Institute of Space and

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Institute of Space and
2005-07
INSTITUTE OF
SPACE AND
ATMOSPHERIC
STUDIES
Institute of Space and
Atmospheric Studies
Annual Report
2005-07
Table of Contents
Advisory Committee
Members of the Institute
Chair’s Report
ISAS Facilities
Research Programs
University of Saskatchewan
Government
Industry
Department of Physics and
Engineering Physics Faculty Members
ISAS Staff
ISAS Graduate Students
Highlights of the Year
Observatory Facilities
Field Sites
Computing Facilities
Optical and Electronic Laboratory Facilities
Particle Calibration Facility
Electronics and Mechanical Stores Facility
Atmospheric Science
•
•
Atmospheric Dynamics Group
InfraRed Group
Solar-Terrestrial Science
•
•
•
Appendices
SuperDARN/ PolarDARN Group
Solar-Terrestrial Relations/ Space Weather
Ionospheric Physics/ VHF and CADI Radars
Publications
Presentations (Talks, Papers, Posters)
Graduate Student Theses
Services and Distinctions
Vision Statement
1
Advisory Committee
University of Saskatchewan
Peter MacKinnon
Michael Atkinson
Designate -Jim Germida
Steven Franklin
Bryan Schreiner
Tom Wishart
Jo-Anne Dillon
Jim Basinger
Ernie Barber
Claude Lagϋe
Rob Pywell
Alan Manson
President
Provost and Vice President (Academic)
Vice Provost (Academic), Designate to the V-P
(Academic)
Vice President (Research)
Director of the Office of Research Services,
Designate to the V-P (Research)
Dean, College of Graduate Studies/ Associate
V-P (Research)
Dean, College of Arts and Science
Associate Dean (Science), College of Arts and
Science
Dean, College of Agriculture
Dean, College of Engineering
Head, Department of Physics and Engineering
Physics
Chair, Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies
Government
Gordon James
Larry Newitt
Tom McElroy
David Kendall
Malcolm Vant
David Grier
Senior Scientist, Space Science, CRC, Ottawa
Head, Geomagnetic Laboratory,
NRCanada, Ottawa
Senior Scientist, Atmospheric Sciences and
Technology Directorate, Environment Canada,
Downsview, ON
Director General, Space Science Program,
Canadian Space Agency, Ottawa
Director General, Defence R&D Canada - Ottawa
Vice President, Environment and Minerals,
Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon
Industry
Don Epp
Larry Cooper
Dennis Johnson
Director of Marketing Communication Systems,
SED - a division of CALIAN Ltd., Saskatoon
President, Scientific Instrumentation Ltd.,
Saskatoon
PAKWA Engineering Ltd. (Retired, Director),
Saskatoon
June 2006
2
Members of the Institute
Department of Physics and Engineering Physics
Faculty Members
ISAS Chair
ISAS Executive
A.H. Manson
D.A. Degenstein
G.C. Hussey
A.V. Koustov
E.J. Llewellyn
K.A. McWilliams
G.J. Sofko
Canadian Research Chair J-P.St-Maurice
Adjunct Professors
R.L. Gattinger
D. R. McDiarmid
B.Sc., Ph.D. (Canterbury, N.Z.), Professor
B.Sc., B.E., Ph.D. (Saskatchewan)
Associate Professor
B.E., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Saskatchewan), P. Eng.,
Associate Professor
M.Sc. (Leningrad State), Ph.D. (Moscow Institute
of Earth Phys.), P. Eng., Assoc. Professor
B.Sc., Ph.D. (Exeter), D.Sc. (Saskatchewan)
F.R.S.C., P.Eng., Professor
B.Sc., M.Sc., (Saskatchewan), Commonwealth
Fellow, Ph.D. (Leicester), NSERC PDF (Sask.)
Assistant Professor
B.A.Sc. (British Columbia), Ph.D.
(Saskatchewan), P.Eng., Professor
B.A., B.Phys. (Quebec), Ph.D. (USA), Professor,
Canadian Research Chair (CRC)
B.E., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Saskatchewan)
B.A.Sc., M.A.Sc., Ph.D. (British Columbia)
Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies Staff
Professional Research Associates
D.A. André
N.D. Lloyd
C.E. Meek
M. Watanabe
B.Sc. (Erlangen-Nurnberg), Ph.D. (GeorgAugust, Germany), P.Eng.
B.Sc. (Hons.), Ph.D. (London)
B.A. (Queen’s), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Saskatchewan)
B.A., M.Sc., Ph.D. (Japan) (until April 2006)
Research Assistants
Research Engineer
C. (Qin) Li
Comp. Eng. B.Sc., (China) Data Assistant/
Archivist (until Aug. 2006)
J. Wiid
P. Loewen
B.Eng. (South Africa)
B.Eng. (Saskatchewan)
Technical and Support Staff
D.M. Kowaliuk
W.L. Marshall
C. Jelinski
ISAS Secretary
B.Sc. (Hons.) (Saskatchewan), ISAS Technician
ISAS Assistant (since August 2005)
3
Graduate Students
Post-Doctoral Fellows (Supervisor)
S. Petelina (Llewellyn)
R. Kumar Choudhary (St.-Maurice)
J. Liang (Sofko)
E. Dupuy (Llewellyn)
Odin Aerosol Studies (until June 2007)
Studies of E & F region field-aligned
irregularities
Studies of F-region echoes and field-aligned
currents using SuperDARN (until Dec. 2005)
Odin Mesospheric Studies (until March 2007)
Ph.D. Students (Supervisor)
L. Benkevitch (Koustov)
B. Hesman (Davis)
A. Bourassa (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
T. Chshyolkova (Manson)
R. Gillies (Hussey/ Sofko)
M. Hargrove-Gillies (St.-Maurice)
A. Gahein (Degenstein)
J. Ma (St.-Maurice)
T. Wiensz (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
Ionospheric conductance effects in high-latitude
phenomena (until Aug. 2006)
Ground-based Planetary Spectroscopy - James
Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) project (until
Dec 2005)
Odin IR operation (until 2007)
Planetary Wave Coupling processes in the
Middle Atmosphere (until 2007)
Radio Propagation Effects for the e-POP Radio
Receiver Instrument (RRI)
A study of sudden onsets in Geomagnetic
activity after prolonged periods of quiet
conditions
A Study of the Exchange Processes Between the
Troposphere and Stratosphere Using OSIRIS
Ozone and Aerosol Data (until Dec. 2007)
Ion Velocity distributions in structured Auroral
Electric Fields
Odin IR Modelling
M.Sc. Students (Supervisor)
J. Gorin (Koustov)
J. Pfeifer (McWilliams)
C. Roth (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
R. Drayton (Koustov)
R. Schwab (Sofko/ McWilliams)
N. Wiebe (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
Velocity of Decameter Electrojet Irregularities at
strongly driven conditions
Steady Magnetospheric Convection: The
Implications of SuperDARN
Odin Radiative Transfer (until March 2007)
Study of SAPS with King Salmon SuperDARN
radar (until Sept. 2006)
Modelling SAPS flows (until March 2007)
Tomographic Retrievals with the OSIRIS
InfraRed Imager Data (until Dec. 2006)
4
Graduate and Summer Students
(Supervisor)
T. Bathgate (Degenstein)
W. Brenna (McWilliams), B. Krug (Hussey)
P. Kulyk (Koustov), E. Kulyk (Koustov)
R. McDonald (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
E. Normand (Hussey)
M. Paulson (Degenstein), G. Perry (Hussey)
M. Stoicescu (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
M. Thorpe (McWilliams)
J. Wood (Llewellyn/ Degenstein)
5
Chair’s Report
The nature of academic life now precludes the production of Annual Reports, which contain
unique materials designed solely for this purpose. In 2004/5 we decided on a web-site structure
for each professor of one page of text, with 2-3 figures with significant captions…………..this
was followed rather well.
For 2005/6 another format eventuated: the Head of Physics and Engineering Physics [PEP], our
parent Department, called a meeting/workshop in December 2006, as part of the UofS
Integrated Planning Cycle #2. For this each Prof provided a presentation of their research in
2006 and a Programmatic Vision of the next 10 years. This report contains those presentations.
In ISAS we have two themes: Solar and Terrestrial Physics and Atmospheric Science, where
each title should include the other, but does not always due to the enormity of the themes.
Within ISAS we subscribe to the broader and challenging overlap and synergy between the two
themes. Another pedantic distinction is “Space Weather/Climate” and “Climate Change”.
During 2005 national workshops on each Theme were held, for the purpose of providing “10year Visions” for the Advisory Committees to the Space Science Branch [SSB] of the CSA
(SAEAC). These workshops and reports (see ISAS website/CSA Activity), led coincidentally by
two ISAS Profs, Jean-Pierre St-Maurice and Alan Manson, were very successful and provided
recommendations that were accepted and acted upon [2006-7] by the Jean Paquette, Director of
Solar Terrestrial and Atmospheric Sciences within the SSB, and David Kendall, Director General
of the SSB.
The influence of these events can be seen within the pages that follow.
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ISAS Facilities
Observatory Facilities
The majority of the optical and radar systems
supporting the programs of the Institute are at
the field sites described below. There are a
number of additional systems which have been
developed or purchased with Institute funds, or
are operated for colleagues by ISAS staff.
was moved from the Physics Building to Park
Site in July 2001. The instrument measured
perturbations of the rotational temperatures and
vertical column emission rate of the O2
Atmospheric nightglow layer at 94 km and the
OH Meinel layer at 86 km. The equipment
which was on loan from the Institute for Space
and Terrestrial Science York University and was
returned in June 2003.
These include the following:
Three-component Magnetometer and
ULF System
Field Sites
The Three-component Magnetometer and
ULF system resumed operations in June 2001,
after being damaged in the Park Site fire in
1999. The University of Tokyo operates the
Magnetometer and ULF System.
Rabbit Lake (58°20' N, 103°70' W)
This site was extensively used from 19851990 as part of the HILAT and VIKING satellite
activities. A new trailer, obtained with CNSR
funds, was located at Rabbit Lake during 1992
with a TV all-sky camera. The system was
upgraded to a digital recording capability in the
Fall of 1993, and operated until Spring of 1996
with visible, red and green filters. The CADI
phase-coherent ionosonde system from the
University of Western Ontario was removed
from the Rabbit Lake site in 2001, and it is now
operating at Rankin Inlet. A magnetometer
operated by the University of Tokyo is still
operating at Rabbit Lake.
T.V. All-Sky Camera
This has the following features: 2 filters and
shutter to allow observations of specific wavelengths; PC control for automatic field use; a
photo-sensor for computer failure. This all-sky
camera was returned to ISAS and is awaiting
deployment to another field site.
Meridian Scanning Photometer (multiwavelength) MSP
Park Site (52°12' N, 107°7' W)
Five single-channel photometers are incorporated into this (Iwan Goza for Dr. McEwen,
during 1992/93).
It is PC (IBM-compatible
personal computer) controlled. This MSP has
been located at both La Ronge and Rabbit
Lake, for Dr. McEwen’s CNSR/STEP research;
it is now at Rabbit Lake (since the Spring of
1995).
The field site near Asquith continues to be
used by the Atmospheric Dynamics Group with
their large MF (2.2 MHz) radar system. This has
extensive transmitting and receiving antenna
systems for spaced antenna and interferometry
studies of the mesosphere and lower
thermosphere (60-110 km). Turbulent scatter
and meteor trails are used to provide winds,
atmospheric waves and turbulence data as well
as ionospheric data from D-, E- and F-regions.
This internationally recognized system is fully
automated and requires only occasional
maintenance; this is normally provided by
weekly visits. Data are made available to
collaborators in International (e.g. STEP,
MLTCS) and National (e.g. CNSR) programs.
Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager
(SATI-2)
In December 2000 a SATI-2 Imager began
operating in the penthouse observatory on the
roof of the Physics Building. The SATI-2 Imager
7
In 2001 two experiments were installed at
Park Site: 1) A CADI phase-coherent ionosounde system from the University of Western
Ontario, using the Delta antenna, which was
later moved to Rankin Inlet, September 2002;
and 2) The SATI-2 Imager from York University,
moved from the Physics building in July 2001,
used to solve the light contamination problem
that was prevalent while running in an urban
environment. This SATI was returned to York
University in June 2003.
angle of arrival calculation. This radar is paired
with the US-run radar at Kapuskasing. During
Magnetometer
was
2005
a
Fluxgate
successfully tested at Kernen farm to co-exist
along with a SuperDARN radar at the same site.
In October 2006 a Riometer was installed at the
site to test if a Riometer and SD radar can coexist at the same site. This Riometer will be
moved to Bakker’s Farm once the test has been
completed.
Prince George (53°59' N, 122°35' W)
The 160-acre site is leased from a local
farmer, Mr. Charles Chappell, on a long term
rental agreement. On July 13, 1999, a fire
caused by lightning destroyed two of the three
bays of the main receiver building. The other
wing, the MF Radar wing, suffered extensive
The two fires
smoke and water damage.
damaged wings were demolished and the other
wing was cleaned and restored. The MF Radar
transmitter and receiver systems both had to
undergo extensive cleaning before being
returned to the field. A new building was
completed in April 2000. It was attached to the
existing MF Radar Wing. The new building has
a 600 sq. ft. cold storage area and a 600 sq. ft.
working area. The new working area also
contains the optical dome.
A SuperDARN radar was built in 1999 on a
site 15 km east of Prince George, British
Columbia. The radar system is identical to the
SuperDARN radar operating in Saskatoon. The
radar has two antenna arrays: a main
transmitting array and a vertical interferometer
array. The radar point 5° west of north and is
paired with a U.S. run radar on Kodiak Island,
Alaska.
Rankin Inlet
(a) SAPPHIRE radar site from the CNSR
(Canadian Network for Space Research)
(62°48' N, 92°10' W)
The SAPPHIRE radar was decommissioned in
1997, but the site was retained by the space
radar group in ISAS. Subsequently, in 2000, a
NORSTAR all-sky-imager was installed by the U
of Calgary team, and in 2002, a CADI
(Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde) instrument was installed at the site.
Bakker’s Farm (52°15' N, 106°27' W)
In May 1997, SAPPHIRE operations were
terminated at the Bakker Farm site.
The
associated SAPPHIRE transmitter sites at La
Crete, Alberta and Gilliam, Manitoba were
decommissioned in September 1997. The 6and 2-meter antenna systems have been left
standing to be used on a campaign basis. The
building remains ready to be used for radar
experiments.
Currently the site is being
prepared for development and installation of a
new and novel 50MHz FMCW E-region
experiment, to start operation in 2004.
(b) PolarDARN/NORSTAR site
(62.82°N, 93.11° W)
In 2004, a PolarDARN HF radar site was
established at Rankin Inlet, with the installation
of power lines, a road and a 20-foot ship
container that will house both the radar
electronics and a NORSTAR imager (for which a
dome was cut into the roof). The NORSTAR
imager will be moved over to this new site from
the SAPPHIRE site referred to in (a) above.
During 2005, the SuperDARN antenna system
was completed at the site. In September 2005,
a THEMIS ASI has been put into operation at
the site. The installation at the PolarDARN
radar system as completed in March 2006 and
the radar went operational in May 2006 and has
been providing very interesting data since.
Kernen Farm (52°9' N, 106°32' W)
The Kernen Farm is the site of the Saskatoon
SuperDARN system. The site is comprised of
two antenna arrays:
1. The main array: 16 log-periodic antennas
mounted on 15 meter towers. Each connected
to a 600W pulsed transmitter.
2. The vertical interferometer array: 4 logperiodic antennas mounted on 15 meter towers
connected to an independent receiver to allow
8
Inuvik (68° 24' 46"N, 133° 46' 10" W)
In the fall of 2004, the CADI antenna system
was installed by engineer Jan Wiid and
technician Bill Marshall, and the CADI system
itself was installed in July, 2005. The radar
system for the Inuvik PolarDarn site is currently
under construction. This was made possible by
the CSA grant which paid for all remaining
hardware. The antenna system will be put in
place during the summer of 2007 and the plan is
to install the full radar system no later than
February 2008. The Inuvik radar will be a clone
of the Rankin Inlet Radar.
In 2004, a radar/NORSTAR site was established about 7.5 km north of the town of Inuvik.
This is a former Dept. of National Defence overthe-horizon radar site, and was ideal for its
purpose of acting as a radar site at which CADI
and PolarDARN operations will occur. In 2004,
the roads, power lines, and a 20-foot container
were installed. The container has a dome that
will allow the site to house a NORSTAR imager.
Computing Facilities
An Institute with such extensive observational systems, and data analysis programs,
requires considerable computing facilities. A
wide range of computer systems is available to
ISAS scientists and graduate students.
Finally, most of the Institute’s observational
systems have the capability of real-time analysis
of data by dedicated PC systems, which has
minimized the need for major main-frame
computers or even work stations. The MF radar
at Saskatoon (Atmospheric Dynamics Section,
Dr. Manson), the VHF radar transmitter/receiver
system known as SAPPHIRE, the SuperDARN
MF radar at the Kernen Farm, and the Rabbit
Lake/ Rankin Inlet All-sky Camera, are each
Computer controlled and generate processed
data.
These are then ready for detailed
analysis. In addition, the engineers within ISAS
continue to demonstrate leadership by the use
of transputer technology.
In addition to being used for data analysis,
the DEC Alphaserver is mainly used as a mail
server for ISAS because of its security against
virus attacks. Analysis of the SuperDARN data
has been moved from the Hewlett-Packard
systems to a Linux based PC, mainly for cost
reasons; but also, because the increased
storage capacity allows all SuperDARN data to
be kept online. The SuperDARN data distribution has been changed from Exabyte tapes to
CDs. For this a Rimage Protege CD duplicator
and printer and a Young Minds AutoStudio
interface to a Linux computer was acquired.
Optical And Electronic Laboratory Facilities
The Optical Laboratory is under the direction
of Bill Marshall and continues to provide general
support for the research programs within the
Institute. There are optical calibration standards
for visible, UV and IR (200-900 nm). Low
brightness sources (LBS) in the UV and IR were
developed during the CNSR for medical
research (ozone) and stratospheric measurements. In particular, calibrated detectors were
obtained for the UV-A and B regions, and there
was testing of sources and detectors over the
200 to 400 nm range.
art VHF/HF/MF radars. Marshall also maintains
this electronic test equipment and develops new
systems/sub-systems for the optical and radar
facilities of ISAS. Marshall is supported by ISAS
funds (50%), NSERC funds from the MF radar
group and the HF/VHF radar group.
Projects of particular note include the following:
•
SuperDARN system support
•
Park Site MF radar system maintenance
and development, and
•
General support for the electronic/
mechanical needs of 32-35 ISAS personnel
•
CADI system management
The Electronic Laboratory has network and
spectrum analyzers, signal generators and test
equipment to allow development of state of the
9
Particle Calibration Facility
The basis of this facility is the Canadian
Space Agency electron calibration system (1400 eV), with a cryogenically pumped vacuum
chamber and clean room which was developed
for FREJA-CPA, but has also been used for
various rocket systems. This facility is within the
Optics Lab. It will allow calibrations for electron
energies of up to 25 keV, which are of value for
satellite and rocket systems sampling auroral
electron populations.
Electronics and Mechanical Stores Facility
Comprehensive electronic and mechanical
Stores were maintained and administered by
Cindy Jelinski (Dept. Assistant) for ISAS
researchers throughout the years 2005-07
Cindy is supported 100% from ISAS funds and
her hours are at .50 FTE.
Materials and components are provided at
cost and this has been of significant practical
assistance in research programs. Turn-over of
parts and purchase of equipment, and other
related expenses in the year 2005-07 were in
excess of half a million dollars in activity, which
is consistent with previous years.
Cindy handles all of the ISAS accounting and
provides in-house monthly and annual budget
summaries for all ISAS accounts, which are
administered by herself and the ISAS Chair.
She is also responsible for the purchasing of all
equipment and supplies.
10
Research Programs
Atmospheric Science
• Atmospheric Dynamics Team
Professor Alan Manson
• InfraRed Team
Aeronomy Research – Odin/ OSIRIS
Professor E.J. (Ted) Llewellyn
Professor Doug Degenstein
Solar-Terrestrial Science
• Super DARN/ PolarDARN Team
Professor George Sofko
Professor Sasha Koustov
Professor Kathryn McWilliams
• Solar-Terrestrial Relations/ Space Weather
Professor Jean-Pierre St.-Maurice (CRC)
• Ionospheric Physics/ VHF and CADI Radars
Professor Glenn Hussey
11
Atmospheric Dynamics Team
Professor A.H. Manson
Team Members
Research Associate:
Research Assistant:
Technician:
PhD Graduate Student:
Collaborations in ISAS:
Dr. Chris E. Meek
Open
Bill Marshall
Tatyana Chshyolkova
Profs. Degenstein, Llewellyn, St-Maurice, Hussey and Sofko
The Group continued to operate (2005/6) its three MF Radar systems in Saskatoon 52N,
Tromso (70N, Norway) and Platteville (40N, Colorado), and the meteor SKiYMET radar at
PEARL, Eureka (80N). These are involved, along with circa 25 radars operated by
international colleagues, in four major science themes. Activity on these 4 themes, along
with a greater fifth theme of “Climate Change” were all worked upon during 2005/6 and
are part of our Vision for the next 5-10 years.
1. Characteristics of, and interactions between, the global winds and waves (gravity,
tidal and planetary) of the Stratosphere-Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere 20-100km:
this is facilitated by comparisons between data from radar observations (Equatorial to the
Arctic) and data from experiments carried out with the Canadian Middle Atmosphere
(General Circulation) Model (CMAM, Professor Theodore Shepherd, PI): the model now
includes interactive chemistry, but with no data assimilation. This model is also associated
with all CSA Atmospheric Missions. A figure (#1) from a published paper is shown below
and is discussed in the caption. The development of data-assimilation for CMAM (CMAMDAM) during 2006-7 will allow more extensive diagnosis of observed-modelled waves and
their interactions during the next 5 years.
2. Linkages between stratospheric [20-50km] dynamical systems and planetary waves
(PW) and the dynamics and thermal state of the mesosphere (50-90km). This is presently
facilitated by the use of a data assimilation model (U.K. Meteorological Office GCM, MetO)
that provides data (temperatures and winds) from 0-55km, and Polar Mesospheric Cloud
data from Odin-OSIRIS and winds from the radars.
The Group will be associated with the CSA’s Chinook Mission (launch 2008), which will
provide global stratospheric winds, ozone, temperatures and gravity wave fluxes; the global
network of radars co-ordinated by the Group will be a synergistic ground-based system
within this Mission.
3. Science of the atmosphere 0-100km as studied at CANDAC-PEARL, Eureka 80N:
Arctic Troposphere Transport and Air Quality; the Arctic Radiative Environment; Middle
Atmosphere Chemistry, and Waves and Coupling Processes (0-100km). Focus is primarily
upon the 4th topic, as there is a suite of instruments including the Group’s SKiYMET radar at
Eureka, but we also contribute dynamical information to topics one and three.
12
www.candac.ca
www.usask.ca/physics/isas A figure (#2) from a developing study is
shown below and discussed in the caption.
The CANDAC-PEARL science-team will also be a major participant in the IPY 2007-9. A
major contribution to the PEARL and IPY science-program is the characterization of the
winter vortex for each winter: this will be done by Tatyana Chshyolkova using the software
(see below) she developed as part of her Program of Studies for a PhD.
4. CAWSES http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/stp/SCOSTEP (Coupling and Weather of the Sun
Earth System, 2004-2008), and the Project co-ordinated by Prof Manson: “Atmospheric
Wave Interactions with the Winter Polar Vortices (0-100km)”. The first northern
hemisphere Campaign to study the breakdown of the Polar Winter Vortex (2004/5) has been
completed, and the paper will soon be submitted. This Campaign, which has involved 25
radars, optical systems, satellite systems (Odin-OSIRIS, TIMED-SABER, Aura) and several
models (CMAM, MetO), was led by Tatyana Chshyolkova. Enhanced understanding of
atmospheric dynamics (0-100km) is essential to properly understand the coupling effects
within the atmosphere, as well as the distribution and transportation of significant chemicals
including and associated with ozone. A second paper is under development and involves
comparisons between dynamical parameters [from MetO and the Group’s radars] and
chemical species from the NASA Aura satellite’s MLS system. Changes in the wave fluxes,
thermal conditions and chemical distributions are also the signals of “Climate Change”. Two
figures from a submitted paper are shown below and discussed in the caption.
The most powerful software tool now available to the group is the Vortex Characterization
Process (VorCharP) developed by Tatyana Chshyolkova. The methodology developed by
Lynn et al. [JGR 107, 2002] has been employed. This involves calculations of the scalar
quantity Q that is a measure of the relative contribution of strain and rotation on fluid
elements in an Eulerian frame. Closed circulations can be associated with negative Q, while
positive Q is typically associated with planetary-wave breaking and related mixing of
“vortex-edge” and mid-latitude air. Q, the stream function and potential vorticity (PV) are
calculated for 24 different isentropic levels (from 300 to 2000 K) using MetO fields of
temperature and horizontal winds. Under certain conditions, PV is used as an indicator of PW
breaking and a tracer of fluid motion. Figures 3 and 4 below use the VorCharP software.
5. Atmospheric Processes of Climate Change (APOCC) is the title of the next major CSA
mission, which is now beginning development within the Space Science Branch (and its
Program). This Mission was the result of two community Workshops held during 2005; the
Reports (in combination they form the 10 year Vision for Atmospheric Sciences in Canada)
are available in the ISAS website www.usask.ca.physics.isas. Professor Manson, as Chair
of the Advisory Committee to the CSA on Atmospheric Science, provided leadership to the
Workshops and the Reports.
A major activity over the next 10 years, for Prof Manson, and hopefully his ‘successor’ in the
Institute, will be to work with the CSA-SSB and also with Professors Degenstein and
‘Llewellyn’s-successor’ in developing one system for what is expected to be a multiplesystem satellite (circa $500M). The APOCC mission will include elements of the lower
atmosphere, tropopause and middle atmosphere, understanding of which will contribute to a
richer knowledge of the processes involved in Climate Change.
13
We are now also becoming part of the development of the ‘School of the Environment’ at the
UofS, which has a theme on ‘Global Change’. ISAS will play a leadership role in this theme.
Given the time-scale of the APOCC mission, and this new school, we will endeavour to
provide as much linkage as possible between these two entities: School and Mission. The
theme “Sun-Earth” could well engage both the APOCC Mission of the CSA-SSP and the
‘School of the Environment’ of the UofS over the next decade.
Figure 1 The mesospheric winds measured by 13 meteor and MF radars at 82-85 km on
January 20th are provided at the top of the figure. At the bottom, the Q diagnostic calculated
for the 2000 K isentropic surface (~50 km) is shown by blue (negative) and green (positive)
colors. In blue regions, the rotation of the flow is dominant, while green regions are expected
to be associated with PW breaking and mixing. The thick black line (a stream line for which
integrated Q is near zero) is the estimated edge of the polar vortex. Black circles are potential
vorticity with negative values; vectors show winds; and red stars are the locations of the 13
radars. The mesospheric winds, although 35 km higher in altitude are very consistent with the
stratospheric polar vortex winds.
14
Figure 2 The same as Figure 1, but for day number 60 (March 1, 2005). During this time
the polar vortex is strongly disturbed and displaced equatorward throughout the stratosphere,
and almost disappears at this uppermost (50 km) stratospheric level. Mesospheric winds are
weaker compared to those in January, and provide no evidence for vortical winds.
15
Figure 3 Mean meridional (left column) and zonal (right column) winds, obtained using 3
day harmonic fits, are shown for the time interval from January 15 to the beginning of April
for three stations: Tromso (70N), Saskatoon (52N), and Platteville (40N). At the end of
February/beginning of March (day numbers 45-75), typical winter northward and eastward
winds (red) became weaker and reversed at all three stations. These reversals have occurred
around the time when the stratospheric polar vortex was strongly disturbed and displaced
from the pole. The wind reversals are consistent with higher polar temperatures. Increases in
PW activity (not shown) also occurred at these times, since vertical propagation is enhanced
by the weaker zonal winds.
16
Ionospheric Physics/ VHF and CADI Radars
Professor G.C. Hussey
Team Members
Graduate Students:
R. Gillies, J. Cooper
Ionospheric Physics (E-region)
As reported previously, a prototype of the new 50 MHz FMCW (frequency modulated
continuous wave) radar developed and constructed by my graduate student, Joel Cooper, and
myself was deployed in the field during the summer of 2004. The system operated as
designed (or better) with a temporal resolution of ~5Hz (~15m/s), that typical of bistatic CW
(continuous wave) E-region radars previously operated by researchers here at the University
of Saskatchewan, and a range resolution of ~1km, (as good as or better than most pulsed Eregion radars).
This project has been temporarily delayed due to J. Cooper acquiring a job in industry and
having, at the same time, to complete writing his thesis, which he successfully defended in
June, 2006. As well during this time period, G. Hussey was dominated with deploying the
upgraded CADI systems as discussed immediately below. This research is now more in an
analysis stage.
Ionospheric Physics (F-region)
CADI
Once again the current reporting period has been dominated by technical issues; however,
now mostly instrument deployment and site operations and maintenance, as opposed to
instrument development, predominated.
Over the summer and fall of 2005 all the new LINUX based CADI systems for the 5 CADI
polar sites (Eureka, Resolute, Cambridge Bay, Inuvik, and Rankin Inlet) were re-assembled,
configured and tested at the University of Saskatchewan before deployment in the field. All
aspects of site installation at Rankin Inlet, Inuvik, and Cambridge Bay were also initiated
from the University of Saskatchewan. Internet connections were obtained for the Rankin
Inlet, Inuvik, and Cambridge Bay sites during the re-installations and it is expected that
Resolute and Eureka will be connected to the Internet in the next year or two.
17
Figure 1 The locations of the CADI polar sites. Note that all CADI sites are in the field-ofview of the Saskatoon-Kapuskasing SuperDARN pair and that the Eureka, Resolute, and
Cambridge Bay CADI sites are in the field-of-view of the PolarDARN radar pair (Rankin
Inlet site which has been operating the spring of 2006 and the Inuvik site which should be
operational sometime late in 2007). The instrument configuration will allow for first time
collaborative studies.
18
e-POP
The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) is scheduled to be launched as part of the
Cascade Demonstrator Small-Sat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE) satellite in
early 2008. A Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on e-POP will receive HF transmissions
from various ground-based transmitters. G. Hussey and G. Sofko are involved with the RRI
instrument and SuperDARN will supply the transmitter radio signal which will be received
by the RRI instrument. In preparation for the e-POP mission, data from a similar
transionospheric experiment performed by the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies
(ISIS) II satellite has been studied. This was the bulk of the research performed by graduate
student R. Gillies, who completed his M. Sc. thesis in January, 2006. From the ISIS II data
set, the prominent features in the received 9.303-MHz signal were periodic Faraday fading of
signal intensity at rates up to 13 Hz and a time of arrival delay between the O- and X-modes
of up to 0.8 ms. Both features occurred when the satellite was above or south of the Ottawa
transmitter, the transmitter source for the transionospheric experiment. Ionospheric models
for ray tracing were constructed using both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) profiles
and local peak electron density values from ISIS ionograms. Values for fade rate and
differential mode delay were computed and compared to the values observed in the ISIS II
data. The computed values showed very good agreement to the observed values of both
received signal parameters when the topside sounding fOF2 values were used to scale IRI
profiles, but not when strictly modeled IRI profiles were used. It was determined that the
primary modifier of the received signal parameters was the fOF2 density and not the shape of
the profile. This dependence was due to refraction, at the 9.303-MHz signal frequency,
causing the rays to travel larger distances near the peak density where essentially all the
mode splitting occurred. This study should assist in interpretation of e-POP RRI data when
they are available.
19
Figure 2 An example comparison between simulated and observed Faraday fade rates. This
pass occurred on July 8, 13:10 UT. The two computed curves were obtained using two
different electron density profiles, one generated using only the IRI model and the other
using the model scaled to the topside sounding fOF2 values.
20
The “Research Themes and 10 year Visions” of the ISAS
Professors: presented at the Physics and Engineering
Physics Department’s Workshop (December 2006) and as
input to the College of Arts and Sciences Integrated
Planning Cycle #2 (1997+) can be found at the following
URL:
http://www.usask.ca/physics/isas/PEPplanning.html
21
Appendices
Publications
Presentations (Talks, Papers, Posters)
Graduate Student Theses
Services and Distinctions
Vision Statement
22
Publications
Atmospheric Dynamics Team
C.M. Hall, A. Brekke, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek and S. Nozawa. Trends in mesospheric
turbulence at 70° N. Atmos. Sci.Let., 8, 80-84, 2007.
P. Mukhtarov, D. Pancheva, B. Andonov, N.J. Mitchell, E. Merzlyakov, W. Singer, W.
Hocking, C. Meek, A. Manson, Y. Murayama. Large-scale thermo-dynamics of the
stratosphere and mesosphere during the major stratospheric warming in 2003/2004. J.
Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 69, 2338-2354, 2007.
K.F. Tapping, K.F., D. Boteler, P. Charbonneau, A. Crouch, A. Manson, H. Paquette, 2007.
Solar Magnetic Activity and total Irradiance since the Maunder Minimum. Solar
Physics, 246, 309-326.
T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, T. Aso, S.K. Avery, C.M. Hall, W. Hocking, K.
Igarashi, C. Jacobi, N. Makarov, N. Mitchell, Y. Murayama, W. Singer, D. Thorsen, M.
Tsutsumi, 2007. Polar Vortex Evolution during Northern Hemispheric Winter 2004/05
Ann. Geophys., 25, 1279-1298.
C.M. Hall, S. Nozawa, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2006. Tidal signatures in mesospheric
turbulence Ann Geophys., 24 (2), 453-465.
T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, S.K. Avery, D. Thorsen, J.W. MacDougall, W.
Hocking, Y. Murayama, and K. Igarashi, 2006. Planetary wave coupling processes in
the middle atmosphere (30-90 km): a study involving MetO and MF radar data. J.
Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 353-368.
D.M. Riggin, H-L Liu, R.S. Lieberman, R.G. Roble, J.M. Russell III, C.J. Mertens, M.G.
Mlynczak, D. Pancheva, S.J., Franke, Y. Murayama, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, and
R.A. Vincent, 2006. Observations of the 5-day wave in the mesosphere and lower
thermosphere J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 323-339.
C.M. Hall, T. Aso, M. Tsutsumi, S. Nozawa, C.E. Meek, and A.H. Manson, 2006.
Comparison of meteor and medium frequency radar kilometer scale MLT dynamics at
700N. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 309-316.
T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2005. Climatology of the quasi two-day
wave over Saskatoon (520N, 1070W): 14 years of MF radar observations. Advances in
Space Res., 35 (11), 2011-2016.
T. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, S.K. Avery, D. Thorsen, J.W. MacDougall, W.
Hocking, Y. Murayama, and K. Igarashi, 2005. Planetary wave coupling in the middle
23
atmosphere (20-90 km): a CUJO study involving TOMS, MetO and MF radar data.
Ann Geophys., 23 (4): 1103-1121, SRef-ID: 1432-0576/ag/2005-23-1103.
C.M. Hall, T. Aso, M .Tsutsumi, S. Nozawa, A.H. Manson, and C.E. Meek, 2005. A
comparison of mesosphere and lower thermosphere neutral winds as determined by
meteor and medium-frequency radar at 70ºN. Radio Science Vol. 40, RS4001, doe:
10.1029/2004RS003102.
S.I. Martynenko, V.T. Rozumenko, O.F. Tyrnov, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek, 2005.
Statistical parameters of nonisothermal lower ionospheric plasma in the electrically
active mesosphere. Advances in Space Research 35, 1467-1471.
Aeronomy Research – Odin/ OSIRIS (InfraRed Team)
A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, E.J. Llewellyn, SASKTRAN: A Spherical Geometry
Radiative Transfer Code for Efficient Estimation of Limb Scattered Sunlight, J.
Quant. Spect. and Rad. Trans., doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.07.007, 2007.
A.E. Bourassa, D.A. Degenstein, R. L. Gattinger, and E. J. Llewellyn, Stratospheric aerosol
retrieval with optical spectrograph and infrared imaging system limb scatter
measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10217, doi:10.1029/2006JD008079, 2007.
S.M. Brohede, Craig S. Haley, Chris A. McLinden, Christopher E. Sioris, Donal P. Murtagh,
Svetlana V. Petelina, Edward J. Llewellyn, Ariane Bazureau, Florence Goutail, Cora
E. Randall, Jerry D. Lumpe, Ghassan Taha, Larry W. Thomasson, and Larry L.
Gordley. Validation of Odin/OSIRIS stratospheric NO2 profiles. J. Geophys. Res.,
112, D07310, doi:10.1029/2006JD007586, 2007.
D.A. Degenstein, A.E. Bourassa, E.J. Llewellyn, and N.D. Lloyd. The impact of sea-glint
upon limb radiance. Can. J. Phys., in press, 2007.
R.L. Gattinger, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, D.A. Degenstein, N.D. Lloyd, P.F. Bernath, and
E.J. Llewellyn, OSIRIS observations of OH 308 nm solar resonance fluorescence at
sunrise in the upper mesosphere, Can. J. Phys., 85, 131-142, doi: 10.1139/P06-087,
2007.
J. Kuttippurath, H. Bremer, J. Burrows, A. Kleinbohl, H. Kullmann, K. Kunzi, J. Notholt, M.
Sinnhuber, C. von Savigny, N. Lautie, D. Murtagh, J. Urban, M. Milz, G. Stiller, S.
Petelina, J. de La Noe, E. Le Flochmoen, and P. Ricaud. Intercomparison of ozone
profile measurements from ASUR, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, and SMR. J.
Geophys. Res., 112, D09311, doi:10.1029/2006JD007830, 2007.
C.A. McLinden, V. E. Fioletov, C. S. Haley, N. Lloyd, C. Roth, D. Degenstein, A.E.
Bourassa, C. T. McElroy, and E. J. Llewellyn, An evaluation of Odin/OSIRIS
pointing and stratospheric ozone through comparisons with ozonesondes, Can. J.
Phys., in press, 2007.
24
S.V. Petelina, E.J. Llewellyn, and D.A. Degenstein. Properties of Polar Mesospheric Clouds
measured by Odin/OSIRIS in the Northern Hemisphere in 2002-2005. Can. J. Phys.,
85(11), 1143-1158, 2007.
S.V. Petelina, E.J. Llewellyn, and D.A. Degenstein. Properties of Polar Mesospheric Clouds
measured by Odin/OSIRIS in the Northern Hemisphere in 2002-2005. Can. J. Phys.,
in press, 2007.
C.Z. Roth, D.A. Degenstein, A.E. Bourassa, and E.J. Llewellyn. The Retrieval of Vertical
Profiles of the Ozone Number Density Using Chappuis Band Absorption Information
and a Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique. Can. J. Phys., in press,
2007.
C.E. Sioris, C.A. McLinden, R.V. Martin, B. Sauvage, C.S. Haley, N.D. Lloyd, E.J.
Llewellyn, P.F. Bernath, C.D. Boone, S. Brohede and C. T. McElroy. Vertical
profiles of lightning-produced NO2 enhancements in the upper troposphere observed
by OSIRIS. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4281–4294, 2007.
J.R. Taylor, K. Strong, C.A. McLinden, D.A. Degenstein and C.S. Haley, Comparison of
OSIRIS stratospheric O3 and NO2 measurements with ground-based Fourier
Transform Spectrometer measurements at the Toronto Atmospheric Observatory,
Can. J. Phys., in press, 2007.
S. Tukiainen, S. Hassinen, A. Sepp¨al¨a, H. Auvinen, E. Kyr¨ol¨a, J. Tamminen, C. S. Haley,
N. Lloyd, and P. T. Verronen. Description and validation of a limb scatter retrieval
method for 1 Odin/OSIRIS. J. Geophys. Res., accepted October 2007.
J. Gumbel1, Z. Y. Fan, T. Waldemarsson, J. Stegman, E. J. Llewellyn, C.-Y. She and J. M.
C. Plane, Retrieval of global mesospheric sodium densities from the Odin satellite,
Submitted to Geophys. Res, Lett., November 4, 2006
S.V. Petelina, E.J. Llewellyn, D.A. Degenstein, N.D. Lloyd, Odin/OSIRIS limb observations
of Polar Mesospheric Clouds in 2001-2003, J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 42-55,
doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2005.08.004, 2006
S.V. Petelina, D.A. Degenstein, E.J. Llewellyn, N.D. Lloyd, Correlation of PMC relative
brightness and altitudes observed by Odin/OSIRIS in the northern hemisphere in 20022003 J. Atm. Solar-Terr. Phys., 68, 56-64, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2005.08.005, 2006
R.L. Gattinger, C.D. Boone, K.A. Walker, D.A. Degenstein, P.F. Bernath and E.J. Llewellyn,
Comparison of Odin-OSIRIS OH A(2)Sigma(+)-(XII)-I-2 0-0 mesospheric
observations and ACE-FTS water vapor observations , Geophys. Res. Lett., 33 (15),
L15808, 2006.
R.L. Gattinger, D.A. Degenstein, and E.J. Llewellyn, Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red
Imaging System (OSIRIS) observations of mesospheric OH A2S+–X2 0-0 and 1-1
25
band resonance emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D13303, doi: 10.1029/2005
JD006369, 2006.
S.V. Petelina, D.A. Degenstein, E.J. Llewellyn, N.D. Lloyd, C.J. Mertens, M.G. Mlynczak,
and J.M. Russell III, Thermal conditions for PMC existence derived from Odin/OSIRIS
and TIMED/SABER data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L17813, doi:10.1029/2005
GL023099, 2005.
F. Sigernes, N. Lloyd, D.A. Lorentzen, R. Neuber, U.-P. Hoppe, D. Degenstein, N.
Shumilov, J. Moen, Y. Gjessing, O. Havnes, A. Skartveit, E. Raustein, J. B. Ørbæk, and
C.S. Deeh, The Red Sky over Svalbard in December 2002: Observations, Annales
Geophysicae, 23, 1593-1602, 2005.
Super DARN/ PolarDARN
G. Chisham, M. Lester, S. E. Milan, M. P. Freeman, W. A. Bristow, A. Grocott, K. A.
McWilliams, J. M. Ruohoniemi, T. K. Yeoman, P. Dyson, R. A. Greenwald, T.
Kikuchi, M. Pinnock, J. Rash, N. Sato, G. J. Sofko, J.-P. Villain, and A. D. M. Walker,
A decade of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN): Scientific
achievements, new techniques and future directions. Surveys in Geophysics, Vol. 28,
#1, doi: 10.1007/s10712-007-9017-8, 2007.
E. Donovan, T. Trondsen, J. Spann, W. Liu, E. Spanswick, M. Lester, C.-Y. Tu, A. Ridley,
M. Henderson, T. Immel, S. Mende, J. Bonnell, M. Syrjasuo, G. Sofko, L. Cogger, J.
Murphree, P. T. Jayachandran, T. Pulkkinen, R. Rankin, J. Sigwarth, Global Imaging
in the ILWS Era, Advances in Space Research, 40, 409-418, 2007.
R.G. Gillies, G.C. Hussey, H.G. James, G.J. Sofko, D. Andre, Modelling and observation of
transionosphric propagation results from ISIS II in preparation for ePOP, Annales
Geophysicae, 25, 87-97, 2007.
R.A. Makarevich, A. V. Koustov, A. Senior, M. Uspensky, F. Honary, and P. L. Dyson.
Aspect angle dependence of the E-region irregularity velocity at large flow angles. J.
Geophys. Res., accepted 2007.
G. Sofko, R. Schwab, M. Watanabe, C. Huang, J. Foster, K. McWilliams, Auroral postsecondary ions from the night side ionosphere in the inner magnetosphere, J. Atmos. &
Solar Terr. Phys., 69, 1213-1232, 2007.
M. Watanabe, G.J. Sofko, K. Kabin, R.Rankin, A.J. Ridley, C.R. Clauer, and T.I. Gombosi,
The origin of the interhemispheric potential mismatch of merging cells for IMF BYdominated periods J. Geophys. Res., 112, A10205, doi:10.1029/2006 JA012179, 2007.
L. Xu, A.V. Koustov, J.S. Xu, R.A. Drayton and, L. Huo. A 2-D comparison of ionospheric
convection derived from SuperDARN and DMSP measurements. Adv. Space Res.,
accepted, 2007.
26
M.V. Uspensky, A.V. Koustov, and S. Nozawa, 2006. STARE velocities at large flow
angles: Is it related to the ion-acoustic speed? Annales Geophysicae, 24, 873-885.
A.V. Koustov, R.A. Drayton, R.A. Makarevich, K.A. McWilliams, J.-P. St-Maurice, T.
Kikuchi, and H.U. Frey, Observations of high-velocity SAPS-like flows with the King
Salmon SuperDARN radar, Ann. Geophys., 24, 1591–1608, 2006
R.A. Makarevitch, F. Honary, V. S. C. Howells, A. V. Koustov, P. Janhunen, S. E. Milan, J.
A. Davies, A. Senior, I. W. McCrea, A. Viljanen, 2006. A first comparison of
irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E region, Annales Geophysicae,
24, (in press, 15 journal pages).
J.-C. Cerisier, A. Marchaudon, J.-M. Bosqued, K.A. McWilliams, H.U. Frey, M. Bouhram,
H. Laakso, M. Dunlop, M. Förster, A. Fazakerley, Ionospheric signatures of plasma
injections in
the cusp triggered by solar wind pressure pulses, J. Geophys. Res.,
110, A08204, doi:10.1029/2004JA010962, 2005.
Solar-Terrestrial Relations/ Space Weather
R.S. Kissack, L. M. Kagan, and J.-P. St.-Maurice, Thermal effects on Farley-Buneman waves
at nonzero aspect andflow angles, I: Dispersion relation, Phys. of Plasmas, submitted,
July 2007.
R.S. Kissack, L. M. Kagan, and J.-P. St.-Maurice, Thermal effects on Farley-Buneman waves
at nonzero aspect andflow angles, II: Behavior near threshold, Phys. of Plasmas,
submitted, Sept 2007.
J.Z.G. Ma, and J.-P. St.-Maurice (2007), Ion distribution functions in cylindrically symmetric
electric fields: the collision-free case in a uniformly charged configuration, J.
Geophys. Res., submitted, Sept 2007.
P.J. Perron, J.-M. Noel, and J.-P. St.-Maurice, Velocity shear and current driven instability
in a collisional F-region, J. Geophys. Res., submitted, Sept 2007.
A. Russell, J.-P. St.-Maurice, R. J. Sica, and J. M. Noel, Composition changes during
disturbed conditions: Are mass spectrometers overestimating the concentrations of
atomic oxygen?, Geophys. Res. Lett., in press, Sept 2007.
St.-Maurice, J.-P. and R.K. Choudhary (2007), The influence of non-isothermal electrons and
neutral wind structures on the Doppler properties of vertical m-size field-aligned
irregularities in the low latitude E region, Revista Brasileira de Geofisica (Brazil),
accepted Jan 2007, 9 pages.
J.-P. St.-Maurice, G.J. Sofko, J. Wiid, D. Andre, A.V. Koustov, K.A. McWilliams, R. K.
Choudhary, R. Drayton, G.C. Hussey and R. A. Greenwald, First observations from the
27
new Rankin Inlet SuperDARN radar at high northern latitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 4
pages, submitted Sept 2006.
J.-P. St.-Maurice and R.K. Choudhary (2006), The influence of non-isothermal electrons and
neutral wind structures on the Doppler properties of vertical m-size field-aligned
irregularities in the low latitude E region, submitted to Revista Brasileira de Geofisica
(Brazil), revised Oct 2006, 8 pages.
I. Coco, E. Amata, M.F. Marcucci, J.-P. Villain, J.-P., C. Hanuise, J.-C. Cerisier, J.-P. St.Maurice, and N. Sato, Night-side effects on the polar ionospheric convection due to a
solar wind pressure impulse. Memorie della Societa Astronomica Italiana Supplement,
v.9, 91-93, 2006.
R.K. Choudhary, J.-P. St.-Maurice, W. Eklund, and R. T. Tsunoda, (2006) East-west and
vertical spectral asymmetry associated with equatorial type-I waves during strong
electrojet conditions: I. Pohnpei radar observations, J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 111, No.
A11, A11302,.doi.org/10.1029/2006JA011842, 12 pages.
J.-P. St-Maurice and R. K. Choudhary (2006), East-west and vertical spectral asymmetry
associated with equatorial type-I waves during strong electrojet conditions: II. Theory,
J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 111, No. A11, A11303, doi.org/10.1029/2006JA011843, 11
pages.
A.V. Koustov, R. A. Drayton, R. A. Makarevich, K. A. McWilliams, J.-P. St.-Maurice, T.
Kikuchi, and H. U. Frey, Observations of high velocity SAPS-like flows with the King
Salmon SuperDARN radar, Annales Geophysicae, 24, 1591-1608, 2006.
J. Drexler and J.-P. St.-Maurice (2006), Nonlocal waves in vertical density gradients in the
high-latitude E region, Annales Geophysicae, submitted, March 2006.
J.-P. St.-Maurice, J.-M. Noel, and P. J. Perron (2006) An assessment of how a combination
of shears, field-aligned currents and collisions affect F-region ionospheric instabilities,
J. Plasma Phys., 72, part 4, 1-20.
J.-M. Noel, St.-Maurice, J.-P., and P.-L. Blelly (2005) The effect of E-region wave heating
on electrodynamical structures, Annales Geophysicae, 23, 6, 2081-2094.
K. Schlegel, H. Lühr, J.-P. St.-Maurice, G. Crowley (2005) Thermospheric Density
Structures over the Polar Regions observed with CHAMP, Annales Geophysicae, 23, 5,
1659-1672.
J.-P. St.-Maurice, (2005), Comment on ‘‘Nonlinear electron heating by resonant shear Alfven
waves in the ionosphere’’ by J. Y. Lu et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13102,
doi:10.1029/2005GL022513
R.K. Choudhary, J.-P. St.-Maurice, L. M. Kagan and K.K. Mahajan (2005) Quasi-periodic
backscatters from the E region at Gadanki: evidence for Kelvin-Helmholtz billows in
the lower thermosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A08303, doi:10.1029/2004JA010987.
28
P.T. Jayachandran, E. F. Donovan, J. W. MacDougall, D. R. Moorcroft, K. Liou, P. T.
Newell , and J.P. St-Maurice (2005), Global and local equatorward expansion of the
ion auroral oval before substorm onsets, J. Geophys. Res, 110, A05204,
doi:10.1029/2004JA010837.
J. Drexler, and J.-P. St.-Maurice (2005) A possible origin for large aspect angle “HAIR"
echoes seen by SuperDARN radars in the E region, Annales Geophysicae, 23, 767772.
L.M. Kagan, and J.-P. St.-Maurice (2005) Origin of type-2 thermal-ion upflows in the auroral
ionosphere, Ann. Geophys., Ann. Geophys., 23: 13–24.
L.M. Kagan, and J.-P. St.-Maurice (2005), Impact of electron thermal effects on FarleyBuneman waves at arbitrary aspect angles, J. Geophys. Res., A12302,
doi:10.1029/2004JA010444.
Ionospheric Physics/ VHF and CADI Radars
H.G. James, R.G. Gillies, G.C. Hussey, and P. Prikryl. HF fades caused by multiple wave
fronts detected by a dipole antenna in the ionosphere, Radio Science, accepted 8 May,
2006, 39 pages.
29
Presentations (Talks, Papers, Posters)
Atmospheric Dynamics Group
A.H. Manson. Polar Vortex Evolution and Breakdown, Including Wave Interactions, During
Winter 2004/05: Campaign 1 of the “Vortices” Project with SCOSTEP-CAWSES,
Toronto, Ontario, May 29- June 1, 2006.
T.E. Chshyolkova, A.H. Manson, C.E. Meek. NH Polar Vortex Evolution During Winter
2004/05. STP-11, SCOSTEP, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March 6-10, 2006.
Aeronomy Research – Odin/ OSIRIS (InfraRed Group)
A. Bathgate, E.J. Llewellyn, D.A. Degenstein, R.L. Gattinger and S.V. Petelina, The
Measurement of Mesospheric Water Vapour, Ozone, and Temperature with OSIRIS,
Paper P6-2, CAP Congress, Saskatoon, SK, June 2007.
E.J. Llewellyn, R.L. Gattinger, M.H. Stevens, J. Gumbel, D.A. Degenstein, and S. Petelina,
Global Observations of Water Vapor and Ice Content in the Mesosphere Together
with Co-located Measurements of Temperature and Ozone, IUGG/IAGA Perugia,
Italy, July 2007.
S.V. Petelina E.J. Llewellyn and D.A. Degenstein, Interannual and Hemispheric Variability
in Properties of Polar Mesospheric Clouds Detected by Odin/OSIRIS, Paper P6-3,
CAP Congress, Saskatoon, SK, June 2007.
D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. Roth, E.J. Llewellyn, SaskTran: A Radiative Transfer Tool
for the Analysis of OSIRIS Measurements, EOS Trans. Amer. Geophys. Un., Fall
Meeting Suppl. A43B-0095, San Francisco, CA, December, 2005.
S.V. Petelina, D.A. Degenstein, E.J. Llewellyn, M.G. Mlynczak, J.M., Russell, Two-Satellite
Comparison of Molecular Oxygen Singlet Delta in the Mesosphere, EOS Trans. Amer.
Geophys. Un., Fall Meeting Suppl. SA43A-1087, San Francisco, CA, December, 2005.
Llewellyn, E. J.; Gattinger, R. L.; Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P.;
Walker, K, The OH (v= 0) Altitude Distribution at Sunrise, EOS Trans. Amer.
Geophys. Un., Fall Meeting Suppl. , San Francisco, CA, December, 2005.
30
Super DARN/ PolarDARN
URSI/North American Radio Science meeting, Ottawa, ON, July 22-26, 2007
G. J. Sofko, J.P. St.Maurice, J. Wiid, D. Andre, R. K Choudhary, A. V. Koustov, G. C.
Hussey, K. A. McWilliams, The PolarDARN Radar Project and High-latitude
Convection.
G. C. Hussey, H. G. James, and G. J. Sofko, A satellite instrument proposalfor topsidesounding and radar observations of the ionosphere.
CAP (Canadian Association of Physicists) Congress, Saskatoon, SK, June 17-20, 2007
G. J. Sofko, R. Schwab, M.Watanabe, K. McWilliams, Inner Magnetosphere Effects of
Suprathermal Auroral Post-Secondary Ions.
R. G. Gillies, G. C. Hussey, H. G. James and G. J. Sofko, SuperDARN radio wave power
distribution characteristics in the ionosphere from an ePOP perspective.
G. Hussey, G. James and G. Sofko, Proposed satellite radar instrumentfor top-side
observations of the terrestrial ionosphere.
J-P. St-Maurice, G. Sofko, K. McWilliams, R. Kumar Choudhary, A.V. Koustov, 1.
Wiid, D. Andre and G. Hussey, PolarDARN: A new window on magnetospheric
processes at very high latitudes.
R. Kumar Choudhary, J.-P. St.-Maurice and G. J. Sofko, SuperDARN obervations of
sunward convection under strong interplanetary magnetic field By conditions.
M. Watanabe, G. 1. Sofko, K. Kabin, R. Rankin, A. Ridley, c.R. Clauer and T.Gombosi,
The origin of the interhemispheric potential mismatch of merging cells for IMF Bydominated periods.
SuperDARN Workshop, Abashiri, Hokkaido, Japan, June 08-16, 2007
J-P. St. Maurice, G. Sofko, K. McWilliams, S. Koustov, G. Hussey, D. Andre, J. Wiid, R.
Choudhary, and M. Watanabe, PolarDARN - Review of Rankin Inlet first year results
and progress.
G. Sofko, R. Chaudhary, G. Hussey, M. Watanabe, K. McWilliams and 1.-P. St.
Maurice,
Polar DARN measurements of lobe cell dynamics during strong By+ conditions.
J.-P. St-Maurice: one presentation on early PolarDARN results (with Saskatoon
PolarDARN team), and the other on Gradient Drift Instabilities in the F region (with
student Megan Gillies).
Association of Professional Engineers and Geoscientists of Saskatchewan Annual
Meeting, Moose Jaw, SK, May, 2007.
G.J. Sofko, Magnetism – Consequences of Solar and Terrestrial Changes.
J. Pfeifer, K.A McWilliams, R.L. McPherron, Implications of global SuperDARN
convection measurements for the selection criteria of steady magnetospheric
convection intervals, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SM2IB0263.
McWilliams, K.A, Twin-vortex convection in the nightside high-latitude ionosphere
observed by the new polar cap SuperDARN radar at Rankin Inlet, Eos Trans. AGU,
87(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SMIID-05.
31
St. Maurice, J-P., GJ. Sofko, J. Wiid, D. Andre, AV. Koustov, K.A. McWilliams, R.K.
Choudhary, R. Drayton, G.C. Hussey, R.A Greenwald, First observations from the new
Rankin Inlet SuperDARN radar at high northern latitudes, Eos Trans. AGU, 87(52),
Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract SMI3A-0354.
K.A. McWilliams, J.B. Pfeifer, and R.L. McPherron, Statistical study of SuperDARN global
convection patterns during intervals of steady magnetospheric convection, International
SuperDARN Workshop, Chincoteague, Virginia, USA, 5-9 June, 2006.
A.V. Koustov, R.A. Drayton, and K.A. McWilliams, On the nature of high-velocity echoes
seen by the KS radar International SuperDARN Workshop, Chincoteague, Virginia,
USA, 5-9 June, 2006.
L.V. Benkevich, A.V. Koustov, and J. Liang, 2006. Comparison of the magnetic equivalent
convection direction and the true convection observed by the SuperDARN radars,
Annual SuperDARN meeting, Chincoteague, USA, June 5-9, 2006.
J.-P. St-Maurice, R. Drayton, R. Choudhary, A. Koustov, and S. Bansal, Comparing
SuperDARN Doppler shifts with DMSP velocities under ideal situations: Is there a
problem? Annual SuperDARN meeting, Chincoteague, USA, June 5-9, 2006.
M.V. Uspensky, A.V. Koustov, S. Nozawa, and R. Pellinen, 2006. Can one predict STARE
velocities from EISCAT data? International Conference, Problems of Geocosmos, May
23-27, 2006, St.-Petersburg, Russia.
A. Koustov, 2005. Studies with coherent radars, Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Space
Environment Workshop, Sept. 8-10, 2005, Saskatoon.
J. Gorin, and A. Koustov, 2005. Study of E-region irregularity velocity with SuperDARN HF
radars, Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Space Environment Workshop, Sept. 8-10,
2005, Saskatoon.
R. Drayton, and A. Koustov, 2005. SuperDARN observations of fast flows at the equatorial
edge of the auroral oval, Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Space Environment
Workshop, Sept. 8-10, 2005, Saskatoon.
Solar-Terrestrial Relations/ Space Weather
J.-P. St.-Maurice, The aurora boreales, CAP’s workshop for teachers, Saskatoon, June 2007.
J.-P. St.-Maurice et al., Early results from PolarDARN, CAP, Saskatoon, June 2007.
J.-P. St.-Maurice, and J.-M. Noel, Parallel electric field generation in the ionosphere,
Greenland Space Science Symposium, Kangerlussuak, Greenland, May 2007.
32
J.-P. St.-Maurice and A. M. Hamza, Small scale irregularities at high latitudes (2007), NATO
conference proceedings, submitted Jan 15, 2007.
J.-P. St.-Maurice, and R.K. Choudhary, The influence of non-isothermal electrons and
neutral wind structures on the Doppler properties of vertical m-size field-aligned
irregularities in the low latitude E region, Revista Brasileira de Geofisica (Brazil),
accepted Jan 2007, 9 pages.
St.-Maurice, J.-P. (2007). Two presentations at the Greenland Space Science Symposium,
Kangerlussuak, Greenland: one on PolarDARN, and the other on a D region study done
with Sonderstromfjord radar during a very strong proton precipitation event, May 2007.
St.-Maurice, J.-P., 2 DASP papers in Kingston, Feb 2006; 3 at SuperDARN workshop in
Wallops Island in June 2006, 1 at the AMISR workshop in California, Oct 2006, 1 at
the EPOP workshop in Athabasca in Sept 2006.
St.-Maurice, J.-P. (2006). “Early results from PolarDARN”, AMISR workshop, Asilomar ,
California, Oct 2006.
St.-Maurice, J.-P. (2006). “First PolarDARN results”, EPOP workshop, Athabasca, Alberta,
Sept 2006.
J.-P. St.-Maurice, “Why and how do E region irregularities evolve large aspect angles, or
not”, 28th general assembly of URSI, New Delhi, India, October 2005.
J-M Noel, J-P St-Maurice, A. Russel, and P. L. Blelly, “Electrodynamical modelling of
auroral arcs”, biannual EISCAT workshop, Kiruna, Sweden, August 2005.
L. Kagan and J.-P. St.-Maurice, “The role played by high frequency turbulence in auroral
ionospheric ion outflows”, biannual EISCAT workshop, Kiruna, Sweden, August
2005.
J.-M. Noel, St.-Maurice, J.-P., Blelly, P.-L., “A time-dependent two-dimensional
electrodynamic model of the auroral ionosphere”, IAGA 2005 Conference, Toulouse,
France, July 2005
J-P St-Maurice, R. K. Choudhary and L. Kagan, “A strong case for the detection of KelvinHelmholtz billows at low latitudes and of the plasma processes that allow for that
detection”, International Symposium for Equatorial Aeronomy -11 (ISEA11), Taipei,
Taiwan, May 2005.
J-P St-Maurice, R. K. Choudhary, L. Kagan and R. Kissack, “The low altitude phase velocity
of Type I waves at small aspect angles”, International Symposium for Equatorial
Aeronomy -11 (ISEA11), Taipei, Taiwan, May 2005.
33
Ionospheric Physics/ VHF and CADI Radars
G.C. Hussey, H. G. James, and G. J. Sofko, 2007. A satellite instrument proposal for
topsidesoundings and radar observations of the ionosphere, URSI 2007, 22-26 July,
2007, Ottawa, Ontario.
G.C. Hussey and J. Cooper, 2007. The application of the Frequency Modulated Continuous
Wave radar technique to E-region VHF coherent backscatater radar studies, URSI
2007, 22-26 July, 2007, Ottawa, Ontario.
G.C. Hussey, H. G. James, and G. J. Sofko, 2007. A satellite radar instrument for top-side
observations of the terrestrial ionosphere, CAP Congress 2007/ e-POP Science Team
Meeting #10, 17-20 June, 2007, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan.
G.C. Hussey, H.G. James, and G.J. Sofko, 2006. Radar Observations of the Ionosphere
from Space: A Preliminary Instrument Proposal, Canadian Aeronautics and Space
Institute (CASI) ASTRO 2006, 25-27 April, 2006, Montréal, Quebec.
R.G. Gillies, G.C. Hussey, H.G. James, and G.J. Sofko, 2005. Transionospheric HF
Propagation Modelling: Results from ISIS II to be applied to ePOP, Symposium on
Physics at the University of Saskatchewan, 5-6, October, 2005, Saskatoon,
Saskatchewan.
G.C. Hussey, 2005. Irregularities, convection, and structure in the E- and F-regions, Space
Environment Workshop 2005, 9-10 September, 2005, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
G.C. Hussey and J.W. MacDougall, 2005. Upgrades to the CGSM CADI polar network,
Space Environment Workshop 2005, 9-10 September, 2005, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
R.G. Gillies, G.C. Hussey, H.G. James, and G.J. Sofko, 2005. Transionospheric HF
Propagation Modelling: Results from ISIS II to be applied to ePOP, Space
Environment Workshop 2005, 9-10 September, 2005, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
H.G. James, P. Prikryl, R.G. Gillies, and G.C. Hussey, 2005. Old and new experiments on
transionospheric HF propagation, 2005 CAP Congress, 5-9 June, 2005, Vancouver,
British Columbia.
34
Graduate Student Theses
Bourassa, Adam (Ph.D.) - Stratospheric Aerosol Retrieval from OSIRIS Limb Scattered
Sunlight Spectra.
Defence held April 23, 2007.
Chshyolkova, Tatyana (Ph.D.) - Planetary Waves and Dynamical Processes Associated with
Seasonal Transitions. Defence held March 28, 2007.
Lamont, Kirk (M.Sc.) - Validation of the MOPITT-A Instrument through Radiative Transfer
Modelling and Laboratory Calibration.
Defence held August 29, 2007.
Roth, Christopher (M.Sc.) - Atmospheric Ozone Retrieval Using Radiance Measurements
from the Chappuis and Hartley-Huggins Absorption Bands.
Defence held March 6, 2007.
Schwab, Robert (M.Sc.) - Energy Dispersed Ion Signatures at Auroral and Subauroral
Latitudes.
Defence held March 30, 2007.
Cooper, Joel (M.Sc.) - A 50 MHz FMCW Radar for the Study of E-region Coherent
Backscatter.
Defence held June 19, 2006.
Drayton, Robyn (M.Sc.) - Study of SAPS-like flows with the King Salmon SuperDARN
radar. Defence held September 19, 2006.
Gillies, Robert (M.Sc.) - Modelling of Transionospheric HF Radio Wave Propagation for the
ISIS II and ePOP Satellites. Defence held January 24, 2006.
McDonald, Christopher Reid (M.Sc.) - Ground Based Measurement of Ozone Using Stellar
Spectra. Defence held February 23, 2006.
Stoicescu, Mike (M.Sc.) - Development and Characterization of the OSIRIS USASK
Observatory.
Defence held June 28, 2006.
Benkevitch, Leovid (Ph.D.) - Effects of ionospheric conductance in high-latitude phenomena.
Defence held August 29, 2005.
35
Services and Distinctions
J.-P. St-Maurice
G.J. Sofko
- Member of the Space Science and Exploration
Advisory Group to the CSA (Jan 2006- )
- Member of the SuperDARN Executive Committee
-Co-Chair of SAEAC (CSA) (2005- )
CSA’s Space Science Fellowships Selection
Committee (2005-2008)
- Elected as DASP representative to NSERC
liaison committee with CAP (Nov. 2003)
-Assoc. Editor, Journal of Geophysical Research
(1998-2001)
- International representative, Science Steering
Committee for Coupling Energetics & Dynamics
of Atmospheric Regions (CEDAR) USA 19982000)
- External member, Scientific Advisory Committee, EISCAT Observatory, Europe (19982000)
National URSI Committee: Commissions G&H
Chair (1993-1999)
- The National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA) Group Achievement
Award for ground based investigation by
Team/SuperDARN, ‘in recognition of the highly
successful exploration of geospace by the
Global Geospace Science Program’
- Member of SuperDARN Executive Committee
- Principal Investigator, DSS/CSA contract for
System Management at the Saskatoon
CANOPUS node
- Principal Investigator, NSERC CSP “The
Canadian component of SuperDARN, Phase II”
D.A. Degenstein
K.A. McWilliams
- Participant, Optical Aeronomy and
Atmospheric Science experiment (OSIRIS) on
the Swedish Odin satellite
-Member of CGSM Team
-Member of SuperDARN Team
-Member of Ravens Science Team
G.C. Hussey
-Member of SuperDARN Team
A.V. Koustov
-Member of CGSM Team
-Member of SuperDARN Team
E.J. Llewellyn
A.H. Manson
- Vice-Chair, Commission C of COSPAR, (20022006)
- Member, SAEAC (Space and Atmospheric
Environments Advisory Committee) of Canadian
Space Agency, (2000-2004)
- Member of Steering Committee for Post-STEP
International Programs; S-RAMP (STEPResults, Applications, and Modelling Phase)
(1997-2002)
- Chair of COSPAR Sub-Commission C2,
Middle Atmosphere and Lower Ionosphere
(1994-1998, 1998-2002)
-Editorial Advisory Board member, “Journal of
Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics”
(1994-present)
-Chair, Institute of Space and Atmospheric
Studies, University of Saskatchewan (1991-1997;
1997-2003)
- Distinguished Researcher (2002)
- Principal Investigator, Optical Aeronomy and
Atmospheric Science experiment (OSIRIS) on
the Swedish Odin satellite
- Principal Investigator, satellite experiment:
OGLOW II on STS-52 Mission
- Co-investigator, satellite experiments: OGLOW
(STS-17/41G); PHOTONS (STS-19); WINDII
(UARS); ACE (Canadian SciSat); AEPI (EOM1/1) renamed ATLAS; WAMDII; VIKING-UV
Imager
- Co-investigator, rocket experiment: GEMINI
- Chairman, Time Allocation Committee for
WINDII/UARS
- Member of CAP/NSERC Committee for
Review of Physics in Canada
-Chairman, NASA Selection Panel for LCAS
-Associate Editor Canadian Journal of Physics
36
Vision for the 21st Century
INVESTIGATE
the Atmospheric and Geospace Environments
of the Planet Earth:
the Dynamics and
Chemistry of the Middle Atmosphere and
Troposphere; the Magnetosphere, Thermosphere and Ionosphere with the imbedded
Aurora Borealis. Expand these studies to the
other Planets where possible and relevant.
DEVELOP
a comprehensive suite of observational systems
including ground-based, rocket and satellite;
and support the development of comprehensive
Space and Atmospheric Models consistent with
observations.
Strive to achieve levels of
excellence in research consistent with the
highest international standards in Solar
Terrestrial Physics.
RELATE
the investigations and observations to important
societal issues such as the Understanding of
Atmospheric Processes and Global Climate
Change, and Geospace Weather Prediction.
ESTABLISH
balanced and complementary links with
Agencies and Councils involved in Atmospheric
and Space Research – CSA, AES, NSERC –
and with high-technology industries, especially
those in Saskatchewan.
PROVIDE
a balanced working and educational ENVIRONMENT for graduate students, scientists and
engineers, including involvement with local
industries, and with the wider life of the
University of Saskatchewan – teaching and
outreach.
ENCOURAGE
collaborations within the Institute to maximize
opportunities for comprehensive, complementary studies of the Atmosphere and
Geospace.
CONTRIBUTE
to the community of Solar Terrestrial Physicists,
and to the international community engaged in
Solar Terrestrial Physics.
PROVIDE
the Saskatoon and Saskatchewan communities,
including especially students and the media,
with information and opportunities to share in
the Solar Terrestrial Physics activity in the
Institute; recognizing that these contribute to the
economic health, quality of life and knowledgebase of the nation.
ISAS - University of Saskatchewan
37
THE POLARDARN-AMISR GEOMETRY
INSTITUTE OF SPACE AND ATMOSPHERIC STUDIES
FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT:
Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan
116 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5E2, Canada
Phone: (306) 966-6401 Facsimile: (306) 966-6400
Electronic mail: [email protected]