Milkshake - A brief portrait
A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage made from milk, ice cream or
iced milk, and ﬂavourings or sweeteners (e.g. fruit syrup or chocolate
sauce). It is usually served in a tall glass with a straw. A whipped cream
may be added as a topping.
The most popular milkshake ﬂavours include vanilla, chocolate, and
In some Commonwealth nations and some parts of New England in
the United States, milkshakes are made without ice cream (when made
with ice cream it is commonly called a frappe, from the French frapper
meaning "to beat", or cabinet in Rhode Island).
The traditional homemade preparation is made mixing the shake "by
hand" from scoops of ice cream and milk in a blender or drink mixer
using a stainless steel cup.
Most fast food make shakes in automatic machines, which freeze and
serve a pre-made milkshake mixture consisting of milk, a sweetened
ﬂavouring agent, and a thickening agent.
Hand-blended milkshakes can be made from any ﬂavour of ice cream,
and additional ﬂavourings, such as chocolate syrup and malt, can be
added prior to mixing. This allows a greater
variety than is available in machine-made shakes.
Several decades ago, milkshakes were made
without ice cream, a practice that is still continued
in some Commonwealth nations and the New England region of the
Milkshake-like recipes, which use yogurt, crushed ice, and fresh fruit
but no ice cream, are usually called smoothies. When malted milk is
added, a milkshake is called a malted milkshake, or simply malt. They
are also called thick milkshakes in the United Kingdom, a frappe
(pronounced "frap") in parts of New England and Canada. In Rhode
Island and South-eastern Massachusetts, coﬀee syrup or coﬀeeﬂavoured ice cream is used to make the local "coﬀee frappe" shake.
Milkshakes with added fruit called batido are popular in Latin America
and in Miami's Cuban expatriate community. In Nicaragua, milkshakes
are called leche malteada.
Fast-food and pre-made milkshakes
Fast-food shakes are made using one of two methods: automatic
milkshake machines and soft serve ice cream mixed with ﬂavoured
Pre-made milkshakes are sold in grocery stores in North America and
These drinks are made from milk mixed with sweetened ﬂavoured
powder or concentrate, which is usually called "ﬂavoured milk", which
is thickened with carrageenans or other products.
Pre-made milkshake mixtures are prepared in automatic milkshake
machines - stainless steel cylinders with beaters that use refrigeration
coils to freeze pre-made milkshake mixtures into a drinkable texture.
The number of diﬀerent ﬂavours, that can be served using automatic
milkshake machines, is limited by the number of diﬀerent tanks in their
The smallest automatic milkshake machines are counter-mounted
appliances that can make a single milkshake ﬂavour using a ﬁve-litre
stainless steel tank.
Floor-mounted multi-ﬂavour machines with multiple ﬁve-litre
stainless steel barrels or, in alternative, carbon dioxide-based machines
that mix the ﬂavours during dispensing allow oﬀering a wider range of
ﬂavours and tastes. Some fast-food restaurants use "thick milkshake"
machines, which are single-ﬂavour machines with a (12 litre) stainless
Soft serve mixed with syrup
Some fast-food restaurants serve milkshakes which are prepared by
blending soft-serve ice cream (or ice milk) with sweetened, ﬂavoured
syrups such as chocolate syrup and fruit-ﬂavoured syrup and milk.
While these milkshakes are hand-blended, the use of soft-serve ice
cream marks these beverages as fast-food products. Soft serve ice
cream is a frozen dessert that is dispensed from a machine. It was
invented by a chemical research team in Britain that discovered a
method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream, allowing
manufacturers to use a lesser quantity of ingredients, reducing costs.
Milkshake (typical American/fast food)
Nutritional value per 100 g (95 ml)
Energy 140 kcal 580 kJ
Pantothenic acid (B5) ) 0.5 mg
Calcium 130 mg
The term "milkshake" was ﬁrst used in print in 1885, to describe an
alcoholic whiskey drink, a "sturdy, healthful eggnog type of drink, with
eggs, whiskey, etc., served as a tonic as well as a treat".
By 1900, the term referred to "wholesome drinks made with
chocolate, strawberry, or vanilla syrups". The new drink began to be
very popular at malt shops, the place where students used to meet.
Before the widespread availability of electric blenders, milkshake-type
drinks were more like eggnog, or they were a hand-shaken mixture of
crushed ice and milk, sugar, and ﬂavourings.
The electric blender or drink mixer was invented in 1922: with this
invention milkshakes began to take their modern, whipped, aerated,
and frothy form.
The automation of milkshakes developed in the 1930s, after the
invention of Freon-cooled refrigerators.
By the 1950s, popular places to drink milkshakes were diners, burger
joints, and drugstore soda fountains often equipped with a shining
chrome or stainless steel milkshake-mixing machine.
Milkshakes were called "frappes", "velvets," "frosted [drinks]", or
"cabinets" in diﬀerent parts of the US.
A specialty style of milkshake, the "concrete" was referred as “...a milk
shake so thick that the server hands it out the order window upside
down, demonstrating that not a drop will drip."
In 1952, the Newport Daily News in Rhode Island contained a "Guide for
Top Quality ice cream sodas cabinets milkshakes", which shows the
use of the term "cabinet" in print. An article from 1953 in the Salisbury
Times (in the state of Maryland) suggests that shakes can be made in
a jar by shaking well. The article states that by adding four large
tablespoons of ice cream, the drink becomes a "frosted shake."
In 2006, the US Agricultural Research Service developed reducedsugar, low-fat milk shakes for school lunch programs. The shakes have
half the sugar and only 10% of the fat of commercial fast food shakes.
The milkshakes also have added ﬁbre and other nutrients, and they
have much less lactose, which makes the shakes appropriate for some
lactose intolerant people.
In the 2000s, milkshakes began being used as part of the new trend of
boutique-style "spa dentistry," which aims to relax dental patients and
reduce their anxiety. Patients are given an icy milkshake "...to soothe
mouth soreness while the eﬀects of
the anaesthesia dissipate."
Despite the downturn in family
restaurant business, the US sales of
milkshakes, malts and ﬂoats rose
11% in 2006, according to the industry research ﬁrm NPD Group. Part
of the increase in milkshake sales reported in 2006 may be due to the
increasing availability of innovative chef-designed milkshakes in
high-end restaurants. In 2006, the Los Angeles Times reported that
chefs from "hipster hangouts and retro landmarks" are using
"macerated farmers market strawberries, Valrhona chocolate and
Madagascar Bourbon vanilla" to make new milkshake ﬂavours.
Other novel ideas oﬀered in LA-area restaurants include milkshakes
made with toasted pecans, saﬀron-rose water or orange-blossom ice
cream, taro root, vanilla beans steeped in rum,Valrhona chocolate and
Grey Goose vodka, and vanilla custard mixed with Russian Imperial
The Milkshake in pop culture
Milkshake is the title of a 2003 R&B-electro song written and
produced by The Neptunes for American singer Kelis' third studio
album, Tasty. The song became Kelis' biggest success to date on
Billboard Hot 100, peaking at number three.
In 2006, an edited version of the song was used in commercials for
Hardee's and Carl's Jr. Milkshakes.The song became an Internet meme
following the release of PaulThomas Anderson's 2007 ﬁlm There Will Be
Blood, in which scenes from the ﬁlm (most notably from its famous "I
drink your milkshake" scene) were edited to the song...
Master Shake is a milkshake cup character on the Adult Swim
animated series AquaTeen Hunger Force.
Ingredients - Proteins
Composition of Milk Solids
The basic ingredient to prepare an instant milkshake is primarily milk
or water, which is then added with a premixed powder preparation
tasting according to the desired ﬂavour (vanilla, chocolate, and
strawberry, just to quote the most popular).
New milkshake formulations become actual functional foods,
providing a signiﬁcant integration in our daily diet, when enriched with
nutrients like proteins.
Proteins play a crucial role to maintain our health. They contain all
essential amino acids. Amino acids are critical to life, and have a
variety of roles in metabolism, among which the strengthening of the
human immune system. Since our body cannot store proteins, we need
a fresh supply every day.
Eating a little high protein food at each meal helps reduce the
appetite plus the body uses energy to convert protein to
The best sources for natural high quality protein are those from animal
origin, among which milk is practically the best, along with eggs.
Milk is about 87% water and 13% solids.
Milk solids include proteins (27%), carbohydrates (37%), fats (30%),
vitamins and minerals (6%).
All these nutrients and the right ratio make milk nature’s most nearly
As for proteins composition, milk contains 2 diﬀerent high quality
proteins: Casein (approximately 80%) and Whey Protein
Composition of Milk Proteins
Proteins are needed to build and repair body tissues and to form
antibodies, which circulate in the blood and help ﬁght infection.
Casein can be found only in milk and contains all of the essential amino
acids required daily in the diet to help support the normal growth,
maintenance, and repair of body tissue.
It is found in milk as a suspension of particles called casein micelles,
which show some resemblance with surfactant-type micellae in a sense
that the hydrophilic parts reside at the surface. The caseins in the
micelles are held together by Calcium ions and hydrophobic
interactions. Casein is relatively hydrophobic, making it poorly soluble
Whey proteins consist in a number of proteins subfractions such as:
beta-lactoglobulin (~65%), alpha-lactalbumin (~25%), serum albumin
(~8%), glicomacropeptide, immunoglobulins (antibodies; especially
high in colostrum), lactoferrin and minor peptides.
Whey proteins also include a long list of enzymes, hormones, growth
factors, nutrient transporters, disease resistance factors, and others.
Whey proteins are available in the
market in three major forms:
• Concentrates (WPC) contain a low
level of fat and cholesterol but,
in general, have higher levels of bioactive compounds, and
carbohydrates in the form of lactose - they are 29%-89% protein by
• Isolates (WPI) are processed to remove the fat, and lactose, but are
usually lower in bioactive compounds as well - they are 90%+
protein by weight. Both of these types are mild to slightly milky in
Whey proteins isolates oﬀer superior functional beneﬁts compared
with other proteins types.
• Hydrolysates (WPH) are pre-digested, partially hydrolyzed whey
proteins that, as a consequence, are more easily absorbed, but their
cost is generally higher. Whey proteins hydrolysate also tends to
taste quite diﬀerent than other forms of whey proteins, usually in a
way that many ﬁnd undesirable but can be masked when used in
We distinguish 3 diﬀerent separation processes as well:
• Microﬁltration: a physical process in which suspended solids and
solutes of high molecular weight are retained, while water and low
molecular weight solutes pass through a micro porous membrane,
the separation takes place based on size exclusion only.
It is independent of temperature and speciﬁc weight of components.
It is a low pressure driven process with high ﬂuxes. It is useful for
suspensions of particles in the size range 0.1-5 µm. This gentle
ﬁltration system yields a high level of undenatured and high purity
proteins and virtually lactose free product.
• Ultraﬁltration: is a selective fractionation process using pressures
up to 10 bars. It is widely used for purifying and concentrating
macromolecular solutions, especially protein solutions.
It concentrates suspended solids and solutes of molecular weight
greater than 0,1 µm. The permeate has low-molecular-weight
organic solutes and salts.
Health beneﬁts of whey proteins
Rich in lactose, vitamins and mineral salts, whey is a unique protein
source, particularly suitable for sport nutrition, to improve physical
recovery and promote nitrogen store (crucial for muscle mass
Whey protein has the potential to promote muscle synthesis and
create lean body mass, due to its high-quality proteins composition:
the richest content of branched chain amino acids and essential amino
This will ultimately help to maintain or increase body mass, which can
improve body composition and boost metabolism.
Some bio-active components of whey may oﬀer additional health
beneﬁts, particularly for people under metabolic stress. Whey protein
components provide positive eﬀects of nutrient partitioning, enhance
immune function, improve gastrointestinal health and supply
In addition, whey protein has been successful in weight management
programmes enhancing satiety. In particular, its eﬀect on
ingestion leads to reduce energy intake and subsequent weight loss.
• Ion exchange: processing involves separating proteins based on their
electrical charge. Two chemicals are used to achieve this:
hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide; the electrical charge on the
proteins attaches them to the resins in the reaction vessel.
Whey proteins are more soluble than casein and also have a higher
quality rating, independent of pH.
Whey has the highest biological value (BV) of any known protein
and a high branched-chain amino acid content (25%).
Whey proteins contained in the proposed Faravelli’s recipe are
typically WPI with content in proteins higher than 90%, obtained
through cross-microﬁltration (CMF).
The WPI’s nutritional properties combined with its high solubility,
improved ﬂavour and unique functionality makes it the ingredient of
choice for this application.
Fructose is a 100% naturally occurring simple reducing sugar, found in
many foods, such as fruit, honey and vegetables.
It is the most natural alternative to sucrose (table sugar) and
synthetic sweeteners (e.g. aspartame and acesulphame). It gives a
sweet, delicate and pleasant taste to foods and beverages.
The excellent solubility of fructose makes it ideal for sweetening water
and milk beverage whit any risk of crystallization. It is ideal for instant
Fructose has many positive features, which are presented below:
It is the sweetest of all natural sweeteners.
The sweetness of fructose ranges from 1.1 to 1.7 times that of sucrose,
depending upon the food or beverage in which it is used.
Higher sweetness is obtained at low temperature and low pH (2.5-4.5).
The sweetening proﬁle of fructose is characterized by both a rapid
appearing onset of sweetening perception, as well as by the highest
relative intensity peak existing for any bulk natural simple sugar.
It’s important to mention a “non-lingering” sweetening proﬁle, which
is free from any perceived unpleasant taste.
It is a ﬂavour enhancer: its sweetness perception peaks and falls
earlier than glucose and sucrose, enhancing acid fruit and spice
ﬂavours. In particular fructose shows special ﬂavour enhancing
interactions with cinnamon and cocoa helping to formulate ﬂavoured
milk beverage with high quality taste. In the other side, fructose works
as a “masking agent” for bitterness and metallic tastes and
aftertastes, which may be associated whit artiﬁcial sweeteners such as
saccharin and cyclamate
Fructose is a reducing sugar and it acts in the “Maillard reaction”.
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between an amino acid
and a reducing sugar, usually requiring heat.
Like caramelization, it is a form of non-enzymatic browning.
The reactive carbonyl group of the sugar reacts with the nucleophilic
amino group of the amino acid, and forms a variety of interesting but
poorly characterized molecules responsible for a range of odours and
ﬂavours. This reaction is vitally important in bakery applications in
order to confer the typical brown colour and ﬂavours to the products.
High freezing point depression
The freezing point depression of fructose is greater than that of
sucrose at equivalent concentrations, resulting in softer ice creams and
sorbets preventing the “like-sandy” mouth fell.
The use of fructose enables frozen dairy products to be soft-scooped
directly from the freezer.
Fructose also provides a degree of cryogenic protection.
It helps prevent damage to frozen food products from water crystals on
freezing and prevents fruit pieces and ripple/swirled sauces from
GI - Glycemic index
The Glycemic Index is a numerical index of measuring how fast a food
or ingredient cause a rise in blood glucose and insulin levels. The
higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response.
Low GI foods reduce heart disease and diabetes risks.
In general, foods containing simple sugars (e.g. honey, jams, and
carbonated beverages) have a higher glycemic index, while foods rich
in complex sugars and ﬁbres (e.g. fruit, legumes, etc) record a low GI.
Fructose’s glycemic index is very low (20), while that of sucrose is 60,
this resulting in a moderate release of insulin to the bloodstream
relative to glucose and sucrose.
The metabolism of fructose is markedly diﬀerent from that of glucose
and largely insulin-independent.
Special pathways lead to reduce glucose blood plasma levels after
fructose consumption: it is ﬁrst transported to the liver to be
metabolized, rather than being directly absorbed by tissue cells.
This means a slow energy release, which makes fructose ideal for
athletes during long eﬀort since it is slowly converted to glucose.
Fructose also presents a strong satiating eﬀect: it has been
demonstrated that consumption of fructose prior to eating is
particularly eﬀective at preventing hunger pangs and promotes a
reduction in calorie consumption during the meal itself.
Foods and drinks containing fructose can help weight control.
Maltodextrins and dehydrated glucose syrups are obtained by
moderate hydrolysis of starch.
The raw materials for maltodextrins are wheat, waxy maize and
They are odourless white powders with a neutral or slightly sweet
ﬂavour. Maltodextrins dissolve very quickly in water.
As starch hydrolysis products, maltodextrins have a dextrose
equivalent (D.E.) ≤ 20, while dehydrated glucose syrups have a DE >
Main properties of maltodextrins are related to the degree of
Maltodextrins have multiple
anti-crystallizing and colouring.
They are widely used as a source of carbohydrates, as a neutral carrier,
as a source of energy for fermentation and ﬁnally for various
Maltodextrins are use in large number of powdered food products.
They can be employed by dry mixing with other product or as a carrier
Used in the ﬁrst way they act as a nutritive element, to make the
powder more soluble, improve the texture and the smoothness of the
product after dissolution, and to facilitate the addition of product,
which is used at low levels.
Maltodextrins are easily digestible,
being absorbed as rapidly as glucose,
and might be either moderately
sweet or almost ﬂavourless.
Maltodextrins have the same nutritional value as starch, i.e.
approximately 4 kcal/g or 17 kJ/g.
A low DE maltodextrins in solution will develop less osmotic pressure
in intestine than simple sugar as D-glucose, sucrose, fructose or
lactose, which has a low molecular weight. This property may be of
value in infant food and enteric nutrition to avoid osmotic diarrhoea.
The low sweetness of maltodextrins may also help prevent young
children becoming accustomed to sweet foods.
A “fortiﬁed” idea of milkshake
The recipe presented in this booklet allows the production of a
functional product, which can praise a protein content claim.
From the legislative point of view, products marketed in Europe must
refer to the Regulation (EC) 1924/2006 of 20 December 2006, which
applies to any products quoting nutritional or health facts.
According to this Regulation, it is possible to declare the following
SOURCE OF PROTEIN
A claim that a food is a source of protein, and any claim likely to
have the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made
where at least 12% of the energy value of the food is provided
A claim that a food is high in protein, and any claim likely to have
the same meaning for the consumer, may only be made where
at least 20% of the energy value of the food is provided by
An innovative blend produced by our Research & Development
Laboratory in order to act as a thickening agent and a stabilizer in
Instant Milk Shake formulation, rich in whey proteins (90%).
The goodness proﬁle of whey represents an opportunity for
manufacturers to cater for consumers keen to follow a balanced diet,
by creating beverages enriched with whey-based ingredients.
Weight management is an area of particular interest. Whey protein has
been shown to have a satiating eﬀect, meaning that after
consumption, consumers feel fuller for longer.
Instant MILK SHAKE
High protein Content
Faramix DW 114
Faramix DW 114 is an innovative blend produced by our
Research & Development Laboratory in order to act as a
thickening agent and a stabilizer in your Instant Milk Shake
By using Faramix DW 114 your ﬁnal product will boast a rich
and full mouthfeel.
Faramix DW 114
Maltodextrin 19 DE
Double Cream Flavour
Nutrition Facts (%)
Per 100 g
1. premix Faramix DW 114 with fructose and other powdered
2. disperse the dry mix into cold milk by electrical mixer
3. keep shaking for 4-5 minutes and serve in glasses
According to the law, our recipes allows you to claim on the
“HIGH PROTEIN MILK SHAKE”
Total calorie intake for 100 g: 66,56 kcal
Total proteins content: 4 g/100 g
Total calorie intake given by proteins:
16 kcal = 24% of the total energy value.
Giusto Faravelli S.p.A
Via Medardo Rosso 8, 20159 Milano
Tel: +39 02 69 7171 • Fax: +39 02 68 86 902
Phone : +49 (0)40 325785 - 0 • Fax : +49 (0)40 325785 - 22
Faravelli s.r.o. Praha - vstupte
Kuta Centrum Zelený pruh 95/97
14000 Praha 4 - Česká republika
Tel. +420 227 027 656 • Fax +420 227 230 616
The Center, 20 F - No. 989 Changle Road
Tel. + 86 21 511 7546 3 • Fax + 86 21 511 7546 4