M-Dex among the Islamic Countries Raudha Md. Ramli Abdul

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M-Dex among the Islamic Countries Raudha Md. Ramli Abdul
M-Dex among the Islamic Countries
Raudha Md. Ramli
School of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management
National University of Malaysia
43600 Bangi Selangor Malaysia
[email protected]
Abdul Ghafar Ismail1
Islamic Research and Training Institute
Islamic Development Bank
Jeddah P.O Box 9201
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
+96624646330
[email protected]
Muhammad Tasrif2
School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development
Bandung Institute of Technology
Jl. Ganesha No. 10
40132 Bandung Indonesia
+62222534237
[email protected]
ABSTRACT
Development and welfare of humanity are important elements in Islam. Islam has laid
Maqasid Shariah as a vital point in Shariah that highlights human welfare as the ultimate
purposes, which are to ensure and promote the well-being of all mankind and to prevent harm
through safeguarding faith (ad-din), life (an-nafs), posterity (an-nasl), intellect (al-‘aql), and
wealth (al-mãl). The existing Human Development Index (HDI) published by the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP) might be the most comprehensive indicator to
capture the human development concept, necessitating an adequate measure of human
development. However, the HDI is not fully compatible and sufficient for measuring human
development in Islamic perspective. In fact, the underlying theory and concept to develop
HDI are also not based on Maqasid Shariah. In view of the insufficiency of the existing
development index proposed, this study attempts to improve the existing statistical
measurement of development by providing an alternative framework of a complementary
model from the Islamic perspective. This study proposes Maslahah-Based Development
Index (M-Dex) framework representing the Maqasid Shariah or objectives of the Shariah for
OIC and non-OIC countries. The findings show that the rank composition between M-Dex
and HDI is slightly different. A number of countries enjoy a good rank in both indexes. It is
envisaged to be of practical use in national policy making and may also be related to agenda
of the bilateral and international development agencies.
1
He is head of research division and Professor of Banking and Financial Economics. He is currently on leave
from School of Economics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. He is also principal research fellow, Institut Islam
Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; AmBank Group Resident Fellow for Perdana Leadership Foundation;
Adjunct Professor, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia; and Fellow, Yayasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Islam
Malaysia
2
Senior lecturer at Bandung Institute of Technology, Indonesia.
2
Keywords: Islamic economic development, human development, well-being, Maqasid
Shariah, Maslahah-Based Development Index
JEL Classifications: C82; D69; O11; O15; P49;
3
1.
INTRODUCTION
The world has been witnessing the evolution of the development measures since three decades
ago following the profound change in the perception and definition of development itself
(Anto, 2011). The traditional single indicator such as economic growth or GNP per capita has
been perceived as insufficient to measure economic development performance and
comprehensive measures of well-being (Kelly, 1991; Noorbakhsh, 1998; Todaro, 1997;
Adelle and Pallemaerts, 2009; Anto, 2011). In the 1970s, the socio-economic indicator was
constructed as an alternative to GDP per capita. This approach was criticised as capturing
neither distributional aspects, nor social and human welfare dimension (Desai, 1991). Human
well-being is often treated as a multidimensional concept, consisting of a number of distinct,
separable dimensions (McGillivray and Noorbakhsh, 2004). Numerous economists have
expounded the incorporation of social indicators and efforts to create other composite
indicators that could serve as complements or alternatives to the traditional measurement of
development (Anto, 2011).
Morris (1979) puts forward the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI). The study
carried out in 1970 by the United Nations Research Institute on Social Development Geneva
(UNRISD) concerned with the selection of the most appropriate indicators of development
and an analysis of the relationship between these indicators at different levels of development.
This index was based on infant mortality rate, life expectancy, and literacy rate. Similar to
HDI, the PQLI approach gives equal weights to the attributes of the composite index under
the assumption that these attributes are equally important in capturing the defined aspect of
the concept (Alkire and Sarwar, 2009). The PQLI has also been critiqued for its limited
dimensionality, and most scholars find it difficult to accept the results of a composite
development index without strong theoretical foundation (McGillivray and Noorbakhsh,
2004; Alkire and Sarwar, 2009).
In 1990, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) launched the
competitive series of reports called Human Development Report, which also included the
Human Development Index (HDI). The HDI was designed to expand the focus of economic
output, growth, and development on various dimensions of people’s lives (Human
Development Report, 1995; Hicks, 1997). HDI also offers an alternative and shows the
inadequacy of other indices such as GNP for measuring the relative socio-economic progress
of nations (Human Development Report, 1994; Streeten, 1994; Noorbakhsh, 1998). The HDI
components reflect to three major dimensions of human development, namely longevity,
knowledge, and access to resources (Human Development Report, 1990). These dimensions
are to represent three of the essential choices for people to lead a long and healthy life, to
acquire knowledge, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living
(Human Development Report, 1990). However, HDI is a summary and is not a
comprehensive measure of human development, and thus the search for further
methodological and data refinement to the HDI continues (Human Development Report,
2001).
Although the HDI attempts to measure human development as a multidimensional
concept, the HDI has not absconded from criticism. Some criticisms of the HDI can be found
in McGillivray (1991) who questions the HDI’s contribution to the assessment of intercountry
development levels composition and the usefulness of the HDI as a development indicator or
as a measure for inter-country comparisons as it can be viewed as being redundant. Kelly
(1991) contends that the HDI is a tool of limited value and the grounds of attaching equal
weights to its components. Engineer, Roy and Fink (2010) critique that the implementation of
the dimension index in HDI to capture a long and healthy life is based solely on mortality
indicator and life expectancy measure. They suggest life expectancy as a good indicator of the
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quantity of life, but it is only an indirect measure of a healthy life. Hicks (1997) and Alkire
and James (2010) suggest and design an Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index as
the complement measurement to the HDI with distributional of human development
achievement involving the Gini coefficients for income, education, and longevity.
Sustainable development represents a commitment to advance human well-being, with
the added constraint that this development needs to take place within the ecological limits of
the biosphere (Moran, Wackernagel, Kitzes, Goldfinger and Boutaud, 2008). The goals of
sustainable well-being are long and happy life without harming the Earth. One way to assess a
country’s progress towards sustainability defined as achieving a high degree of well-being for
its people within the means of its ecosystems is by mapping the two dimensions of sustainable
development namely human development and ecological footprint on the same graph. The per
capita ecological footprint is plotted on one axis, while the UNDP’s HDI is plotted on the
other (see Figure 1.4). The ecological footprint as an indicator of sustainable consumption
measures the area of biologically productive land and water required to produce the resources
required and to absorb the waste generated by individuals, the population, or activity (Rees,
1992; Wackernagel and Rees, 1996; Mattoon, 2013). The Happy Planet Index (HPI) was
launched in 2006. HPI index measures three components factors that influence sustainable
well-being, namely experienced well-being, life expectancy well-being, and ecological
footprint (NEF, 2012). The HPI offers an excellent example of how such measures work in
practice. The HPI balances the prominence currently given to GDP with those measures that
take seriously the challenges faced in the 21st century in creating economies that deliver
sustainable well-being for all.
Several indices have been developed, as an alternative to measure human’s well-being
in the process of development. A few studies have attempted to integrate religious aspect of
development that reflects spiritual well-being, which has been recognised as an important
component in the development of the indices. Dar (2004) developed the Ethics-Augmented
Human Development Index (E-HDI). The E-HDI is based on Maqasid Shariah, and it
conceptualises socio-economic change and development for all countries. This index
encompasses more explicitly the ethical concerns in measuring development by incorporating
freedom, faith, environmental concerns, and the institution of family in the HDI. However,
the ranking of countries in the study is based on the ordinal measure using the Borda Rule
instead of the actual values of E-HDI computed for all countries. Anto (2011) developed the
Islamic Human Development Index (I-HDI). The index comprises the Material Welfare Index
(MWI) and Nonmaterial Welfare Index (NWI), representing the five basic needs in Maqasid
Shariah. In addition, the I-HDI also includes the Freedom Index and the Environment Index.
Rehman and Askari (2010) developed the Islamicity Index (I2) to measure the degree of
“Islamicity” of Islamic and non-Islamic countries based on the principles of Islam. The index
aims at finding out whether or not Islam is an agent that enhances human development and its
economic performance. The index uses four sub-indices namely the Economic Islamicity
Index (EI2), the Legal and Governance Islamicity Index (LGI2), the Human and Political
Rights Islamicity Index (HPI2), and the International Relations Islamicity Index (IRI2). These
indices in a nutshell measure a government’s adherence to Islamic principles in its (1)
economics, (2) legal integrity and governance environment, (3) degree of civil and political
rights, and (4) relationship with the global community in regard to several key areas of
environmental contribution, globalisation, military engagement, and overall country risk
(Rehman and Askari, 2010). In this index, Islamic economic, financial, political, legal, and
social principles are represented by 67 proxies, which are the standard practice of good
governance and good economics applicable to all countries regardless of their religious
orientation. Moreover, the Islamicity Index basically uses existing indicators, which represent
universal values, and therefore it is not really based on Maqasid Shariah.
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In view of the insufficiency of existing development indices proposed, this paper
attempts to improve the existing statistical measurement of sustainable development by
incorporating Islamic perspective. Maqasid Shariah (literally means the objectives of
Shariah) forms a basis of the analysis and encompasses both the physical and spiritual
dimensions of human development. The focus of this paper is to find out if the Islamic
concept of development is rooted in the contemporary Muslim world. This paper is divided
into four major areas of discussion. First section discusses the concept of development, the
transition of sustainable development, and the development goals. The second section reviews
on the Islamic principles for sustainable economic development and the literature on
development with a particular reference to Islamic concepts and its relevance to development.
This section also proposes and concludes the components that represent the M-Dex
measurement according to Quran and Hadith. The third section describes the measurement
and formula of M-Dex. The forth section explains the analysis and findings of the study. The
final section presents the research conclusion and future recommendation for further study.
2.
A HEURISTIC EXPOSITION ON ISLAMIC ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Development seems to be emerging as a dominant theme in the area of Islamic economics
(Hasan, 1995). Islamic viewpoint on economic development should be based on the holistic
view of Islamic teaching itself. The First Islamic Conference on Environment Ministers 2002
identified the major challenges faced by the Islamic world in the field of sustainable
development, materialised mainly in the poverty, illiteracy, accumulation of foreign debts,
degradation of economic and social conditions, disequilibrium between population growth
and available natural resources, the weakness of technical capabilities, the lack of expertise
and skills in environment management, along with the negative impacts left by regional
conflicts, and foreign occupation. The conference provided general framework for an Islamic
agenda in sustainable development known as the Islamic Declaration on Sustainable
Development, which revolves around the major areas namely economic growth, poverty
eradication, population and urban development, health and environment, and natural resources
(United Nations, 2002). Khan (1991) outlines the basic concepts of Islamic economics and
argues that Islamic economics has the potential and would lead the world in the future.
Islam encourages the economic development that is underlined with a mere application
of morality, ethics, social justice, and equitable and fair development (Khan, 1991; Chapra,
1993; Hasan, 1995, 2006; Dar, 2004; Chapra, 2009; Mohammad, 2010; and Ibrahim, Basir
and Rahman, 2011). Development with justice is not possible without moral and ethical
development (Hasan, 1995). Holy Quran introduces a wide range of ordinance on socioeconomic justice, equality, and equal distribution of wealth in an unrelenting approach. The
Holy Quran says:
“…so that it (the wealth and resources) may not circulate only between the rich
among you…” (Quran 59:7)
“Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them
the Scripture and the Mizan that mankind may keep up justice. And We brought
forth iron wherein is mighty power, as well as many benefits for mankind, that
Allah may test who it is that will help Him (His religion) and His Messengers in
the unseen. Verily, Allah is Powerful, Almighty.” (Quran 57:25)
According to Chapra (2006), the entire Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun links all important
socio-economic and political variables including the development (g) and justice (j),
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sovereignty or political authority (G), belief and rules of behaviour or the Shariah (S), people
(N), and wealth or stock resources (W) in a circular and interdependent manner. Each variable
influences the others and in turn being influenced by them (see Figure1).
Figure 1: Interrelationship of Variables in Economic Development and the Chain Reaction
Source: Chapra (2006)
Hasan (1995) enlightens the concept of development centres around two broad aspects
of its belief system, namely the divine and the human. According to Chapra (1993), the
Islamic worldview is based on three fundamental concepts namely Tawhid (Oneness and
Unity of God)3, khilafah (vicegerent of human beings)4, and ‘adalah (justice). Tawhid is the
most important of these concepts and implies the universe consciously designed and created
by the Supreme Being. Salleh (2013) adds two more concepts, which are Rububiyyah5 and
Tazkiyah6.
The objective of Islamic economic development is to achieve a comprehensive and
holistic welfare for people to live a balanced life in this world as well as in the Hereafter
(Akheerah) (Khan, 1991; Chapra, 2009; Ul Hassan, 2010; Anto, 2011 and Ibrahim et al.,
2011). This objective is called as Falãh, which refers to inclusive state of spiritual, cultural,
political, social, and economic well-being in this world and God’s pleasure in the Hereafter
(Khan, 1991). Tazkiyah appears to be the focal point of Khurshid Ahmad philosophical in
Islamic development concept (Salleh, 2013). Salleh (2003) defines the right ultimate aim of
Islamic development is Mardhatillah (the pleasure of Allah S.W.T) instead of Falãh.
According to him, only one who gains the pleasure of Allah S.W.T. will likely to have Falãh.
Salleh (2003, 2013) suggests seven philosophical foundations that more. They are mould,
actors, time-scale, framework, methodology, means, and ultimate aim. Established in earlier
writing by Salleh (2003), the mould of Islamic development is Islamic worldview (tasawwur);
the actors of Islamic development are human beings (‘abdullah, or servant of God and
khilafatullah or vicegerent of God); the time-scale covers three worlds of pre-birth (malakut),
3
Refers to God’s unity and sovereignty, which lay down the rules of God-man and man-man relationships
(Hablu minallah and Hablu minannas), respectively.
4
The human being is the Supreme Being’s khalifah or vicegerent on earth. Allah S.W.T says: “Those who
remember Allah standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the
heavens and the earth, (saying): "Our Lord! You have not created this without purpose, glory to You! Give us
salvation from the torment of the Fire” (Quran 3:191); and “And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels:
“Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth.” They said: “Will You place
therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify You with praises and thanks and
sanctify You.” He (Allah) said: “I know that which you do not know” (Quran 2:30).
5
Rububiyyah refers to Divine arrangement for nourishment, sustenance, and directing things towards their
perfection. The fundamental law of universe throws light on the divine model for the useful development of
resources and their mutual support and sharing. It is in the context of this divine arrangement that human effort
takes place.
6
Tazkiyyah refers to purification plus growth. It is the mission of all the Prophets of God to perform the tazkiyah
of man in all his relationships with God, man, natural environment, society, and the state.
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present (ad-dunya), and Hereafter (Akheerah); the framework is the Islamic obligatory
knowledge (fard ‘ain); the methodology is the worship (ibadah) of God; the means is the
natural resources; and the ultimate goal is the pleasure of God (mardhatillah). These seven
philosophical foundations are illustrated in Figure 2.
Allah S.W.T.
Revealed Knowledge
(Fardhu Ain)
Monotheism
(Tawhid)
Islamic
Jurisprudence
(Fiqh)
Acquired Knowledge
(Fardhu Kifayah)
Ethics/Virtue
(Akhlak)
High Level
of
Knowledge
Low Level of
Knowledge
Ibadah
Business
(Muamalat)
Marriage
(Munakahat)
Criminal Law
(Jinayat)
Development
Human beings and Vicegerent
(Al-Insan and Khalifah)
Goals: Pleasure of God
(Mardhatillah)
Balanced life in this world as well as in the Hereafter
(Hasanah fid-dunya wa hasanah fii al-akheerah)
(
Figure 2: The Integration between Knowledge of Fardhu Ain and Knowledge of Fardhu
Kifayah in Islamic Development
Source: Salleh (2003)
The primary purpose of Islamic development is to ensure the human well-being of all
mankind, and it should be consistent with the objectives of Shariah or Maqasid Shariah
(Sadeq, 1987; Dar, 2004; Hasan, 2006; Chapra, 2006, 2009; and Anto, 2011). The Quran
reveal an overriding interest in the overall welfare of mankind and need to balance between
this world and the Hereafter:
“And of them there are some who say: ‘Our Lord! Give us in this world that
which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the
torment of the Fire!’” (Quran 2:201)
“But seek, with that which Allah has bestowed on you, the home of the Hereafter,
and forget not your portion of lawful enjoyment in this world; and be generous as
Allah has been generous to you, and seek not mischief in the land. Verily, Allah
likes not the mischief-makers.” (Quran 28:77)
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Thus, development in Islam can be defined as a balance and sustained improvement in
the material and nonmaterial well-beings of man and as a multidimensional process that
involves improvement of human welfare through advancement, reorganisation, and
reorientation of entire economic and social systems in accordance with the norms and values
of Islam (Sadeq, 1987). These definition and objective of Islamic development can be
concluded as in Kurshid Ahmad’s fundamental principles and values. Kurshid Ahmad
delineates five essential features of the concept of Islamic development as follows (Salleh,
2013):
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
The Islamic development concept is comprehensive in character and includes
moral, spiritual, and material dimensions. Development becomes a goal and
value-oriented activity devoted to the optimisation of human well-being in all of
these areas for their welfare in this world and the Hereafter.
The focus for development effort is man. Development therefore means
development of man, his attitudes and ambitions, his behaviour and lifestyle, and
his physical and socio-cultural environment. Man acts as the premium mobile, not
merely in a mechanical sense, but in the fullness of the human potential.
Economic development is looked upon by Islam as a multidimensional activity
with different factors and forces that have to be balanced, harnessed, and
mobilised.
Economic development involves a number of changes, quantitative and
qualitative. These changes have to be balanced between each other.
Islamic development involves two dynamic principles of social life. First is the
optimal utilisation of resources that God has endowed to man and provided in his
physical environment. Second is the equitable use and distribution for the
promotion of justice amongst all human relationships.
Considering that development in Islam is to achieve balanced and sustained
improvement in the material and nonmaterial well-beings of man (Hasanah fi al-akheerah wa
ad-Dunya), Islam has laid Maqasid Shariah as a vital point in Shariah that highlights human
welfare as the ultimate purposes. The ultimate purposes of Shariah are to ensure and promote
the well-beings of all mankind and to prevent harm (jalbu al-Mashalih wa dar’u al-Mafasid)7.
Referring to al-Rusayni (1991:326), Maqasid Shariah is the objective that is determined by
the Islamic law and needs to be achieved for the benefit of humankind. Maqasid Shariah
constitutes all the elements related to human nature (fitrah)8. These elements can be classified
into five fundamental matters (Dar, 2004: Hasan, 2006; Anto, 2011; Dusuki and Bouheraoua,
2011; Ahmed, 2011; and Ibrahim et al., 2011). The concept of Maqasid Shariah can be
captured and discussed by stressing the Shariah concern with safeguarding five main
dharuriyyat of human’s life (al-dharuriyyatul khams)9 within the quotes by Islamic
philosopher (d.505/111), Abu Hamid al-Ghazali as follows:
“The very objective of the Shariah is to promote the well-being of the people,
which lies in safeguarding their faith (ad-din), their lives (an-nafs), their intellect
(al-‘aql), their posterity (an-nasl) and their wealth (al-mãl). Whatever ensures the
7
Wahbah Zuhayli, (n.d), Al-Wajeez fi Usul al-Fiqh, (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu’asir), p. 92.
See El-Mesawi, M.E.T., 2006. Ibn Ashur: Treatise on Maqasid al-Shariah. The International Institute of Islamic
Thought (IIIT) and Islamic Book Trust (South East Asia Publisher), Washington.
9
Allamah al Qarafi and many other scholars have added a sixth essential, namely ‘ird (dignity). See Hashim
Kamali, “Al-Maqasid al-Shariah: The Objectives of Islamic Law”, The Muslim Lawyer Journal, 3, No.1, (April–
June, 1998), 2; available at http://www.aml.org.uk/journal/3.1/Kamali%20-%20Maqasid.pdf; Internet.
8
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safeguard of these five serves public interest and is desirable, and whatever hurts
them is against public interest and its removal is desirable10”.
According to Al-Ghazali and Al-Shatibi11, Maslahah can be achieved by promoting
three important components namely necessities (Daruriyyat), complements or needs
(Hajiyyat), and embellishment or luxuries (Tahsiniyyat). According to Auda (2008),
necessities (Daruriyyat) are the basic elements of a good life, and protecting them constitutes
the goals of Maqasid Shariah. Necessities (Daruriyyat) can be categorised into safeguarding
faith (ad-din), life (an-nafs), intellect (al-’aql), posterity (an-nasl), and wealth (al-mãl)
(Chapra, 2008). Figure 3 illustrates the Al-Ghazali’s theoretical framework of Maqasid
Shariah.
Maqasid
Shariah
Safeguarding
of faith (AdDin)
Embellishment
(Tahsiniyyat)
Necessities
(Daruriyyat)
Complement
(Hajiyyat)
Safeguarding
of life (AnNafs)
Safeguarding
of posterity
(An-Nasl)
Safeguarding
of intellect
(Al-Aql)
Safeguarding
of wealth
(Al-Mãl)
Figure 3: Al-Ghazali’s Theoretical Framework of Maqasid Sharia
The categories of Maqasid Shariah are briefly discussed below:
i.
10
Necessities (Daruriyyat) are defined as those activities and things that are
essential to the preservation of the five areas, which are the basic needs of human
existence. These necessities comprise the five abovementioned objectives of
Shariah, namely safeguarding of faith (ad-din), life (an-nafs), intellect (al-’aql),
posterity (an-nasl), and wealth (al-mãl). These necessities serve as the basics for
the establishment of welfare in this world and the hereafter. If they are ignored,
then coherence and order cannot be established. Fasãd (chaos and disorder) shall
prevail in this world, and there will be obvious loss in the hereafter. Some
scholars argue that though the five Necessities (Daruriyyat) are essential for
human welfare, they are not confined to these five Maqasid; hence, they propose
an additional Daruriyyat namely equality, freedom, and protection of the
environment (Auda, 2008). Deuraseh (2012) includes another two essential values
of Daruriyyat namely preservation of environment, health, and disease. Khan and
Ghifari (1992) assert that one foundation, i.e., freedom should be added to the list
as well. They see freedom as the sixth element that should be promoted along
with the five elements. The enrichment of faith (ad-din), life (an-nafs), intellect
Abu Hamid Al Ghazali (1356/1937) Al_Mustasf) Ghazali m_ al_Ussl_
Tijariyyah._vol. I, p. 416.
11
Shatibi, (n.d), Muwafaqat, Vol.1, Maktabah Al Syamilah p. 243
Cairo:_ Al Maktabah_al
10
(al-’aql), posterity (an-nasl), and wealth (al-mãl) becomes the centre of an
Islamic development process in keeping with the objective of an Islamic society.
The goals cover the physical as well as the moral, psychological, and intellectual
needs of present and future generation (Dar, 2004).
ii.
Complements or needs (Hajiyyat) are defined as the complementary elements for
the basic needs to Daruriyyat (Ahmad, 2011). All activities are not vital to the
preservation of the five foundations, but are necessary to relieve impediments and
to alleviate hardship in life to be free from distress and predicament.
Complements promote and supplement the necessities, and their neglect leads to
hardship but not to the total disruption of normal life.
iii.
Embellishments or luxuries (Tahsiniyyat) refer to activities and things that go
beyond the limits of complementary (Hajiyyat) and whose realisation leads to
refinement and attainment of human life and allow for perfection in order and
conduct of people at all levels of achievement.
The classical conception classifies Maqasid Shariah into three inter-related categories
as demonstrated in Figure 4. Daruriyyat are the fundamentals to Hajiyyat and Tahsiniyyat.
With regard to the relationship between Daruriyyat, Hajiyyat, and Tahsiniyyat, Al-Shatibi12
and other scholar13 stress that:
Embellishment
(Tahsiniyyat)
Complementary (Hajiyyat)
Necessities (Daruriyyat)
Figure 4: The Pyramid of Maqasid Shariah
Source: Auda (2008) and Dusuki et al. (2011)
i) Daruriyyat are the fundamentals to Hajiyyat and Tahsiniyyat.
ii) Deficiency in Daruriyyat inevitably causes deficiency in Hajiyyat and
Tahsiniyyat.
iii) Deficiency in Hajiyyat and Tahsiniyyat does not necessarily affect Daruriyyat.
iv) An absolute deficiency in Hajiyyat and Tahsiniyyat may bring deficiency to
some extent in Daruriyyat.
v) It is desirable to keep up Hajiyyat and Tahsiniyyat for the proper maintenance
of Daruriyyat.
12
Shatibi, (n.d), Muwafaqat, Vol.1, Maktabah Al Syamilah p. 243.
See further in Ghazali, Shifa al-Ghalil, in Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee, Outlines of Islamic Jurisprudence (ebook: Advanced Legal Studies Institute), 165.
13
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3.
The Maslahah-based Development Model
Chapra (2008) uses Al-Ghazali’s classification of the five essentials to develop a model of
human development and well-being. These five necessities are necessary and basic for human
existence. In terms of applicability, al Zahrah (1997) also simplifies and lists the Maqasid
Shariah in three specific terms known as educating the individual (Tahdhib al-Fard),
establishing justice (Iqamah al-‘Adl), and public interest (al-Maslahah). Therefore, every
society should preserve and protect these five necessities or perform good education, justice,
and public interest in all levels of society. Otherwise, human life would be harsh, brutal, poor,
and miserable in this world and the Hereafter. Hence, based on the deliberations above, the
fulfilment of three levels of Maslahah and the five essential elements will be the theoretical
foundation and represent the comprehensive and multidimensional framework for producing
the Maslahah-based Development Index (M-Dex). The meanings for five necessities are as
follow:
i.
Safeguarding of faith (ad-Din) is defined as the preservation and development of
human faith through spiritual enrichment in the divine law, embracing good moral
standards, and performing religious practices at the individual, family, and nation
(Ummah) levels. Protection of ad-din is achieved through the observance of the
different kinds of ibadah. The aqidah, ibadah, and muamalat, which are
applicable to all Muslims, intend to manage the relationship between Muslims and
Allah and also among Muslims themselves (Ibrahim et al., 2011). Chapra (2008)
sees al-Din in the context of al-Maqasid as providing religious worldview that
potentially helps man to reform the human self to ensure the fulfilment of all his
spiritual and material needs.
ii.
Safeguarding of life (an-Nafs) is defined as ensuring the existence, sustenance,
and development of human life through the fulfilment of both physical and
spiritual basic needs and moral and social needs and protection from threats from
both human and nonhuman. This purpose is necessary to specify the major needs
of human beings that must be satisfied to not only raise and sustain their
development and well-being, but also to enable to play their roles as a khalifah of
God effectively. Ensuring the fulfilment of these needs can help raise the moral,
physical, intellectual, and technological capabilities of the present as well as
future generations and thereby ensure a sustained well-being (Chapra, 2008).
Chapra (2008) further states that safeguarding of life involves the achievement of
the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Dignity, self-respect, brotherhood, and social equality
Justice
Spiritual and moral uplift
Security of life, property, and honour
Freedom
Education
Good governance
Removal of poverty and need fulfilment
Employment and self-employment opportunities
Equitable distribution of income and wealth
Marriage and stable family life
Family and social solidarity
12
13.
14.
Minimisation of crime and anomie
Mental peace and happiness
iii.
Safeguarding of posterity (an-Nasl) is defined as the protection of everything of
those that would ensure the survival and progress of the family in all dimensions
such as physical, material, spiritual, emotional, and development of the quality of
future generations (Chapra, 2008). Çizakça (2007) also views protection of
posterity of future generation. Protection of dignity includes the protection of
individual rights to privacy and not exposing or accusing others of misbehaviour.
Islam has also regulated the relationship between men and women in order to
protect their dignity. The prohibition of adultery in Islam is a manifestation of the
protection of dignity and legalised and encourages marriage (Kasule, 2004). The
punishment of those involved in false accusations and adultery is meant to protect
dignity (Ibrahim et al., 2011).
iv.
Safeguarding of intellect (al-‘Aql) is defined as utilising and developing the
intellect and safeguarding the mind from negative influences such as drugs and
superstitions. Faith and intellect are both interdependent and need to be used in
such a way that would strengthen each other and help to realise Maqasid Shariah.
Without the guidance of faith, intellect may lead to more and more ways of
deceiving and exploiting people. According to Chapra (2008), intellect is the
distinguishing characteristic of a human being and needs to be enriched
continually to improve the individual’s own as well as his society’s knowledge
and technological base and to promote development and human well-being. The
intellect (al-‘aql) is a great gift from Allah S.W.T. to humankind and is one of the
capacities that differentiate humankind from animals. The manifestation of the
protection of intellect is obvious as Islam provides the right to freedom of
expression, encourages its followers to acquire knowledge, and forbids them from
any activities detrimental to the mind. In addition, punishment for those who are
involved in activities detrimental to the mind also supports this principle.
v.
Safeguarding of property (al-Mal) is defined as the protection of ownership and
property from damage, harm, theft, exploitation, or injustice. In addition, it also
encompasses the acquisition and development of wealth by making it available
through circulation and equitable distribution as well as preserving the wealth
through investment and good governance. Chapra (2008) stresses that wealth
needs to be developed and used honestly and conscientiously to remove poverty,
to fulfil the needs of those in need, and to promote equitable distribution of
income and wealth in the development and expansion of wealth. Chapra (2008)
further proposes the redistribution methods of zakah, sadaqah, and awqaf.
For safeguarding of faith (ad-din), level of corruption and criminal rate are used as
proxies to measure human development. It has been clearly acknowledged that corruption,
criminal, and violence practices are un-Islamic and are specifically condemned in Islam
(Rehman et al., 2010). The Divine scheme of life as enunciated in the Quran views fasãd
(corruption) with great displeasure as it abhors zulm (injustice) in the society (Zaman, 1999).
The term fasãd is used in the Quran to convey the following meanings:
i.
ii.
Creating chaos and confusion (Quran 2:11; Quran 2:27; Quran 2:205; Quran 17:4)
Violating moral limits (Quran 26:151–152)
13
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
Underweighting and short measurement (Quran 11:85)
Harming unity and cooperation among Muslims (Quran 8:73)
Dividing people into classes and discriminating against the down-trodden (Quran 28:4)
Disturbing the social, religious, or political set-up (Quran 7:74, 85–86)
Egotism and violation of Divine Law (Quran 5:33)
Misuse of wealth and neglect of other rights in ones’ wealth (Quran 28:76–77)
In the 1994 Human Development Report, it is argued that the concept of security must
shift from the idea of a militaristic safeguarding of state borders to the reduction of insecurity
in people’s daily lives (or human insecurities). In every society, human security is undermined
by a variety of threats including hunger, disease, crime, unemployment, human rights
violations, and environmental challenges (Human Development Report, 2013). Perspective on
security needs to shift from misplaced emphasis on military strength to a well-rounded,
people-centred view. Progress in this shift can be gleaned in part from statistics on crime. The
2012 Caribbean Human Development Report argues that violent crime erodes confidence in
future development prospects (Human Development Report, 2013). Peace and security are the
important elements in Islam. Allah says:
“And Allah gives the example of a township (Makkah), it was secure and
peaceful: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its
people) denied the favours of Allah. So Allah made it taste extreme hunger
(famine) and fear, because of what they did.” (Quran 16:112)
“And (remember) when Ibrahim said: ‘O my Lord! Make this city (Makkah) one
of peace and security, and preserve me and my sons away from worshipping
idols.’” (Quran 14:35)
For safeguarding of live (an-nafs), environmental degradation (carbon dioxide emission
in metric tons per capita) and political freedom are used as proxies in a sustainable way for
the betterment of human life. Salleh (2003) suggests that to maximise society welfare,
economists should be concerned with the efficient use of the stock of natural resources. He
proposes that the quality of the environment of many countries should be maintained to
achieve sustainable development. Such a sustainable development can be achieved through
faith, knowledge, and the conduct of good deeds (Ghafory-Ashtiany, 2009). The reward for
doing good deeds is based on Allah’s guidance and accompanied by belief as a result in
sustainable development, safety, and vitality in human societies. Figure 5 shows that by
following the Islamic teachings and principles, people can realise themselves and, in religious
terms as, the ultimate goal, i.e., to reach the heaven. In this world, heaven means a productive,
safe, healthy, and peaceful life.
According to this, belief and doing good deeds can be interpreted as follows (GhaforyAshtiany, 2009):
 Belief. Believing that our Creator’s (Allah) guidance is for the best concerning
human performance and better living. People are encouraged by being endowed with
free will, awareness, and the knowledge to follow Allah’s guidance by believing in
wisdom, facts and expertise as well as accepting, respecting and following spiritual,
individual, social, and technical laws, rules and regulations.
 Doing good deeds. Doing the best acts possible, based on the most correct beliefs
and the best knowledge.
14
The lesson that can be extracted from Figure 5 is that environmental protection (located
in layer 3) needs to be delivered first. Only then can humankind receive pleasure from heaven
and social development, or in other words, sustainable development (located in layer 4). Islam
perceives development programme as holistic in nature in which any development programme
must take into account the environmental issues.
God
Heaven
Heaven and Sosial
Development:
Vitality
Better and Safer Living
Comfort Saving Human Life
Environmental Protection
Following the Guidance Results in
Correct Use and Best Benefit of
Nature as God's Bounty; Use
Wisdom, Knowldege and Expertise
Islam: Submission to God's Guidance that is
Based on Belief, Faith, and Recognition in
Doing Good Deeds
Figure 5: The Process of Achieving Safety, Development, Vitality, and Finally Heaven by
Following the Islamic Form of God’s (Allah) Guidance
Source: Ghafory-Ashtiany (2009)
Intellect is the distinguishing characteristic of human being. Intellect needs to be
enriched continually to improve the individual’s own self as well as his society’s knowledge
and technological base and to promote development and human well-being (Chapra, 2008).
The dimension of safeguarding of intellect (al-‘Aql) is included as measured by expected
years of schooling for schooling age children and mean years of schooling for adults aged 25
and older. This component provides education that increases labour productivity. Education is
an important determinant of the capability of the nations to adopt new technology and to
expand its production capacity. Education level also influences demographic behaviour of the
population. Therefore, education sector raises the poor education level and supports future
development of the country. Knowledge is the basis of all good, and it generates actions that
are based on the commandments of Allah and the instructions of the Prophet. Hence, every
Muslim must instil in his mind a desire to seek knowledge. The Holy Prophet Muhammad
(PBUH) has said: “Attainment of knowledge is a must for every Muslim.” (Narrated by Ibn
Majah)
15
The meaning of education in the context of Islam is fundamentally the combination of
the terms Tarbiyyah, Ta’lim, and Ta’dib (Salleh, 2009). Literally, Tarbiyyah means educate,
Ta’lim means knowledgeable, and Ta’dib is derived from the word ‘adaba’ that means moral.
These comprehensive meanings concern the multilateral relationship of humans and their
society, human and the environment, society and the environment, and the relationship with
Allah. Quran and Hadith mention repeatedly the paramount importance of education and its
supremacy. For example, Allah says:
“…Allah will exalt in degrees those of you who believe, and those who have
been granted knowledge. And Allah is Well-Acquainted with what you do.”
(Quran 58:11)
In this verse, Allah grants high ranks to those who obtain knowledge. If a human being
wants to rise, he or she should attain knowledge. The enrichment of his/her intellect is through
a high quality of education (Chapra, 2008). Chapra (2008) performs dual purposes of
education. First, education should enlighten the members of society about the worldview and
moral values of Islam as well as their mission in this world as a khalifah of God. Secondly,
education should enable the members of society to not only perform their jobs efficiently by
working hard and conscientiously, but also by expanding the knowledge and technological
base of their society. Without the moral uplift and expansion of their knowledge and
technological base, it may not be possible to enrich the intellect and to enable the intellect to
contribute richly to the goal of accelerating and sustaining development.
The next Maqasid component namely safeguarding of posterity (an-nasl) includes
child mortality rates as a protection of progeny. Life expectancy at birth and fertility rate is
used as the dimension namely developing future generation. Allah says in Quran:
“Would any of you wish to have a garden with date palms and vines, with rivers
flowing underneath, and all kinds of fruits for him there in, while he is stricken
with old age, and his children are weak (not able to look after themselves), then
it is struck with a fiery whirlwind, so that it is burnt Thus does Allah make clear
His Ayat to you that you may give thought.” (Quran 2:266)
“And let those (executors and guardians) have the same fear in their minds as
they would have for their own, if they had left weak offspring behind. So, let
them have Taqwa of Allah and speak truthfully.” (Quran 4:9)
Wealth is a trust from God, and it needs to be developed and used honestly and
conscientiously for removing poverty, fulfilling the needs of humans, making life as
comfortable as possible for everyone, and promoting equitable distribution of income and
wealth. It is acquisition as well as use need to be primarily for the purpose of realising the
Maqasid (Chapra, 2008). The GNI per capita adjusted for PPP has been used to reflect
wealth/income for safeguarding of wealth (al-mal). Based on the above explanation, Islam
takes care of sustainable economic development through its teachings, and Islam emphasises
the importance of looking at the material, nonmaterial, and spiritual needs. Based on the
explanation above, the dimensions of each component of the Maqasid are identified and
summarised in Table 1 and Table 2. Table 1 shows the dimension of each component of the
Maqasid Shariah definitions by some scholars and based on Quran and Hadith. Table 2
summarises the dimension index selected based on existing indicators and data for further
measurement and empirical study.
16
Table 1: Dimensions Components of the Maqasid Shariah Based on Operational Definitions
Maqasid Component
Safeguarding of faith
(ad-din)
Dimension
Enrichment of Spiritual
Embracing good values standards
Negative indicators
Safeguarding of live
(an-nafs)
Fulfilment of Basic Needs
Fulfilment of Moral Needs
Fulfilment of Social Needs
Protection from threats
Safeguarding of
intellect
(al-‘aql)
Enrichment of Intellect
Developing the Intellect
Safeguarding of
posterity
(al-nasl)
Protection of future generation
Protection of progeny
Protection of family-society
Development of future generations
Property growth
Property equitable and distribution
Possible Elements
Performing prayers; Fasting; Payment of zakat; Perform Hajj
(Quran 2:43, 83, 125, 158, 189; Quran 4:162; Quran 5:12)
Charity; Social service/volunteer work; Family integrity; Social solidarity
(Quran 2:177, 215; 273, 274; Quran 4:34; Quran 30:21; Quran 66:6)
Corruption Rate; Criminal Rate; Violence Rate; Illegal activities
(Quran 2:188; Quran 4:93; Quran 5:30, 32; Quran 17:33; Quran 29:45)
Food, clean water, shelter, electricity, facilities, health, housing; Material
wellbeing; ecosystem
(Quran 6: 14; Quran 16:10, 14, 66, 68-69, 80, 81; Quran 20:81; Quran 50:11)
Good governance; Human rights; Justice; Political freedom
(Quran 4:135; Quran 5:8; Quran 57:25)
Equity; Social justice; Marriage/Family institution; Community life
(Quran 4:25, 135; Quran 7:189; Quran 30:21; Quran 59:7)
Public security; Political stability and security; Medical facilities; Drug
prevalence; Smoking prevalence; Environment
(Quran 2:266)
Reading habits (Dar, 2004); Library and research Facilities; Freedom of thought
and expression; High quality of religious and science education at affordable
price; Reward for Creative work; Number of education institute
(Quran 3:18; Quran 39:9; Quran 58:11)
Education; Healthcare; Environment
(Quran 26:79-80; Quran 30:41; Quran 58:11)
Environmental sustainability; Economic structure and sustainability
(Quran 2:11; Quran 7:128; Quran 30:41)
Reproductive health; Child mortality
(Quran 5:6; Quran 10:57; Quran 16:69)
Divorce rate; Conflict and security
(Quran 4:34, 35, 128)
Education; Health; Literacy; Life expectancy index; Fertility rate; Life
satisfaction; Family integrity (Quran 2:31, 266; Quran 4:9; Quran 58:11)
Economic growth; GDP per capita growth
GINI ratio; Poverty rate (Quran 51:19)
17
Table 2: Dimensions and Elements Components of the Maqasid Shariah for the Construction of the Maslahah-based Development Index (MDex)
Maqasid Component
Safeguarding of faith
(ad-din)
Dimension
Element in Dimension
Moral and Values Standard Level of Corruption
Level of Criminal
Item in Element
Dimension Index
Source of data for
measurement
Overall ranking in corruption Corruption Perceptions
index
Index
http://www.transparency.or
g/
Overall ranking in crime
index
http://www.numbeo.com/cr
ime/rankings_by_country.js
p
Criminal Index
http://www.unodc.org/unod
c/en/data-andanalysis/statistics/crime/ctsdata-collection.html
Safeguarding of live
(an-nafs)
Fulfilment of Moral Needs Socio-political Security
Protection from public
threats
Safeguarding of intellect Developing the Intellect
(al-‘aql)
(Knowledge)
Environment
Education
 Freedom from corruption Socio political freedom
 Fiscal freedom
 Freedom from business
 Freedom from labour
 Freedom from monetary
 Freedom from trade
 Freedom from investment
 Freedom from financial
 Carbon dioxide emissions Safety and healthy
environment
http://www.heritage.org/ind
ex/explore.aspx?nomobile&
view=by-region-countryyear
https://data.undp.org/datase
t/Table-13Environment/ki8j-r4i6
Indication of human capital Expected years of schooling https://data.undp.org/datase
formation in a country while for schooling age children t/Expected-Years-ofexpected years of schooling
Schooling-of-childrengives an indication of the
years-/qnam-f624
number of years of schooling
that a child of school
entrance age can expect to Mean years of schooling for https://data.undp.org/datase
receive if prevailing patterns adults aged 25 and older
t/Mean-years-of-schoolingof age specific enrolment
of-adults-years-/m67k-vi5c
rates were to apply
18
Safeguarding of posterity Protection of progeny
(al-nasl)
Development of future
generations
Child mortality
Life expectancy index
Fertility rate
Safeguarding of wealth
(al-mal)
Property growth
GNI per capita adjusted for
PPP
Probability dying of children Child mortality
between birth and exact age
5. It is expressed as average
annual deaths per 1000 births
(UNDESA)
Achievement of a country in Life expectancy index
life expectancy
https://data.undp.org/datase
t/Under-five-mortality-per1-000-live-births-/a4ayqce2
The average number of
Fertility rate
children a hypothetical
cohort of women would have
at the end of their
reproductive period if they
were subject during their
whole lives to the fertility
rates of a given period they
were not subject to mortality.
It is expresses as children per
women (UNDESA).
GNI per capita adjusted for
PPP
http://data.un.org/Data.aspx
?d=WDI&f=Indicator_Cod
e%3aSP.DYN.TFRT.IN
https://data.undp.org/datase
t/Life-expectancy-at-birthyears-/7q3h-ym65
https://data.undp.org/datase
t/GNI-per-capita-in-PPPterms-constant-2005internat/u2dx-y6wx
19
4.
MEASURING THE MASLAHAH-BASED DEVELOPMENT INDEX (M-DEX)
The M-Dex is a summary measure of key dimensions of human development. M-Dex serves
as an important benchmark for formulating policies and programmes towards achieving a
high-income, inclusive and sustainable nation. The M-Dex attempts to access the impact of
policy measures in enhancing the well-being of the people and will serve as a guide to policy
makers to formulate appropriate policies in moving forward. The components and indicators
of M-Dex were selected based on Maqasid Shariah component as illustrated in Figure 3.1.
One of the goals of constructing M-Dex is to classify or rank countries by levels of economic
development. This paper will absolutely be parallel with the methodology employed in the
United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) computation. There are two steps to
calculate the M-Dex. First, the data of each dimension will be normalised, and second, their
geometric mean of the component indices will be taken.
Step1 - Creating the Dimension Indices
Minimum and maximum values (goalpost) are set in order to transform the indicators into
indices between 0 and 1. The maximum is the highest observed value that can be
appropriately conceived of as a subsistence value. The low value for income can be justified
by the considerable amount of unmeasured subsistence and nonmarket production in
economies close to minimum (Human Development Report, 2013). Having defined the
minimum and maximum values, the sub-indices are calculated as follows:
Dimension index
Actual Value
Minimum Value
Maximum Value
Minimum Value
Corruption Index (CoI) and Criminal Index (CrI) could serve as proxies to
safeguarding of faith (ad-din). Muslim and non-Muslim society should avoid themselves from
atrocious moral and values. Data on freedom score (FS) are used to estimate freedom score of
a country with similar civil and political conditions as safeguarding of life (an-nafs) proxies to
express absence of freedom and to complete enjoyment of freedom (Dar, 2004). Maximum
and minimum potentials for each country are standardised. The achievement on the freedom
score for each country is normalised on a scale from 0 to 1. The data on environment such as
carbon dioxide emission (CO2) per capita will be used in this study as a proxy to safeguarding
of life. The value of this proxy shows the negative measurement. The higher value is the
carbon dioxide emission; the worse is the environmental degradation for each country.
The 2010 Human Development Report introduces some changes to the indicators
measuring the knowledge indicator (Gaye, 2011). This is in response to some of the criticisms
against the index and also to take advantage of improvement in data availability. Prior to the
2010, the knowledge component of the HDI was measured by adult literacy rate and
combined primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of education. In 2010 onwards, indicators in
measuring knowledge have been replaced with expected years of schooling for schooling age
children and mean years of schooling for adults aged 25 and older. This study will use the
same indicators for education (ED) introduced by UNDP.
The proxy for safeguarding of posterity introduces child mortality (CM) to protect
progeny. Life expectancy rate (LER) measures the relative achievement of a country in life
expectancy, which is the number of years a new-born infant could expect to live if prevailing
patterns of age-specific mortality rates at the time of birth stay the same throughout the
20
infant’s life (Human Development Report, 2013). Total fertility rate (FR) is the number of
children that would be born to each woman if she were to live to the end of her child-bearing
years and bear children at each age in accordance with prevailing age specific fertility rates.
The final Maqasid component to safeguarding of wealth (al-mal) uses GNI per capita adjusted
for PPP as a property and ownership to protect wealth. The GNI index is calculated as
follows:
( )
21
Maslahah-based Development Index (M-Dex)
Maqasid
component
Safeguarding of faith
(ad-din)
Dimensions
Moral and Value
Standard
Safeguarding of life
(an-nafs)
Fulfillment
of Moral
Needs
Protection
from public
threats
Safeguarding of
intellect
(al-‘aql)
Developing the Intellect
Safeguarding of
posterity
(an-nasl)
Safeguarding of
wealth
(ad-mal)
Property
growth
Protection
from
progeny
Development
of future
generations
Dimensions
Index
Corruption
Index
Criminal
Index
Sociopolitical
freedom
Safety and
healthy
environment
(Carbon
dioxide
emission)
Expected
years of
schooling
for
schooling
age
children
Mean years
of
schooling
for adults
aged 25
and older
Child
Mortality
Life
expectancy
index
GNI per
capita
adjusted
for PPP
Fertility
Rate
Figure 6: Calculating the Maslahah-based Development Index (M-Dex): Graphical Presentation
22
Step 2 - Aggregating the sub-indices to produce the Maslahah-based Development Index
Since the HDI was introduced in 1990, the index has been the arithmetic mean of the three
component indices. This method of aggregation allows for perfect substitutability that has
poor performance in one dimension that could be compensated for by good performance in
another. The revised HDI uses a geometric mean of the component indices. Geometric mean
produces lower index values for all countries with the largest changes occurring in countries
with uneven development across dimensions. This is because the geometric mean takes into
consideration differences in achievement across dimensions (Gaye, 2011). The M-Dex is
calculated based on aggregating the sub-indices introduced by HDI as follow:
(IFaith1/5 . ILife1/5 . IIntellect1/5 . IPosterity1/5 . IWealth1/5)
In total, 21 of the 186 countries have to be excluded for non-availability of data in one or
more of the eleven indicators considered. In other words, the M-Dex is based on 165 countries
including 51 OIC countries.
5.
DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
The constructed M-Dex is reported in Table 3(a) and Table 3(b) (Appendices). The first
column presents the ranking of countries on the basis of the M-Dex, while the next column
lists down the countries on the basis of the HDI rank. The remaining ten columns present
country listing on the basis of their ranks in each of the ten constituents of the M-Dex.
Australia comes as the first ranking in the M-Dex rank, unlike Norway in the HDI rank.
Canada, Finland, Denmark, New Zealand, and Brunei Darussalam follow closely in M-Dex.
Australia scores high in freedom rank and is in higher rank in education compared to Norway.
Denmark shows high score in terms of being free from corruption, the lowest carbon dioxide
emission, and more freedom compared to Australia and Norway. A number of countries
witness an improved rank in the M-Dex compared to their HDI rank. For instances,
Singapore, Chile, and Malaysia rank 19, 38, and 60 on the HDI, respectively, as compared to
their respective ranks of 16, 17, and 43 in the M-Dex rank. This is attributable to their low
ranking in the carbon dioxide emission, and corruption index but high freedom with the low
rank and high GNI per capita for PPP. Another case in point is the United Kingdom (UK) that
ranks 26 in the HDI with deterioration in rank to 34 in the M-Dex. It is observed that the UK,
though is lower in corruption and has high rank freedom index rank, education, and GNI
indices, is penalised for its high carbon dioxide emission of 8.5 metric tons per capita and low
fertility rate of 1.7 births per women.
The United States (US), which ranks 3 in the HDI, ranks 15 in the M-Dex, penalised
for its high carbon dioxide emission of 18 metric ton per capita and low fertility rate of 1.9
births per women. Not only that, even the US reports high GNI and high education rank.
Japan also appears to have high rank in HDI, namely 10 and ranked 18 in M-Dex. Japan has
low corruption and crime and high in socio-political freedom, but the carbon dioxide emission
is reported to be 9.5 metric tons per capita. Korea (Republic of) also reports lower rank to 30
in M-Dex compared to rank 12 in HDI due to the high carbon dioxide emission of 10.5 metric
tons per capita. In contrast, Qatar shows high rank in carbon dioxide emission 49.10 metric
ton per capita, but its GNI per capita rank is high, and Qatar has lower crime compared to
Australia and lower corruption compared to Brunei Darussalam. Parenthetically, the countries
ranked at the low rank in the HDI rank are also quite low in the M-Dex. These countries
include Zimbabwe, Eritrea, Yemen, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Papua New Guinea, and GuineaBissau. Zimbabwe, Eritrea, Uzbekistan, and Venezuela show the high rank of corruption and
criminal and report low ranking in terms of freedom.
The OIC members
Table 3 (Appendices) reports the M-Dex score and rank for the OIC members and comparison
with HDI. In general, we witness significantly different composition between M-Dex and
HDI rank for the high score group, specifically the top ten scores. Brunei Darussalam and
Qatar have improved rank in the M-Dex compared to HDI. On the contrary, the position of
United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia decreases from the top 3 to the fifth rank and from
sixth rank to eight in M-Dex, respectively, compared to HDI. The position Qatar remains
stable. Guinea-Bissau, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Yemen are in the lowest rank group of MDex.
Most of the Middle East countries still dominate high score group in the M-Dex.
Meanwhile, lower group remains dominated by African countries. The role of material
welfare in the development of M-Dex is important (Anto, 2011). Most of the Middle East
countries such as Qatar and Bahrain are relatively high-income countries. Meanwhile, most of
the African countries are relatively poor countries. Brunei, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates
report lower rank in corruption index and have high rank in socio-political freedom. The
inclusion of high faith might explain this phenomenon. As conveyed in both Quran and
Hadith, there is a strong precedence for high moral standards, ethics, values, and norms of
behaviour governing many aspect of life (Rehman et al., 2010). Corrupt practices are unIslamic, and they are specifically prohibited in Islam. The OIC members show low to
moderate influence of religion or faith, and faith plays a minimal role in the affairs of the
countries.
A relative substantial improvement from HDI rank to the M-Dex could be found in the
case of Maldives and Kyrgyzstan from rank 19 to rank 11 and from rank 26 to rank 14 ranks,
respectively. Maldives and Kyrgyzstan show low corruption. Burkine Faso, Guinea,
Mozambique, and Niger also show improved rank from HDI to M-Dex rank, namely from
rank 48 to rank 17, from rank 46 to rank 41 ranks, from rank 50 to rank 37, and from rank 51
to rank 44, respectively. These OIC members have the barest minimum rate of carbon dioxide
emission in the world (0.10 metric tons per capita). Seven OIC member countries record high
levels of carbon dioxide emission, namely Qatar, Kuwait, Brunei Darussalam, United Arab
Emirates, Bahrain, Oman, and Saudi (49.10, 30.10, 27.50, 25.0, 21.40 17.30 and 16.60 metric
tons per capita, respectively). In fact, Qatar, Brunei Darussalam, United Arab Emirates,
Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia also rank highest in the world in that order in terms of carbon
dioxide emission. The OIC members with the highest carbon dioxide emission are mostly
Middle East countries, and they have high ranks in HDI and M-Dex.
Other OIC countries show a good ranking in M-Dex is Malaysia. Malaysia rank 60 on
the HDI and rank 43 as compared to M-Dex. Malaysia has launched the Malaysian Shariah
Index, a product that complements Islamic governance through a more comprehensive
Shariah requirement yardstick. The index evaluated and assessed the government’s
seriousness in achieving the five aspects as required by the Maqasid Shariah. The uniqueness
of the index was the comprehensive measurement covered eight major areas, namely legal,
politics, economy, education, health, culture, infrastructure and environment, and social. The
measurement of this index fulfilled two important functions, namely evaluating the
seriousness of government efforts from year to year in meeting Islamic standards concerning
policies and programs. Secondly, the index was to identify improvements that needed to be
given focus to achieve better benefits following the adoption of universal values in Islam.
6.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Sustainable development should be carried out in a way that brings betterment to the current
generation without depriving the future generations. Islam has given guidelines for
sustainable development and human well-being, including faith (ad-din), life (an-nafs),
intellect (al-‘aql), posterity (an-nasl), and wealth (al-mal) for the current and future
generations. Based on all discussion above, HDI achievement measures the aspects of health,
educational and economic level only. The performance is merely from the physical aspects
and spiritual features do not take into account. This study proposes and explores a new
approach to construct a specific model for measuring economic development in Islamic
perspective in leading a better measurement of human development. The M-Dex is considered
a complementary framework to HDI within the framework of the Maqasid Shariah, which is
basically concerned with promoting and ensuring human well-being for OIC and non-OIC
members. The significant differences in the HDI and M-Dex ranks suggest that M-Dex has an
improvement and is more comprehensive and accurate measurement over the existing
measures of human welfare.
Predominantly, countries with high corruption and low socio-political freedom fall in
rank. In general, the contributions of higher GNI indicate its important role in developing the
welfare of the countries. The lack of economic, financial, political, legal, and social
developments can be attributed to the problem in developing the countries. For instances, are
inefficient institutions, lack of good governance, atrocious economic policies, corruption,
bribe, crime, and unequal distribution. However, it may be difficult to sustain the
development in the long run because of a rise in inequities, family disintegration, juvenile,
delinquency, and social unrest.
A task for further research would be to improve the indicators and quality of the
existing data to make them internationally comparable. Another area for further research is
the exploration of the precise meaning of some indicators. Some variables that should be
included in this research face insufficient data. For instances are the debt indicator, divorce
rate, pollution index, Gini coefficient, and poverty gap at national poverty line. OIC countries
should establish a committee to develop, regulating and monitoring the Islamic development
index. This index can be a benchmark for Muslims countries and evaluates the government’s
seriousness and commitment to adhering Islamic virtues in governance and identifies
improvement to focus on. The index proposed not only to promote good governance but also
benefit the people regardless of their religion.
We suggest using System Dynamics approach to look the behaviour of all indicators to
the future M-Dex. All of the variables or indicators used in this research are all interdependent
and support each other (Chapra, 2008). We propose this method due to its inherent ability to
properly represent elements of dynamic complexity. This methodology could help
government to facilitate the policies and budgetary decision that may promote human-centred
development. With progress in ensuring the enrichment of all these ingredients, it may be
possible for the objectives in Maqasid Shariah to shine with its full brightness and help realise
real human well-being. It is possible for the Muslim world to reflect what the Quran says
about blessing for mankind (Quran 21:107). Concentration only on economic development
with neglect of other requisites for realising the Islamic vision may enable the Muslim world
to have a relatively higher rate of growth in the short term.
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APPENDICES
Table 3(a): Constituents of M-Dex and HDI
Countries
MaslahahBased
Development
Index
(M-Dex)
Human
Development
Index
Safeguarding
of Faith
Index
Safeguardi
ng of Life
Index
Australia
Canada
Finland
Denmark
0.70739
0.69187
0.67925
0.67229
0.93800
0.91100
0.89200
0.90100
0.84033
0.86670
0.97705
0.65228
0.61090
0.52250
New Zealand
Brunei
Darussalam
Hong Kong,
China (SAR)
Qatar
0.67097
0.91900
1.00000
0.99516
0.51181
0.53536
0.66654
0.85500
0.63807
0.66695
0.65056
0.90600
0.77043
0.55612
0.64778
0.83400
Luxembourg
Norway
Germany
0.64017
0.62967
0.62927
0.87500
0.95500
0.92000
0.70560
0.82865
0.90602
0.90024
0.63484
0.50188
Belgium
Austria
Iceland
0.62915
0.62689
0.62419
0.89700
0.89500
0.90600
0.81375
0.77101
0.71232
0.50557
0.48746
0.48467
United States
Singapore
Chile
0.62307
0.62208
0.62004
0.93700
0.89500
0.81900
0.81574
0.75145
0.91990
0.47512
0.60921
0.56109
Japan
Botswana
Ireland
0.61769
0.61397
0.61386
0.91200
0.63400
0.91600
0.72891
0.76062
0.67971
0.48723
0.49895
0.42081
Bahamas
Estonia
0.61129
0.61002
0.79400
0.84600
0.74415
0.73603
0.70181
0.52487
0.45882
0.56039
Carbon
Dioxide
Emission
(Metric
Tons))
18.60
16.30
10.60
8.40
7.80
27.50
5.50
49.10
21.50
10.50
9.60
9.80
8.10
7.00
18.00
6.70
4.40
9.50
2.50
9.90
6.50
13.60
Safeguarding
of Intellect
Index
Safeguarding
of Posterity
Index
Child
Mortality
Rate
Life
Expectancy
Rate
Fertility
Rate
(Birth/
Women)
GNI Per
Capita
Adjusted
For PPP
Safeguardi
ng of
Wealth
Index
0.93355
0.76295
0.81239
0.40159
0.45303
0.40830
2.8
4.9
1.4
1.7
0.86196
0.86632
0.85388
0.40090
0.42920
78
50
73
80
34340
35369
32510
0.77978
0.73308
5.0
6.0
3.0
4.0
6.0
49
1.8
33518
24358
0.85838
0.81126
0.82056
0.41670
7.0
56
5
45690
0.90412
0.68663
0.43826
3.0
52
2
45598
0.90382
0.48634
0.61332
0.57574
0.36922
0.36529
0.41390
8.0
58
1.9
0.35784
0.36184
0.38890
74
82
68
2.6
2.7
7.6
1.00000
0.91227
0.91350
0.77339
0.84482
0.82817
3.0
3.0
4.0
87478
48285
48688
4.9
5
5.1
0.86658
0.85799
0.87071
0.37757
0.40994
0.38673
69
75
77
35431
33429
36438
0.77274
0.55797
0.50458
4.0
4.0
2.0
0.42334
0.39613
0.60718
74
81
76
1.9
6.5
6.1
0.83790
0.89680
0.92494
0.82422
0.70035
0.69799
8.0
3.0
9.0
29176
43480
52613
0.39803
0.40354
0.35608
76
55
67
2.6
1.8
2.3
0.73956
0.85403
0.71972
0.67123
0.75589
0.79199
3.0
48.0
4.0
14987
32545
13102
16.0
5.0
49
74
1.5
2.1
28671
27401
17402
0.83533
0.82864
0.76162
France
0.60646
0.89300
Barbados
Sweden
Bahrain
0.60616
0.60607
0.60686
0.82500
0.91600
0.79600
Switzerland
Cyprus
Netherlands
Korea (Republic
of)
Kuwait
Israel
0.60476
0.60118
0.59705
0.91300
0.84800
0.92100
0.58908
0.90900
0.58906
0.58275
0.79000
0.90000
United Arab
Emirates
0.58180
0.81800
United Kingdom
0.57760
0.87500
Trinidad and
Tobago
0.57331
0.76000
Latvia
Poland
0.57061
0.56600
0.81400
0.82100
Spain
Malta
Mauritius
0.56330
0.56232
0.56009
0.88500
0.84700
0.73700
Czech Republic
Hungary
Malaysia
0.55679
0.55625
0.55491
0.87300
0.83100
0.76900
Uruguay
Lithuania
Oman
0.55337
0.54593
0.54656
0.79200
0.81800
0.73100
Portugal
Greece
Saudi Arabia
0.54562
0.54392
0.54391
0.81600
0.86000
0.78200
Bhutan
0.53916
0.53800
0.52896
0.72850
0.77580
0.64110
0.41911
0.43904
0.97040
0.89276
0.66669
0.46226
0.50761
0.46695
0.87903
0.51970
0.59251
0.50076
0.47938
0.66045
0.64450
0.42764
0.71640
0.65320
0.78293
0.50555
0.41276
0.73046
0.57277
0.40601
0.63807
0.62984
0.60273
0.45423
0.45421
0.44120
0.56174
0.52599
0.58229
0.46220
0.51126
0.43192
0.54818
0.75477
0.51752
0.44765
0.41577
0.55783
0.61371
0.65665
0.44236
0.44961
0.40739
0.39897
0.50514
0.67375
0.50869
0.31815
5.90
5.00
5.30
21.40
5.30
7.90
10.60
10.50
30.10
5.20
25.00
8.50
37.40
3.30
8.30
7.20
6.20
3.10
11.20
5.40
7.60
2.50
4.50
17.30
5.30
8.70
16.60
1.00
0.80251
0.76201
0.78965
0.38985
0.41809
0.39992
0.54895
0.50374
0.81050
0.38193
0.39977
0.38518
0.63570
0.29887
0.78617
0.36507
0.64612
0.37465
0.66915
0.44324
0.40607
0.39232
0.47639
0.39922
0.57271
0.45071
0.77789
0.45376
0.65270
0.61549
0.62385
0.40150
0.39251
0.42865
0.67976
0.73795
0.71539
0.43259
0.33848
0.39461
0.66566
0.52122
0.49677
0.44365
0.43920
0.42006
0.61652
0.62790
0.75957
0.37659
0.36841
0.45190
0.58475
0.72450
0.39587
0.50181
4.0
57
3.3
20.0
3.0
10.0
67
76
72
1.8
2.2
2.2
5.0
4.0
4.0
81
77
53
6.1
5.1
2.6
5.0
64
6.2
11.0
5.0
75
51
4.1
3.9
7.0
80
2.2
5.0
74
1.7
27.0
77
1.2
10.0
6.0
62
79
4.2
1.9
5.0
6.0
15.0
52
58
55
1.5
2.8
3.5
4.0
6.0
6.0
71
74
62
1.6
1.8
1.8
11.0
7.0
9.0
60
77
74
2.4
1.5
4.8
4.0
5.0
18.0
74
56
73
1.8
2
4.7
56.0
63
2.4
19154
30277
17308
0.77578
0.84337
0.76082
36143
40527
23825
0.86951
0.88642
0.80799
37282
0.87410
28231
0.83304
52793
0.92545
26224
0.82216
42716
0.89418
32538
0.85400
21941
0.79583
14724
0.73695
17776
25947
21184
0.76476
0.82059
0.79065
13300
22067
16088
0.72193
0.79668
0.75003
13676
13333
24092
0.72605
0.72230
0.80964
16858
19907
20511
0.75693
0.78147
0.78588
22616
5246
0.80030
0.58460
Costa Rica
0.53741
0.77300
Italy
Bulgaria
Dominica
0.53765
0.53619
0.53397
0.88100
0.78200
0.74500
Croatia
Slovenia
Slovakia
0.53337
0.52989
0.52817
0.80500
0.89200
0.84000
Seychelles
Brazil
Saint Lucia
0.52713
0.52622
0.52372
0.80600
0.73000
0.72500
South Africa
Romania
Montenegro
0.52104
0.51854
0.51663
0.62900
0.78600
0.79100
Cape Verde
Turkey
Namibia
0.51329
0.51200
0.50935
0.58600
0.72200
0.60800
Georgia
Armenia
Jordan
0.50828
0.50749
0.50568
0.74500
0.72900
0.70000
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
0.50600
0.73500
Fiji
0.50201
0.70200
Jamaica
Maldives
0.50174
0.50165
0.73000
0.68800
The former
Yugoslav
Republic of
Macedonia
0.49958
0.74000
China
Mexico
0.49316
0.49213
0.69900
0.77500
Argentina
0.49228
0.81100
0.47821
0.57394
0.45270
0.41482
0.39351
0.43129
0.62102
0.52610
0.61149
0.37717
0.39731
0.43220
0.51717
0.58527
0.46723
0.45507
0.38698
0.34450
0.73684
0.47038
0.48008
0.41765
0.43684
0.40940
0.48639
0.62405
0.54911
0.38214
0.36279
0.39300
0.53042
0.53965
0.38339
0.35599
0.41650
0.40695
0.46700
0.40552
0.49784
0.43193
0.64750
0.41393
0.55472
0.33557
0.41994
0.30497
0.48750
0.44104
0.44691
0.34468
0.35659
0.35776
0.31046
0.41902
1.80
7.40
6.60
1.90
5.30
8.50
6.90
7.80
2.10
2.30
8.90
4.40
3.10
0.60
4.00
1.80
1.20
1.80
3.70
8.30
1.50
4.50
3.00
5.80
5.30
4.30
4.80
0.77207
0.71238
0.74631
0.35696
0.40260
0.43445
0.67572
0.69245
0.54923
0.39542
0.40098
0.35572
0.51971
0.55843
0.74762
0.43090
0.40209
0.49158
0.49903
0.55429
0.63118
0.39692
0.50046
0.43541
0.71530
0.64564
0.47403
0.40315
0.46047
0.47349
0.63643
0.60946
0.77957
0.47251
0.42874
0.46697
0.71980
0.37932
0.60805
0.43207
0.64602
0.73850
0.62929
0.41466
0.39905
0.46853
0.49800
0.43357
0.73304
0.39998
0.86728
0.72366
0.40523
0.37063
10.0
51
5.8
4.0
13.0
12.0
76
63
69
1.4
3
1.8
6.0
3.0
8.0
79
71
78
1.2
2.4
1.5
14.0
19.0
16.0
80
82
62
2
4.8
1.5
57.0
14.0
8.0
74
65
79
3.9
1.4
3.2
36.0
18.0
40.0
72
70
81
2.7
3.4
1.5
22.0
20.0
22.0
68
74
68
3.3
4.9
2.9
8.0
78
4.5
17.0
83
5.3
24.0
15.0
73
71
5
2.3
12.0
82
4.9
18.0
17.0
70
75
4.2
1.9
14.0
81
3.5
26158
10863
11474
0.82178
0.69205
0.70013
10977
15419
23999
0.69359
0.74376
0.80907
19696
22615
10152
0.77990
0.80030
0.68206
7971
9594
11011
0.64636
0.67371
0.69405
10471
3609
13710
0.68663
0.52938
0.72641
5973
5005
5540
0.60376
0.57766
0.59265
7713
0.64150
5272
0.58533
4087
6701
7478
0.54774
0.62074
0.63693
9377
0.67034
7945
0.64587
15347
12947
0.74307
0.71796
Mongolia
0.48884
0.67500
Algeria
El Salvador
Colombia
0.48782
0.48648
0.48476
0.71300
0.68000
0.71900
Ghana
Gabon
Serbia
0.48368
0.48272
0.48217
0.55800
0.68300
0.76900
Swaziland
Kyrgyzstan
Peru
0.47819
0.47601
0.47399
0.53600
0.62200
0.74100
India
Azerbaijan
Ecuador
0.47325
0.47189
0.46781
0.55400
0.73400
0.72400
Albania
Panama
Burkina Faso
0.46727
0.46470
0.46429
0.74900
0.78000
0.34300
Bolivia
(Plurinational
State of)
0.46007
0.67500
Dominican
Republic
0.45950
0.70200
Tunisia
0.45941
0.71200
Benin
Kazakhstan
Suriname
0.45655
0.45546
0.45449
0.43600
0.75400
0.68400
Thailand
Belarus
Morocco
0.45397
0.45317
0.44979
0.69000
0.79300
0.59100
Egypt
Lebanon
0.44926
0.44626
0.66200
0.74500
0.41883
0.38596
0.41416
0.38730
0.31037
0.38366
0.38339
0.51103
0.35951
0.40500
0.34731
0.34098
0.46578
0.43325
0.65024
0.39750
0.33149
0.34595
0.41288
0.39453
0.26201
0.39614
0.32438
0.38937
0.36990
0.32225
0.36780
0.28199
0.37833
0.37035
0.42664
0.33641
0.35980
0.28146
0.28956
0.35672
0.45684
0.39687
0.22979
0.34364
0.32761
0.50683
0.38853
0.37165
0.28595
0.33911
0.40176
0.33508
0.40353
0.33230
0.25892
0.34901
0.33438
0.37498
4.10
3.20
1.00
1.50
0.40
1.70
6.80
1.10
1.20
1.40
1.50
5.40
1.90
1.30
2.00
0.10
1.30
2.20
2.40
0.50
15.10
4.70
4.20
6.50
1.50
2.70
4.10
0.68249
0.84518
0.69931
0.45568
0.42919
0.40710
0.61961
0.67280
0.64950
0.42193
0.53182
0.46170
0.53691
0.52345
0.56416
0.38969
0.57291
0.43478
0.50796
0.69639
0.71049
0.43032
0.51669
0.49691
0.78005
0.74047
0.53803
0.43241
0.38340
0.40822
0.55483
0.73806
0.74865
0.48538
0.63173
0.47857
0.45073
0.68595
0.63269
0.44580
0.56502
0.38755
0.49141
0.41745
0.76407
0.47246
0.48208
0.36112
0.50832
0.62666
0.67610
0.46077
0.44631
0.37914
32.0
77
2
36.0
16.0
19.0
75
70
82
4.7
1.3
2.3
74.0
74.0
7.0
56
69
79
1.4
1.5
5.8
78.0
38.0
19.0
60
63
84
2.7
2.1
2.3
63.0
46.0
20.0
79
81
58
1.7
3.2
1.5
18.0
20.0
176.0
66
81
49
2.6
1.4
5
54.0
66
2.5
27.0
55
1.4
16.0
73
1.3
115.0
33.0
31.0
75
70
59
5.8
3.1
1.5
13.0
6.0
36.0
59
49
51
4
1.5
2.1
22.0
22.0
75
74
1.4
4.5
4245
7418
5915
0.55334
0.63574
0.60232
8711
1684
12521
0.65946
0.41685
0.71302
9533
5104
2009
0.67277
0.58055
0.44290
9306
3285
8153
0.66922
0.51550
0.64969
7471
7822
13519
0.63679
0.64357
0.72434
1202
0.36708
4444
0.56011
8506
0.65595
8103
1439
10451
0.64878
0.39364
0.68635
7327
7722
13385
0.63392
0.64167
0.72287
4384
5401
12364
0.55810
0.58890
0.71116
Russian
Federation
0.44562
0.78800
Djibouti
Indonesia
0.43799
0.43559
0.44500
0.62900
Rwanda
Mauritania
Guatemala
0.43451
0.43396
0.43363
0.43400
0.46700
0.58100
Iran (Islamic
Republic of)
0.43373
0.74200
Sri Lanka
Angola
0.43166
0.42921
0.71500
0.50800
Cuba
Philippines
0.42894
0.42597
0.78000
0.65400
Moldova
(Republic of)
0.42156
0.66000
Cameroon
Ethiopia
0.41650
0.41564
0.49500
0.39600
Senegal
0.41563
0.47000
Sao Tome and
Principe
0.41156
0.52500
Malawi
Côte d'Ivoire
0.40978
0.40741
0.41800
0.43200
Gambia
Honduras
Zambia
0.40706
0.40512
0.40083
0.43900
0.63200
0.44800
Nepal
Liberia
Bangladesh
0.40075
0.40063
0.39707
0.46300
0.38800
0.51500
Guyana
Pakistan
0.39594
0.39441
0.63600
0.51500
0.25886
0.40856
0.39629
0.30791
0.33259
0.57516
0.30620
0.33594
0.35992
0.29896
0.20854
0.31739
0.29855
0.34513
0.40236
0.34599
0.18938
0.50613
0.38923
0.27912
0.18815
0.33505
0.37200
0.32402
0.21321
0.29589
0.34223
0.45736
0.27762
0.31483
0.47132
0.27692
0.40522
0.31065
0.27170
0.27042
0.23096
0.30699
0.33229
0.33923
0.42233
0.32529
0.42285
0.33071
0.28322
0.27808
0.24870
0.24503
0.26802
0.29757
0.32164
0.31871
12.00
0.60
1.70
0.10
0.60
0.90
7.40
0.60
1.40
2.80
0.90
1.30
0.30
0.10
0.40
0.80
0.10
0.40
0.30
1.20
0.20
0.10
0.20
0.30
2.00
1.00
0.54340
0.41641
0.51309
0.55243
0.59809
0.46086
0.57025
0.42657
0.45073
0.64859
0.67751
0.49625
0.66255
0.40611
0.41632
0.44398
0.69497
0.70064
0.38342
0.69339
0.36724
0.52413
0.51378
0.41581
0.73906
0.59684
0.61931
0.40361
0.61569
0.51538
0.42073
0.49790
0.54591
0.55654
0.57475
0.53660
0.58633
0.57291
0.55065
0.45535
0.34731
0.59431
0.63868
0.55386
0.52608
0.59345
0.64167
0.55090
0.44844
0.48851
0.43100
0.52012
12.0
80
2.1
91.0
35.0
80
69
1.8
1.8
91.0
111.0
32.0
53
59
74
2.5
1.4
1.5
26.0
67
2
17.0
161.0
82
77
2.6
6.1
6.0
29.0
74
52
2.1
3.1
19.0
73
1.5
136.0
106.0
65
68
2.6
2.5
75.0
75
4.6
80.0
75
1.9
92.0
123.0
82
70
2.1
1.4
98.0
24.0
111.0
71
57
74
2.5
5.6
1.2
50.0
100.0
48.0
52
82
74
1.8
1.8
1.9
30.0
87.0
80
76
4.9
2.3
14461
0.73429
2350
0.46605
4154
1147
2174
0.55014
0.36016
0.45456
10695
0.68975
4235
0.55299
5170
0.58244
4812
5539
3752
0.57185
0.59262
0.53512
3319
0.51702
2114
0.45043
1017
1653
0.34241
0.41411
1864
0.43185
774
0.30210
1593
1731
3426
0.40865
0.42092
0.52170
1358
1137
480
0.38509
0.35887
0.23157
1785
3387
2566
0.42545
0.52001
0.47903
Tanzania (United
Republic of)
0.39285
0.47600
Comoros
Kenya
0.39224
0.39136
0.42900
0.51900
Mozambique
Mali
Paraguay
0.38956
0.38864
0.38639
0.32700
0.34400
0.66900
Nigeria
Nicaragua
Equatorial
Guinea
Lao People's
Democratic
Republic
0.38583
0.38571
0.38506
0.47100
0.59900
0.55400
0.38423
0.54300
Ukraine
Madagascar
Congo
0.38382
0.37913
0.37704
0.74000
0.48300
0.53400
Sierra Leone
Guinea
0.37387
0.37344
0.35900
0.35500
Central African
Republic
0.36933
0.35200
Viet Nam
Cambodia
Iraq
0.36772
0.36412
0.36352
0.61700
0.54300
0.59000
Togo
Burundi
Niger
0.36123
0.35285
0.35170
0.45900
0.35500
0.30400
Uganda
Haiti
Turkmenistan
0.35137
0.35109
0.34849
0.45600
0.45600
0.69800
Chad
0.34623
0.34000
0.33855
0.32623
0.27462
0.26800
0.24812
0.31425
0.27462
0.31605
0.30897
0.32089
0.19546
0.21385
0.26324
0.34925
0.31463
0.32507
0.12657
0.31133
0.23504
0.28358
0.21263
0.26931
0.33067
0.34816
0.17981
0.31186
0.19955
0.24866
0.27248
0.28769
0.22313
0.28322
0.32301
0.13906
0.30086
0.33061
0.10016
0.30053
0.16381
0.40479
0.27528
0.28048
0.36196
0.23825
0.12832
0.30281
0.34313
0.27238
0.10683
0.13123
0.33750
0.26124
0.20
0.20
0.30
0.10
0.50
0.70
0.60
0.80
7.30
0.30
7.00
0.10
0.50
0.20
0.10
0.10
1.50
0.30
3.40
0.20
0.60
0.10
0.10
0.30
9.70
0.80
0.38886
0.56186
0.69873
0.53443
0.55616
0.45155
0.47983
0.52136
0.62898
0.66261
0.52515
0.43895
0.49216
0.42760
0.64391
0.42392
0.42983
0.62927
0.52702
0.50585
0.49969
0.54591
0.38579
0.49040
0.60597
0.35445
0.61433
0.56382
0.75501
0.62224
0.54101
0.68874
0.35842
0.61988
0.38559
0.50012
0.67486
0.38558
0.66650
0.44002
0.58624
0.71428
0.28978
0.36819
0.64778
0.58934
0.49037
0.67335
0.43634
0.56000
0.50827
0.69327
76.0
65
1.4
86.0
85.0
81
48
1.5
2.4
135.0
178.0
25.0
74
53
80
3.8
2.4
2.2
143.0
27.0
121.0
77
75
58
6.9
1.6
1.3
54.0
76
2
13.0
62.0
93.0
74
80
75
2.5
1.8
2.1
174.0
130.0
66
75
2.1
1.2
159.0
79
1.5
23.0
51.0
39.0
73
81
69
3.6
3.3
2.6
103.0
142.0
143.0
83
55
69
4.3
1.4
2.3
99.0
165.0
56.0
49
69
73
1.7
1.9
1.3
173.0
75
1.8
1383
0.38778
986
0.33784
1541
906
853
0.40375
0.32534
0.31644
4497
2102
2551
0.56186
0.44958
0.47816
21715
0.79430
2435
0.47129
6428
828
0.61459
0.31205
2934
881
941
0.49881
0.32121
0.33094
722
0.29183
2970
2095
0.50061
0.44909
3557
928
544
0.52724
0.32889
0.25004
701
1168
1070
0.28747
0.36284
0.34990
7782
1258
0.64281
0.37380
Venezuela
(Bolivarian
Republic of)
Guinea-Bissau
Papua New
Guinea
Tajikistan
0.34195
0.74800
0.34136
0.33949
0.33923
0.36400
0.46600
0.62200
Uzbekistan
0.31827
0.65400
Congo
(Democratic
Republic of the)
0.31791
0.30400
Yemen
Eritrea
0.30000
0.28832
0.45800
0.35100
Zimbabwe
0.24805
0.39700
0.13731
0.26437
0.12890
0.21788
0.28816
0.30317
0.17164
0.11266
0.30409
0.30450
0.18039
0.25030
0.11990
0.32319
0.14023
0.16264
0.20427
0.16728
6.10
0.20
0.30
0.50
4.60
2.80
1.00
0.10
0.70
0.41435
0.44395
0.52683
0.31262
0.68466
0.46632
0.41594
0.36960
0.45906
0.50340
0.59168
0.70978
0.26592
0.55054
0.55660
0.30898
0.50701
0.52389
18.0
81
2.8
150.0
61.0
63.0
80
76
74
4.9
1.4
6
52.0
73
2.9
170.0
75
2.9
77.0
61.0
74
69
5.4
2.4
80.0
74
3.1
11475
0.70014
1042
2386
0.34599
0.46829
2119
3201
0.45077
0.51167
319
0.17125
1820
0.42832
531
424
0.24647
0.21325
Table 3(b): Constituents of M-Dex and HDI Ranks
Crime Index
Rank
SocioPolitical
Freedom
Index Rank
Carbon
Dioxide
Emission
(Metric
Tons)
Rank
158
Education
Index
Rank
Child
Mortality
Index Rank
Life
Expectancy
Index
Rank
Fertility Rate
(Birth/Women)
Rank
154
148
136
2
36
8
11
21
30
2
14
35
159
84
23
58
23
150
126
Countries
M-Dex
Rank
HDI Rank
Corruption
Index
Rank
Australia
Canada
Finland
Denmark
1
2
3
4
2
11
21
15
9
10
3
1
108
80
71
66
3
6
16
9
New Zealand
Brunei Darussalam
Hong Kong, China
(SAR)
Qatar
Luxembourg
Norway
5
6
7
6
29
13
2
37
17
100
64
47
4
39
21
130
162
112
1
38
28
36
38
3
163
142
155
124
18
101
8
9
10
34
25
1
29
11
5
53
39
51
25
15
29
165
160
146
96
68
5
44
5
6
136
65
5
110
68
62
Germany
Belgium
Austria
11
12
13
5
17
18
12
16
26
48
103
42
19
38
2
142
144
133
12
13
31
16
11
10
114
104
53
1
22
17
Iceland
United States
Singapore
14
15
16
14
3
19
13
19
6
33
134
65
1
10
24
123
157
120
4
10
48
1
46
7
39
80
14
16
112
3
Chile
Japan
Botswana
17
18
19
38
10
105
23
18
30
93
26
116
7
23
28
96
141
79
44
30
105
47
4
112
49
47
145
6
67
114
Ireland
Bahamas
Estonia
20
21
22
7
47
32
21
22
28
68
84
49
18
33
13
145
117
152
3
87
24
17
65
22
117
164
78
83
132
94
France
Barbados
Sweden
23
24
25
20
36
8
24
15
4
126
107
109
62
37
11
114
103
106
20
17
22
15
82
9
141
115
48
47
113
90
GNI Per
Capita
Adjusted
For PPP
Rank
16
15
21
17
30
6
7
1
5
4
14
18
12
23
8
3
51
19
60
24
26
45
43
22
46
Bahrain
26
46
56
41
12
159
71
49
92
88
Switzerland
Cyprus
Netherlands
27
28
29
9
30
4
7
32
8
58
74
87
5
40
17
105
132
149
25
40
7
27
12
19
13
42
150
7
15
69
Korea (Republic of)
Kuwait
Israel
30
31
32
12
51
16
45
69
36
32
57
119
32
65
50
147
163
104
6
55
26
25
52
24
124
56
157
4
37
39
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
Trinidad and Tobago
33
34
35
40
26
62
43
14
88
37
92
163
26
14
71
161
137
164
27
15
102
41
28
96
26
67
41
91
129
164
Latvia
Poland
Spain
36
37
38
42
37
23
49
38
39
112
89
75
53
56
45
88
134
125
41
35
14
51
37
26
129
29
153
36
109
144
Malta
Mauritius
Czech Republic
39
40
41
31
73
27
44
51
58
38
127
76
46
8
27
116
85
150
37
65
32
35
64
13
137
148
97
59
44
130
Hungary
Malaysia
Uruguay
42
43
44
35
60
49
46
53
20
73
157
110
47
55
34
110
129
80
33
88
29
33
34
53
73
130
131
118
122
81
Lithuania
Oman
Portugal
45
46
47
39
76
41
27
60
33
78
59
79
22
44
66
98
156
107
100
69
23
39
48
20
43
83
75
139
28
125
Greece
Saudi Arabia
Bhutan
48
49
50
28
55
123
80
76
31
124
69
1
112
81
117
139
155
50
16
58
93
23
74
118
143
87
125
100
30
76
Costa Rica
Italy
Bulgaria
51
52
53
59
24
54
48
68
62
156
123
98
49
82
59
69
127
119
62
18
53
50
18
57
156
50
126
10
152
54
Dominica
Croatia
54
55
66
45
41
57
155
70
63
76
71
108
82
57
54
31
103
30
117
162
13
10
33
11
25
2
27
9
20
37
52
44
29
39
59
36
48
55
58
31
47
41
40
34
99
28
68
65
67
49
Slovenia
56
22
42
61
74
138
9
8
95
80
Slovakia
Seychelles
Brazil
57
58
59
33
44
77
61
47
72
81
17
153
41
119
99
122
131
75
43
51
56
45
62
77
37
24
6
143
105
27
Saint Lucia
South Africa
Romania
60
61
62
80
108
53
25
113
70
50
162
63
30
73
58
77
140
97
83
81
46
67
120
61
128
70
123
142
40
156
Montenegro
Cape Verde
Turkey
63
64
65
50
116
82
66
40
54
54
22
82
69
64
68
86
35
91
39
86
80
43
105
75
32
93
102
50
61
45
Namibia
Georgia
Armenia
66
67
68
112
67
79
59
55
94
86
40
96
83
20
36
70
53
68
114
75
97
109
86
81
16
111
81
141
48
21
Jordan
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Fiji
69
70
71
89
74
88
65
71
121
105
104
90
31
101
103
90
135
63
85
73
94
87
42
69
113
36
2
56
32
14
Jamaica
Maldives
72
73
78
93
85
52
135
2
51
142
99
84
77
91
91
63
91
94
20
84
The former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia
74
71
67
62
42
113
72
56
8
26
China
Mexico
75
76
90
58
79
108
56
139
131
48
109
95
107
61
73
70
100
63
35
108
Argentina
Mongolia
Algeria
77
78
79
43
98
85
105
109
93
146
115
128
153
75
139
102
92
87
21
70
67
60
101
104
19
40
57
43
104
29
El Salvador
Colombia
Ghana
80
81
82
96
83
118
84
96
63
125
136
114
52
35
77
48
61
28
101
66
113
66
78
127
99
4
144
158
82
151
Gabon
Serbia
Swaziland
83
84
85
95
61
124
107
75
81
27
97
24
98
93
102
66
121
52
79
64
124
126
40
131
105
31
132
137
11
63
32
42
35
72
81
73
66
70
112
54
93
102
95
86
98
110
91
87
75
82
50
61
107
89
94
77
136
62
74
101
Kyrgyzstan
86
109
35
149
89
54
90
107
127
95
Peru
India
Azerbaijan
87
88
89
70
120
75
87
160
124
144
102
85
43
114
86
59
64
111
76
153
106
80
124
110
1
34
15
87
127
49
Ecuador
Albania
Panama
90
91
92
81
64
57
102
114
64
148
117
14
152
57
165
72
56
74
63
111
19
83
72
84
138
119
17
136
64
154
Burkina Faso
Bolivia (Plurinational
State of)
Dominican Republic
93
161
83
36
85
4
159
164
160
19
94
97
82
113
149
58
54
116
120
71
95
87
34
145
87
76
60
94
146
148
Tunisia
Benin
Kazakhstan
96
97
98
86
146
63
78
95
140
111
30
131
104
100
67
78
31
153
47
139
34
68
148
102
85
55
101
160
9
51
Suriname
Thailand
Belarus
99
100
101
94
92
48
100
104
120
12
95
55
130
61
148
101
94
118
92
95
45
99
58
29
134
135
161
145
38
133
Morocco
Egypt
Lebanon
102
103
104
114
100
68
91
112
128
77
121
118
88
120
90
62
81
93
128
99
59
106
85
88
158
59
79
97
149
33
Russian Federation
Djibouti
Indonesia
105
106
107
52
144
107
133
97
73
130
7
94
134
122
105
151
38
67
52
163
78
55
137
103
22
28
108
98
116
119
Rwanda
Mauritania
Guatemala
Iran (Islamic Republic
of)
Sri Lanka
Angola
Cuba
108
109
110
147
136
117
50
117
122
34
28
164
60
129
84
1
39
46
119
152
122
138
146
100
149
133
82
74
153
138
111
69
143
138
158
128
50
93
116
102
112
113
114
84
130
56
92
149
101
91
129
120
80
151
70
36
60
82
84
132
74
71
159
32
7
38
77
70
5
93
131
76
117
79
88
83
56
144
105
78
80
140
71
90
85
57
106
97
63
53
125
109
146
126
69
108
100
103
96
Philippines
115
102
99
137
96
47
108
97
154
52
Moldova (Republic of)
Cameroon
Ethiopia
116
117
118
101
131
152
103
141
110
99
5
52
111
128
140
57
25
11
104
118
147
79
153
145
86
121
112
140
65
72
Senegal
Sao Tome and Principe
Malawi
119
120
121
135
126
150
77
74
90
18
8
83
110
147
113
29
44
5
150
121
130
128
132
139
58
61
10
31
111
96
Côte d'Ivoire
Gambia
Honduras
122
123
124
148
145
106
126
127
139
141
20
160
121
91
95
30
20
55
161
146
112
150
141
90
98
96
140
147
73
12
Zambia
Nepal
Liberia
125
126
127
143
138
153
89
115
86
3
88
19
92
137
141
13
10
16
148
143
127
147
113
143
68
152
9
165
123
120
Bangladesh
Guyana
Pakistan
Tanzania (United
Republic of)
Comoros
Kenya
128
129
130
128
104
129
134
135
132
152
35
147
116
124
127
23
73
51
151
131
157
111
98
136
66
25
51
106
25
86
131
133
111
142
97
14
141
129
122
157
132
133
149
127
125
136
23
161
150
109
19
22
133
116
135
134
12
165
135
78
Mozambique
Mali
Paraguay
134
135
136
163
160
99
118
130
148
6
15
151
118
107
78
6
32
41
140
155
98
152
165
92
69
151
21
41
79
89
Nigeria
Nicaragua
Equatorial Guinea
137
138
139
134
113
119
144
131
98
150
101
44
115
106
160
37
43
126
142
120
123
156
95
149
44
64
139
2
131
159
Lao People's
Democratic Republic
140
122
156
106
138
26
126
117
45
103
Ukraine
Madagascar
141
142
72
132
146
129
122
16
154
72
124
2
42
129
59
123
74
27
75
121
Congo
143
125
150
67
157
34
135
140
54
92
111
116
128
150
137
132
158
138
135
114
142
147
163
134
115
121
141
151
139
154
156
104
129
122
38
123
92
157
120
Sierra Leone
144
155
119
29
145
18
158
163
118
99
Guinea
Central African
Republic
Viet Nam
145
157
153
45
132
8
115
151
60
163
146
158
142
60
136
9
160
158
33
134
147
111
116
133
135
65
103
89
89
42
Cambodia
Iraq
Togo
148
149
150
121
115
139
137
165
123
72
140
21
94
54
144
21
89
17
134
137
125
114
108
144
11
106
3
46
66
34
Burundi
Niger
Uganda
151
152
153
156
165
142
147
151
161
10
9
154
143
123
79
40
7
3
144
149
154
154
155
142
147
109
162
146
85
128
Haiti
Turkmenistan
Chad
154
155
156
141
91
162
138
163
158
159
13
31
146
159
156
27
143
45
117
89
156
160
119
162
110
90
52
107
161
115
Venezuela (Bolivarian
Republic of)
157
65
157
165
163
115
49
76
18
60
Guinea-Bissau
Papua New Guinea
158
159
154
137
159
145
43
25
133
125
15
24
138
162
157
122
20
46
24
155
Tajikistan
Uzbekistan
160
161
110
103
152
164
4
158
126
155
33
100
110
109
125
115
71
88
8
57
Congo (Democratic
Republic of the)
162
164
106
46
161
83
164
161
62
55
Yemen
Eritrea
163
164
140
159
162
155
11
143
108
162
49
12
145
165
130
121
72
107
13
77
Zimbabwe
165
151
154
132
164
42
136
133
76
53
155
152
159
119
130
113
153
161
160
145
148
84
143
64
149
124
127
118
165
133
162
164
Table 4.2: The OIC Member Countries – M-Dex and HDI Ranks
Corruption
Index Rank
Crime
Index
Rank
SocioPolitical
Freedom
Index
Rank
Safety And
Healthy
Environmen
t (Metric
Tonnes)
Rank
1
3
29
5
2
2
1
26
Bahrain
3
4
8
Countries
Maslahah-Based
Development
Index (M-Dex)Ranking
Human
Development
Index-Ranking
Brunei Darussalam
1
Qatar
Education
Index Rank
Child
Mortality
Index
Rank
Life
Expectancy
Index Rank
Fertility
Rate (Birth/
Women)
Rank
GNI Per
Capita
Adjusted
For PPP
Rank
49
3
3
47
5
3
2
51
21
4
46
37
1
23
1
47
11
6
27
31
7
Kuwait
4
5
11
27
10
50
6
7
11
15
2
United Arab Emirates
5
3
4
22
3
48
1
2
5
30
4
Malaysia
6
7
6
50
8
42
17
1
43
41
9
Oman
7
13
9
28
6
46
10
5
22
9
5
Saudi Arabia
8
6
13
30
14
45
7
10
24
11
6
Turkey
9
14
7
32
12
36
14
11
31
17
8
Jordan
10
17
10
35
4
35
15
14
37
21
22
Maldives
11
19
5
1
44
32
19
8
28
28
18
Algeria
12
15
18
40
43
33
9
21
13
10
19
Gabon
13
21
22
15
21
27
13
30
34
44
10
Kyrgyzstan
14
26
2
46
18
24
16
23
42
33
34
Azerbaijan
15
12
30
33
16
40
23
25
3
18
14
Albania
16
9
24
37
9
25
26
12
40
23
16
Burkina Faso
17
48
16
21
15
2
49
50
50
6
42
Tunisia
18
16
14
36
23
30
4
9
23
49
15
Benin
19
41
21
18
22
15
35
40
12
3
40
Kazakhstan
20
8
38
41
11
44
2
19
32
19
13
Suriname
21
20
19
8
40
39
20
18
44
45
20
Morocco
22
28
17
31
17
26
30
22
49
34
23
Egypt
23
22
23
39
31
31
22
15
15
46
21
Lebanon
24
10
29
38
19
37
8
13
21
13
11
Djibouti
25
39
20
5
33
19
51
35
7
38
29
Indonesia
26
25
12
34
24
28
12
20
35
40
24
Mauritania
Iran (Islamic Republic
Of)
Cameroon
27
35
25
16
39
20
43
39
45
48
30
28
11
39
42
50
41
5
16
38
35
12
29
32
40
3
38
12
28
44
41
24
32
Senegal
30
34
15
11
27
13
41
31
14
12
38
Côte D'ivoire
31
42
33
44
32
14
50
41
30
47
39
Gambia
32
40
32
12
20
10
38
36
29
25
37
Bangladesh
33
30
37
45
28
11
42
26
17
36
36
Guyana
34
24
36
20
35
29
31
17
6
8
26
Pakistan
35
31
31
48
37
23
48
34
9
27
28
Comoros
36
43
34
14
47
9
32
33
2
43
45
Mozambique
37
50
27
4
30
3
36
43
19
16
48
Mali
38
47
35
10
25
16
45
51
48
26
50
Nigeria
39
33
41
47
29
18
37
45
8
1
33
Sierra Leone
40
45
26
17
46
8
47
49
39
32
49
Guinea
41
46
44
25
41
5
27
42
16
51
46
Iraq
42
29
51
43
7
34
33
24
33
22
25
Togo
43
36
28
13
45
7
29
38
1
14
47
Niger
44
51
43
6
34
4
40
46
36
29
51
Uganda
45
38
45
49
13
1
44
37
51
42
43
Turkmenistan
46
18
49
9
51
43
18
28
26
50
17
Chad
47
49
47
19
49
21
46
48
10
39
41
Guinea-Bissau
48
44
46
24
42
6
34
47
4
7
44
Tajikistan
49
27
42
2
36
17
25
29
18
2
31
Uzbekistan
50
23
50
51
48
38
24
27
25
20
27
Yemen
51
37
48
7
26
22
39
32
20
4
35