HDPE Pipes Catalogue - Lamasat International Limited

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HDPE Pipes Catalogue - Lamasat International Limited
Lamasat HDPE Manual
Properties - Welding - Fittings - Design - Jointing
Introduction
Lamasat International Zambia Limited...
Product quality, exceptional customer service and environmental responsibility are phrases that have spearheaded our growth.
Lamasat International was registered in 2002 as a manufacturing company of pipes and polypropylene bags.
Since then the company has grown with investments to date of over US$ 60 million with a diverse range of
products and Services.The Company employs close to 900 staff.
Lamasat provides leadership in most of its chosen areas of business activity. We strive to ensure that
everything we do in our business reflects the highest of standards.
OUR FACILITIES
Our company's business activities are spread out at a number of locations around Lusaka, with our Head Office
being located in Chipwenpwenue Road off Kafue Road, Makeni, and Lusaka.
We continually invest to grow our portfolio of facilities and currently developing show room and warehousing
facilities along the busy Kafue Road in Lusaka
OUR PRODUCTSOur products are available in a wide range of sizes and specifications. The company
maintains high standards in its manufacturing facilities and its products are manufactured in compliance with
applicable products standards set by the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS). In recognition of our
quality and excellence in our offerings, we were also conferred with the International Star Award for Quality- Gold
Category by the International Selection Committee of the Business Initiative Decisions of Paris, France.
Our range of products include
§ Pipes and fittings.
§ Water tanks- We make tanks ranging from 200litres to 12000 litres
§ Polypropylene bags-We have a capacity of over 200,000 bags per day
§ Aluminium- we manufacture aluminium doors, windows, partitions, kitchen and office furniture
§ Wood processing making furniture and fittings
§ Granite
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Lamasat is a quality-endorsed company, a signatory with the SABS confirming our commitment to not
only industry best practice but our strong engagement in environmental sustainability. Our factory is
accredited to ISO 9001:2008 and with SAI Global standards regularly exceeded our commitment to not
only meeting but exceeding product quality. Environmental standards and industry leading customer
service have us at the forefront of the pipe, alluminium and wood manufacturing industry.
I
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Customer Care
OUR CUSTOMERS
We value all our customers. We believe that the customers' perceptions are the reality for our business; therefore,
serving our customers in a manner that will not only meet but exceed their expectations is of paramount
importance. In serving our esteemed customers, we strive to ensure that everything we do in our business
reflects the highest of standards.
What makes us different from other organizations is the passion we have for our customers and the values
underpinning our customer service:
A customer service philosophy
We have a philosophy that ensures that customer service is incorporated in the ideals of service and into the
day to day actions of the staff in our organizations
Customer service systems
We have implemented systems that ensure service delivery and to support and serve both the
customer and the customer service agents that support the customer.
We have invested in computer systems, websites, user manuals, product catalogues in order to
make the whole customer experience fulfilling, educative and enriching.
Customer service decisions
Our staff are empowered with the tools and the autonomy, the decision-making abilities to act for the
customer. We have invested in the training of our staff and provide management support to our staff
in the effort to meet the requirements.
Customer service vision
We recognize that good customer service is not achieved overnight. Therefore, we strive to ensure
there is vision, determination, and endurance in all our managers and staff in order to see that the
principles turn to action, actions turn to habits, and habits turn to the characteristics that keep
customers coming back.
Customer service area
We believe that our customer service areas must be convenient, easily accessible, spacious, modern and
comfortable.
ii
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Contents
HDPE
(High Density Polyethylene)
Introduction................................................
Fittings
2
Fabricated fittings............................................. 16
Bends......................................................... 16
Tees........................................................... 17
Reducers................................................... 17
Stub Flange Detail......................................18
Tech-Stub Detail......................................... 18
Victaulic Stub Detail................................... 18
Moulded fittings................................................. 19
Buttweld fittings......................................... 19
Compression fittings.................................. 29
Other fittings
Lamasat Polypropylene Saddles............... 31
Flanges...................................................... 32
Tech fittings................................................ 34
Victaulic fittings.......................................... 34
General
HDPE Pipe Material Advances........................
Quality Assurance............................................
Applications......................................................
Features and Benefits......................................
Specifications...................................................
Pipe Dimensions..............................................
Coil Dimensions...............................................
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
Physical Properties
Table of Physical Properties............................
Comparison with other plastic materials..........
The Stress Regression Line.............................
Design Stress and Safety Factor.....................
Melt Flow Index................................................
Tensile Strength...............................................
The effect of temperature change
Working Pressure.....................................
Sub Zero Temperature..............................
Expansion and Contraction.......................
Impact Resistance...........................................
Ultra Violet Resistance.....................................
Flammability.....................................................
Abrasion Resistance........................................
6
7
8
9
9
9
Design Considerations
Flow................................................................... 35
Nomogram................................................. 35
Flow Charts................................................ 36
Pressure Considerations................................... 44
Static.......................................................... 44
Dynamic..................................................... 44
Water Hammer........................................... 44
Temperature Considerations............................. 45
Effect on Pressure..................................... 45
Effect on Dimensions................................. 45
Trench Load Considerations............................. 45
Soil and Traffic Loads................................ 45
Above Ground Installations............................... 48
Bending............................................................. 48
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
Jointing
Permanent
Buttwelding...............................................
Electrofusion welding................................
Non-Permanent (detachable) Jointing
Tech System.............................................
Flanging....................................................
Compression fittings.................................
11
11
11
11
11
Buttwelding principles
and jointing procedures
General............................................................ 12
The Lamasat System..........................................12
Equipment........................................................ 12
Jointing Method
Pre-Welding Checks................................. 12
Dummy Welds........................................... 13
Manual Welding Procedure....................... 13
The Rules of Butt-Fusion.......................... 14
Buttweld Time and Pressure Table.......... 15
2
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General
HDPE Pipe Material Advances
Quality Assurance
During the past 40 years or more, since HDPE
was first used to manufacture pipes, there have
been considerable strides made in improving the
quality of material and its long term ability to
withstand pressure.
Lamasat International (Z) Ltd
has been a SABS mark holder for over 7 years.
Products are manufactured to the relevant SABS
specifications at its plants in Lusaka.
Manufacturing facilities conform to
the ISO 9001 of 2000 Quality Management
system.
The first SABS specification (SABS 533) made
use of a design stress of 5 mPa. This specification
has now been superceded by SABS ISO 4427
which covers 3 different material grades viz:
PE63, PE80 and PE100. These three material
grades have different properties which enable
them to be classified with minimum required
strengths (MRS) of 6.3 MPa, 8.0 MPa and 10.0
MPa respectively. Applying a design coefficient of
1.25 (safety factor) to the MRS gives the design
stress used by SABS ISO 4427 for these materials
(5.0 MPa, 6.3 MPa and 8.0 MPa respectively) with
the result that the wall thickness for a particular
size and class becomes progressively less as the
change is made to a material with a higher MRS.
Fully audited Quality Control laboratories are
operational in Lusaka,
where scheduled and random testing of products
is carried out.
Applications
Lamasat International have for several years been
confidently supplying their range of HDPE pipes,
Compression fittings and
Saddles for successful use in a variety of
potable water applications in the Civil, Agricultural,
Municipal, Mining and Industrial sectors. Because
of the good chemical resistance and abrasion
resistance properties they are also extensively
used in chemical, waste and slurry applications.
Features and Benefits
Features:
Benefits:
Non Toxic
Safe for potable water
Good impact strength
Little handling and installation damage
Excellent corrosion resistance
Long and efficient service life
Good chemical resistance
Wide range of applications
Low mass
Easy handling
Flexibility
Easy installation
Long lengths available
Fewer joints
Good abrasion resistance
Can be used to pump slurries
Low friction losses
Lower pumping costs
Several jointing methods
Wide variety of applications
Extensive range of fittings
Wide variety of installations
3
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Specifications
Pipe Dimensions
The HDPE pipes manufactured by Lamasat
International are manufactured to, and carry the
SABS mark for, SABS ISO 4427. These pipes are
manufactured from three different designated
materials viz: PE63, PE80 and PE100.
In this table it can be seen that SABS ISO 4427
have grouped together the different pressure
classes, produced from different material
designations, under a common heading known as
the Standard Diameter (Dimension) Ratio or SDR.
The minimum wall thicknesses specified are not
exactly that which would be derived from a
calculation using Barlow's formula or the SDR but
are the rounded up values of the highest minimum
wall thickness calculated for any size and class in
the SDR group (see Design Stress and Safety
Factor on page 8).
Nominal Working Pressure HDS
5 MPA PE 63
Nominal Working Pressure HDS
6.3 MPA PE 80
Nominal Working Pressure HDS
8 MPA PE 100
PN 3.2
Standard Diameter Ratio (SDR)
SDR 41
Norm
Size
mm
16
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
Mean Outside
Diameter
Min
16
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
Max
16.3
20.3
25.3
32.3
40.4
50.5
63.6
75.7
90.9
111.0
126.2
141.3
161.5
181.7
201.8
227.1
252.3
282.6
317.9
358.2
403.6
454.1
504.5
565.0
635.7
Ovality Outside
Diameter
Min
15.4
19.4
24.4
31.4
39.3
49.3
62.2
74.2
89.1
108.8
123.8
138.6
158.4
178.2
198.0
222.8
247.5
275.1
309.5
348.8
393.0
442.1
491.3
550.2
619.0
Max
16.3
20.6
25.6
32.7
40.7
50.7
63.8
75.8
90.9
111.1
126.3
141.4
161.6
181.8
202.0
227.3
252.5
284.9
320.6
361.3
407.0
457.9
508.8
569.8
641.1
PN 3.2
PN 4
PN 63
PN 4
PN 4
Wall thickness t
Min
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.2
2.7
3.0
3.4
3.9
4.4
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.8
7.7
8.7
9.8
11.0
12.2
13.7
15.4
Max
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.1
2.5
3.1
3.5
3.9
4.4
4.9
5.5
6.1
6.8
7.6
8.6
9.7
10.9
12.2
13.5
15.2
17.1
SDR 33
Pipe ID & Mass
ID
13
17
22
29
37
47
60
71
86
105
119
133
152
172
191
214
238
267
300
338
381
429
477
534
600
Kg/m
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.25
0.32
0.43
0.62
0.93
1.20
1.51
1.94
2.46
3.03
3.83
4.73
5.94
7.51
9.54
12.11
15.29
18.88
23.68
29.98
Wall thickness t
Min
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.3
2.7
3.3
3.8
4.2
4.8
5.5
6.1
6.8
7.6
8.5
9.5
10.8
12.1
13.6
15.2
17.0
19.1
Max
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.6
3.1
3.8
4.4
4.9
5.4
6.1
6.8
7.6
8.4
9.5
10.6
12.0
13.5
15.1
16.8
18.8
21.2
Pipe ID & Mass
ID
13
17
22
29
37
47
59
70
85
103
117
132
150
169
188
212
235
263
296
334
376
423
470
527
593
Kg/m
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.25
0.38
0.53
0.77
1.15
1.48
1.86
2.40
3.04
3.75
4.73
5.84
7.33
9.27
11.78
14.95
18.88
23.31
29.24
37.01
PN 6.3
PN 8
SDR 26
SDR 21
Pipe ID & Mass
Wall thickness t
Min
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.5
4.2
4.8
5.4
6.2
6.9
7.7
8.7
9.6
10.8
12.1
13.7
15.4
17.3
19.2
21.5
24.2
Max
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.3
2.8
3.3
4.0
4.9
5.5
6.2
6.9
7.8
8.6
9.6
10.7
12.0
13.5
15.2
17.2
19.2
21.3
23.9
26.9
ID
13
17
22
29
37
46
58
69
83
101
115
129
148
166
185
208
231
259
291
328
369
416
462
517
582
Kg/m
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.30
0.48
0.67
0.97
1.45
1.87
2.34
3.02
3.82
4.71
5.95
7.35
9.22
11.67
14.82
18.81
23.75
29.32
36.78
46.56
Wall thickness t
Min
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.4
3.0
3.6
4.3
5.2
6.0
6.7
7.6
8.6
9.5
10.7
11.9
13.3
15.0
16.9
19.0
21.4
23.8
26.7
30.0
Pipe ID & Mass
Max
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.8
3.5
4.1
4.9
6.0
6.8
7.7
8.5
9.6
10.7
11.9
13.3
14.9
16.7
18.8
21.2
23.8
26.4
29.6
33.3
ID
13
17
22
29
36
45
57
68
81
99
113
126
145
163
181
203
226
253
285
321
362
407
452
506
570
Kg/m
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.16
0.24
0.37
0.59
0.82
1.19
1.77
2.29
2.87
3.70
4.68
5.78
7.30
9.01
11.30
14.30
18.16
23.06
29.12
35.94
45.08
57.07
Items Shaded available in SABS ISO 4427
HDS = (Hydrostatic Design Stress), in (MPA), is
obtained by applying a design factor of not less
than 1.25 to the minimum required strength value
of the pipe.
Out of Roundness (Ovality) Grade N.
Hydrostatic Design Stress.
Designation of
material
MRS at 50 years and 20°C
MPa
Maximum allowable hydrostatic
design stress, ó - MPa
PE 100
PE 80
PE 63
10
8
6.3
8
6.3
5
4
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Coil Dimensions
Coil Dimensions
Width (W)
I.D. (I)
O.D. (D)
mm mm
mm
mm
mm
SDR's
Coil Length - meters
O.D.
mm
50m 100m 50m 100m
16 7.4/9/11
180
n/a
860
n/a
600
20 7.4/9/11/13.6
180
n/a
860
n/a
600
25 7.4/9/11/13.6/17
200
n/a
890
n/a
600
32 7.4/9/11/13.6/17
220
n/a
n/a 1090
700
40 7.4/9/11/13.6/17/26
220
n/a
n/a 1090
700
50 7.4/9/11/13.6/17/26
220
1300 1410 1560 150
63 7.4/9/11/13.6/17/26/33 1300 1780 1960 190
280
75 7.4/9/11/13.6/17/26/33 1300 1780 1960 190
280
90 7.4/9/11
360
2500 3100 3300 270
450
1800 2360 2540 360
13.6/17/21/26/33
110 7.4/9/11
n/a
330
2500 3160 n/a
n/a
400
2200 2860 n/a
13.6/17/21/26/33
I
W
D
Standard coil lengths
16 - 40mm : 100 metre coils
50 - 90mm : 50 & 100 metre coils
110mm
: 50 metre coils
PN 6.3
PN 8
PN 10
PN 12.5
PN 16
PN 8
PN 10
PN 12.5
PN 16
PN 20
PN 10
PN 12.5
PN 16
PN 20
SDR 17
SDR 13.6
SDR 11
SDR 9
Wall thickness t
Min
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.9
2.4
2.9
3.7
4.4
5.3
6.5
7.4
8.2
9.4
10.6
11.8
13.2
14.7
16.5
18.5
20.9
23.5
26.5
29.4
Max
1.9
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.8
3.4
4.3
5.1
6.1
7.4
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.9
13.2
14.8
16.4
18.4
20.7
23.3
26.2
29.4
32.6
37.1
32.9
36.6
41.1
Pipe ID & Mass
ID
13
17
22
28
35
44
55
66
79
97
110
123
141
158
176
198
220
246
277
312
352
396
440
Kg/m
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.18
0.29
0.45
0.72
1.00
1.45
2.16
2.79
3.50
4.51
5.71
7.05
8.90
10.99
13.79
17.45
22.16
28.13
35.52
43.85
555
493
69.62
55.00
Wall thickness t
Min
1.6
1.6
1.8
2.4
2.9
3.7
4.6
5.5
6.6
8.1
9.2
10.3
11.8
13.2
14.7
16.5
18.4
20.6
23.2
26.1
29.4
33.1
36.8
Max
1.9
1.9
2.2
2.8
3.4
4.3
5.4
6.3
7.6
9.3
10.6
11.8
13.2
14.8
16.5
18.4
20.5
23.0
25.8
29.1
32.8
336.7
40.8
46.3
41.2
45.7
51.4
Pipe ID & Mass
ID
13
17
21
27
34
42
53
63
76
93
106
119
136
153
170
191
212
238
267
301
340
382
425
Kg/m
0.08
0.10
0.14
0.23
0.35
0.55
0.88
1.23
1.78
2.66
3.43
4.30
5.55
7.02
8.66
10.95
13.51
16.95
21.45
27.24
34.58
43.68
53.92
535
476
85.60
67.63
Wall thickness t
Pipe ID & Mass
Min
1.6
1.8
2.3
2.9
3.6
4.5
5.7
6.8
8.2
10.0
11.4
12.7
14.5
16.4
18.2
20.5
22.7
25.5
28.6
32.3
36.4
40.9
45.5
Max
1.9
2.1
2.7
3.4
4.3
5.3
6.7
7.8
9.4
11.5
13.1
14.6
16.3
18.3
20.4
22.8
25.3
28.4
31.9
36.0
40.5
45.4
50.5
ID
13
16
20
26
32
40
51
61
73
89
101
113
130
146
162
183
203
227
256
288
325
366
406
Kg/m
0.08
0.11
0.17
0.27
0.43
0.67
1.06
1.50
2.16
3.22
4.16
5.21
6.72
8.51
10.50
13.27
16.38
20.54
26.00
33.01
41.91
52.94
65.36
57.3
50.9
63.6
56.5
455
512
103.75
81.97
Wall thickness t
Min
1.8
2.2
2.8
3.6
4.4
5.6
7.0
8.3
10.00
12.2
13.9
15.6
17.8
20.0
22.2
25.0
27.8
31.1
35.0
39.4
44.4
50.0
55.6
Max
2.1
2.6
3.3
4.2
5.2
6.5
8.2
9.6
11.5
14.1
16.0
17.9
19.9
22.4
24.9
27.9
31.0
34.7
39.0
44.0
49.6
55.5
61.7
SDR 7.4
Pipe ID & Mass
ID
12
15
19
24
31
38
48
57
69
84
96
107
123
138
154
173
192
216
242
273
308
347
385
Kg/m
0.08
0.13
0.20
0.33
0.51
0.80
1.27
1.78
2.57
3.84
4.96
6.22
8.02
10.16
12.53
15.83
19.55
24.52
31.03
39.41
50.03
63.19
78.01
Wall thickness t
Min
2.2
2.7
3.4
4.3
5.4
6.8
8.5
10.1
12.2
14.9
16.9
18.9
21.6
24.3
27.0
30.4
33.8
37.8
42.6
48.0
54.1
60.8
Max
2.5
3.2
4.0
5.1
6.3
7.9
10.0
11.7
14.0
17.1
19.4
21.8
24.2
27.2
30.3
33.9
37.7
42.2
47.5
53.5
60.3
67.5
Pipe ID & Mass
ID
11
14
18
23
28
36
45
54
64
79
89
100
115
129
144
162
180
201
226
255
287
324
Kg/m
0.10
0.15
0.24
0.39
0.60
0.94
1.50
2.11
3.04
4.53
5.86
7.34
9.48
12.00
14.81
18.71
23.10
28.97
36.67
46.56
59.11
74.67
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Physical Properties
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is a
thermoplastic material which is supplied by the
manufacturer in a 'ready to use' pelletised form.
There are several different grades available. The
particular grades suitable for pipe manufacture are
referred to as PE 63, PE 80 and PE100. The pipe
manufacturer simply converts this material into
pressure pipe.
Table of Physical Properties
The properties given below are for HDPE pipe
materials. It should be noted that many of these
properties are relative to temperature and the
duration of stress application.
Value
Property
0.958
Density at 23°C
Viscosity Number
Melt Flow Rate
Tensile Properties
10mm x 10mm x 4mm
0.1% solution of granules
in decahydronaphthalene
0.23
g/10min
ISO 1133
granules
sample weight 3g to 6g
MFR 190/21.6
6.5
g/10min
Yield Stress
26
N/mm2
ISO 527
Test Rate 50mm/min
Elongation at Yield Stress
10
%
ISO 527
Test Rate 50mm/min
MFR 190/5
Flexural Creep Modulus
(1 min value)
2
900
N/mm
650
350
N/mm
N/mm2
1100
N/mm
2
2
ISO 3167, 4mm thick
(test specimen No. 3, 4mm
thick according to DIN 53 455)
ISO 527
ISO 899
Test Load 2M/mm2
110mm x 10mm x 4mm
loaded flat
Din 54 852-Z4
sb = 2N/mm2
2
ISO 178
Test Rate 2mm/min
80mm x 10mm x 4mm
N/mm
2
Din 53 447
60mm x 6.35mm x 3mm
41
N/mm2
ISO 2039 part 1
Test Load 132N
sheet, 4mm
Shore Hardness D
(3 sec value)
(15 sec value)
ISO 868
sheet, 6mm
61
59
~
~
at 23°C
20
kJ/m2
ISO 179/1eA
80mm x 10mm x 4mm
at -30°C
10
kJ/m
67
°C
ISO 306
sheet, 4mm
min.
ISO TR 10837
granules
20
N/mm
180
Ball Indentation Hardness
Stiffness in Torsion
Vicat Softening Point
VST/B/50
Oxidation Induction Time
ISO 1183
ISO 1628-3
Flexural Stress
(3.5% deflection)
Notched Impact Strength
acN (test specimen
from compression
moulded sheet)
Test Specimen
ml/g
Tensile Creep Modulus
(1 hour value)
(1000 hour value)
Hardness
g/cm
3
380
Tensile Modulus of Elasticity
(secant between
0.05 & 0.25% strain)
Flexural Properties
Test Method
Unit
200°C in O2
>60
2
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Tensile Test - Ready
Comparison with other plastic materials
Property
HDPE
PP
PVC
PVC-C *
PB *
Surface feel
Waxy
Waxy
Smooth
Smooth
Waxy
Appearance
(water pipes)
Black
Pale grey-beige
Blue
Grey-beige
Black
Sound produced when
dropped
Medium
clatter
High
clatter
High
clatter
High
clatter
Dull
thud
Combustibility and
appearance of flame
Bright flame:
Drops continue to
burn while falling
Bright flame:
Drops continue to
burn while falling
Carbonises in
flame:
extinguishes away
from flame
Carbonises in
flame:
extinguishes away
from flame
Bright flame:
Drops continue to
burn while falling
Odour of smoke after
flame is extinguished
Like candles
Like resin
Pungent like
hydrochloric acid
Pungent like
hydrochloric acid
Nail test
Impression made by
fingernail
Impression
possible
Very slight
impression
possible
Impression not
possible
Impression not
possible
Like candles but
more acrid than
HDPE
Impression easily
produced
Special features
Smears when
sawn
Floats in water
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Notch sensitivity
No
Slight
Yes
Yes
Yes
Weather resistance
Stabilised
good
Stabilised
good
Stabilised
good
Stabilised
good
Stabilised
good
Method of permanent
joining
Fusion
Fusion
Solvent cement
Solvent cement
Fusion
Suitable for mechanical
jointing
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Stress crack sensitivity
with regard to jointing
for safe media e.g. water
Some
Slight
None
None
None
Linear expansion
mm/m°C
0.2
0.15
0.08
0.07
0.12
Thermal conductivity
kcal/mh°C
0.40
0.19
0.14
0.14
0.20
Specific heat
kcal/mh°C
0.42
0.4
0.23
0.23
0.47
Specific weight
Kg/cm2
0.955
0.905
1.42
1.5
0.92
Tensile strength at 20°C
kp/cm2
240
320
550
550
200
Modulus of elasticity at
20°C (kp/cm2)
8000
15000
30000
30000
5000
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The Stress Regression Line
The traditional method of portraying the primary
mechanical property of HDPE, tensile strength, is
by means of a graph of log stress vs log time to
failure. This is known as the stress regression line.
It is a plot of the circumferential hoop stress in the
wall of the pipe (from internal pressure) against
time to failure.
Numerous actual test results, measured at 20°C
and 60°C, over a range of times up to 10,000
hours, are plotted on a log log scale and a
regression line is calculated to fit this data. The
resultant regression line is then extrapolated to 50
years (438,000 hours). The method of calculation
is an internationally accepted procedure described
in ISO/TR 9080. The required values of stress and
time are specified in SABS ISO 4427.
The internationally accepted method for
calculating circumferential hoop stress is derived
from Barlow's formula and is as follows:
s = p(d - t)/2t
where: p = internal pressure (MPa)
t = minimum wall thickness (mm)
d = mean external diameter (mm)
s = circumferential hoop stress
in wall of pipe (MPa)
The Stress Regression Line for HDPE is given
below.
s Burst stress MPa
20
15
20°C
10
8
PE 100
10 MPa at 50Yrs
PE 80
8 MPa at 50Yrs
80°C
6
5
4
PE 100
PE 80
3
2
HDPE Type 2
1
10-1
1
10
102
103
104
105
Time to failure
106
50 Years
Principal stress/time curves for PE 80 and PE 100 pipes at 20°C and 80°C. The standard
curve for HDPE Type 2 at 80°C (acc. to DIN 8075) is shown in comparison. The
minimum required strength (MRS) at 20°C and 50 years is 10 MPa for PE 100 and
8 MPa for PE 80 giving the design stress 8 MPa and 6.3 MPa, respectively.
8
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Design Stress and Safety
Factor (service factor)
Melt Flow Index
The melt flow index of polyethylene materials is a
measure of the mass of melted material, at 190°C,
that will pass through a specific orifice in 10
minutes when subjected to a specific pressure.
Safety factors take into account handling
conditions, service conditions and other
circumstances not directly considered in the
design.
The melt flow index (MFI) is largely dependant on
the molecular mass. Higher molecular masses
result in lower MFI because long, well packed
molecules do not flow as easily as short, less
packed molecules.
In terms of SABS ISO 4427 the minimum safety
factor is 1.25. This factor, when applied to the
Minimum Required Strength (MRS), for the
particular material classification (e.g. PE80,
PE100), gives the maximum allowable hydrostatic
design stress for the designated material.
Designation of
material
MRS at 50 years and 20°C
MPa
Maximum allowable hydrostatic
design stress, s - MPa
PE 100
PE 80
PE 63
10
8
6.3
8
6.3
5
Since both density and MFI are decisive for the
strength properties they are regulated in most
standards for polyethylene pipes.
In terms of the SABS specification the Melt Flow
Index must conform to the raw material
manufacturers pipe grade specification. This
information can be obtained from the the raw
material manufacturers data sheets.
(Also see Table of Physical Properties on page 6)
The relationship between MRS and ó for various
design coefficients is as follows at 20°C.
MRS of material - MPa
Hydrostatic
design
stress of pipe,
s - MPa
10
8
6.3
5
1.25
1.59
2
8
Tensile Strength
6.3
Design coefficient, C
1.27
1.6
The tensile strength of polyethylene materials
increases with an increase in molecular mass
since long, well packed molecules are more
difficult to separate.
This property is also effectively regulated by
standards.
(See Table of Physical Properties on page 6)
1.26
The design engineer may wish to apply a greater
safety factor depending on operating conditions
and environmental considerations.
Applying Barlow's formula (below) it is possible to
calculate the minimum wall thickness for any given
size and pressure class of pipe.
t=
The Effect of Temperature
Change
pxd
(2s + p)
Working Pressure:
where: t = minimum wall thickness (mm)
p = internal pressure (MPa)
d = mean external diameter (mm)
s = design stress (MPa)
The standard design temperature for HDPE pipes
is 20°C and working pressures are usually quoted
for this temperature. HDPE pressure pipes
function perfectly well below 20°C right down to
freezing point and can in fact, withstand higher
pressures than those quoted at 20°C.
As can be seen from the stress regression lines,
the creep rupture strength diminishes with
increasing temperature and working pressures
must be down-rated if the same factors of safety
are to be maintained. The applicable reduction
factors are given under “Temperature
Considerations” on page 59.
For example the minimum wall thickness for a
250 mm Class 10 HDPE pipe made from PE 80
material is:
t = 1.0 x 250 / {(2 x 6.3) + 1.0}
= 18.38 mm
Round up to 18.4 mm for manufacture and/or the
appropriate SDR for the Class and Material
designation.
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Sub Zero Temperatures:
Ultra Violet Resistance
Water has been known to freeze in HDPE pipes
without causing fractures, but permanent strain
can result, leading to severe reduction in the
working life of the pipe. Hence HDPE pipes - like
other pipes - should be protected against sub zero
temperatures.
HDPE pipes, when manufactured to SABS ISO
4427, contain 2.5% (by mass) of carbon black.
This provides exceptional protection against the
effects of ultra violet light.
Flammability
Expansion and Contraction:
As with impact resistance, it is possible to improve
the fire resistance of HDPE by the addition of
various compounds. Again this comes at the
expense of other properties. Fire resistance is
measured by a limiting oxygen index (LOI).
All plastics have high co-efficients of expansion
and contraction several times those of metals.
This must be allowed for in any installation by the
use of expansion joints, expansion loops etc.
Material
Co-efficient of expansion (K-1)
mPVC
HDPE
LDPE
Steel
Copper
8 x 10-5
20 x 10-5
20 x 10-5
1.2 x 10-5
2.0 x 10-5
Abrasion Resistance
A number of international investigations to assess
the abrasion resistance of various plastic materials
have been carried out. Generally the results of
such investigations are expressed as a loss of
volume in relation to the original wall thickness.
The results to date have varied in regard to the
abrasion resistance of various pipe materials.
However, what they all show is that plastics
possess superior abrasion resistance relative to
other pipe materials.
Impact Resistance
It should be noted that it is possible to change the
impact strength of certain plastic materials,
however this usually comes at the expense of
properties such as tensile strength, hardness or
stiffness. This property is therefore effectively
regulated (as with density and MFI) by most
standards.
For example, in one investigation, HDPE pipes
suffered wear to the extent of 4mm after 1600
hours while the corresponding wear occurred in
steel pipes after 1000 hours.
Graph of Relative Wear Rates
Dry sliding abrasion of a number of PE 80, PE 100 and
some other grades of thermoplastic materials (Taber
Abrasion Method in accordance with DIN 53754 E)
Abrasive Wear Properties
80
Min. mg/100 rev
70
Max. mg/100 rev
50
40
30
20
10
ABS craft
Copolymer
ABS
Cellulose
Acetobutyrate
Polystyrene
PVC
Styrene/
Actylonitrile
Copolymer
Polyurethane
PE 80 PE 100
0
GUR
mg./100 rev.
60
10
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Jointing
One of the greatest features of HDPE pipes is the
fact that a wide variety of jointing systems is
available to suit a whole range of applications.
The jointing systems can be divided into two main
categories with further sub-divisions in each
category.
Permanent Jointing
Buttwelding
Typical Buttweld
Welding Machine
Non-Permanent (detachable) Jointing
Tech System
Compression Fittings
Flanging
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Buttwelding principles and jointing procedures
Lamasat therefore offers two ranges of fittings for
butt-fusion systems to provide the greatest
flexibility in this regard :
• long spigot fittings
• 'pupped' fittings
General
Butt-fusion jointing is a thermofusion process
which involves the simultaneous heating of the
ends of two components which are to be joined
until a melt state is attained on each contact
surface. The two surfaces are then brought
together under controlled pressure for a specific
cooling time and homogeneous fusion is formed
upon cooling.
Pupped fittings are fabricated by butt-fusing (in the
factory), 0.5m lengths of pipe to each leg of a
spigot fitting, thereby allowing the straight length
of pipe to be gripped by clamps of the butt-fusion
machine.
The resultant joint is resistant to end thrust and
has comparable performance under pressure to
the pipe.
The Lamasat butt-fusion system comprises,
therefore:
• Straight polyethylene pipe
• Long spigot fittings
• Pupped fittings
• Accessories
This method of jointing requires an electrically
heated plate to raise the temperature of the pipe
ends to the required fusion temperature and is
used for PE63, PE80 and PE100 grades of
material for pipe of size 32mm and above of the
same Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR).
Equipment
When jointing pipes using butt-fusion techniques,
the heater plate temperatures are the same for
PE63, PE80 and PE100, 195°C to 200°C.
Note: The Site Fusion Jointing Specification WIS 4-3208 Issue 2, 1994 emphasises the importance for the
butt-fusion machine to be able to control the reduced
secondary ram pressures that are now required for dual
pressure butt-fusion jointing. For SDR11 pipes of sizes
250mm, 280mm and 315mm and for all pipe (SDRs 11,
17.6, 26) of size 355mm and above the butt fusion
pressures should be reduced after 10 seconds and
therefore the use of an automatic butt fusion machine is
required. (These conditions are tabulated on page 15.)
The Lamasat System
Depending on the design and make, butt-fusion
machines may or may not be capable of accepting
fittings as moulded for direct welding to pipes.
• Generator to supply the heater plate, trimmer
and hydraulic pump
• Butt-fusion machine fitted with the correct size
clamp shells, trimmer, heater plate, hydraulic
pump and timer
• Pipe support rollers
• Welding tent
• Cleaning material, lint free cotton cloth or paper
towel
• External/Internal debeading tool
• Bead gauge
• Digital thermometer with surface probe to check
heater plate
• Pipe end covers
• Baseboard
• Pipe cutters
• Air temperature thermometer
• Indelible marker pen
• Timer.
Jointing Method
Pre-Welding Checks
Before commencing a welding operation
check that:
• There is sufficient fuel for the generator to
complete the joint and that it is functioning
correctly before it is connected to the machine.
• The trimming tool and hydraulic pump are in
working order.
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• The heater plate is clean and residues from
previous welds have been removed.
• A tent is available to provide shelter during
welding.
• The machine is complete and undamaged.
• You know the correct welding parameters for the
machine and pipe being welded.
• The heater plate is at the correct temperature.
(Connect the heater plate to the power supply
and retain for at least 20 minutes inside the
thermally insulated guard). To remove dirt
deposits the heater plate may be washed, when
cold, with copious quantities of clean water at
the start of the jointing session. Only clean, lint
free materials must be used to clean the plate.
To remove grease and oily films the plate may
be wiped with lint free material dampened by a
suitable solvent, eg. Isopropanol.
• Check that the pipes and/or fittings to be jointed
are of the same size, SDR and material.
• Remove loose shavings from the machine and
component ends.
Do not touch the prepared surfaces.
• Check that both surfaces are completely planed.
If they are not then repeat the trimming process.
• Close the clamps and check that there is no
visible gap between the trimmed faces.
Dummy Welds
Even though washing may remove large deposits
of dirt, very fine particles of dust may still remain
on the heater plate. To remove such dust it is
necessary to make a dummy joint at the start of
each jointing session, whenever the plate has
been allowed to cool below 180°C, or at a change
of pipe size. Two dummy must be made if the pipe
size is greater than 180mm.
A dummy joint can be made using pipe off cuts of
the same size, SDR and material as the pipe
being installed. It is not necessary to actually
make a joint. The procedure can be discontinued
after the full heat cycle.
• The maximum permitted outsider diameter
mismatch is:
1.0mm for pipe sizes 90mm to 315mm
2.0mm for pipe sizes 316mm to 800mm.
If the mismatch is greater than these values then
the pipe must be realigned and re-trimmed.
• Open and then close the clamps and note the
drag pressure needed to move the pipes
together using the hydraulic system.
Manual Welding Procedure
• Place the pipes in the clamps with the ends
against the trimming tool and with the pipe
markings aligned.
• Align and level the components using the
support rollers.
• Tighten the pipe clamps to grip and re-round the
pipes.
• Cover the free ends of the pipes to prevent
cooling of the plate by internal draughts.
• Switch on the trimming tool and close the clamps
slowly so that the pipe ends are moved against
the trimming tool until continuous shavings are
cut from each surface.
• Keep the trimming tool turning whilst opening the
clamps to avoid steps on the trimmed surfaces.
• Remove the trimming tool taking care not to
touch the trimmed ends.
Drag pressure is the minimum gauge pressure
required to overcome the sliding frictional drag on
the rams due to the operation of the machine and
the weight of the pipes/fittings being jointed.
Note: The drag pressure (in bar) must be
assessed accurately prior to making each fusion
joint and must be added to the basic ram pressure
values shown on the machine.
(When fully automatic machines are used this
operation will normally be carried out
automatically.)
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• Remove the heater plate from its protective
cover. Check that it is clean and up to
temperature.
that the plate does not touch the melted
surfaces.
• Immediately close the clamps (within 8 to 10
seconds of removing the plate) and bring the
melted surfaces together at the previously
determined pressure.
• Place the heater plate in the machine and close
the clamps so that the surfaces to be joined are
touching the plate. Using the hydraulic system
apply the pressure previously determined.
• Maintain the applied pressure until the pipe
begins to melt and a uniform bead of 2-3mm is
formed on each end.
• After the initial bead up, the pressure in the
hydraulic system shall be released so that the
pressure gauge registers between zero and the
drag pressure so as to control the bead growth
during the heat soak time. Check that the pipe
does not slip in the clamps. The pipe ends must
maintain contact with the heater plates.
• Maintain the required pressure for the minimum
cooling time as indicated in the table.
• After this time the assembly can be removed
from the machine but should not be handled for
a further period equal to the above cooling time.
• Examine the joint for cleanliness and uniformity
and check that the bead width is within the
specified limits.
• Remove the internal beads, if required, using
suitable debeading tools.
• The beads and joint should be numbered/coded
using an indelible marker pen.
• The beads will be twisted at several positions.
If the bead is seen to split at any point then the
joint must be cut out from the pipeline and the
joint remade. If a similar defect re-occurs, all
further jointing must cease until the equipment
has been thoroughly cleaned, examined and
new trial joints made and shown to be
satisfactory.
The Rules of Butt-Fusion
• When the heat soak time is completed, open the
clamps and remove the heater plate ensuring
NEVER
• Attempt to weld together pipes of different SDR
(wall thickness).
• Touch trimmed pipe ends.
• Leave trimming swarf inside pipe or on welding
machine.
• Allow equipment to get wet or dusty.
• Use non-approved machinery.
• Remove a weld from the machine before cooling
time has elapsed.
• Allow untrained personnel to use welding
equipment.
• Cut corners in any part of the welding procedure.
• Weld pipes of different material on site. (In
factory controlled conditions it may be possible to
do this).
• Use a generator of inadequate capacity.
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Buttweld Time and Pressure Table
Heater Plate Surface Temperature: 195ºC to 200ºC
Table 1 Single pressure butt-fusion jointing conditions for PE63, PE80 and PE100
Outside
diameter
mm
90
90
90
110
110
110
125
125
125
160
160
160
180
180
180
225
225
225
250
250
280
280
315
315
Bead up
Wall
thickness interface
(minimum) stress
SDR
mm
MPa
26
3.5
0.15
17.6
0.15
5.1
11
0.15
8.2
26
0.15
4.2
17.6
0.15
6.3
11
0.15
10.0
26
0.15
4.8
17.6
0.15
7.1
11
0.15
11.4
26
0.15
6.2
17.6
0.15
9.1
11
0.15
14.6
26
0.15
6.9
17.6
0.15
10.2
11
0.15
16.4
26
0.15
8.6
17.6
0.15
12.8
11
0.15
20.5
26
0.15
9.6
17.6
0.15
14.2
26
0.15
10.7
17.6
0.15
15.9
26
0.15
12.1
17.6
0.15
17.9
Tolerance
±0.02
Initial
bead
size
(approx)
mm
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
Soak
time
seconds
95
110
140
100
125
160
110
130
175
120
150
205
130
160
225
145
190
265
155
200
170
220
180
240
±3
Min
soak
interface
stress
MPa
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Max plate
removal
time
seconds
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Fusion
and
cooling
interface
stress
MPa
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
±0.02
Cooling
time in
clamps
minutes
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Cooling
time out
of clamps
minutes
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
Cooling
time for
coiled
pipe in
clamps
minutes
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
-
Typical
final
overall
bead width
max
min
mm
mm
15
8
15
8
16
9
15
8
16
9
17
10
15
8
16
9
17
10
16
9
16
9
18
11
16
9
17
10
18
11
16
9
17
10
19
12
16
9
17
10
22
13
23
14
22
13
23
14
Cooling
time out
of clamps
minutes
7.5
7.5
7.5
5
7.5
7.5
5
7.5
10
5
7.5
10
5
7.5
10
7.5
7.5
10
7.5
7.5
12.5
7.5
10
7.5
10
10
10
10
12.5
Typical
final
overall
bead width
max
min
mm
mm
15
24
25
16
26
17
22
13
24
15
27
18
23
14
24
15
27
18
23
14
25
16
28
19
24
15
25
16
29
20
24
15
26
17
31
22
25
16
27
18
32
23
25
16
28
19
26
17
29
20
27
18
31
22
28
19
32
23
Table 2 Dual pressure butt-fusion jointing conditions for PE63, PE80 and PE100
Outside
diameter
mm
250
280
315
355
355
355
400
400
400
450
450
450
500
500
500
560
560
560
630
630
630
710
710
800
800
900
900
1000
1000
Bead up
Wall
thickness interface
(minimum) stress
mm
MPa
11
0.15
22.7
11
0.15
25.4
11
0.15
28.6
26
0.15
13.6
17.6
0.15
20.1
11
0.15
32.3
26
0.15
15.3
17.6
0.15
22.7
11
0.15
36.4
26
0.15
17.2
17.6
0.15
25.6
11
0.15
41.0
26
0.15
19.1
17.6
0.15
28.3
11
0.15
45.5
26
0.15
21.4
17.6
0.15
31.7
11
0.15
50.8
26
0.15
24.1
17.6
0.15
35.7
11
0.15
57.2
26
0.15
27.2
17.6
0.15
40.2
26
0.15
30.6
17.6
0.15
45.3
26
0.15
34.6
17.6
0.15
50.9
26
0.15
38.4
17.6
0.15
56.6
Tolerance
±0.02
SDR
Initial
bead
size
(approx)
mm
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Soak
time
seconds
285
315
345
195
260
385
215
285
425
235
315
470
250
345
515
275
380
570
300
420
635
335
465
370
515
405
570
445
630
±3
Min
soak
interface
stress
MPa
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Max plate
removal
time
seconds
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
Fusion
interface
stress
(after 10
secs)
MPa
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
±0.02
Cooling
interface
stress
(after 10
secs)
minutes
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.025
±0.01
Cooling
time in
clamps
minutes
15
15
15
10
15
15
10
15
20
10
15
20
10
15
20
15
15
20
15
15
25
15
20
15
20
20
20
20
25
NB All jointing pressure must be calculated by using the effective ram area of the machine in relation to
the cross sectional area of the pipe wall. Effective ram area should be marked on each model.
15
Fittings
45º Bends
Fabricated Fittings - Dimensions
Bends
45 Deg. Segmented Bend
R = Dia. x 3
Pipe fittings can be manufactured from pipe in a
wide variety of sizes and pressure classes but
mostly from 75mm OD upwards and Class 6 or
higher. The fittings can be plain ended (for butt
welding, electrofusion fittings or compression
fittings) or have stubs fitted for flanges or Tech
Clamps. Permissible working pressure is 60% of
class of pipe used to fabricate fitting, e.g. 10 bar
pipe produces a 6 bar fabricated fitting.
L1
L
R
90º Bends
D
Bends
90 Deg. Segmented Bend
R = Dia. x 3
C
L1
L
OD mm
(D)
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
R
D
OD mm
(D)
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
L
mm
155
155
155
155
155
250
250
250
250
250
380
380
380
380
470
590
C
mm
478
478
478
478
478
792
792
792
792
792
1178
1178
1178
1178
1450
1800
L1
mm
160
160
160
160
160
280
280
280
280
280
400
400
400
400
560
600
R
mm
395
395
395
395
395
637
637
637
637
637
968
968
968
968
1350
1520
L
mm
155
155
155
155
155
155
155
250
250
250
250
250
380
380
380
380
470
590
L1
mm
238
238
238
238
238
238
238
405
405
405
405
405
590
590
590
590
900
900
R
mm
395
395
395
395
395
395
395
637
637
637
637
637
968
968
968
968
1200
1500
16
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Fabricated Fittings - Dimensions
Tees
OD
mm
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
D
Equal Tee
Plain ended or Flanged
H
L
Machined Reducing Bushes
OD1
mm
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
Machined Concentric Reducer
S = Dimensions according to pressure (PN) of pipe
OD2
S
15mm
30
10mm
L
10mm
S
OD1
H
mm
200
455
465
470
480
490
500
515
525
740
760
780
800
925
950
1180
1215
L
mm
400
910
930
940
960
980
1000
1030
1050
1480
1520
1560
1600
1850
1900
2360
2430
O D2
mm
20
20 / 25
20 / 25 / 32
25 / 32 / 40
25 / 32 / 40 / 50
32 / 40 / 50 / 63
40 / 50 / 63 / 75
63 / 75 / 90
75 / 90 / 110
90 / 110 / 125
90 / 110 / 125 / 140
110 / 125 / 140 / 160
140 / 160 / 180
160 / 180 / 200
180 / 200 / 225
200 / 225 / 280
250 / 280
280 / 315
315 / 355
355 / 400
400 / 450
L
mm
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
17
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Fabricated Fittings - Dimensions
Stub Flange Detail
Pipe
OD
16
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
D2
OD
A
H
B
D
D
A
D2
46
46
56
65
73
83
98
110
129
158
160
188
217
217
270
270
310
325
375
430
486
540
585
645
725
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
28
28
36
43
50
60
71
83
100
125
133
155
187
187
234
234
275
289
327
373
426
472
526
588
658
PN 4 - 10
B
H
15
40
15
40
15
40
20
40
20
50
20
50
20
50
20
50
20
50
25
55
30
60
30
60
35
70
35
70
35
70
45
80
45
80
45
80
50
90
50
90
60
100
60
100
60
100
65
105
65
105
PN 12 - 20
B
H
15
40
15
40
15
40
27
60
27
60
27
60
27
60
27
60
27
60
35
75
35
75
35
75
55
100
55
100
55
100
55
100
75
120
75
120
75
120
75
120
75
120
75
120
-
Tech-Stub Detail
L3
L2
L1
Pipe
OD
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
ID
OD
OD3
OD2
OD1
2r
OD1
O D2
O D3
L1
L2
L3
122
148
156
177
204
222
248
272
304
138
167
175
196
224
246
272
297
326
115
130
145
165
185
205
230
255
285
23
22
28
32
33
34
46
35
38
35
32
40
44
44
47
33
50
53
53
55
60
65
65
68
74
75
78
Victaulic Stub Detail (HDPE)
Pipe
OD
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
H
OD 3
OD 1
OD 2
R=2
R=2
A
Victaulic
size
63
90
90
110
110
160
160
160
225
225
250
250
OD1
OD2
O D3
A
B
H
68.5
97
97
124.5
124.5
178.5
178.5
178.5
231.5
231.5
286
286
60
90
90
115
115
161
161
161
218
218
273
273
50.5
61
76
91
111
126
141
161
181
201.5
226.5
251.5
16
16
16
16.5
16.5
17
17
17
21
21
21
21
10
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
21
21
21
21
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
85
85
85
85
Clamp
size
2"
3"
3"
4"
4"
6"
6"
6"
8"
8"
10"
10"
Note: The ID for all "Stubs" above
= OD - 2 x wall thickness
(see relevant specifications).
B
18
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings
Buttwelding is a very economical and reliable
jointing technique for making permanent welded
joints, requiring only buttwelding equipment.
Buttwelding is particularly suitable for
prefabricating pipe sections and special fittings.
Both Akatherm fittings with short spigot ends and
fittings with long spigot ends are suitable for
buttwelding. Only pipes and fittings from the same
wall thickness series can be buttwelded together.
D2
DE
SDR 17 & 11
s
D1
Stub Flanges
SDR 17
DE
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
L
H
Z
SDR 33
DE
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
H
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
20
20
20
23
26
33
33
35
35
L
37
42
34
34
32
42
52
40
50
40
57
49
27
37
25
45
D1
125
132
155
175
181
232
235
285
291
335
373
427
514
530
615
642
D2
158
158
188
212
212
268
268
320
320
370
430
482
585
585
685
685
Z
80
80
80
80
80
100
100
100
100
100
120
120
120
120
120
120
H
L
11
12
14
16
17
18
18
18
18
20
24
24
25
25
25
30
33
46
46
50
50
24
23
18
14
43
37
42
34
34
30
36
46
35
45
35
30
42
14
24
10
30
SDR 11
H
7
9
10
11
12
14
16
17
18
25
25
25
30
32
32
35
35
35
40
46
60
60
60
60
L
30
28
27
24
23
18
14
35
37
35
27
27
20
28
38
25
35
25
20
29
10
10
20
20
D1
27
33
40
50
61
75
89
105
125
132
155
175
181
232
235
285
291
335
373
427
514
530
615
642
D2
45
58
68
78
88
102
122
138
158
158
188
212
212
268
268
320
320
370
430
482
585
585
685
685
19
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Z
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
80
80
80
80
80
80
100
100
100
100
100
120
120
120
120
120
120
•?
Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
DE
S
Z
Tees 90°
I
L
SDR 33
DE
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
L
249
262
293
318
356
385
442
465
536
530
658
690
890
895
SDR 17 & 11
Z
121
132
145
160
175
194
212
232
268
263
330
345
450
450
DE
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
I
50
47
48
55
59
55
59
70
80
75
95
104
130
130
L
50
60
72
88
116
146
170
200
240
250
280
320
390
430
480
550
620
700
658
682
890
890
Z
25
30
36
44
58
73
85
100
120
125
140
160
195
215
240
275
310
350
330
345
450
450
I
8
10
12
16
21
24
28
23
43
26
32
40
73
70
72
86
105
111
95
104
130
130
20
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•?
Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Reducing Tees
E2
DE1
S1
Z
I2
S2
L
D
I1
SDR 17 & 11
DE1
63
75
75
75
90
90
90
90
110
110
110
110
110
125
125
125
140
140
140
140
160
160
160
160
160
D E2
50
32
50
63
32
50
63
75
32
50
63
75
90
63
90
110
63
75
90
110
63
75
90
110
125
SDR 17 & 11 continued
L
215
255
253
255
203
203
269
272
230
230
309
309
310
264
335
335
291
291
291
291
340
340
340
390
315
Z
103
107
107
117
85
94
135
138
91
101
156
151
152
110
170
170
120
130
130
137
174
179
179
201
150
I1
63
70
70
70
52
52
79
73
65
65
83
82
82
70
110
87
82
81
81
50
98
98
98
98
58
I2
56
46
55
63
23
27
63
70
22
27
64
70
79
31
91
82
32
35
38
43
64
74
79
83
47
DE1
180
180
180
180
180
180
200
200
200
200
200
225
225
225
225
225
225
250
250
315
315
315
315
D E2
63
75
90
110
125
160
63
90
110
125
160
75
90
110
125
160
180
110
160
110
160
225
250
L
348
348
395
395
348
412
382
388
388
388
388
445
445
445
435
488
553
435
440
555
585
650
680
Z
132
140
200
210
160
206
145
162
160
165
178
227
227
227
173
244
283
190
213
290
310
335
340
I1
125
112
136
140
92
101
143
125
120
114
98
118
118
117
135
119
131
134
110
170
170
170
170
I2
30
30
97
98
50
91
41
38
40
43
53
75
79
83
40
98
131
37
58
100
120
145
150
21
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Elbows 90°
Z
R
S
DE
SDR 33
DE
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
Z
120
140
150
180
200
220
250
290
290
340
340
345
450
450
SDR 17 & 11
I
10
15
10
25
25
23
20
25
10
40
40
45
50
50
R
110
125
140
155
175
197
230
265
280
300
300
300
400
400
DE
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
Z
25
30
36
43
51
64
85
100
120
140
155
175
195
215
245
275
310
350
340
345
450
450
I
5
5
4
3
1
1
10
10
10
15
15
15
15
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
50
R
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
300
300
400
400
27
22
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SDR 17
Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Reducers - Concentric
DE2
I1
L
I2
S2
S1
DE1
SDR 33
DE1
200
200
200
225
225
225
225
250
250
250
250
280
280
280
315
315
315
315
D E2
140
160
180
140
160
180
200
160
180
200
225
200
225
250
200
225
250
280
L
154
151
151
160
171
171
171
194
182
182
182
200
200
200
230
230
230
230
I1
50
50
50
60
55
55
55
60
60
60
60
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
I2
35
40
45
50
40
45
50
40
45
50
55
65
75
85
80
85
90
105
DE1
40
40
40
50
50
50
63
63
63
75
75
75
75
90
90
90
110
110
110
110
125
125
125
125
140
140
140
140
160
160
160
160
180
180
180
180
180
200
200
200
225
225
225
225
250
250
250
250
280
280
280
315
315
315
315
D E2
20
25
32
25
32
40
32
40
50
32
40
50
63
50
63
75
50
63
75
90
63
75
90
110
75
90
110
125
90
110
125
140
90
110
125
140
160
140
160
180
140
160
180
200
160
180
200
225
200
225
250
200
225
250
280
L
50
50
50
55
55
55
65
65
65
80
71
71
71
80
80
80
104
97
97
97
112
108
108
108
123
115
115
115
135
124
124
124
157
157
136
136
136
154
151
151
160
171
171
171
194
182
182
182
200
200
200
230
230
230
230
I1
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
16
16
19
19
19
19
30
22
22
28
28
28
28
30
32
32
32
35
35
35
35
40
40
40
40
45
45
45
45
45
50
50
50
60
55
55
55
60
60
60
60
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
I2
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
12
16
19
12
16
19
22
16
19
22
28
19
22
28
32
22
28
32
35
22
28
32
35
40
35
40
45
50
40
45
50
40
45
50
55
65
75
85
80
85
90
105
23
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Reducers - Concentric Continued
DE2
I1
L
I2
S2
S1
DE1
SDR 11
DE1
25
32
32
40
40
40
50
50
50
63
63
63
75
75
75
75
90
90
90
110
110
110
110
125
125
125
125
140
140
SDR 11 continued
DE2
20
20
25
20
25
32
25
32
40
32
40
50
32
40
50
63
50
63
75
50
63
75
90
63
75
90
110
75
90
L
37
43
43
50
50
50
55
55
55
65
65
65
80
71
71
71
80
80
80
105
97
97
97
112
108
108
108
123
115
I1
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
16
16
19
19
19
19
30
22
22
28
28
28
28
30
32
32
32
35
35
I2
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
16
12
16
19
12
16
19
22
16
19
22
28
19
22
DE1
140
140
160
160
160
160
180
180
180
180
180
200
200
200
225
225
225
225
250
250
250
250
280
280
280
315
315
315
315
D E2
L
115
115
135
124
124
124
157
157
136
136
136
154
151
151
160
171
171
171
194
182
182
182
200
200
200
230
230
230
230
110
125
90
110
125
140
90
110
125
140
160
140
160
180
140
160
180
200
160
180
200
225
200
225
250
200
225
250
280
I1
35
35
40
40
40
40
45
45
45
45
45
50
50
50
60
55
55
55
60
60
60
60
80
80
80
90
90
90
90
I2
28
32
22
28
32
35
22
28
32
35
40
35
40
45
50
40
45
50
40
45
50
55
65
75
85
80
85
90
105
24
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Reducers - Concentric Continued
DE2
I1
I2
S2
1
DE1
SDR 33
DE1
355
355
355
355
355
400
400
400
400
400
450
450
450
450
500
500
500
500
500
560
560
560
560
630
630
630
630
630
D E2
200
225
250
280
315
225
250
280
315
355
280
315
355
400
280
315
355
400
450
355
400
450
500
355
400
450
500
560
SDR 17 & 11
L
183
170
125
100
72
196
175
148
118
84
192
161
127
88
235
205
170
131
88
222
183
140
97
283
244
200
157
105
I1
30
34
30
32
30
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
I2
20
28
22
23
21
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
DE1
355
355
355
355
355
400
400
400
400
400
450
450
450
450
500
500
500
500
500
560
560
560
560
630
630
630
630
630
D E2
200
225
250
280
315
225
250
280
315
355
280
315
355
400
280
315
355
400
450
355
400
450
500
355
400
450
500
560
L
183
170
125
100
72
196
175
148
118
84
192
161
127
88
235
205
170
131
88
222
183
140
97
283
244
200
157
105
I1
30
34
30
32
30
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
I2
20
28
22
23
21
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
25
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Reducers - Eccentric
I
L
1
DE2
S2
DE1
S1
I2
SDR 33
DE1
160
160
160
160
180
180
180
180
200
200
200
200
225
225
225
225
250
250
250
250
280
280
280
280
315
315
315
315
DE2
90
110
125
140
110
125
140
160
125
140
160
180
140
160
180
200
160
180
200
225
180
200
225
250
200
225
250
280
SDR 17 & 11
L
140
120
110
90
140
130
110
100
150
130
110
100
160
140
120
100
160
140
130
100
170
150
130
110
190
160
140
120
I1
54
45
44
33
54
52
41
43
61
50
41
43
65
57
48
40
62
54
55
40
66
58
52
47
78
62
57
54
SDR 17
I2
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
DE1
160
160
160
160
180
180
180
180
200
200
200
200
225
225
225
225
250
250
250
250
280
280
280
280
315
315
315
315
DE2
90
110
125
140
110
125
140
160
125
140
160
180
140
160
180
200
160
180
200
225
180
200
225
250
200
225
250
280
L
140
120
110
90
140
130
110
90
150
130
110
100
160
140
120
100
160
140
130
100
170
150
130
110
190
160
140
120
SDR 11
I1
54
45
44
33
54
52
41
33
61
50
41
43
65
57
48
40
62
54
55
40
66
58
52
47
78
62
57
54
L
140
120
110
100
140
130
120
100
150
130
120
100
160
140
120
110
170
150
130
110
180
160
140
120
190
170
150
130
I1
54
45
44
43
54
52
51
43
61
50
51
43
65
57
48
50
72
64
55
50
76
68
62
57
78
72
67
64
I2
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
26
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
DE
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
L
45
52
58
67
75
85
82
110
125
55
65
80
90
100
110
I
35
40
45
50
55
62
66
78
88
25
30
40
47
50
60
DE
25
25
32
32
32
40
40
40
50
50
50
50
63
75
G
½"
¾"
½"
¾"
1"
¾"
1"
1¼"
½"
1"
1¼"
1½"
2"
2½"
L
40
39
36
36
39
45
45
45
47
47
49
49
54
58
I
D
17
10
14
12
11
17
16
13
20
20
21
17
17
16
36
41
36
41
48
50
52
64
53
54
63
69
85
90
DE
20
25
32
40
50
63
G
½"
¾"
1"
1¼"
1½"
2"
L
46
51
61
66
74
80
I1
I2
19
22
28
29
32
35
18
20
24
26
28
31
I
L
D
S
End Caps
E
D
Adaptors: with female thread
L
I
S
E
G
D
Adaptors: with male thread
I1
L
I2
G
DE
S
27
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Buttweld Moulded Fittings - continued
Unions - Short
DE
S
Z
Sizes 20mm to 75mm inclusive are all
110 mm long.
Sizes 90mm and 110mm are 180mm long.
Unions - Long
SDR 17 & 11
DE
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
S
Z
DE
Z
190
190
190
190
190
190
260
300
340
The unions consists of:
- PE union end and union bush
- PVC nut
- EPDM or FPM gasket
28
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Compression Fittings
Lamasat is also a proud supplier of Alprene
range of compression and transition fittings.
These fittings are available in sizes from
16 - 110mm and have a maximum operating
pressure of 16 bar.
Alprene is renowned for quality products and
services. Their compression fittings comply with
the requirements of a number of South Africa
specifications and, in Zambia.
The Alprene fitting design uses the mechanical
advantage of the nut thread to place the seal into
a compressed position. This means no resistance
when inserting the pipe into the fitting, thus
eliminating damage or displacement to the seal
during installation. Furthermore the fittings have
no loose components which can be incorrectly
assembled or lost.
29
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Full details of the dimensions and
masses of each fitting is available in
Lamasat's “Alprene Metric Technical
Manual”. However included here
below is an outline of the available
range.
Lamasat International we are
proud distributors of the Alprene
range of 10 bar rated compression
fittings. Details of these fittings are
set out in a separate
“Alprene Compression Joints”
catalogue
Couplings (16mm to 110mm)
Slip Couplings (20mm to 63mm)
Reducing Tees
(25mm x 20mm to 63mm x 50mm)
90° Male Elbows
(25mm x ¾" and 32mm x 1")
Reducing Couplings
(20mm x 16mm to 110mm x 90mm)
Female Iron Tees
(16mm x ½" to 110mm x 4")
90° Female Elbows
(16mm x ½" to 110mm x 4")
Male Adaptors
(16mm x ½" to 110mm x 4")
Male Iron Tees
(25mm x ½" and 25mm x ¾")
End Caps
(16mm to 110mm)
Female Adaptors
(16mm x ½" to 110mm x 4")
90° Elbows
(16mm to 110mm)
Equal Tees (16mm to 110mm)
Slip Tees (20mm to 63mm)
30
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Other Fittings
Magnum Polypropylene Saddles
To complete this comprehensive range of
compression fittings Lamasat International also
supply, range of polypropylene saddles for use
on both PVC and HDPE pressure pipe.
The Lamasat Saddles and fittings are
engineered for use above or below ground for the
transfer of fluids; including water, chemicals or
slurries, frequently encountered in the civil
engineering and mining or irrigation industries.
Features
• PN 16 (Blue) pressure ratings.
• Nitrile sealing gasket for excellent sealing
performance and chemical resistance.
• Suitable for contact with potable water.
• High grade polypropylene body selected for its
tough, high impact, lightweight, and durable
properties.
• Stainless steel reinforcing rings on threaded
branch.
• Bolt clips to facilitate easy assembly.
• Hexagon moulding to prevent bolt turning
during assembly.
• Supplied with Zinc electroplated steel bolts
and nuts.
Pipe External
diameter (mm)
Threaded off take
FI (BSP)
25mm
25mm
32mm
32mm
32mm
40mm
40mm
40mm
50mm
50mm
50mm
63mm
63mm
63mm
63mm
63mm
75mm
75mm
75mm
75mm
75mm
75mm
90mm
90mm
90mm
90mm
90mm
90mm
110mm
110mm
110mm
110mm
110mm
110mm
160mm
160mm
160mm
160mm
160mm
½"
¾"
½"
¾"
1" "
½
¾
"
1" "
½
¾
"
1" "
½
¾
"
1"
1 ¼"
1 ½"
½"
¾"
1"
1 ¼"
1 ½"
2" "
½
¾
"
1"
1 ¼"
1 ½"
2" "
½
¾
"
1"
1 ¼"
1 ½"
2" "
1¾
"
1 ¼"
1 ½"
2"
Robust saddle tower design for
long term stress
Stainless steel reinforcement
ring provides superior support
to female off-take thread
Sealing gasket is
compressed onto
pipe surface and
provides tolerance
to scuffed, scratched
or oval pipe
Rounded body shape
prevents unnecessary stress
on body during assembly
C lips
prevent
bolt from
displacing
during
assembly
H exagonal groove prevents
bolts from turning when
tightening nut
Reinforcing ribs
strengthen pressure
performance
41
31
41
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Flanges
Dimensions - Galvanised Steel (Stainless) Backing Rings.
Size
Bolt Size
D1
PCD
D
Pipe
Size
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
Pipe
Size
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
B
BS 10 Table D
Dimensions - mm
D1
PCD
B
D
8
66.7
95.5
30
8
73
101.6
38
8
82.6
114.3
45
10
87.3
120.6
52
10
98.4
133.3
63
10
114.3
152.4
74
10
127
165.1
86
12
146
184.1
103
15
177.8
215.9
128
15
209.6
254
135
15
209.6
254
158
15
279.4
235
188
15
235
285
188
16
292
336.6
236
16
323.9
369
236
16
355.6
406.4
279
20
355.6
406.4
292
20
406.4
457.2
350
23
469.9
527.1
367
23
520.7
577.9
430
25
584.2
641.4
476
25
641.4
704.9
533
30
698
762
592
30
755.7
825.5
662
Bolts
Size
No.
M12
4
M12
4
M12
4
M12
4
M12
4
4
M16
4
M16
4
M16
4
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M16
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M20
8
8
M20
12
M20
M24
12
M24
12
M24
12
M24
16
M24
16
M24
16
BS 10 Table E
Dimensions - mm
Bolts
Size
No.
PCD
B
D
8
95.5
M12
4
66.7
8
M12
101.6
73
4
M12
114.3
82.6
8
4
M12
120.6
87.3
10
4
M12
133.3
98.4
10
4
4
M16
152.4
114.3
10
4
M16
165.1
127
10
8
M16
184.1
146
12
8
M16
215.9
177.8
15
8
M16
254
209.6
15
209.6
8
M16
254
15
8
M20
279.4
18
235
M20
285
235
19
8
M20
336.6
292
19
8
M20
369
323.9
22
12
M20
406.4
12
355.6
22
M20
406.4
12
355.6
22
M24
457.2
12
406.4
25
M24
527.1
12
469.9
29
M24
577.9
12
520.7
29
M24
641.4
16
584.2
35
M24
704.9
16
641.4
38
M24
762
16
698
44
M30
825.5
16
755.7
47
SABS 1123 1600/3
Dimensions - mm
D1
B
PCD
D
10
65
95
30
105
10
75
38
115
10
85
45
140
12
100
52
150
12
110
63
165
12
125
74
185
12
145
86
200
12
160
103
220
15
180
128
250
15
210
135
250
15
210
158
285
20
240
188
285
20
240
188
340
20
295
236
340
20
295
236
405
25
355
279
405
25
355
292
460
25
410
350
520
25
470
367
580
30
525
430
640
30
585
476
715
30
650
533
775
36
710
592
840
36
770
662
Bolts
No.
Size
4
M12
M12
4
M12
4
M16
4
M16
4
4
M16
4
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M20
M20
8
M20
12
M20
12
M24
12
M24
12
M24
12
M24
16
M24
16
M24
20
M30
20
M30
20
M30
20
SABS 1123 1000/3
Dimensions - mm
Bolts
No.
D
B
Size
PCD
95
10
4
M12
65
M12
105
10
75
4
M12
115
10
85
4
M16
140
12
100
4
M16
150
12
110
4
4
M16
165
12
125
4
M16
185
12
145
8
M16
200
12
160
8
M16
220
15
180
8
M16
250
15
210
8
M16
250
15
210
8
M20
285
20
240
M20
285
20
240
8
M20
340
20
295
8
M20
340
20
295
8
M20
395
25
350
12
M20
395
25
350
12
M20
445
25
400
12
M20
506
25
460
16
M24
565
30
515
16
M24
615
30
565
20
M24
670
30
620
20
M24
730
35
675
20
M24
780
38
725
20
ASA 150
Dimensions - mm
D
PCD
B
89
10
60.3
98.6
10
69.8
108
10
79.4
117.5
12
88.9
127
12
98.4
152.4
12
120.6
177.8
12
139.7
190.5
12
152.4
228.6
15
190.5
254
15
215.9
254
15
215.9
279.4
20
241.3
280
20
241.3
343
20
298.4
343
20
298.4
406.4
25
361.9
406.4
25
361.9
482.6
25
431.8
533.4
25
476.2
596.9
30
539.7
635
30
577.8
698.5
30
635
812.8
36
749.3
Bolts
Size
No.
M12
4
M12
4
M12
4
M12
4
M12
4
4
M16
4
M16
4
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M16
M16
8
M16
8
M16
8
M20
12
M20
12
M20
12
M20
12
M24
12
M24
16
M24
16
M24
20
SABS 1123 600/3
Dimensions - mm
Bolts
No.
D
B
Size
PCD
80
10
4
M10
55
M10
90
10
65
4
M10
100
10
75
4
M12
120
10
90
4
M12
130
12
100
4
4
M12
140
12
110
4
M12
160
12
130
4
M16
190
12
150
4
M16
210
12
170
8
M16
240
15
200
8
M16
240
15
200
8
M16
265
15
225
M16
265
15
225
8
M16
320
20
280
8
M16
320
20
280
8
M16
375
20
335
12
M16
375
20
335
12
M20
440
20
395
12
M20
490
20
445
12
M20
540
25
495
16
M20
595
25
550
16
M20
645
25
600
20
M24
705
25
655
20
M24
755
25
705
20
32
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Bolt dimensions for flanged connection
Flange drilled to SABS 1193 (1977) Table 1 000 and 1 600
BOLTS
OD
NO
SIZE
20
25
32
40
50
63
75
90
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
315
355
400
450
500
560
630
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
8
8
8
8
8
8/12*
8/12*
12
12
12
12/16*
16
20
20
20
20
M12
M12
M12
M16
M16
M16
M16
M16
M16
M16
M16
M20
M20
M20
M20
M20
M20
M20
M20/24*
M24
M24
M24/30*
M24/30*
M24/30*
LENGTH OF BOLTS
Plastic to Plastic
PN
4 - 10
75
75
75
90
90
90
90
90
115
115
115
140
140
140
165
180
180
200
200
230
230
230
230
300
PN
12 - 20
75
75
75
100
100
100
100
100
125
125
125
180
180
180
180
230
230
230
230
255
255
-
Plastic to Steel
PN
4 - 10
65
65
65
75
75
75
75
75
90
90
90
115
115
125
125
125
140
140
140
165
165
165
165
200
PN
12 - 20
65
65
65
75
75
75
75
75
90
90
90
125
125
125
125
165
165
165
165
165
180
-
NOTE: The bolt diameters and lengths refer to flanges drilled to the above standard only.
The lengths of bolts allow for gaskets and washers.
* Items marked thus depict different bolt quantities and sizes for Table 1 000 and
Table 1 600 flanges respectively.
33
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Tech Fittings
Tech fittings can be fabricated by butt-welding
Tech stubs to any of the range of butt-weld fittings
shown earlier so that they may be used with Tech
Clamps.
Tech Clamp Detail:
B
A
C = Width
A
mm
165
186
198
215
246
278
293
322
354
Pipe
OD
110
125
140
160
180
200
225
250
280
B
mm
212
237
245
272
300
322
348
373
402
C
mm
86
80
95
104
105
111
108
118
122
OD
Victaulic Fittings
As with Tech fittings, Victaulic fittings can be
fabricated by butt-welding Victaulic stubs onto any
of the range of butt-weld fittings.
Victaulic Clamp Detail:
A
B
C
E
X
Z
Y
D
S
S
Nominal
size
mm
50
80
100
150
200
250
A
B
C
D
E
mm
25.0
25.0
27.0
27.0
30.0
30.0
mm
35.0
35.0
38.0
38.0
44.0
44.0
mm
82.5
111.0
141.5
194.0
255.5
314.5
mm
68.0
98.0
123.0
176.0
233.0
287.0
X
Y
mm mm mm
61.0 44.5 146.0
90.5 63.5 186.0
116.0 63.5 232.0
167.0 89.0 279.0
221.0 111.0 356.0
275.0 111.0 410.0
Z
Bolt
size
mm
113.0
146.0
184.0
232.0
308.0
365.0
M12
M16
M16
M16
M20
M20
34
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Design Considerations
Flow
The flow charts given here have each been
calculated for a particular SDR and can therefore
by applied to various pressure classes depending
on the material designation and design stress.
Only sizes covered by SABS ISO 4427 have been
included in these charts. The table on the right
gives the PN classes (pressure in bar) covered by
each SDR.
SDR
33
26
21
17
13.6
11
9
7.4
The nomogram and tables that follow provide a
guide to friction losses that can be expected when
using clean HDPE pressure pipes with clean water
at 20°C. No account has been taken of any
possible fittings in a line.
PE100
---6.3
8
10
12.5
16
20
----
PE80
4
---6.3
8
10
12.5
16
20
PE63
3.2
4
---6.3
8
10
12.5
16
Nomogram
Internal Diameter
(mm)
Flow Rate
L/sec L/min
Flow Velocity
(m/s)
Hydraulic Gradient
m/100m pipe
15
20
0.01
25
30
35
0.05
0.1
40
0.2
50
0.01
1
0.02
0.3
0.4
0.5
60
1
0.05
2
3
4
5
0.03
0.1
2
90
3
4
5
100
20
150
200
250
300
350
30
40
50
100
200
300
400
500
1000
400
2000
500
Diagram for water at 10°C
3000
4000
5000
NOTE: For sizes not covered by Nomogram,
please contact Technical Support Department.
0.04
0.05
1
0.15
0
0.2
30
40
50
0.3
100
0.4
70
80
0.02
0.5
200
300
400
500
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1
1000
1
1.5
2000
2
3000
4000
5000
3
10000
4
2
3
4
5
5
20000
30000
40000
50000
3
m/min
1 00
10
10
15
200
0
300
20
20
Approximate values only
2
35
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SDR 33
63
75
Size (mm-O.D.)
2.3
1.9
Wall thickness mm
59.2 70.4
Inside Diameter mm
3
G.P.H.
l/s.
m/hr.
396
1.8 0.5
0.32
792
3.6
1
1.11 0.48
1584
7.2
2
10.8
2.27 0.99
2376
3
3.77 1.65
3168
14.4
4
5.60 2.45
5
18
3960
7.74 3.38
6
21.6
4752
5544
7 10.16 4.45
25.2
8 12.87 5.63
6336
28.8
6.94
9
7128
32.4
36
8.36
7920
10
43.2 12
9504
11088
50.4 14
57.6 16
12672
14256
64.8 18
20
15840
72
79.2 22
17424
19008
86.4 24
20592
93.6 26
100.8 28
22176
30
108
23760
25344
115.2 32
26928
122.4 34
129.6 36
28512
30096
136.8 38
31680
40
144
35640
45
162
39600
180
50
43560
55
198
60
47520
216
51480
234
65
55440
252
70
75
59400
270
80
63360
288
71280
324
90
79200
360 100
87120
396
110
95040
432 120
102960
468 130
110880
504 140
118800
540 150
126720
576 160
134640
612 170
142560
648 180
684 190
150480
158400
720 200
756 210
166320
174240
792 220
182160
828 230
190080
864 240
198000
900 250
205920
936 260
213840
972 270
221760 1008 280
229680 1044 290
237600 1080 300
245520 1116 310
253440 1152 320
261360 1188 330
269280 1224 340
277200 1260 350
285120 1296 360
293040 1332 370
300960 1368 380
308880 1404 390
316800 1440 400
332640 1512 420
348480 1584 440
364320 1656 460
380160 1728 480
396000 1800 500
435600 1980 550
475200 2160 600
514800 2340 650
554400 2520 700
594000 2700 750
633600 2880 800
90
2.7
84.6
0.20
0.41
0.69
1.02
1.41
1.85
2.34
2.89
3.48
4.81
6.31
8.00
125 140
110
3.8
4.2
3.3
103.4 117.4 131.6
0.16
0.26 0.14
0.39 0.21
0.54 0.30
0.71 0.39
0.90 0.49
1.11 0.61
1.34 0.73
1.85 1.01
2.42 1.32
3.07 1.68
3.78 2.06
4.56 2.49
5.39 2.94
6.29 3.43
3.96
4.51
5.10
5.71
0.12
0.17
0.22
0.28
0.35
0.42
0.58
0.77
0.97
1.20
1.44
1.71
1.99
2.30
2.62
2.96
3.31
3.69
4.08
4.49
4.92
160
200
4.8
6.1
150.4 1 87.8
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.31
0.41
0.51
0.63
0.76
0.90
1.05
1.21
1.38
1.56
1.75
1.95
2.16
2.38
2.60
3.21
3.86
0.06
0.08
0.11
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.26
0.31
0.37
0.42
0.48
0.54
0.61
0.68
0.75
0.82
0.90
1.11
1.34
1.59
1.85
2.13
2.43
2.74
3.08
250
7.6
234.8
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.38
0.46
0.55
0.64
0.73
0.84
0.95
1.06
1.31
1.57
1.86
2.17
2.50
315
9.5
296.0
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.09
0.10
0.13
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.28
0.31
0.35
0.43
0.52
0.62
0.72
0.83
0.95
1.07
1.20
1.33
1.48
1.62
1.78
1.94
355
450
400
500
560
12.1
10.8
13.6
15.2 17.0
333.4 302.6 422.8 469.6 526.0
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.41
0.47
0.54
0.61
0.68
0.76
0.84
0.92
1.01
1.10
1.19
1.29
1.39
1.50
1.60
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.27
0.30
0.34
0.38
0.43
0.47
0.52
0.57
0.62
0.67
0.73
0.79
0.85
0.91
0.97
1.03
1.10
1.17
1.24
1.31
1 .38
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.20
0.22
0.24
0.27
0.30
0.32
0.35
0.38
0.42
0.45
0.48
0.52
0.55
0.59
0.63
0.67
0.70
0.75
0.79
0.83
0.87
0.92
0.96
1.01
1.06
1.11
1 .21
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.36
0.38
0.40
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.50
0.53
0.56
0.58
0.61
0.64
0.67
0.73
0.79
0.86
0.93
1.00
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.43
0.46
0.50
0.54
0.58
0.69
0.80
0.92
630
19.1
591.8
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.39
0.46
0.53
0.60
0.68
0.76
© Copyright
Notes:
1. The colour coding represents the approximate velocity of the
water in the size of pipe chosen.
2. If two or more size columns have the same colouring then there
is a choice of suitable sizes each with its own friction loss value.
3. The range of velocities (metres per second) represented by the
colours is as follows:
Colour Code
Unshaded numbers above Yellow
Yellow
Light Green
Dark Green
Tan
Unshaded numbers below Tan
Velocity - m/s
<0.5 but not < 0.3
-0.5 to 0.99
-1.0 to 1.49
-1.5 to 1.99
-2.0 to 2.49
>2.5 but not > 3.0
Comments
too big
a smaller pipe may be more suitable
about right
about right
a bigger pipe may be more suitable
too small
36
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SDR 26
40
Size (mm-O.D.)
1.6
Wall thickness mm
36.8
Inside Diameter mm
3
G.P.H.
l/s.
m/hr.
396
1.8 0.5 0.92
3.13
792
3.6
1
1584
7.2
2 10.69
3 21.91
10.8
2376
3168
14.4
4
5
18
3960
6
21.6
4752
5544
7
25.2
8
6336
28.8
9
7128
32.4
36
7920
10
9504
43.2 12
11088
50.4 14
57.6 16
12672
14256
64.8 18
20
15840
72
79.2 22
17424
19008
86.4 24
20592
93.6 26
100.8 28
22176
30
108
23760
25344
115.2 32
26928
122.4 34
129.6 36
28512
30096
136.8 38
31680
40
144
35640
45
162
39600
50
180
55
43560
198
60
47520
216
234
51480
65
252
55440
70
75
59400
270
80
63360
288
71280
324
90
79200
360 100
87120
396
110
95040
432 120
102960
468 130
110880
504 140
118800
540 150
126720
576 160
134640
612 170
142560
648 180
684 190
150480
158400
720 200
756 210
166320
174240
792 220
182160
828 230
190080
864 240
198000
900 250
205920
936 260
213840
972 270
221760 1008 280
229680 1044 290
237600 1080 300
245520 1116 310
253440 1152 320
261360 1188 330
269280 1224 340
277200 1260 350
285120 1296 360
293040 1332 370
300960 1368 380
308880 1404 390
316800 1440 400
332640 1512 420
348480 1584 440
364320 1656 460
380160 1728 480
396000 1800 500
435600 1980 550
475200 2160 600
514800 2340 650
554400 2520 700
594000 2700 750
633600 2880 800
50
1.9
46.2
0.31
1.06
3.61
7.40
12.32
18.28
63
2.4
58.2
0.35
1.20
2.46
4.09
6.08
8.39
11.02
75
2.9
69.2
90
110
3.5
4.2
83.0 101.6
0.53
1.08
1.79
2.66
3.67
4.83
6.11
7.53
9.07
0.22
0.45
0.75
1.12
1.54
2.03
2.57
3.16
3.81
5.26
6.91
8.76
0.17
0.29
0.43
0.59
0.77
0.98
1.21
1.45
2.01
2.64
3.34
4.11
4.96
5.87
6.84
125
4.8
115.4
140
5.4
129.2
0.16
0.23
0.32
0.42
0.53
0.66
0.79
1.09
1.44
1.82
2.24
2.70
3.20
3.73
4.29
4.90
5.53
0.09
0.14
0.19
0.25
0.31
0.38
0.46
0.64
0.84
1.06
1.31
1.57
1.86
2.17
2.51
2.86
3.23
3.62
4.03
4.46
4.90
5.37
160
6.2
147.6
0.10
0.13
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.34
0.44
0.56
0.69
0.83
0.99
1.15
1.33
1.51
1.71
1.92
2.13
2.36
2.60
2.85
3.51
4.22
200
7.7
184.6
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.12
0.15
0.19
0.24
0.29
0.34
0.40
0.46
0.52
0.59
0.66
0.73
0.81
0.89
0.98
1.21
1.45
1.72
2.01
2.31
2.64
2.98
3.34
250
9.6
230.8
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.23
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.34
0.42
0.50
0.59
0.69
0.80
0.91
1.03
1.15
1.42
1.71
2.02
2.36
355
400
315
450
12.1
13.7
15.4 17.3
290.8 327.6 369.2 415.4
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.30
0.34
0.38
0.47
0.57
0.67
0.78
0.90
1.03
1.16
1.30
1.45
1.61
1 .77
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.27
0.32
0.38
0.44
0.51
0.58
0.66
0.74
0.82
0.91
1.00
1.10
1.19
1.30
1.40
1.51
1 .63
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.25
0.29
0.33
0.37
0.42
0.46
0.51
0.57
0.62
0.68
0.73
0.79
0.86
0.92
0.99
1.05
1.12
1.20
1.27
1.35
1.42
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.26
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.38
0.42
0.45
0.49
0.52
0.56
0.60
0.64
0.68
0.72
0.77
0.81
0.86
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.20
560
500
19.2 21.5
461.6 517.0
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.39
0.41
0.44
0.46
0.49
0.52
0.55
0.57
0.60
0.63
0.66
0.70
0.73
0.79
0.86
0.93
1.01
1.08
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.30
0.32
0.33
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.41
0.42
0.46
0.50
0.54
0.59
0.63
0.75
0.87
630
24.2
581.6
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.36
0.42
0.50
0.57
0.65
0.74
© Copyright
How to read the charts:
1. Choose the particular chart for the material designation (PE 100, PE 80, PE 63) and pressure class (PN 16, PN 10 etc.) of pipe being used.
2. In one of the first 3 columns find the nearest value of the quantity of water to be pumped. The three columns give the quantity of water in different units.
GPH = Gallons per hour,
m³/hr = cubic metres per hour,
l/s = litres per second.
3. Run your eye along the horizontal line found in instruction 2 above until you get to numbers which are shaded light green. The number in the shaded block is the
friction loss (expressed in metres per 100 metres) for the size of pipe given at the top of the particular column.
4. The reverse sequence
37
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SDR 21
Size (mm-O.D.)
Wall thickness mm
Inside Diameter mm
3
l/s.
G.P.H.
m/hr.
0.4 0.1
79
158
0.7 0.2
238
1.1 0.3
317
1.4 0.4
396
1.8 0.5
2.2 0.6
475
2.5 0.7
554
634
2.9 0.8
713
3.2 0.9
1
792
3.6
7.2
1584
2
2376
10.8
3
14.4
3168
4
5
18
3960
6
21.6
4752
25.2
7
5544
28.8
6336
8
7128
32.4
9
10
7920
36
43.2 12
9504
50.4 14
11088
12672
57.6 16
14256
64.8 18
15840
72
20
17424
79.2 22
19008
86.4 24
20592
93.6 26
22176
100.8 28
108 30
23760
115.2 32
25344
122.4 34
26928
129.6 36
28512
30096
136.8 38
40
31680
144
35640
45
162
39600
50
180
43560
55
198
47520
60
216
51480
234
65
55440
252
70
59400
75
270
63360
80
288
324
71280
90
79200
360
100
396
87120
110
432
95040
120
130
468
102960
140
110880
504
118800
150
540
126720
160
576
134640
612
170
142560
180
648
150480
190
684
158400
200
720
166320
210
756
174240
220
792
182160
230
828
190080
240
864
198000
250
900
205920
260
936
972
213840
270
221760 1008
280
229680 1044
290
237600 1080
300
245520 1116
310
253440 1152
320
261360 1188
330
269280 1224
340
277200 1260
350
285120 1296
360
370
293040 1332
380
300960 1368
308880 1404
390
316800 1440
400
332640 1512
420
348480 1584
440
460
364320 1656
480
380160 1728
396000 1800
500
435600 1980
550
475200 2160
600
514800 2340
650
700
554400 2520
750
594000 2700
633600 2880
800
25
1.6
21.8
32
1.6
28.8
2.21
4.52
7.52
11.17
15.42
20.25
25.65
31.60
38.08
0.58
1.20
0.67
1.99
2.96
0.99
4.08
1.37
5.37
1.80
6.80
2.28
2.81
8.37
10.09
3.39
34.41 11.56
23.69
40
1.9
36.2
50
2.4
45.2
0.34
0.48
0.63
0.79
0.98
1.18
4.01
8.22
13.67
20.29
63
3.0
57.0
0.26
0.32
0.39
1.33
2.72
4.52
6.71
9.27
12.17
75
3.6
67.8
90
4.3
81.4
0.58
1.19
1.98
2.93
4.05
5.32
6.74
8.30
1 0.00
0.24
0.50
0.83
1.23
1.69
2.22
2.82
3.47
4.18
5.78
7.59
110
5.2
99.6
125
6.0
113.0
0.19
0.32
0.47
0.65
0.85
1.08
1.33
1.60
2.21
2.90
3.67
4.52
5.45
6.45
0.10
0.17
0.26
0.35
0.47
0.59
0.73
0.87
1.21
1.59
2.01
2.48
2.98
3.53
4.12
4.75
5.41
6.12
140
6.7
126.6
0.10
0.15
0.21
0.27
0.34
0.42
0.51
0.70
0.92
1.17
1.44
1.74
2.05
2.40
2.76
3.15
3.56
3.99
4.44
4.91
160
7.6
144.8
0.08
0.11
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.27
0.37
0.49
0.62
0.76
0.91
1.08
1.26
1.45
1.66
1.87
2.10
2.34
2.59
2.85
3.12
3.84
200
9.5
181.0
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.13
0.17
0.21
0.26
0.32
0.37
0.44
0.50
0.57
0.65
0.72
0.81
0.89
0.98
1.08
1.32
1.60
1.89
2.20
2.54
2.90
3.27
250
11.9
226.2
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.20
0.22
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.34
0.37
0.46
0.55
0.65
0.76
0.88
1.00
1.13
1.27
1.56
1.88
2.23
2.60
315
15.0
285.0
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.25
0.29
0.33
0.38
0.42
0.52
0.62
0.74
0.86
0.99
1.13
1.28
1.43
1.60
1.77
1.95
355
16.9
321.2
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.29
0.35
0.42
0.49
0.58
0.64
0.72
0.81
0.90
1.00
1.10
1.20
1.31
1.43
1.54
1.66
400
19.0
362.0
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.17
0.20
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.41
0.46
0.51
0.56
0.62
0.68
0.74
0.81
0.87
0.94
1.01
1.08
1.16
1.23
1.31
1.40
450
21.4
407.2
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.16
0.18
0.21
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.39
0.42
0.46
0.50
0.54
0.58
0.62
0.66
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.84
0.89
0.94
0.99
1.05
1.10
1.15
1.21
1 .27
500
23.8
452.4
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.32
0.35
0.37
0.40
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.51
0.54
0.57
0.60
0.63
0.67
0.70
0.73
0.77
0.80
0.87
0.95
1.03
1.11
560
26.7
506.6
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.22
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.31
0.33
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.45
0.47
0.51
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.69
0.82
0.96
630
30.0
570.0
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.32
0.34
0.37
0.40
0.47
0.55
0.63
0.72
0.81
© Copyright
Notes:
1. The colour coding represents the approximate velocity of the
water in the size of pipe chosen.
2. If two or more size columns have the same colouring then there
is a choice of suitable sizes each with its own friction loss value.
3. The range of velocities (metres per second) represented by the
colours is as follows:
Colour Code
Unshaded numbers above Yellow
Yellow
Light Green
Dark Green
Tan
Unshaded numbers below Tan
Velocity - m/s
<0.5 but not < 0.3
-0.5 to 0.99
-1.0 to 1.49
-1.5 to 1.99
-2.0 to 2.49
>2.5 but not > 3.0
Comments
too big
a smaller pipe may be more suitable
about right
about right
a bigger pipe may be more suitable
too small
38
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SDR 17
Size (mm-O.D.)
Wall thickness mm
Inside Diameter mm
3
l/s.
G.P.H.
m/hr.
0.4 0.1
79
158
0.7 0.2
238
1.1 0.3
317
1.4 0.4
396
1.8 0.5
2.2 0.6
475
2.5 0.7
554
634
2.9 0.8
713
3.2 0.9
1
792
3.6
7.2
1584
2
2376
10.8
3
14.4
3168
4
5
18
3960
6
21.6
4752
25.2
7
5544
28.8
6336
8
7128
32.4
9
10
7920
36
9504
43.2 12
50.4 14
11088
12672
57.6 16
14256
64.8 18
15840
72
20
17424
79.2 22
19008
86.4 24
20592
93.6 26
22176
100.8 28
108 30
23760
115.2 32
25344
122.4 34
26928
129.6 36
28512
30096
136.8 38
40
31680
144
35640
45
162
39600
50
180
43560
55
198
47520
60
216
51480
234
65
55440
252
70
59400
75
270
63360
80
288
324
71280
90
79200
360
100
396
87120
110
432
95040
120
130
468
102960
140
110880
504
118800
150
540
126720
160
576
134640
612
170
142560
180
648
150480
190
684
158400
200
720
166320
210
756
174240
220
792
182160
230
828
190080
240
864
198000
250
900
205920
260
936
972
213840
270
221760 1008
280
229680 1044
290
237600 1080
300
245520 1116
310
253440 1152
320
261360 1188
330
269280 1224
340
277200 1260
350
285120 1296
360
370
293040 1332
380
300960 1368
308880 1404
390
316800 1440
400
332640 1512
420
348480 1584
440
460
364320 1656
480
380160 1728
396000 1800
500
435600 1980
550
475200 2160
600
514800 2340
650
700
554400 2520
750
594000 2700
633600 2880
800
25
1.6
21.8
32
1.9
28.2
2.21
4.52
7.52
11.17
15.42
20.25
25.65
31.60
38.08
0.65
1.32
2.20
3.27
4.52
5.93
7.51
9.26
11.15
40
2.4
35.2
0.46
0.77
1.14
1.57
2.06
2.61
3.21
3.87
1 3.21
50
2.9
44.2
0.38
0.53
0.70
0.88
1.09
1.31
4.46
9.14
15.21
63
3.7
55.6
0.29
0.36
0.44
1.49
3.06
5.09
7.56
10.43
13.71
75
4.4
66.2
90
5.3
79.4
0.65
1.33
2.21
3.29
4.54
5.96
7.55
9.30
11.21
0.27
0.56
0.93
1.38
1.91
2.51
3.17
3.91
4.71
6.50
8.54
110
6.5
97.0
125
7.4
110.2
0.22
0.36
0.53
0.73
0.96
1.22
1.50
1.81
2.50
3.29
4.16
5.13
6.18
7.32
0.12
0.19
0.29
0.40
0.52
0.66
0.82
0.99
1.36
1.79
2.27
2.79
3.36
3.98
4.64
5.35
6.10
140
8.2
123.6
0.11
0.17
0.23
0.30
0.38
0.47
0.57
0.79
1.03
1.31
1.61
1.95
2.30
2.69
3.10
3.53
3.99
4.47
4.98
160
9.4
141.2
0.09
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.42
0.55
0.69
0.86
1.03
1.22
1.42
1.64
1.87
2.11
2.37
2.64
2.92
3.21
3.52
4.33
200
11.8
176.4
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.14
0.19
0.24
0.30
0.36
0.42
0.49
0.57
0.65
0.73
0.82
0.91
1.01
1.11
1.22
1.50
1.81
2.14
2.49
2.87
3.27
250
315
14.7
18.5
220.6 278.0
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.15
0.17
0.20
0.22
0.25
0.28
0.31
0.35
0.38
0.42
0.52
0.62
0.74
0.86
0.99
1.13
1.27
1.43
1.76
2.12
2.51
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.17
0.21
0.24
0.28
0.33
0.37
0.42
0.47
0.58
0.70
0.83
0.97
1.12
1.28
1.44
1.62
1.80
1.99
355
20.9
313.2
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.27
0.33
0.40
0.47
0.55
0.63
0.72
0.82
0.91
1.02
1.13
1.24
1.36
1.48
1.61
1 .74
400
23.5
353.0
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.15
0.19
0.23
0.27
0.31
0.36
0.41
0.46
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.70
0.77
0.84
0.91
0.98
1.06
1.14
1.22
1.31
1.39
1.48
450
26.5
397.0
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.18
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.30
0.33
0.36
0.40
0.44
0.48
0.52
0.56
0.61
0.65
0.70
0.75
0.80
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.01
1.06
1.12
1.18
1.24
1.30
500
29.4
441.2
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.29
0.31
0.34
0.37
0.39
0.42
0.45
0.48
0.51
0.54
0.58
0.61
0.64
0.68
0.71
0.75
0.79
0.82
0.86
0.90
0.98
1.07
560
32.9
494.2
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.32
0.33
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.48
0.50
0.53
0.57
0.62
0.67
0.73
0.78
0.82
630
37.1
555.8
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.29
0.30
0.33
0.36
0.38
0.41
0.45
0.53
0.62
0.71
0.81
© Copyright
How to read the charts:
1. Choose the particular chart for the material designation (PE 100, PE 80, PE 63) and pressure class (PN 16, PN 10 etc.) of pipe being used.
2. In one of the first 3 columns find the nearest value of the quantity of water to be pumped. The three columns give the quantity of water in different units.
GPH = Gallons per hour,
m³/hr = cubic metres per hour,
l/s = litres per second.
3. Run your eye along the horizontal line found in instruction 2 above until you get to numbers which are shaded light green. The number in the shaded block is the
friction loss (expressed in metres per 100 metres) for the size of pipe given at the top of the particular column.
4. The reverse sequence
39
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SDR 13.6
Size (mm-O.D.)
Wall thickness mm
Inside Diameter mm
3
G.P.H.
l/s.
m/hr.
0.4 0.1
79
0.7 0.2
158
1.1 0.3
238
1.4 0.4
317
1.8 0.5
396
2.2 0.6
475
2.5 0.7
554
634
2.9 0.8
3.2 0.9
713
1
3.6
792
7.2
2
1584
10.8
2376
3
14.4
3168
4
5
18
3960
21.6
6
4752
25.2
5544
7
28.8
6336
8
32.4
7128
9
36
10
7920
43.2 12
9504
50.4 14
11088
57.6 16
12672
14256
64.8 18
15840
72
20
17424
79.2 22
86.4 24
19008
93.6 26
20592
22176
100.8 28
108 30
23760
115.2 32
25344
122.4 34
26928
129.6 36
28512
136.8 38
30096
40
144
31680
162
35640
45
39600
50
180
43560
55
198
47520
216
60
234
51480
65
252
55440
70
270
59400
75
288
63360
80
324
71280
90
79200
360
100
396
87120
110
95040
120
432
102960
130
468
110880
140
504
540
118800
150
576
126720
160
134640
612
170
142560
648
180
684
150480
190
720
158400
200
756
166320
210
792
174240
220
828
182160
230
864
190080
240
900
198000
250
936
205920
260
972
213840
270
221760 1008
280
229680 1044
290
237600 1080
300
245520 1116
310
253440 1152
320
261360 1188
330
269280 1224
340
277200 1260
350
285120 1296
360
370
293040 1332
380
300960 1368
308880 1404
390
316800 1440
400
332640 1512
420
348480 1584
440
460
364320 1656
380160 1728
480
396000 1800
500
435600 1980
550
475200 2160
600
514800 2340
650
700
554400 2520
20
1.6
16.8
2.24
7.64
15.66
26.07
38.69
53.42
25
1.8
21.4
32
2.4
27.2
2.41
4.94
8.22
12.20
16.84
22.13
28.02
34.52
41.60
0.77
1.57
2.62
3.89
5.37
7.05
8.93
11.00
13.25
40
2.9
34.2
0.53
0.88
1.30
1.80
2.36
2.99
3.69
4.44
15.16
50
3.7
42.6
0.31
0.46
0.63
0.83
1.05
1.29
1.56
5.32
10.90
18.13
63
4.6
53.8
0.27
0.34
0.42
0.51
1.75
3.58
5.96
8.84
12.21
75
5.5
64.0
0.22
0.76
1.56
2.60
3.86
5.33
7.01
8.87
10.93
90
6.6
76.8
0.32
0.66
1.09
1.62
2.24
2.94
3.72
4.58
5.52
7.62
110 .1 125
9.2
98
3.8 106.6
0.25
0.42
0.62
0.86
1.13
1.43
1.76
2.13
2.94
3.86
4.89
6.02
7.25
0.14
0.23
0.34
0.47
0.61
0.78
0.96
1.16
1.60
2.10
2.65
3.27
3.94
4.66
5.44
6.27
140
10.3
119.4
0.13
0.20
0.27
0.36
0.45
0.56
0.67
0.93
1.22
1.55
1.90
2.29
2.72
3.17
3.65
4.16
4.70
5.27
160
11.8
136.4
0.10
0.14
0.19
0.24
0.30
0.36
0.49
0.65
0.82
1.01
1.22
1.44
1.68
1.93
2.21
2.49
2.79
3.11
3.44
3.79
4.15
200
14.7
170.6
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.17
0.22
0.28
0.35
0.42
0.50
0.58
0.67
0.76
0.86
0.96
1.07
1.18
1.30
1.43
1.76
2.12
2.51
2.92
3.37
250
18.4
213.2
315
23.2
268.6
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.30
0.33
0.37
0.41
0.45
0.49
0.61
0.73
0.87
1.01
1.16
1.33
1.50
1.68
2.07
2.49
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.20
0.24
0.29
0.34
0.39
0.44
0.50
0.56
0.69
0.83
0.98
1.14
1.32
1.50
1.70
1.90
355
400
26.1 29.4
302.8 341.2
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.14
0.16
0.19
0.22
0.25
0.28
0.32
0.39
0.47
0.55
0.65
0.74
0.85
0.96
1.07
1.20
1.32
1.46
1.60
1.74
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.22
0.26
0.31
0.37
0.42
0.48
0.54
0.61
0.68
0.75
0.82
0.90
0.98
1.07
1.16
1.25
1.34
1.44
1.54
450
500
33.1 36.8
383.8 426.4
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.13
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.27
0.31
0.35
0.39
0.43
0.47
0.51
0.56
0.61
0.66
0.71
0.76
0.82
0.88
0.93
0.99
1.06
1.12
1.18
1.25
1.32
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.34
0.37
0.40
0.43
0.46
0.50
0.53
0.57
0.60
0.64
0.68
0.72
0.76
0.80
0.84
560
41.2
477.6
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.33
0.35
0.37
0.39
0.42
0.44
0.46
0.49
0.51
0.54
0.57
0.59
0.62
0.67
0.73
0.79
0.85
0.92
630
46.3
537.4
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.22
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.35
0.38
0.42
0.45
0.49
0.52
0.62
0.72
0.83
© Copyright
Notes:
1. The colour coding represents the approximate velocity of the
water in the size of pipe chosen.
2. If two or more size columns have the same colouring then there
is a choice of suitable sizes each with its own friction loss value.
3. The range of velocities (metres per second) represented by the
colours is as follows:
Colour Code
Unshaded numbers above Yellow
Yellow
Light Green
Dark Green
Tan
Unshaded numbers below Tan
Velocity - m/s
<0.5 but not < 0.3
-0.5 to 0.99
-1.0 to 1.49
-1.5 to 1.99
-2.0 to 2.49
>2.5 but not > 3.0
Comments
too big
a smaller pipe may be more suitable
about right
about right
a bigger pipe may be more suitable
too small
40
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SDR 11
16
Size (mm-O.D.)
1.6
Wall thickness mm
12.8
Inside Diameter mm
3
G.P.H.
/s.
l
m/hr.
0.4 0.1 8.20
79
0.7 0.2 27.96
158
1.1 0.3 57.31
238
1.4 0.4
317
1.8 0.5
396
2.2 0.6
475
2.5 0.7
554
634
2.9 0.8
3.2 0.9
713
1
3.6
792
7.2
2
1584
10.8
3
2376
14.4
3168
4
18
5
3960
6
21.6
4752
7
25.2
5544
28.8
6336
8
7128
32.4
9
10
7920
36
43.2 12
9504
50.4 14
11088
57.6 16
12672
14256
64.8 18
20
72
15840
79.2 22
17424
19008
86.4 24
93.6 26
20592
22176
100.8 28
23760
108 30
115.2 32
25344
26928
122.4 34
129.6 36
28512
136.8 38
30096
40
144
31680
45
162
35640
50
180
39600
43560
55
198
47520
60
216
51480
65
234
55440
70
252
75
270
59400
80
288
63360
90
71280
324
79200
100
360
396
87120
110
120
432
95040
468
130
102960
140
504
110880
150
540
118800
160
576
126720
134640
612
170
142560
180
648
190
684
150480
200
720
158400
210
756
166320
220
792
174240
230
828
182160
240
864
190080
250
900
198000
260
936
205920
972
270
213840
280
221760 1008
290
229680 1044
300
237600 1080
310
245520 1116
320
253440 1152
330
261360 1188
340
269280 1224
350
277200 1260
360
285120 1296
370
293040 1332
380
300960 1368
390
308880 1404
400
316800 1440
420
332640 1512
440
348480 1584
460
364320 1656
480
380160 1728
500
396000 1800
550
435600 1980
600
475200 2160
650
2340
514800
700
554400 2520
20
1.8
16.4
25
2.3
20.4
2.51
8.57
17.57
29.24
43.40
59.93
0.89
3.03
6.20
10.32
15.32
21.16
27.80
35.21
43.37
32
2.9
26.2
0.92
1.88
3.13
4.65
6.41
8.43
10.67
13.15
15.84
40
3.6
32.8
0.64
1.07
1.59
2.20
2.89
3.66
4.50
5.43
18.50
50
4.5
41.0
0.37
0.55
0.76
1.00
1.26
1.55
1.87
6.38
13.08
63
5.7
51.6
0.33
0.42
0.52
0.62
2.13
4.37
7.27
10.79
14.90
75
6.8
61.4
0.23
0.27
0.93
1.91
3.17
4.71
6.50
8.54
10.82
90
8.2
73.6
110
10.0
90.0
0.39
0.80
1.34
1.98
2.74
3.60
4.56
5.61
6.76
9.34
0.15
0.31
0.51
0.76
10.5
1.38
1.75
2.15
2.59
3.58
4.70
5.95
7.33
125
11.4
102.2
0.17
0.28
0.41
0.57
0.75
0.95
1.17
1.41
1.95
2.56
3.25
4.00
4.82
5.70
6.65
140
12.7
114.6
0.16
0.24
0.33
0.44
0.55
0.68
0.82
1.13
1.48
1.88
2.32
2.79
3.30
3.85
4.44
5.06
5.72
200
160
14.5
18.2
131.0 163.6
0.09
0.13
0.18
0.23
0.29
0.36
0.43
0.60
0.78
0.99
1.22
1.47
1.75
2.04
2.35
2.67
3.02
3.39
3.77
4.17
4.59
5.03
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.15
0.21
0.27
0.34
0.42
0.51
0.60
0.71
0.81
0.93
1.05
1.17
1.31
1.45
1.59
1.74
2.15
2.59
3.06
3.57
250
22.7
204.6
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.24
0.28
0.32
0.36
0.40
0.45
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.74
0.89
1.05
1.23
1.42
1.61
1.82
2.04
2.52
315
28.6
257.8
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.35
0.41
0.47
0.54
0.61
0.68
0.84
1.01
1.19
1.39
1.60
1.83
2.07
400
355
32.3 36.4
290.4 327.2
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.27
0.30
0.34
0.38
0.47
0.57
0.68
0.79
0.91
1.04
1.17
1.31
1.46
1.62
1.78
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.27
0.32
0.38
0.45
0.51
0.59
0.66
0.74
0.83
0.91
1.01
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.41
1.52
1.64
500
450
40.9 45.5
368.2 409.0
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.22
0.25
0.29
0.33
0.38
0.42
0.47
0.52
0.57
0.63
0.68
0.74
0.80
0.87
0.93
1.00
1.07
1.14
1.21
1.29
1.36
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.18
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.32
0.35
0.38
0.41
0.45
0.49
0.53
0.56
0.60
0.65
0.69
0.73
0.78
0.83
0.87
0.92
0.97
1.02
1.08
1.13
1.18
1.24
560
50.9
458.2
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.18
0.20
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.33
0.35
0.38
0.40
0.43
0.45
0.48
0.51
0.54
0.57
0.60
0.63
0.66
0.69
0.72
0.75
0.82
0.89
0.97
1.04
630
57.3
515.4
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.19
0.20
0.21
0.23
0.24
0.26
0.27
0.29
0.31
0.32
0.34
0.36
0.37
0.39
0.41
0.43
0.47
0.51
0.55
0.59
0.64
0.76
0.88
© Copyright
How to read the charts:
1. Choose the particular chart for the material designation (PE 100, PE 80, PE 63) and pressure class (PN 16, PN 10 etc.) of pipe being used.
2. In one of the first 3 columns find the nearest value of the quantity of water to be pumped. The three columns give the quantity of water in different units.
GPH = Gallons per hour,
m³/hr = cubic metres per hour,
l/s = litres per second.
3. Run your eye along the horizontal line found in instruction 2 above until you get to numbers which are shaded light green. The number in the shaded block is the
friction loss (expressed in metres per 100 metres) for the size of pipe given at the top of the particular column.
4. The reverse sequence
41
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SDR 9
16
Size (mm-O.D.)
1.8
Wall thickness mm
12.4
Inside Diameter mm
3
G.P.H.
l /s.
m/hr.
0.4 0.1 9.54
79
158
0.7 0.2 32.53
238
1.1 0.3 66.68
1.4 0.4
317
396
1.8 0.5
2.2 0.6
475
2.5 0.7
554
634
2.9 0.8
713
3.2 0.9
1
792
3.6
7.2
1584
2
10.8
2376
3
14.4
3168
4
5
18
3960
21.6
6
4752
25.2
7
5544
28.8
6336
8
7128
32.4
9
36
10
7920
43.2 12
9504
50.4 14
11088
12672
57.6 16
14256
64.8 18
15840
72
20
17424
79.2 22
19008
86.4 24
20592
93.6 26
22176
100.8 28
108 30
23760
115.2 32
25344
122.4 34
26928
129.6 36
28512
30096
136.8 38
40
31680
144
35640
162
45
39600
180
50
43560
198
55
47520
216
60
51480
234
65
55440
252
70
59400
270
75
63360
288
80
324
71280
90
79200
360
100
396
87120
110
432
95040
120
130
468
102960
140
110880
504
118800
540
150
126720
576
160
134640
612
170
142560
648
180
150480
684
190
158400
720
200
166320
756
210
174240
792
220
182160
828
230
190080
864
240
198000
900
250
205920
936
260
972
213840
270
221760 1008
280
229680 1044
290
237600 1080
300
245520 1116
310
253440 1152
320
261360 1188
330
269280 1224
340
277200 1260
350
285120 1296
360
370
293040 1332
300960 1368
380
308880 1404
390
316800 1440
400
20
2.2
15.6
25
2.8
19.4
32
3.6
24.8
3.19
10.88
22.31
37.12
55.09
1.13
3.85
7.89
13.12
19.48
26.89
35.33
44.75
0.35
1.19
2.44
4.07
6.04
8.34
10.95
13.87
17.08
20.59
40
4.4
31.2
0.40
0.82
1.36
2.02
2.79
3.66
4.64
5.72
6.89
23.49
50
5.6
38.8
0.48
0.71
0.99
1.29
1.64
2.02
2.43
8.30
17.02
63
7.0
49.0
0.32
0.43
0.54
0.66
0.80
2.73
5.59
9.30
13.81
75
8.3
58.4
0.23
0.29
0.35
1.18
2.42
4.03
5.98
8.25
10.84
13.73
90
10.0
70.0
110
12.2
85.6
0.50
1.02
1.70
2.52
3.48
4.57
5.79
7.13
8.59
0.19
0.39
0.65
0.96
1.33
1.75
2.22
2.73
3.29
4.54
5.97
7.56
125
13.9
97.2
0.21
0.35
0.53
0.73
0.95
1.21
1.49
1.79
2.48
3.26
4.12
5.08
6.12
7.25
200
160
140
22.2
17.8
15.6
108.8 124.4 155.6
0.12
0.21
0.31
0.42
0.56
0.71
0.87
1.05
1.45
1.90
2.41
2.97
3.57
4.23
4.94
5.69
0.11
0.16
0.22
0.29
0.37
0.46
0.55
0.76
1.00
1.27
1.57
1.89
2.23
2.61
3.00
3.42
3.87
4.33
4.83
5.34
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.16
0.19
0.26
0.35
0.44
0.54
0.65
0.77
0.90
1.03
1.18
1.33
1.49
1.66
1.84
2.02
2.21
2.73
3.28
3.89
250
27.8
194.4
315
355
35.0
39.4
245.0 276.2
0.05
0.07
0.09
0.12
0.15
0.19
0.22
0.27
0.31
0.36
0.41
0.46
0.52
0.57
0.63
0.70
0.77
0.94
1.14
1.34
1.57
1.81
2.06
2.33
2.61
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.23
0.25
0.31
0.38
0.45
0.52
0.60
0.68
0.77
0.87
1.07
1.28
1.52
1.77
2.04
2.33
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.18
0.21
0.25
0.29
0.34
0.39
0.44
0.49
0.60
0.73
0.86
1.00
1.15
1.32
1.49
1.67
1.86
400
44.4
311.2
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.25
0.28
0.34
0.41
0.49
0.57
0.65
0.74
0.84
0.94
1.05
1.16
1.28
1.40
1.53
1.66
450
50.0
350.0
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.19
0.23
0.28
0.32
0.37
0.43
0.48
0.54
0.60
0.66
0.73
0.80
0.87
0.95
1.02
1.10
1.19
1.27
1.36
1.45
500
55.6
388.8
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.33
0.36
0.40
0.44
0.48
0.53
0.57
0.62
0.67
0.72
0.77
0.82
0.88
0.93
0.99
1.05
1.11
1.17
1.24
1.30
© Copyright
Notes:
1. The colour coding represents the approximate velocity of the
water in the size of pipe chosen.
2. If two or more size columns have the same colouring then there
is a choice of suitable sizes each with its own friction loss value.
3. The range of velocities (metres per second) represented by the
colours is as follows:
Colour Code
Unshaded numbers above Yellow
Yellow
Light Green
Dark Green
Tan
Unshaded numbers below Tan
Velocity - m/s
<0.5 but not < 0.3
-0.5 to 0.99
-1.0 to 1.49
-1.5 to 1.99
-2.0 to 2.49
>2.5 but not > 3.0
Comments
too big
a smaller pipe may be more suitable
about right
about right
a bigger pipe may be more suitable
too small
52
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SDR 7.4
16
Size (mm-O.D.)
2.2
Wall thickness mm
11.6
Inside Diameter mm
3
G.P.H.
l /s.
m/hr.
0.4 0.1 13.11
79
158
0.7 0.2 44.72
238
1.1 0.3 91.66
1.4 0.4
317
396
1.8 0.5
2.2 0.6
475
2.5 0.7
554
634
2.9 0.8
713
3.2 0.9
792
3.6
1
7.2
1584
2
10.8
2376
3
14.4
3168
4
5
18
3960
21.6
6
4752
25.2
7
5544
28.8
6336
8
7128
32.4
9
36
10
7920
43.2 12
9504
50.4 14
11088
12672
57.6 16
14256
64.8 18
15840
72
20
17424
79.2 22
19008
86.4 24
20592
93.6 26
22176
100.8 28
108 30
23760
115.2 32
25344
122.4 34
26928
129.6 36
28512
30096
136.8 38
40
31680
144
35640
162
45
39600
180
50
43560
198
55
47520
216
60
51480
234
65
55440
252
70
59400
270
75
63360
288
80
324
71280
90
79200
360
100
396
87120
110
432
95040
120
130
468
102960
140
110880
504
118800
540
150
126720
576
160
134640
612
170
142560
648
180
150480
684
190
158400
720
200
166320
756
210
174240
792
220
182160
828
230
190080
864
240
198000
900
250
205920
936
260
972
213840
270
221760 1008
280
229680 1044
290
237600 1080
300
20
2.7
14.6
25
3.4
18.2
4.38
14.93
30.60
50.91
75.57
1.53
5.22
10.69
17.79
26.41
36.47
47.91
32
4.3
23.4
1.57
3.22
5.37
7.96
11.00
14.45
18.30
22.54
27.16
40
5.4
29.2
50
6.8
36.4
0.55
1.12
1.87 0.65
2.77 0.97
3.82 1.34
5.02 1.76
6.36 2.22
7.84 2.74
9.45 3.30
32.22 11.26
23.08
63
8.5
46.0
0.32
0.44
0.57
0.73
0.90
1.08
3.69
7.56
12.57
75
10.1
54.8
0.25
0.32
0.39
0.47
1.60
3.28
5.46
8.10
11.18
14.69
90
12.2
65.6
0.20
0.68
1.39
2.31
3.43
4.74
6.23
7.89
9.72
11.71
110
14.9
80.2
125
16.9
91.2
0.26
0.53
0.89
1.32
1.82
2.39
3.02
3.73
4.49
6.20
8.14
0.14
0.29
0.48
0.71
0.98
1.29
1.64
2.02
2.43
3.36
4.41
5.59
6.88
200
160
140
27.0
21.6
18.9
102.2 116.8 146.0
0.17
0.28
0.41
0.57
0.75
0.95
1.17
1.41
1.95
2.56
3.25
4.00
4.82
5.70
6.65
0.15
0.22
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.62
0.75
1.03
1.36
1.72
2.11
2.55
3.02
3.52
4.05
4.62
5.22
5.86
0.08
0.10
0.14
0.17
0.21
0.26
0.36
0.47
0.59
0.73
0.88
1.04
1.21
1.40
1.59
1.80
2.02
2.25
2.49
2.74
3.00
3.69
4.45
250
33.8
182.4
0.06
0.07
0.09
0.12
0.16
0.20
0.25
0.30
0.36
0.42
0.48
0.55
0.62
0.70
0.78
0.86
0.95
1.04
1.28
1.54
1.82
2.13
2.45
2.79
3.15
315
42.6
229.8
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.21
0.23
0.26
0.29
0.31
0.34
0.42
0.51
0.61
0.71
0.81
0.93
1.05
1.17
1.45
1.74
2.06
2.41
400
355
450
48.0 54.1
60.8
259.0 291.8 328.4
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.15
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.24
0.29
0.34
0.40
0.46
0.52
0.59
0.66
0.82
0.99
1.17
1.36
1.57
1.79
2.02
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.07
0.07
0.08
0.09
0.10
0.11
0.14
0.16
0.19
0.23
0.26
0.30
0.34
0.38
0.46
0.56
0.66
0.77
0.89
1.01
1.14
1.28
1.43
1.58
1.74
1.90
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.09
0.11
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.26
0.32
0.38
0.44
0.51
0.58
0.65
0.73
0.81
0.90
0.99
1.08
1.18
1.28
1.39
1.50
1.61
© Copyright
How to read the charts:
1. Choose the particular chart for the material designation (PE 100, PE 80, PE 63) and pressure class (PN 16, PN 10 etc.) of pipe being used.
2. In one of the first 3 columns find the nearest value of the quantity of water to be pumped. The three columns give the quantity of water in different units.
GPH = Gallons per hour,
m³/hr = cubic metres per hour,
l/s = litres per second.
3. Run your eye along the horizontal line found in instruction 2 above until you get to numbers which are shaded light green. The number in the shaded block is the
friction loss (expressed in metres per 100 metres) for the size of pipe given at the top of the particular column.
4. The reverse sequence
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Pressure Considerations
Pressure Considerations
Static
Dynamic
The hydrostatic pressure capacity of HDPE pipe is
related to a number of variables:
• The ratio between the outside diameter and the
wall thickness (standard dimension ratio - SDR).
• The hydrostatic design stress of the HDPE
material being used (PE63, PE 80, PE100).
• The operating temperature.
• The duration and variability of the stress applied
by the internal hydrostatic pressure.
• The chemical resistance of the pipe to the
chemical being carried (the standard pressure
rating is based on a pipe carrying water).
The pressure classes of SABS ISO 4427 HDPE
pipes are based on constant internal water
pressures. HDPE pipes are however capable of
handling dynamic pressure events which exceed
the values given by the classes but such
occurrences can have a negative effect on the
standard 50 year life expectancy and in extreme
cases can result in product failure.
Although HDPE pipe can withstand short-term
hydrostatic water pressures at levels substantially
higher than the pressure rating, or class, (see
“The Stress Regression Line” and “Design Stress
and Safety Factor” on pages 8 & 9) the duty of
HDPE pipe should always be based on the pipe's
long-term strength at 20°C to ensure a design life
of at least 50 years.
As stated earlier, the relationship between the
internal pressure, the diameter and wall thickness
and the circumferential hoop stress in the pipe
wall, is given by the Barlow Formula, which can
also be expressed as follows.
p=2xtxs
d
Where:
or alternatively
t=
pxd
(2.s + P)
p = internal pressure (MPa)
t = minimum wall thickness (mm)
d = mean outside diameter (mm)
s= circumferential hoop stress (MPa)
These formulae have been standardized for use in
design, testing and research and are applicable at
all levels of pressure and stress.
For design purposes, p is taken as the maximum
allowable working pressure and s, the maximum
allowable hoop stress at 20°C.
The design hoop stresses used in SABS ISO 4427
are as follows:
Material
PE 63
PE 80
PE 100
Design Stress
5 MPa
6.3 MPa
8 MPa
Water Hammer
Pipelines may be subjected to short-term increase
in pressure above the normal working pressure
due to water hammer. Water hammer will occur in
a pipeline when its equilibrium is disturbed by
rapid changes in flow conditions. Examples of
such conditions are: starting and stopping of
pumps, rapid opening and closing of valves, pipe
failures, etc.
A rapid change in the velocity Äv of water in the
pipeline gives rise to a pressure increase Äp
according to the formula:
Äp = cÄv/g
Where:
c = wave celerity (metres per second)
g = acceleration due to gravity
The approximate wave celerities for HDPE pipes
are as follows:
Wave Celerity - m/s
190
215
242
270
307
349
395
450
SDR
33
26
21
17
13.6
11
9
7.4
Note:
1. Since part of the formula for calculating wave
celerity incorporates the ratio between diameter
and wall thickness (SDR), which is roughly
constant for all sizes within a pressure class,
the wave celerities are also constant for all
sizes within a pressure class.
2. By way of comparison the wave celerity for
steel pipes is about 3-5 times higher than for
HDPE 1000 to 1400 m/s.
54
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It is important to note that the pressure increase
due to water hammer in a particular class of pipe
is a function of the change in velocity and it is
therefore important (for this and other reasons) to
keep pumping velocities in a pipeline within the
conventional norm of 1 to 2 m/s.
HDPE pipes will expand or contract by 0.2mm per
metre per °C rise or fall in temperature. A 30°C
temperature rise will therefore cause a 36 mm
expansion of a 6 metre pipe.
Trench Load Considerations
In general, steps should be taken during design
and operation to minimize the frequency and
intensity of water hammer. However the total
pressure may be permitted to reach a value 50%
higher than the nominal pressure if the frequency
can be described as “occasional”.
Temperature considerations
It has been well established by researchers over
many years that, for flexible pipes, it is the
interaction between the soil and the pipe which
has to be considered more extensively than is the
case for rigid pipes where the material strength of
the pipe is the critical issue. The points discussed
here are given as a guide only to good design by
the engineer.
Effect on Pressure
Soil and Traffic Loads
Pressure de-rating factors should be applied to
HDPE pipes when operating temperatures rise
above 20°C. The de-rating factors below are
applicable to HDPE:
The vertical load on a HDPE pipe due to soil is a
function of the trench width and depth, the unit
weight and type of the soil and the pipe diameter
and wall thickness. This loading must generally be
corrected for the fact that the soil is cohesive and
the side fill reacts with the fill above the pipe.
Furthermore flexible pipes deflect and shed load
to the side fill. This vertical deflection is limited by
lateral soil resistance. The resultant load is
therefore less than that which column theory
suggests.
Temperature
Multiply Working
Pressure by:
0 - 20ºC
20 - 25ºC
25 - 30ºC
30 - 35ºC
35 - 40ºC
40 - 45ºC
45 - 50ºC
1.0
0.8
0.63
0.5
0.4
0.32
0.25
The Soil Loading graphs overleaf show that, after
initial rapid increases with increased depth, this
rate of increase falls away to almost zero at
depths of about 6 metres or more. Typical
maximum values of soil loads (without live loads)
are between 500 and 27000 N/m (for sizes up to
630mm), depending largely on soil type, modulus
and pipe stiffness. As soil compaction is increased
so the maximum soil load on the pipe reduces,
assuming that good backfilling procedures have
been followed.
N.B. The maximum recommended working
temperature is 50°C.
At lower temperatures, between 20°C and 0°C,
the pressure handling capability does increase but
it is recommended that this be ignored. In the
unlikely event of water freezing inside an HDPE
pipe damage is unlikely to occur. Nonetheless it is
recommended that the pipeline system be
protected against freezing to obviate flow
restrictions.
Effect on Dimensions
If a 60KN live load is added then the soil load
increases dramatically (if compaction is poor but
less dramatically if it is good) at shallow depths,
but from about 3 metres deep this difference
becomes negligible.
Due to the relatively high co-efficient of expansion
and contraction (given in “Expansion and
Contraction” earlier) it is necessary to make
allowance for this in any design and installation
which is exposed to wide variations of
temperature.
As can be seen from the Deflection vs Soil Load
graph there is a straight line relationship between
deflection and soil load for each size and class of
pipe. Therefore when the soil load reaches a
maximum then the deflection is also at a
maximum.
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These graphs include the maximum soil loads
from the Soil Loading graphs and as can be seen
the maximum deflection (for the conditions
represented) is less than 2% - for a 630 mm
SDR 26 pipe - even with a 60 KN live load.
This Deflection vs Soil Loading graph also shows
that the small diameter, lower pressure-class
pipes (thinner walls) are at the left hand side of the
graph and are almost vertical while the bigger
diameter, higher pressure class pipes are
progressively further right and are not as vertical.
Large diameter pipes carry more load because of
their greater surface area thicker pipes carry
more soil load because it is more difficult to deflect
them since less load shedding occurs.
The graphs have been based on calculations
using values typical for reasonable backfill
material which has been poorly compacted (soil
modulus of 3 mPa) and on two scenarios
excluding and including a 60 kN live load. Trench
widths of 0.4m, 0.6m, 0.7m, 0.8m and 0.9m were
used for the following groups of pipe sizes:
50mm - 160mm, 200mm - 315mm,
355mm - 400mm, 450mm - 500mm and
560mm - 630mm. Different soil cover over the
pipes were used, varying from 0.9m to 10m. The
method of calculation was provided by Professor
David Stephenson of Witwatersrand University.
The effect of these loads on HDPE pipes is very
similar to that on PVC pipes.
Soil Loading on HDPE
No Live Load
Soil Modulus : 3MPa
30 000
25 000
160mm SDR 26
160mm SDR 13.6
160mm SDR 9
250mm SDR 26
250mm SDR 13.6
250mm SDR 9
355mm SDR 26
355mm SDR 13.6
355mm SDR 9
450mm SDR 26
450mm SDR 13.6
450mm SDR 9
630mm SDR 26
630mm SDR 13.6
Soil Load - N/m
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
0.9
1.2
1.5
2
4
6
8
10
Depth of Cover - Metres
Soil Loading on HDPE
With 60 KN Live Load
Soil Modulus : 3MPa
30 000
25 000
160mm SDR 26
160mm SDR 13.6
160mm SDR 9
250mm SDR 26
250mm SDR 13.6
250mm SDR 9
355mm SDR 26
355mm SDR 13.6
355mm SDR 9
450mm SDR 26
450mm SDR 13.6
450mm SDR 9
630mm SDR 26
630mm SDR 13.6
Soil Load - N/m
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
0.9
1.2
1.5
2
4
6
8
10
Depth of Cover - Metres
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Deflection vs Soil Load HDPE
No Live Load
Soil Modulus : 3MPa
2
1.8
1.6
160mm SDR 26
160mm SDR 13.6
160mm SDR 9
250mm SDR 26
250mm SDR 13.6
250mm SDR 9
355mm SDR 26
355mm SDR 13.6
355mm SDR 9
450mm SDR 26
450mm SDR 13.6
450mm SDR 9
630mm SDR 26
630mm SDR 13.6
Deflection - %
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
30 000
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
0
Soil Load - N/m
Deflection vs Soil Load HDPE
60 KN Live Load
Soil Modulus : 3MPa
2
1.8
1.6
160mm SDR 26
160mm SDR 13.6
160mm SDR 9
250mm SDR 26
250mm SDR 13.6
250mm SDR 9
355mm SDR 26
355mm SDR 13.6
355mm SDR 9
450mm SDR 26
450mm SDR 13.6
450mm SDR 9
630mm SDR 26
630mm SDR 13.6
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
30 000
25 000
20 000
15 000
10 000
5 000
0
0
Deflection - %
1.4
Soil Load - N/m
Note:
Calculations with a higher soil modulus (not shown), implying
better compaction, show much lower deflection percentages
and reduce the gap between the static soil load and the live load.
47
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Above Ground installation
For exposed above-ground pipework proper
anchorage and support is essential. It must cater
for thermal stresses or movement over the
ambient temperature range to which the pipe
system will be exposed.
by the graph below. The graph is based on PE 63
material and Classes 6 and 10.
Above-ground HDPE systems should preferably
be installed at or near maximum operating
temperature. This will ensure that the pipe is
thermally expanded when clamps or supports are
bolted into position and the pipe will be prevented
from contracting. Tensile stresses will develop as
the pipework cools, and the pipeline will therefore
remain straight between supports. When reheated
to installation temperature, any sagging will be
minimized.
Reduce the centre distance by 3% for every 10°C
increase in temperature. Increase the centre
distance by 2.5% for every 10% increase in wall
thickness above Class 6.
As a rule of thumb the following adjustments can
be made for variations in temperature and class.
Pipe clamps used for anchorage and support
should have flat, non-abrasive contact faces, or be
lined with rubber sheeting and should not be overtightened. The width of support brackets and
hangers should normally be either 100mm or half
the nominal pipe diameter, whichever is the
greater. Support brackets should allow free axial
movement.
When suspending HDPE pipes the recommended
centre distance between supports at 20°C is given
Support Centres at 20ºC
4.5
Support Centres - Metres
4
3.5
3
Class 10
Class 6
Linear (Class 10)
Linear (Class 6)
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
56
0
45
5
35
0
25
0
16
90
63
40
25
0
Pipe Diameter - mm
Bending
One of the important features of using HDPE
pipes is its flexibility.
However it is important that the bending radius at
any point should not be less than 20 times the
pipe outside diameter when at an ambient
temperature of 20°C. When lower temperatures
are encountered it is necessary to progressively
increase the minimum bending radius by a factor
of up to 2.5 times at 0°C.
Radius = minimum 20 x Pipe diameter
48
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A Lamasat Publication
©Copyright 2012
Contact us
Lamasat International (Z) Ltd
Head Office: Plot 397/0/1 Chipwenupwenu Road Off Kafue Road,Makeni Lusaka.
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[email protected]

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