of TVET were in their mission. With the
current technology and the need for skilled and semi-skilled workers, the various areas
and programs are offered to ensure Mara skills training capable to fill in and contribute
manpower requirements needed by industry and country. As part of their responsible,
TVE teachers’ development were included in the TVET implementation strategies.
Ministry of Youth and Sports - under which the National Youth Skills Institute is placed.
State Economic Development Corporation – training centers under the state
government support TVET providers to help implement the training centers provided by
the state government.
Private Training Institution – There are few private institution involved in operating TVE
teacher training. Among institution involved are private training institution (SMI’s) which
appointed by DSD from Ministry of Human Resource. E.g. Pritec Academy, Help Institute,
SEGI College International
The various TVET teacher providers often operate as planned from the different
perspectives and do not taking into account program offerings in the broader context,
resulting in overlapping courses and institutions as well as creating confusion for
teachers and employers. This situation has implications for the standardization of
training and qualification, cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, recognition of prior
learning, and the further education of TVET graduates. The current governance
structure still lacks effective coordination, sharing of resources, and articulation within
the overall system. There is also no single oversight body to provide overview of TVET
landscape. The diverse TVET management structures and the sharing of training
responsibilities by various government bodies and ministries account for some of the
inefficiencies in the system like duplication and segmentation of training, and the
absence of a common platform for developing coherent policies and joint initiatives.
TVE teacher Education programmes offered by public universities have been
accredited by the Malaysian Qualification Agency (MQA) e.g. Bachelor Degree
Vocational Education (Electrical & Electronic) with Honour offered by UTHM. These
programmes can be considered for recognition by the government for the purpose of
employment in the public sector. However, there were still some programmes provided
by others institution did not recognize by MQA but has been accredited by other
professional bodies.
43 | P a g e The teachers’ competences have been identifying by the MOE as one of
the most important enablers in the process of vocational education and training
transformation. TVE teacher with current and future should be trained and
educated with knowledge and skills related with industries need. The MOE has
liberalized its policy by having ‘open’ policy recruitment in which only the best
and skillful teachers will be recruited as the vocational teachers. These teachers
may be product from any training institutes, universities and other training
providers. The traditional teacher training provided by the universities of the
Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) has now been gradually undertaken by
Teacher Training Colleges under the Ministry of Education. However, most of the
initiatives of teacher training at the bachelor levels run in collaboration with
institutions that are allowable to award bachelor degrees, Wahid (2012).
Policies Supporting TVET Teachers
TVET continues to be considered as critical for supporting the country’s
economic development in the 10th Malaysia Plan (10MP), 2011-2015. Four policy
guidelines have been put forward to mainstream and elevate access to quality TVET in
Malaysia: (a) Improving the perception of TVET and attracting more trainees, through
more intensive national media campaign; (b) Upgrading and harmonising TVET
curriculum quality in line with industry requirements, by initiatives which include
standardising TVET curriculum, recognising the national skills qualification, and
establishing a new Malaysian Board of technologists; (c) Developing highly effective
instructors, including to establish a new Centre for Instructor and Advanced Skills
Training; and (d) Streamlining the delivery of TVET, including to review the current
funding approach of TVET and to undertake performance ratings of TVET institutions
(Wahid, 2012).
Policy on Human Resource Development Fund (HRDF)
Government introduces the Human Resource Development Fund (HRDF), which is a
training levy-reimbursement scheme that aims to provide accelerated industrial training
and offer enormous opportunities and avenues for companies, industry associations
and public/private industrial training institutions to contribute to more responsive and
relevant for skills development. This includes any training by private institution to provide
TVE teachers training and education.
Implementation of TVET teacher training in Malaysia is to fulfill the market need
among TVET institutions in Malaysia. TVET institutions requiring skills and qualify trainers for
Technical & Vocational Training Institute (TVET) & Public Skills Training Institute (ILKA).
Different TVET institution involves with the different qualification of TVE teacher to various
TVET agencies:
44 | P a g e Table 1. TVET Provider in Various Levels Versus Students’ Enrolment Demand
 Polytechnic
Public and
Name of TVET
30 polytechnic including
Conventional, Premier Polytechnic
and Metro Polytechnic
32 Community Colleges
4 Malaysian Technical Universities
90 Vocational College (KV’s)
9 Technical College
Lower and Higher Secondary
School (MPV/PAV)
National Youth Skills Institute (the
Higher National Youth Skills
Institute (IKTBN)
 Degree in Engineering with related
 Skill Certificate level 3 or above
Advance Technology Training
Centre (ADTEC)
Technical Institute of Japan Malaysia (JMTI)
Industrial Training Institute (ITI)
 Degree in Engineering and related
 Skill Certificate level 3 or above
Of Manpower
 Department of
Centre for Instructor in Advance
Skills Training. (CIAST),
University Kuala Lumpur (UniKL),
British Malaysian Institute,
German Malaysian Institute,
TVE Teachers Basic Qualification
 Degree in Engineering and related
 Masters in Technical Education or
 Skills Certificate
 Degree in Technology
 Degree in Engineering
Degree in Engineering Technology
Degree in Engineering
 Degree in Vocational Education +
Skill Certificate level 3 or above
 Degree in Vocational Education.
 Skill Certificate level 2 or above
Degree in Engineering + Skills
 Degree in Engineering and related
 Skill Certificate level 3 or above
(Not Compulsory)
Mara Skills Institute (IKM),
High Skills College MARA (KKTM)
National Agriculture Training
Council (NATC)
Institution under state
 Degree in Engineering and related
 Skill Certificate level 3 or above
(Not Compulsory)
 Degree in Engineering and related
 Diploma or Degree in various area
with Skill Certificate level 3 or
 Various qualification
E.g. HELP institute, SEGI Uni.
College, etc.
 Various qualification
Despite many TVET Teacher providers in the country, TVE teachers’ training has
issues and challenges. Training providers under different ministry and department were
developing their own model and set of TVE teachers. These include, entry qualification,
curriculum standard, niche area and accreditation standard.
Various TVET providers with the different Standard of training – With three
streamline in TVET articulation. Skills sector under MOHR, Vocational and
Technical Education under MOHE and Higher Education under MOHE.
New challenge in Teaching and Learning – Changing of technology in
education give an impact to the teaching and learning approaches.
Qualification standard – different TVET players needs different level of
qualification and standard of TVE teacher training. Capability and quality
of TVE teacher were variety and difficult to fulfill different TVET players at
all level.
Mismatch within Education System – The new transformation of TVET
changes the new training system for TVE teachers’ provider.
Lack of skills and knowledge – training needs.
Demand-Supply Mismatch - there are many reports of a demand-supply
mismatch, which is part of contributing to infill TVE teacher employment
vacancies in TVET players.
1. The standard of TVE teacher training should be coordinated by authorized body
to ensure the quality of training and outcomes fulfill the needs of global industries.
Malaysian Quality Agency is one of the accreditation bodies responsible to
recognize academic programmes. This is to ensure standard training and
education to all TVE teachers provider.
2. Strengthen working relationship with other TVET providers and private
educational institutions in Malaysia and internationally;
3. Efforts are being made to introduce a method of student recruitment through
the Accreditation Prior Experience Learning (APEL) in TVET in line with My3L
program (MoHE) where experienced and professional people join the teaching
profession. This recruitment method could indirectly enhance the teaching
profession in TVET.
4. Cross collaborate with other ministries and department. E.g. Collaboration with
Ministry of Higher Education and Ministry of Human Resource which allow both
ministries to change training content and cross articulation.
1. The introduction of new models in the implementation of education TVET as new
programs for high impact market value. These include introducing the New
Bachelor of Vocational Education (Majoring in Trade) Figure 2 analyzed as
conceptual framework has been used to meet the needs of both skills and
knowledge. Curriculum development approach comprised of the latest models
of training that be able to fulfill local and international markets. UTHM proactive
for their innovation and common ground for these models that involve of the
‘practical-oriented’ approach, whereby teachers trainee undergo intensive
practical sessions. Hence, the main feature of this new ‘breed’ of education
model that prepares teachers for applications-related schooling and industry for
professions which require the application of academic knowledge and methods.
Figure 1. Curriculum content include Skills and Knowledge proposed
by UTHM for TVE teachers training
2. Encouraging TVET provider to join professional Education bodies to ensure
international recognition can be embedded in certification.
3. TVET providers were adviced to join international TVET members e.g. Regional
Co-operation Platform (RCP), UNESCO-UNEVOC and Colombo Plan Staff College
47 | P a g e 4. Establish joint programmes between other ministries or countries. Introduce and
strengthen 'double degree' or 'joint degree' and 'double major' is a popular
program that has been established by developed countries in the world. "Higher
Education with Vocational Training" as part of strategy to enhance the
promotion of "double degrees".
5. Propose accreditation body to provide professional teaching licensing as given
to Engineering graduate who complete their professional body requirement (e.g.
6. TVE teachers training focuses on extremely academic or skills bias, for those who
do not do well ‘academically’ will do skills training and yet pointed to be TVET
instructor. This view persists due to two different streamline. UNESCO-UNEVOC
contemplates on changing the name TVET to something nearer to ‘Skill &
Knowledge Development for Employability”. Apply National Dual Training
System (NDTS), as part of TVE teachers training. Approximately 70-80% of the
training is done in the industry, while the remaining 20-30% is carried out in
training institutions, utilizing curriculum developed by the National Occupational
Core Curriculum (NOCC).
Wan Ahmad, W.S., 2007. ‘To Inculcate Training Culture Amongst Malaysian Industry
(NDTS)’. Accessed 10 December 2012.
Mustapha, K. et al, 2003. ‘Integrasi Akademik dan Vokasional: Rasional dan Cabaran’.
Jurnal Pendidikan 28 (2003) 77-90.
Abd. Rahman Ayub (2010), Paper presen at 2nd World Congress On Teacher Education
For Technical And Vocational Education And Training (TVET), UTHM
Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi access at on 1
October 2012
Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia access at : on 2 October
Report on Country Profile for Vocational Training Programme, Presented at Regional
Conference on TVET, Amman Jordan February 2012
Pelan Pembangunan Pendidikan Malaysia 2013-2025, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia,
Maznah M. (2001). Adult and continuing education in Malaysia. Hamburg: UNESCO
Institute for Education / Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Putra Malaysia Press
48 | P a g e BPTV (2012). Transformasi Pendidikan Vokasional: Info Ringkas. Edisi. 5. Kementerian
Pelajaran Malaysia
Tan, M.L. (2012) Raising the Bar, Paper presented at TVET Conference 2012 24 & 25 April
2012, Istana Hotel Kuala Lumpur.
Putrajaya: Performance Management and Delivery Unit (PEMANDU). Prime Minister’s
Md Yunos, J. et al, 2007. ‘Technical & Vocational Education & Training (TVET) from
Malaysia Perspective’. 2
VEDC Malang, Indonesia.
International TT-TVET EU-Asia-Link Project Meeting,
BPTV (2011). Transformasi Pendidikan Vokasional: Pelan Strategik, Bahagian Pendidikan
Teknik dan Vokasional, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, Cepat Cetak Sdn. Bhd.
Universiti Putra Malaysia
University of Technology Malaysia
Education University of Sultan Idris
University Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia
Technical and Vocational Education Division
Malaysian Skills Diploma
Economic Transformation Plan
Government Transformation Plan
Department of Technical Education
Vocational College
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Higher Education
Ministry of Human Resource
Vocational Subject
Fundamental in Vocational Education Stream
Technical School
Vocational School
Malaysia Skills Certificate
Specialist Teachers Training College
Technical Teachers Training College
Department of Skills Development
Mr. Win Maw Tun
Deputy Director General
Department of Technical and Vocational Education
Ministry of Science and Technology
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is making all efforts to enable the nation to keep
abreast with the global nation. The development of today’s Technical and Vocational
Training System in Myanmar reflects the development of Myanmar Society and
Economic Growth, so TVET is the major role to implement human resource development
programs for science and technology. Thirty-two Technological Universities, three
Government Technological Colleges, eleven Government Technical Institutes and
thirty-six Government Technical High School are conducted in Myanmar for the
students to study and continue to the higher education in many skilled-based programs
which are highly relevant for national development. The key to excellence in TVET is
qualified teachers, so two TVET teacher training centers have been established to train
and produce competent technical teachers who become knowledgeable and skillful
in their respective technical and engineering fields. This paper will discuss how TVET
teacher training programs are conducted in Myanmar. Teachers for Technological
Universities are trained for under graduate and post graduate degree in engineering
from first year to final year. On the other hand, practical skill based short-term training
courses are conducted every year for teachers in Government Technological University,
Government Technical Institute and Government Technical High School. The main
theme of TVET teacher training programs is, to build up the quality for teaching and also
for technical skill for TVET education.
Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia with an estimated
population of 60 million people. It is a home to a diverse group of ethnic nationalities,
comprising up to 135 groups, living on a strategic geographic location bordering with
the world’s two most dynamic and largest economies – China and India, offering an
important trading and business hub for foreign partners with impeccable access to
large markets. Her geography covers a vast and highly fertile central plain, beautiful
snow-tipped mountain ranges and untapped white sand beaches, extensive coastline
with sea access to Indian Ocean, and throughout the country, she is richly endowed
with forests, natural gas and hydropower resources, and precious stones, gold and
minerals. Myanmar also has favorable land to man ratio and low population density
most promising for significant agricultural potential; for instance, its staple rice sector is
now poised to return to its historic ranking in the world as “the rice bowl of Asia”.
For more than two decades, Myanmar has been taking several steps in
undertaking comprehensive initiatives towards economic and social reforms. Right after
50 | P a g e her abrupt transition from planned socialist economy in 1988, various efforts at
economic and political opening boosted foreign investment and private sector
involvement in the country. These reforms broadly transformed the socialist economy
into a market economy; however, the legacy of isolation and conflict undercut the
progress towards realizing the country’s fullest potentials.
Given this background, the new Government of Myanmar (GOM), has
undertaken far-reaching moves towards national reconciliation with both political
parties and nationality groups. On May 11,2012, the President declared that the GOM
has achieved substantial gains in the “first stage of reforms”, mainly targeted at political
and governance changes to achieve peace and national unity, so that it will then
emphasize on “second stage of reforms” which will be targeting at immediate
improvement of economic and social well-being of the citizens. He then called for
development of policies and reform strategies that can achieve people-centered
development, civic participation and human resource development, effective and
transparent use of public financial resources, sustainable regional development,
decentralization and local governance and poverty reduction.
Education is a top government priority in view both of the current relatively low
levels of provision of education and the importance of investments in education for
inclusive growth.
To address these issues the government has already increased
public expenditures on education significantly and will increase expenditures further in
the coming years both absolutely and as a proportion of the total government budget.
It is also critical to put in place as soon as possible an overarching education
sector reform policy and strategy that focuses on expanding the quantity and quality of
education and that recognizes the complementary roles of government and nongovernment sectors in service provision. This reform policy and strategy will focus on the
need to expand the system of technical and vocational education, curriculum,
teacher training and other reforms necessary to enhance the quality of TVET.
With the significant decline in Myanmar’s population growth rate over the past
decade from 2.2% to 1.1% per year, the country is now enjoying a relatively young
population with a higher percentage of working-age groups relative to non-working,
dependent groups. There is a good opportunity to put his young population to work in
building a stronger economy, reducing poverty and narrowing gaps of inequality. But
the country’s youthful population is currently facing tremendous challenges of
unemployment, low levels of education.
Technical Vocational Education plays a vital role in human resources
development of the country by creating skilled manpower, enhancing industrial
productivity and improving the quality of life. Technical Vocational Education is a
planned program of courses and learning experiences that begins with exploration of
career options. That education system supports basic academic and life skills, and
enables achievement of high academic standards, leadership, preparation for industrydefined work, and advanced and continuing education. So Technical Vocational
Education has been an integral part of national development strategies in many
51 | P a g e The Republic of the Union of Myanmar is making all efforts to enable the nation
to keep abreast with the global nation. The development of today’s Technical and
Vocational Training System in Myanmar reflects the development of Myanmar Society
and Economic Growth, so TVET is the major role to implement human resources
development programs for science and technology.
At present, planning and management of Technical and Vocational Education
and Training (TVET) in Myanmar is being executed by the Ministry of Science and
Technology. The Ministry of Science and Technology consists of nine main Departments.
Among them, Department of Technical and Vocational Education is implementing the
TVET system.
Overview of TVET teacher education in Myanmar
The Department of Technical and Vocational Education is responsible for the
technical education and training of the country’s youth to become engineers,
technicians, skilled workers. DTVE function within the policy framework laid down by the
Ministry of Science and Technology.
The principal objectives of DTVE are:
To train qualified technicians and skilled workers
To formulate the program of strong linkages between academic and industries
To set the priorities for occupational skills this will be met with industrial needs
To organize training programs in vocational trades for the students who dropped
out at various levels of the formal education system
To train and nurture skilled technicians who are imbued with a sense of
conscientiousness and convictions to cherish the state
The curriculum development, examination program and academic plan are
carried out by the technical promotion committee. Its members include professors and
senior official from the relevant departments and Technological universities.
The main functions of DTVE are:
Implementing tasks according to the policies and guidelines lay down by
theministry of science and technology
Planning for the attainment of highly qualified and proficient teaching staff
Enhancing effective teaching methods using modern teaching aids and
There are Twenty eight Technological Universities, three Government
Technological Colleges, eleven Government Technical Institutes and thirty-six
Government Technical High School under the Ministry of Science and Technology.
These universities, colleges, institutes and schools are conducted for the students to
study and continue to the higher education in many skilled-based programs.
The students who achieves good score, the total marks of 360 and above in the
matriculation examination can apply for the A.G.T.I (Associationship of Government
Technical Institutes) diploma Technical training courses. Courses offered in A.G.T.I are
52 | P a g e Civil, Electronics, Electrical, Mechanical, Mechatronics, Information Technology,
Architecture, Textile, Mining, Petroleum, Chemical, Metallurgy and Biotechnology.
Qualified students in A.G.T.I diploma level can join the graduate courses
conducted by Technological Universities and Colleges. Realizing the education and
training are lifelong processes, the Department of Technical and Vocational Education
with the approval of the Ministry of Science and Technology has already implemented
several continuing education programs. Thus, it is envisaged that Technical and
Vocational Education and Training will continue to be given a high priority in Myanmar
for sustainable Human Resources Development.
The Universities, Colleges and Institutes established for technical education are
providing increased capacity of accepting more students and trainees. Number of
students attending at these Universities, Colleges and Institutes are 85934 in last
academic year 2012-2013.
The Department of Technical and Vocational Education has been making great effort
to raise the education standard of the nation and to provide qualified graduates in
TVET by nurturing qualified and competent teachers; making the technical education
level of students in urban and rural areas equivalent by sending qualified and
competent teaching staff to universities and colleges throughout the country;
purchasing laboratory equipment, teaching aids, and other research facilities; and
carrying out research and development projects.
Altogether 149,651 persons have already been trained and offered degrees and
certificates by the Universities, Colleges and Institutes under the Ministry of Science and
Technology during the period from 1997 to 2012.
Before 1996, Department of Technical and Vocational Education was formed under the
Ministry of Education. At that time DTVE conducted (11) Government Technical
Institutes, (17) Government Technical High Schools and Handicraft Schools, Machinery
School, Commercial School, Domestic Science School, Veterinary School, Agricultural
School, Agriculture Institute, Border Area Development School were operated for
Technical and Vocational Education in Myanmar. At that time, the teaching staff from
the Technical and Vocational Education Schools were trained Technical Teachers
Training Program in NewZealand and Canada. Moreover, the teachers were nurtured
according to the subjects to be able to train at the Technical Teachers Training Institute.
In 1988, national political system was changed and became under Military
regime. Due to the complicated political situation, all support from international was
stopped and it was seriously affected for the Training provided by the foreign countries.
Technical Teachers Training Institute also couldn’t function properly. Another worst
things, is properly well trained competent Teachers were going retired between 1988
and 2012, there were generation gap between teachers for (22) years, as two decades.
In the time of 1996, all the Technical and Vocational Education Schools were
transferred under the supervision of Ministry of Science and Technology.
53 | P a g e Between 1988 and 2010, due to political situation of our nation, Myanmar was
sanctioned economically by the International Countries. Not only Myanmar didn’t get
any assistance from foreign countries but also banned for economics relation with other
countries. National economy was fallen down and the competent and skillful teachers
also lost due to changing their profession, migrated to other firm and industry due to
having better salary.
Therefore, it becomes shortage of skilled and competent teachers for DTVE. For
recruitment of new teacher, the Ministry of Science and Technology organized the
outstanding youth students who passed the matriculation examination and contracted
for serving as teachers in technical institutes. They have a chance to attending
universities from first year to holding degree with the government support. Among them,
some outstanding students were taught to get Master Degree, Ph. D Degree in local
and a few brilliant students were sent to foreign countries for their Master Degree and
Ph. D Degree also.
The following map describes the location of TUs, GTCs, GTIs, GTHSs from the Department
of Technical and Vocational Education under the Ministry of Science and Technology
throughout the nation.
54 | P a g e 55 | P a g e At present, the total number of the teachers who served at the TUs, GTCs, GTIs,
GTHSs from the Department of Technical and Vocational Education under the Ministry
of Science and Technology are as follows.
PhD Degree Holders
374 persons
Master Degree Holders
1537 persons
Bachelor Degree Holders
1741 persons
Diploma Holders
250 persons
Total No of Teacher
3902 persons
Teachers need motivation to be devoted teacher; in fact they get low salary
compared to staff from private sector. Some teachers are planning to change other
job after the completion of their bonded contract with government. The teachers who
serve currently at the TUs, GTCs, GTIs, GTHSs have moderate ability in teaching theory
but a little experiences in teaching practical works.
They have less industrial experience. They got a chance only just visit to Industry and
workshop but they have lack of Industry based skilled. Besides, At the time of 1988 to
2010, all Industry and workshop were owned by the government and there were a few
private-owned firms and Industries. There was less relationship between Industry and
Current Policy and Practices
After the new government had taken the charge in 2011, the changes are being
implemented dramatically in both political and economic system. Private-owned
industries are encouraged and some are successfully growth up. The objectives of the
Technical and Vocational Education were also changed. Previously, there was less
involvement in relationship between workplace and education but now the main task
is changed as “Education for Work”.
At the time being, the government is encouraging and implementing in growth
of private industrial sector, the men power demand is significantly higher and higher.
Members of Parliament are also encouraging to upgrade for industry in their respective
region. For these reasons, teaching practices and the teaching methods as well as the
quality of the teaching staff are necessary to be reconsidered.
The following points become important to upgrade for quality of teachers.
(a) The teacher must have sufficient and appropriate qualification for both
knowledge and hands on skill.
(b) The teacher must have industrial experience to train their students which
meets the Industrial needs.
(c) The teacher must have skill in using the modernized teaching aids.
(d) The teacher must have ability to develop and innovate effective teaching
(e) The teacher must have ability to create linkage between institution and
Industry to get correct work placement according to industrial needs.
Some undergoing current Practices
(a)Since 2010, short-term skilled training courses are provided for the teaching
staff regionally.
56 | P a g e (b)Two months Special training Courses for technical teaches are conducted
every year in Yangon Technological University and Mandalay Technological
(c)Government has provided Internet connection for every TUs, GTCs, GTIs, GTHSs .
E-learning System is being established to make accessible to use in teacher’s
education and training.
(d)Further trainings are implemented with International organizations for
Technical Teachers Training. For this moment, there are technical teacher’s
programming with Government of Indonesia, GIZ German organization, and
Ministry of Science and Technology sent Myanmar Teachers to Indonesia for
training. Indonesian Teachers have been planned to visit Myanmar and
conduct Technical Training to Myanmar Teacher as trilateral cooperation.
(e)Comprehensive Education Sector Review (CESR)is implemented with
Myanmar funded by AUS AID, United Nations Organizations and other
International Non-government Organization.
(f)Curriculum for technical education has been established in line with National
Skill Standard (NSSA) National Skill Standard Authority which is established with
Myanmar, DTVE is actively involved in NSSA.
(g) DTVE is the member of ASEAN Qualification Framework AQF and National
Qualification Framework NQF. Quality of teacher has to be redefined to meet
requirement of NQF and AQF.
Challenges and Strategies
(a) Mainly in insufficient budget. Although Government allows more budgets year by
year, it has not met yet with actual requirement. For conductingtraining courses
for teacher education, we can’t run effectively due to budget constraints.
(b) According to present teacher-student ratio, there were insufficient teachers for
class room. So it faces with difficulties to make long term teacher’s education
(c) The teachers need to improve their ability in teaching not only in theoretical and
practical works skill but also in teaching method.
(d) To train teacher for using modern Teaching aids, another problem exist as
teaching aids currently in use are out-of-date equipment.
(e)Myanmar is left behind in Technology for two decades, and must try hard to keep
abreast with regional and International countries.
(f) Due to rapid expansion of 28 TUs, 4 Colleges, 11 Technical Institutes and 36
Technical High schools, we need more pre service training for new recruited
(g) Due to lack of qualified educationist, we cannot conduct In Service Training for
Technical Education pedagogy.
(a) Finding means and ways to get more Budget permission from our Parliament,
(b) Collaborating with International organizations to get necessary assistance and
57 | P a g e (c) Planning for recruitments for new teachers in region. It needs to improve the
teachers’ quality as well as quantity
(d) Planning to upgrade Teachers Training Centers to be Technical Teachers Training
(e) Inviting Experts from Industry and private workshops to the Universities to provide
skill training and sending the teachers from the institutes to Industry for having
practical work place exposure.
(f) Conducting practical skill training for technical teachers in six Industrial training
centers, collaboration with Ministry of Industry and also with Ministry of Labor.
(g)Reviewing curriculums for teacher’s education and reforming based on learning
for work principle.
(h) Changing curriculums for TVET teachers training more time for practical skill
(i) Drafting and proposing for TVET legal framework and policy, rules and regulations.
(j) Developing quality assurance framework for both teachers and learners.
Conclusion and Recommendations
Being left behind in Technical and Vocational Education sector for nearly two
decades, Myanmar is trying the best with some difficulties and challenges to overcome
this large gap. Department of Technical and Vocational Education are willing and
happy to have any assistance, any suggestion, any comment, any technical assistance,
any training for trainers, providing any technical education training for teachers in
Myanmar, regarding the current teacher’s education processes.
Ram Babu Adhikary
Council for Technical Education ande Vocational Training
The system of training for Secondary teachers was initiated in Nepal in 1957 when the
training system for the school teachers was started in 1957 in Nepal. At that time the
government of USA supported to establish College of Education with functional and
technical assistance. Under Tribhuvan University, the College of Education offered a
two year I.Ed. program for the 10-year high school graduates to train lower secondary
teachers. The College also offered a one-year B.Ed. course for those who holds
Bachelor’s degree in other subjects other than education. Likewise, the Ministry of
Education started in-service teachers training program after few years under Science
Education Project. After establishing the Council for Technical Education and
Vocational Training (CTEVT) in 1989, the government realized a separate technical
teachers training program working in different CTEVT schools. In 1991, Training Institute
for Technical Instruction (TITI) was established as a TVET teacher training institute.
The TVET teacher education and training program is not satisfactory until now. There is
no mandatory for pre-service training or in-service training in TVET instructors. TVET
teachers licensing system is not implemented. CTEVT should have long term Human
Resource Development (HRD) policy. There should be regional and international
development cooperation in the field of TVET teacher education and training in Nepal.
Education in Nepal from the primary school to the university level has been
modeled from the very inception on the Indian system, which is in turn the legacy of the
old British Raj. Hence, until the recent past, Nepal followed the traditional sixteen-year
education system, allocating ten years to school education, four years to college level
studies - two years each for intermediate and bachelor program, and two to the
Masters program at the university. TVET sector targeted two types of students. School
dropout students can enrolled in vocational training program and Technical SLC
program, whereas Secondary school passed students will be enrolled in 3 years diploma
The system of training for Secondary teachers was initiated in Nepal in 1957
when the training system for the school teachers was started in 1957 in Nepal. At that
time the government of USA supported to establish College of Education with
functional and technical assistance. Under Tribhuvan University, the College of
Education offered a two year I.Ed. program for the 10-year high school graduates to
train lower secondary teachers. The College also offered a one-year B.Ed. course for
those who holds Bachelor’s degree in other subjects other than education. Likewise, the
Ministry of Education started in-service teachers training program after few years under
59 | P a g e Science Education Project. The system of training for Secondary teachers was initiated
in Nepal in 1957 when the training system for the school teachers was started in 1957 in
Nepal. At that time the government of USA supported to establish College of Education
with functional and technical assistance. Under Tribhuvan University, the College of
Education offered a two year I.Ed. program for the 10-year high school graduates to
train lower secondary teachers. The College also offered a one-year B.Ed. course for
those who holds Bachelor’s degree in other subjects other than education. Likewise, the
Ministry of Education started in-service teachers training program after few years under
Science Education Project. Nepal government has been investing significant amount of
money in education. The government has given preference to quality service delivery
in education. Therefore, it has been investing big amount of money in teachers training
from last five decades. There are 9 primary teachers training centers (ETC) and 25
secondary teachers training centers (ETCB) allocated around the country. Teacher
training is getting high preference from the government as well as from donor agencies.
However, effectiveness of teacher training is always in question.
The Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) constituted
in 1989 (2045 BS) is a national autonomous apex body of Technical and Vocational
Education and Training (TVET) sector committed for the production of technical and
skillful human resources required to the nation. It mainly involves in policy formulation,
quality control, preparation of competency based curriculum, developing skill
standards of various occupations and testing the skills of the people, conduct various
research studies and training needs assessment etc. After establishing the Council for
Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) in 1989, the government realized
a separate technical teachers training program working in different CTEVT schools. In
1991, Training Institute for Technical Instruction (TITI) was established as a TVET teacher
training institute. CTEVT through its constituted technical schools and training centers,
affiliated technical colleges and institutes, and annex schools offer proficiency/diploma
level, technical school leaving certificate and short-term vocational and skill training.
Now approximately 10 thousand TVET teachers and trainers are involved in CTEVT
network. TITI is only the responsible organization to conduct the pre service and inservice training to the TVET teachers.
Situation of TVET teachers
Inadequacy of qualified and trained teachers, decreasing quality of school
graduates and lack of practical activities in the delivery of instruction were found to be
the weaknesses of the existing TVET system in Nepal. Similarly, poor linkage of general
education with TVET system, lack of practical knowledge and vocational skills, lack of
job security of teachers, inaccessible education to extremely poor and inadequate
budget were found to be the weaknesses of TVET system. Anybody who passed
technical school education could become a TVET teacher. The condition for
recruitment of professional teachers in vocational schools is usually Diploma level,
bachelor degree or master degree in some special field. Motivation of preparation for
examination, ease of measuring the level of knowledge, convenience in preparing the
test items, uniformity in examination system and easy to evaluate students'
performance are depends on the effectiveness of the teacher’s education and training
program. There are no mandatory for pre-service training or in-service training to TVET
teachers and trainers. Only a very small part of vocational school teachers have
60 | P a g e received pre-service professional education for TVET. There is no professional
competence standard of TVET teaching and training staff in Nepal. Majority of junior
teachers with below diploma level are found to have been teaching at both the TSLC
and diploma levels. They don’t have strong educational background, occupational
skills and instructional skills too.
We can found various problems in teacher education program in TVET sectors of
Nepal. Shortage of funding, shortage of trained subject teachers and shortage of
physical facilities for teacher training are the potential risks and challenges in initiating
the TVET teacher education and training program. Licensing system is not introduced in
TVET sector whereas there is existing teacher licencing system in general education
sector in Nepal. TVET Teaching is considered the least preferred occupation for
qualified person.
Academic Requirement for TVET Teachers
The CTEVT has guidelines and by-laws about the academic requirement for
various level TVET teachers. Following is the general requirement of qualification for
different level.
Assistant 2nd Class
Teaching Aid
Technical SLC
Assistant 1st Class
Assistant Instructor
Diploma Level
Officer 3rd Class
Bachelor Degree
Officer 2nd Class
Senior Instructor
Master Degree/Ph.D.
The TITI has different academic and training programs for the teachers, trainers,
managers and researchers. TITI provides training for trainers, technical instructors and
managers, and occupational curriculum development specialists through regular
programs and modules or through customized trainings. The high quality and unique
instructional materials used in these modules have been adopted by numerous
countries in Asia and world-wide. The TITI has existing curricula more or less, addressed
basic life skills as group work (cooperative skill), social skill (maintaining relationship),
solving daily life problems like letter writing, health related skills, learning and earning
skills, office management skills, communication skills, decision making skills and the skill
related to vocational education. Likewise it also have curriculum for occupational skills.
61 | P a g e The most popular teachers training program of TITI are as follows.
Course Title
Training of Trainers (TOT)
2 Weeks
Instructional Skill (Level 1)
4 Weeks
Instructional Skill (Level 2)
4 Weeks
Instructional Skill (Level 3)
4 Weeks
Instructional 4 Weeks
Instructional System Design
8 Weeks
2 Years
Key issues and Challenges
The TITI has a standard curriculum in training program. It is structured and helps
trainers to conduct training effectively. However, Nepal is a diversified country. The
training curriculum does not address this situation. As trainers are not effective and
efficient in using resources, teachers are also less competent in this area. Most of them
did not show creativity in using teaching aids. In this situation, we have identified
following key issues and challenges in TVET teacher education and training in Nepal.
National/International Coordination
National Resource allocation in TEVT teacher education
Quality Standard
Institutionalization of peer review and continuous monitoring of teachers
Lack of autonomy: qualifications, course content, lecturers perceptions
Lack of teacher networking
Scholarship for teachers, especially those in deprived areas
Teachers have a low self-esteem and are frustrated
Human Resource Development within CTEVT and its institutes
TVET teachers have better non-teaching job opportunities in industry
Industry institute linkage
62 | P a g e Proposed Approach
On the basis of discussion in previous headings, we can propose following
recommendation to develop TVET teacher education and training program in Nepal.
• Networking among teachers to facilitate information sharing and collegial
• Teacher involvement in policy making bodies
• Long term HRD policy in CTEVT
• TVET Teacher licensing system
• Pre-service, In-service training strategy
• Regional and international cooperation for teacher education
• Resource allocation for TVET teacher education program
• New innovation in education system: e-learning, School-based training,
apprenticeship , course base on occupation classification and industry section
• Accelerated promotion based on education and training qualification
• Special quota for study leave with pay
• University-school co-operation
The TVET teacher education and training program is not satisfactory until now. There is
no mandatory for pre-service training or in-service training in TVET instructors. TVET
teachers licensing system is not implemented. CTEVT should have long term Human
Resource Development (HRD) policy. There should be regional and international
development cooperation in the field of TVET teacher education and training in Nepal.
TITI is the apex body of CTEVT to organise TVET teacher education and training.
Therefore, the roles in transfer of TVET related occupational and instructional knowledge
and skills should start from TITI and CTEVT.
CTEVT (November 2009), CTEVT Bulletin, Technical Training Providers Profile.
TITI (2011) TITI Journal
Dr. Rochana Jantrakool (Sriboonma)
Office of the Vocational Education Commission
Ministry of Education
This paper discusses the vocational and technical education and training (TVET) current
system. The labor mobility and employment for strengthening skill competencies in this
region have influenced the way of TVET system in Thailand. Office of the Vocational
Education Commission (OVEC) sets the TVET policies divided into 4 major dimensions as:
a) Dimension 1: giving an opportunity of vocational education to all; b) Dimension 2:
developing the quality of the vocational students; c) Dimension 3: establishing the
effectiveness of TVET management; and Dimension 4: cooperating the TVET
management. One of the TVET quality developments must be carried by the
vocational teachers. The good practices of OVEC programs launched for improving
the vocational teachers’ potential as: a) conducting the native foreign experts; b)
improving learning management using project or problem based learning (PsBL); c)
increasing the potential of occupational skills; d) working on research for developing
instructional media “The Innovative Logistics Professional’s Training for Border Trade with
the Greater MEKONG Sub-region”; e) strengthening the TVET networking with other
organizations in both public and private sectors; and d) expanding the overseas
Key words: Technical and Vocational Teachers, Competency
In 2011, Thailand has a gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices of
10.54 trillion baht (Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board,
2012) approximately as US$ 345.65 billion with the growth rate of 0.1 percent (The World
Bank, 2012), much lower than the expected growth rate of 3.5 percent due to severe
damage from the flood in the last quarter of the year. In 2012, the Thai economy is
expected to grow by 5.5-6.5 percent, a V-shaped recovery.
The industrial and the service sectors serve as the two main sectors in the Thai
gross domestic product, with the former accounting for 39 percent. Thailand has an
agricultural sector which shares only 8.6 percent of the GDP – lower than the trading
sector and the logistics & communication sector which account for 13.5 percent and
9.6 percent of the GDP respectively. (Bank of Thailand, 2012).
64 | P a g e With regard to the social and development indicators, Thailand is recognized by
the World Bank as “one of the great development success stories”. It is now an uppermiddle income country, the percentage of the population living below the national
poverty line decreased dramatically from 42.21 in 1988 to 7.75 in 2010. Moreover, the
minimum wages to be increased to 300 baht (about US$ 10) per day by 2013, the
Kingdom’s unemployment rate remains very low, and the inflation rate is still not so high.
Thailand is a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Cairns Group of
agricultural exporters. Thailand is part of the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) and has
actively pursued free trade agreements.
Although the economy has demonstrated moderate positive growth since 1999,
future performance depends on continued reform of the financial sector, corporate
debt restructuring, attracting foreign investment, and increasing exports.
Telecommunications, roadways, electricity generation, and ports showed increasing
strain during the period of sustained economic growth and may pose a future
challenge. Thailand's growing shortage of engineers and skilled technical personnel
may limit its future technological creativity and productivity (www.wikipedia).
Education System
A. Education System
The Thai Education system follows a 6-3-3 structure as illustrated in Figure 1. It
consists of 12 year free basic education: 6 years of primary education, 3 years of lower
secondary education and 3 years of upper secondary education. Enrolment in the
basic education system begins at the age of 6. The current Thai Education system
stems from the reforms set by the 1999 National Education Act which implemented new
organizational structures, promoted the decentralization of administration and called
for innovative learner-centered teaching practices. The Thai education system provides
9 years of compulsory education from 1 to 9 in primary and lower secondary education,
with 12 years of free basic education guaranteed by the Constitution. In addition, at
the end of 1 3-year of lower secondary level, students can decide to continue for
further study at the upper-secondary level in general education at academic field or in
vocational education for career path. Vocational education aims to enable learners
to develop occupational knowledge and skills useful for working both as entrepreneurs
and as paid workers.
65 | P a g e Figure 1. The Thai Education System
Source: Adapted from the Thai Education System, Towards a Learning Society, Ministry of Education
Administration in Educational Service Areas
The 1999 National Education Act initiated an overall reformation of the Thai
Education System. Considerable changes in the structure of management and
administration have taken place in order to support the key teaching and learning
changes Emphasis is on the decentralization of administrative responsibilities to local
level with the consolidation of education planning at the central level. A new structure
for the organization of the Ministry of Education at Central Level (Figure 2) has been
implemented since 2002.
66 | P a g e Figure 2. Organization of Administration in Educational Service Areas
Source: Education in Thailand 2007, Office of the Education Council, 2007.
Vocational and Technical Education & Training System
In Thailand, as in many other countries in the region, the system of vocational
education and training consists of two different sectors. The first is formal vocational
education, carried out as a fulltime school scheme. Graduates are awarded a
certificate, formal vocational and technical education is conducted at three levels:
upper secondary (leading to the Lower Certificate of Vocational Education), post
secondary (leading to a Diploma or Vocational Associate Degree) and university level
(leading to a Degree).
Another sector, non-formal vocational training, offers many social groups open
access to the training programs; graduates are awarded internationally recognized
certificates of skills development on different levels. Since the 1960s, both sectors have
been extended continuously and in parallel by government funds and with support of
international development cooperation. Today both sectors have a dense network of
institutes that stretch across the whole country. The segmentation is based on regulatory
policy. Occupational training is regarded as a task of the government and is,
consequently, placed under the jurisdiction of certain government bodies.
67 | P a g e Private sector organizations have been involved in vocational education system
for providing internship and apprenticeship as dual vocational training. The demand of
the public sector for personnel declined significantly, and private companies, which
were becoming larger in number mainly due to foreign direct investment, were
increasingly recruiting graduates of formal vocational education (Pozorski, 1999).
Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC)
The Office of the Vocational Education Commission (OVEC), Ministry of
Education is a leading agency providing skill manpower and practical or work-based
training. OVEC is responsible for vocational and professional life long learning. The
provision of technical and vocational education and training is offered through the
formal school system, in both the basic and vocational education streams, as well as
through non-formal education opportunities. Technology-related education is offered
at primary school level as an elective, compulsory, or free elective course to provide
students with practical experience and basic knowledge.
• Provide the general public with access to technical and vocational
• Assess the demands of the labor markets and promote self-employment in
accordance with social and economic development of the country.
• Produce and develop a vocational workforce in all professional levels.
• Implement and standardize quality vocational education management and
• Promote research, innovation and technology development for a
competitive market.
Accordance with the Education Ministry Regulation B.E. 2003, the education
administration and management structure of the OVEC consists of 7 bureaus and 2
organizations as follow:
- Bureau of General Administration
- Bureau of Cooperation
- Bureau of Monitoring and Evaluation
- Bureau of Policy and Planning
- Bureau of Personnel Competency Development
- Bureau of Standards and Qualification
- Bureau of Research and Development
- Internal Audition Office
- Public Service Development Section
As the second education reform, OVEC has adjusted the structure of
administration for launching the projects to develop the technical and vocational
education management by adding 4 units as the following:
- Center for Education Development at the Southern Border Region
- Center for Students’ Activities Development and Coordination
- Center for Vocational Manpower Information Technology
- Supervisory Unit
68 | P a g e Current Status
The provision of VTET is offered the formal school system and non formal
education system through colleges. There are 415 colleges working under the OVEC as
follows: a) 110 technical colleges; b) 36 vocational colleges; c) 43 agricultural and
technical colleges; d) 53 polytechnic colleges; e) 142 industrial & community colleges;
f) 5 commercial colleges; g) 3 industrial and ship building technical colleges; h) 2 arts
and crafts colleges; i) 3 business administration & tourism colleges; j) 4 fishery colleges;
and k) 1 Kanchanapisek Golden Jubilee Royal Goldsmith college l) 11 Technology and
Management College; and m) 1 Science based technical and vocational
college(OVEC, 2012; http// The major programs has been offering to
the vocational stream including industry, arts & crafts, home economics, business &
commerce, tourism, agriculture, fishery, textile industry, and technology information &
The total number of vocational students in formal school system tended to
decrease from 693,038 in 2010 to 684,055 in 2011and to 663,338 in 2012 (Figure 3). The
student enrolment in certificate was higher than diploma and higher diploma level. As
a result, most of vocational students would prefer to study further as bachelor degree.
679,928 689,252 681,434 695,096 693,038
207,845 210,866 209,324 224,277 224,563
477,767 471,557
Higher Diploma
Figure 3. Number of Vocational Students in Formal School System
Classified by Level, Academics Years 2003 – 2011.
69 | P a g e As comparing between the formal and non-formal school systems, we found
that the total number of vocational students in non-formal stream accounted for
900,501 was higher than in formal stream accounted for 684,055 in 2011. A demand for
greater access to short courses in VTET is also increasing for upgrading the qualifications
of the work forces in local community and rural areas. The majority of vocational
students enrolled in industry and business & commerce programs. The students enrolled
in industry program of non-formal and formal school systems comprised 477,642 and
365,448 respectively. And the students enrolled in business and commerce program of
non-formal and formal school systems comprised 323,928 and 240,688 respectively
(Table 1).
Table 1. Number of Vocational Students in Formal and Non-formal School Systems by Level and
Programs, Academics Year 2011
Education Education
Business and
Arts &
Hotel and
Source: Office of the Vocational Education Commission, 2012
The total number of vocational teachers in academic year of 2012 is
approximately 16,198. Most of vocational teachers graduated in bachelors’ degree
and master degree comprised 9,310 and 6,670, respectively. In addition the vocational
teachers tend to decrease (Figure 4). Because the government’s policy is limited to the
70 | P a g e number of government teachers, but it still recruits the vocational teachers by using sign
contract. However, the government needs to provide the teacher positions for some
major rare fields such as science, mathematics, petro-chemistry, water resource
management, and logistics and so on. When comparing the vocational teachers by
gender and major courses provided in TVET, we found that most of vocational teachers
are male accounted for 9,588 (Figure 5). The majority of vocational teachers work in
industrial college and polytechnic & community college comprised around 7,685 and
3,606, respectively (Figure 6). The number of vocational teachers is consistency with the
number of colleges providing the TVET curriculum of the office of vocational education
commission (OVEC).
Doctoral degree
Master degree
Bachelor degree
Lower than Bachelor
Figure 4. Number of Vocational Teachers in Academics Years 2008 - 2012
Source:; Center for Vocational Manpower Information Technology
Figure 5. Number of Vocational Teachers by Gender in Academics Years 2012
Source:; Center for Vocational Manpower Information Technology
71 | P a g e Royal Goldsmith ,Technology and
Management &Science Based College
Polytechnic & Community College
Figure 6. Number of Vocational Teachers by Major in Academics Years 2012
Source:; Center for Vocational Manpower Information Technology
Good Practices in Vocational Teacher Education Development
With rapid transformation of societies in social, political, economic, technological,
and education spheres, they have been a change in the perspectives on the need for
and nature of vocational teacher education. OVEC has launched some good
practices as the following:
● Conducting the Native Foreign Experts
Office of the Vocational Education Commission is concerned how to prepare
the vocational teachers and students for ASEAN community. In 2011, OVEC allocated
the budget 144 million baht to improve the occupational and language skills by asking
the native foreign experts and occupational wisdom people to teach or work in schools
directly. The languages provided in class such as English, Chinese, Japanese, and
ASEAN languages and so on. The knowledge was summarized in CD, hard copies, and
uploaded in the website of OVEC. The curriculum related to ASEAN must be covered in
physical geography, people & culture, city & tourism, and season & whether.
This program had been fitted the objectives, but still be needed to improve the
curriculum standard, integrate into formal courses, launch program continuingly,
develop the vocational teacher manual for lifelong learning and etc.
72 | P a g e ●Improving Learning Management Using PBL
As the global situation always change, the problem of agricultural situation
should be concerned in Thailand. It may involve balancing between energy and food
of the world. This will effect happening any disasters and environmental changes. OVEC
provides the agricultural education using Future Farmers of Thailand Model. Project
based learning and problem based learning (PBL) are the good teaching methods for
agricultural teachers. Hence, OVEC has launched the program of improving learning
management using PBL.
● Increasing the Potential of Occupational Skills
According to OVEC has been provided in many fields. The bureau of personnel
competency development has done in many fields to increase the potential of
vocational teachers’ occupational skills in major of hospitality, arts and crafts, business
and commerce, foods, jewelry design, logistics, construction, electronics, mathematics
in GPS and so on.
● Developing the instructional Media “The Innovative Logistics Professional’s Training for
Border Trade with the Greater MEKONG Sub-region”
Office of the Vocational Education Commission has taken on the responsibilities
of producing and developing the vocational manpower in the workforce. One of the
whole ideas is to increase business capacities of Thai industrial sectors to be
competitive at the international level. As a matter of fact, the idea can be
accomplished by gaining competitive advantages through human resource
development especially in the level of vocational schools where students are taught to
perform a special task.
Therefore, the OVEC focuses on developing academics, employability and
attitude skills before the students enter the workforce. The research project of “The
Innovative Logistics Professional's Training for Border Trade with the Greater MEKONG
Sub-region” could potentially provide tremendous benefit to the businesses in the
Greater Mekong River trading areas as long as human capital developments are
properly planned and successfully run.
The innovative logistics professional’s training manual went through assessment
and testing processes. The manuals consist of three different sections with one main
activity. Firstly of the border trade logistic competency called as knowledge, the
vocational teachers can teach their students to learn how to handle customs rules,
exportation measures, laws, and trading regulations. Secondly of the competency;
called as Skill, the students should be developed more skills on communication which
can help students understand what customers’ need and can help coordinating tasks
run smoother. Lastly of the competency; called as attribute and/or attitude, the positive
attitude at the workplace is a must. The students should be responsible for their
assignments, must be on-time, and have good personality. These key personality traits,
needed for the future career advancement, were detailed in the innovative logistics
professional’s training manual.
73 | P a g e ● Strengthening the TVET Networking with other organizations and private sectors
OVEC has cooperated with other organizations including public and private
sectors such as National Science and Technology Development Agency: NSTDA.
Thailand National Electronics and Computer Technology Center: NECTEC, Thai
Federation on Logistics, Kasetsart University: KU, King
Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi: KMUTT and so on.
● Expanding the Overseas Partnership
OVEC has done some projects working with other countries. The examples of
programs are as the following:
- Lao-Thai Skill Upgrading Training Program Cooperation supported by the Asia
Development Bank (ADB), and
- TVET Teacher Exchange Program between Indonesia and Thailand,
18 - 22 September 2012, etc.
Future Directions
As the global and rapid technology changes including socio-economic and
political factors in Thailand, the Ministry of Education will push forward the development
of vocational education to meet the market demand and the upcoming free labor
transfer within the ASEAN region in the future. The National Vocational Education Plan
has been pointed out as the following:
Education Policies
The National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016) have the
statements of the vocational manpower focusing on sustainable skill development to
global competitiveness including two mainstreams as follow:
- establishing lifelong learning society and
- increasing stronger regional cooperation based on ASEAN member
partnership (NESDB, 2011).
In addition, the Ministry of Education has the policy for the ASEAN community as
- sharing knowledge and information of ASEAN at school in all levels for
creating ASEAN awareness;
- building the capacity of teachers and students to access the quality of
- developing the standard of education in all levels;
- encouraging the memorandum of agreement in education for
occupational development on preparing cross-border mobility; and
- strengthening the Thai youth development project.
The vocational education policies setting goal to improve the quality of the
vocational graduate students based on demand and supply, the current SecretaryGeneral of OVEC (Dr. Chaiyapruek Serirak) gave the TVET policies divided into 4 major
dimensions as follow:
- Dimension 1: Giving an opportunity of vocational education to all
- Dimension 2: Developing the quality of the vocational student
74 | P a g e -
Dimension 3: Establishing the effectiveness of TVET management
Dimension 4: Cooperating the TVET management
To focus on the vocational teacher development, the Secretary-General set the
policy for the fiscal year of 2013 as establishing the vocational association in major fields
under OVEC such as automobile teacher association (AuTA), agricultural teacher
association (AgTA), and so forth.
Setting the vocational teacher development institution of Thailand.
Considering the professional regulatory under the MRAs to enlarge for
vocational teachers transfer or exchange programs.
Enhancing stronger regional solidarity and cooperation on research and
Bank of Thailand. (2012). "Thailand Economy Data Base".
Thai/economic Conditions.
Bureau of International Cooperation, Ministry of Education. (2008). Towards a learning
society: An introduction of education in Thailand.
Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board. (2012). http://
Office of the Vocational Education Commission, 2012. Structure and administration,
Pozorski, P. (1999). Technical and Vocational Training in Thailand.
World Bank.
country/thailand on 17 July 2012.
from culture-and-education-toward-realize; center for vocational manpower information technology
Nguyen Hong Hai
Upper Secondary and Professional Teacher Development Project
Ministry of Education and Training
Viet Nam
The paper is to present issues that hinder the development of the Vietnamese
vocational teachers. The paper is also to express some solutions that the Vietnamese
Ministry of Education and Training may apply in order to help increase the
competencies and motivation of the current vocational teachers.
Keywords: Technical and vocational development, issues and solutions
The Vietnamese population is around 90 million and scattering in 63 provinces or
696 districts. Viet Nam shares border with China, Lao PDR and Cambodia. In the
education system, there are five (5) main levels which are infant education, primary
education, secondary education, technical and vocational education (TVE) and
higher education..
There are 540 TVE institutions, of which 282 are intermediate TVE colleges and 258
are higher TVE colleges that provide TVE training programs. On average, in Viet Nam,
each district has one TVE institution. In the TVE field, the private institutions account for
27 % and the number is increasing as the government encourages and calls for
potential investors.
In total, Viet Nam has around 1 million teachers and lecturers working at five
levels. However, there are only 18,000 TVE teachers who are teaching 700,000 students.
To date, Viet Nam still has 60% labours that have not been trained yet. Therefore,
the role of the TVE is very important in order to help them get skilled.
76 | P a g e The percentage of the trained and non‐trained labours
The trained
The non‐trained
Figure 1. Percentage of Trained and Non-trained Labours
The Ministry of Education and Training (MOET)
The Ministry of Education and Training oversees and governs all education
activities in Viet Nam. MOET has a complex structure under a minister of education and
training, supported by five vice ministers responsible for various departments within the
education portfolio. The main functions of the Ministry include policy formulation,
implementation, and evaluation of national education plans, as well as the initiation of
legislation relating to education and training. Delivery and implementation of
education, however, falls under the responsibility of provincial and district level
authorities. As part of the country’s decentralization mechanism, administration and
management of schools and institutions are the responsibilities of local education
The Department of Education and Training (DOET)
The Department of Education and Training (DOET) is the education authority at
the provincial level, and its main roles include coordination and support of education
services implementation at the district level. Furthermore, the technical and vocation
education is generally under the direct responsibility of the respective provincial
education authorities. Provincial education departments are headed by Provincial
Education Directors.
Current Policies and Practices
Teacher Salary
It is common knowledge that Vietnamese teachers are underpaid and that most
seek employment outside their primary positions. As a result, some teachers devote a
77 | P a g e minimum amount of time to their teaching responsibilities and more time to outside
endeavors. The average teacher salary is 1.7 times Viet Nam’s gross domestic product
(GDP) per capita compared with an average of 2.4 times GDP per capita for all Asia
countries (World Bank, 2006) and less than half of the “Education for All” Indicative
Framework target of 3.5 (Huang, 2006). Salary levels are set by the Vietnamese
government and are based on the public sector minimum salary scale. Salary
increments are based on years of service (not on educational level, professional
advancement, or performance). Since 1997, public TVE teachers have received salary
supplements but before that, supplements were granted only for extra duties or for
going to rural areas.
Teacher Development
Pre-service Training
Teacher training in Viet Nam is managed at two levels: decision making is
centralized; implementation is decentralized. MOET is required to provide a pre-service
training curriculum framework that specifies content and duration of required
coursework. The framework includes the number of credit hours for general education,
professional education and practice teaching. Pre-service training is provided by
universities. However, there are no universities that provide a direct program for TVE
teachers. Individual, who wants to become a TVE teacher, must graduate from a
university and to take another teaching method course. All of these universities must
follow MOET regulations and the Education Law.
In-service Training
In-service training is offered through the teacher training institutions or MOET. Inservice training is often held on Saturdays and during the summer. Like pre-service
training, it is regulated by MOET.
Legal and Policy Basis for Renovation of Viet Nam’s TVE Sector
In general, The Vietnamese Government considers education as very high
priority and issued the policy that education is the national and leading policy. It means
that The Vietnamese Government pays special attention when they allocate the
national resources or make any decision and every relevant party must have curtain
responsibility for education.
Furthermore, at the moment The Vietnamese Government and The Ministry of
Education and Training are trying to renovate primarily and fully the education system.
In other words, from now to the year of 2020, MOET will conduct a massive reform in
education that include the renovation in policy, management, contents, curricula,
methods, teaching equipment and especially the quality of teaching staff.
The Vietnamese government is proactive and understands that economic
development will depend on a highly educated workforce. There is a strong legal basis
for changes in the Vietnamese technical and vocational education system. The
Vietnamese government has mandated changes to the education and training system
to develop the skills, attitudes and intellectual capacity needed to build an adaptable
and competitive workforce. As a result, the new national education strategy focuses
78 | P a g e more on quality, and seeks to replace the old system (rooted in teacher-centered
practice and learning by rote) with one geared more toward the creation of a
“knowledge society”.
At the heart of these reforms is a call to strengthen teacher capacity-building
and management systems. This is reflected in the priorities of the strategy for education
development in the period 2011 – 2020. MOET’s stated priorities are to (i) create radical
changes in education quality; (ii) give priority to the enhancement of manpower
training; and (iii) enhance innovations in education management. The Education
Development Strategic Plan focuses on education management and teacher
development as two main factors for education development.
Transformation in teacher training is focused on standardizing and upgrading
teacher qualifications and training institution capacity, and on adapting training and
teacher support to the new curricula and methodologies. The high level of attention
given to renovating the curricula and methodologies demands a corresponding
updating and upgrading of teacher knowledge and skills (Huang, 2005). In addition to
the aforementioned changes, there is a concerted effort to upgrade the capacity and
qualifications of teachers, teacher trainers, and Teacher Training Universities (TTIs) as well
as in-service training to introduce the new student curricula and methodologies to
While these changes in teacher capacity and management are sought, there is
also a national focus on decentralization and socialization of the educational system.
All current Viet Nam education project plans focus on a move to a more efficient
decentralized education management system using accountability measures such as
teacher standards (Furniss, 2008). Socialization in the Vietnamese context refers to local
communities sharing a greater burden for funding education on the local level
(Nguyen, 2004) and decreasing the central government’s role in funding.
Issues and Solutions
In general and with regard to TVE teachers, there are three main issues: (i) The
TVE teachers’ competencies are low compared with that in the regional countries; (ii)
There is no specific training programs that help students directly become TVE teachers;
and (iii) Teaching equipments are insufficient and out of date. To solve these issues,
MOET is taking some following actions:
1) Developing policy and quality assurance frameworks
Critiques of both pre-service and in-service training are that both are often
theoretical in nature and do not provide practical applications. In pre-service
education, many new lecturers are hired directly out of colleges or universities and
have no practical experiences in classroom teaching beyond their own student
teaching experience. Instruction in both pre and in-service is primarily lecture based
and does not show TVE teachers how to implement new ideas and methods in their
classrooms. Further, some educational researcher from outside Viet Nam (Hamano,
2008: Huang, 2006), argue that because few teacher trainers have firsthand experience
teaching for creative thinking and problem solving, and few were taught in a student –
79 | P a g e centered fashion, they are unable to help upgrade practicing teachers’ skills, because
they only know of these new methods in the abstract.
MOET is developing polices and quality assurance frameworks for TVE teacher
development and information management systems to plan and manage training and
career development of the TVE teachers. MOET has limited capacity to provide
accurate and timely information, or to analyze trends to better plan future policies and
programs. This constrains its ability to ensure quality of planning associated with teacher
training. Although MOET has exhibited strong commitment to education, it needs
support to develop a policy and quality assurance framework for TVE teacher
development; and an information management system that will allow it to plan and
manage the training and career development of the large teaching force.
2) TVE Teacher Standards
MOET regards the professional standards for TVE teachers as the primary policy in
the efforts to renovate the quality of TVE teachers. MOET will develop standards for TVE
teachers. The development of teacher standards can be considered as a foundation
to all educational renovation efforts in Viet Nam. The goals of the standards are to:
Help the TVE teachers self-assess their knowledge and practices, thereby,
guiding TVE teachers to develop professional attributes, knowledge and
understanding, and skills;
Provide guidelines for educational managers’ annual assessments and rankings
of TVE teachers, thereby providing goals for management, plans for professional
development of teachers;
Provide a basis for pre-service and in-service teacher professional development
programs at universities of education as well as other teacher training institutes;
Articulate a foundation for policies and priorities for TVE teachers.
80 | P a g e 1. Help TVE teachers self‐
4. A foundation for policies and priorities
The professional standards for TVE teachers
2. Guidelines to assess and rank TVE teachers
3. A basis for development programs
Figure 2. The Professional Standards for TVE Teachers Development
3) Developing database of TVE teachers
The database will include some personal information, professional competencies
and the individual training needs. The four steps are recommended:
Analyzing the demands of information by relevant parties such as MOET
managers, TVE Institutions, TVE teachers;
Developing software to manage the information system;
Testing the software and system
Training the end-users to utilize the software.
According to The strategy for education development in the period 2011 – 2020
(decision 771 by the Vietnamese prime minister), the general purpose of the education
reform in Viet Nam for the next 10 years (2011-2020) is to renovate primarily and fully
with the direction of standardization, modernization, socialization, democratization and
In order to reform, Viet Nam has selected 8 solutions, including Renovation in
education management; Development of teachers and education managers;
Renovation in teaching contents, teaching and assessing methods; Increase in financial
investment and adjustment in financial allocation. Therefore, Viet Nam focuses on
development of teaching staff and is developing standards that determine what make
81 | P a g e a good TVE teacher. MOET considers the professional standards for TVE teachers as
decisive solution to help increase the competencies of TVE teachers.
Besides that, the author of this paper recommends three researches should be
carried out:
- Firstly, based on the standards, develop indicators and evidences that help TVE
teachers understand and identify what and how they need to do in order to
become an excellent TVE teachers;
- Secondarily, develop assessment tools that help TVE teachers to do selfassessment against the professional standards;
- Thirdly, study the training needs of the current TVE teachers and developing the
materials for in-service training courses.
Decision 08/2012/TT-BGDDT by the Minister of MOET
Furniss, E. (2008). Secondary level teacher development and teacher management
(administration) in Viet Nam: A framework for discussion. UNESCO Viet Nam,
Huang, S.S. (2005). Vietnam: Learning to teach in knowledge society. Working paper
No. 2005-03. World Bank, Washington, D.C. Retrieved from
December 2008.
Nguyen, C.G. (2004). Results from the survey of implementation on our nation's
education socialization in recent years. Symposium: Social mobilization of
education and training. Education Publishing House, Hanoi
The strategy for education development in the period 2011 – 2020 (decision 771 by the
prime minister)
The Vietnamese Education Law
World Bank. (2006). Project Information Document: Vietnam: School Education Quality
December 2008.
82 | P a g e