L`entreprise libérée - Santé et Sécurité au Travail en PACA

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L`entreprise libérée - Santé et Sécurité au Travail en PACA
L’entreprise libérée
éléments de compréhension et de
réflexion
Stephanie Chasserio
Skema
17 décembre 2015
Quelques exemples
d’entreprises qui y sont allées…
À l’étranger
• Morningstar (USA)
• Semco (Brésil)
• Sol (Suède)
• Gore Tex (USA)
• Patagonia
• Zappos
En France
• Poult
• Lippi
• FAVI
• Sew Usocom
• Chronoflex
• Bretagne Ateliers
• En cours: Kiabi, Davidson
consulting, CIV
L’entreprise libérée, qu’est ce que
c’est?
• “Quand des salariés
disposent de la liberté et
de la responsabilité
d’entreprendre toute
action qu’ils pensent la
meilleure pour réaliser la
vision et la mission de
l’entreprise” (I. Getz)
• Autonomie d’action et de
décision des salariés
• Engagement des salariés
Ça vient d’où?
• 1993, ouvrage de Tom Peters “l’entreprise
libérée: libération et management”
• 1989 Ricardo Semler dans Harvard Business
Review “Managing without managers”
SEMCO un précurseur brésilien
• Passage à de petites unités
• Organisation en cercles
(diminution des niveaux
hiérarchiques)
• Management
participatif//collaboratif
• Prise de décision collégiale
• “traiter les personnes commes
des adultes”: autodirection et
autorégulation
Un contexte qui favorise l’émergence
de cette réflexion
• Réflexion générale car usure des modèles
traditionnels (la pyramide hiérarchique)
• Nouvelles attentes sociétales (être impliqué, être
heureux)
• Injonction au bonheur
• Multiplication des termes: bien-être, bonheur au
travail, qualité de vie au travail,
• Contexte de crise économique et raréfaction des
ressources
Il faut trouver de nouvelles solutions
Les principes clefs de l’entreprise
libérée
Les valeurs
• Responsabilité
• Auto contrôle “c’est celui
qui fait qui sait”
• Auto direction
• Engagement
• Traitement équitable de
toutes et tous
• Autonomie
• Avoir un socle de valeurs
partagées
Les conditions nécessaires
• Confiance réciproque
• Transparence complète
• Mise en cohérence de tous les
systèmes de management RH
(évaluation, rémunération
etc.)
• Formation et apprentissage de
nouvelles façons de collaborer
(dialogue, gestion des conflits,
résolution de problèmes)
Les contextes organisationnels où se
développe l’entreprise libérée
• Des entreprises avec à
leur tête les fondateurs
• Des dirigeants
défendant des valeurs
• Authenticité de la
démarche
• Exemplarité des
dirigeants
• Des entreprises en crise
profonde
• Des contextes d’activité
exigeant de l’innovation
• Des dirigeanst en
réaction avec un
modèle traditionnel
d’organisation et de
management (Gore,
Semler)
Mise en oeuvre
• Suppression de tous les
éléments de contrôle
(pointeuse, reporting)
• Rapprochement du client
• Focus sur les problèmes,
analyse et résolution
• Organisation apprenante
• Requiert entre 3 et 10 de
déploiement
• Suppression des niveaux
hiérarchiques
traditionnels et
replacement des cadres
au sein des équipes
• Cooptation des leaders
(Semco, Favi, Poult)
• Beaucoup de formations
des personnels
Les effets observés
• Très nette amélioration
de la performance
• En qualité
• Chiffres d’affaires
• Santé économique
• Innovation
• Développement de
l’intelligence collective
• Pas d‘études
approfondies sur les
effets sur la santé
• Taux de satisfaction au
travail: entreprises avec
peu de roulement de
personnel
Les questions soulevées
• Quelle conception du rôle du management?
• Qu’arrive-t-il quand le dirigeant qui porte
cette vision s’en va?
• Quelle est la taille idéale pour ce type
d’organisation?
• Quel est le degré de libération nécessaire?
• Quelle cohérence interne?
Limites et critiques
• Pas de disparition du contrôle, contrôle effectué par les
pairs
• Quid du pouvoir et du conflit dans l’organisation
• Notion de soumission volontaire et d’autocontrôle
• Déni des compétences spécifiques des spécialistes
dans les fonctions supports (tout le monde peut-il tout
faire?)
• Quid du développement des compétences et du
partage de l’expertise
• Quid de la gestion des carrière
• quid des personnels des fonctions supports supprimées
conclusion
• Le passage à l’entreprise libérée un profond
changement de culture organisationnelle qui
exige du temps.
• Des entreprises qui affichent des
“superperformances économiques” mais restent
minoritaires
• Dans quels espaces les revendications peuventelles s’exprimer dans un contexte à fortes
pressions collectives?
• Mais des études de cas à approfondir
• Encore beaucoup d’entreprises au stade
expérimental
• Intérêt: replace le travail au centre de la
réflexion
Networks, Matrix organization, virtual firms etc.
NEW ORGANIZATIONAL FORMS
AND TRENDS IN MANAGEMENT
Video of Gary Hamel:
http://www.managementexchange.com/video/gary-hamel-reinventingtechnology-human-accomplishment
REINVENTING THE TECHNOLOGY OF
HUMAN ACCOMPLISHMENT
Characteristics of new organizational
forms
• Context of knowledge economy
• Global, uncertain and changing
environment
• Re-questionning traditional
form as bureaucracy
• Need for new organizational
structures
• KIF: knowledge intensive firms
Stephanie Chasserio
21
How to name these new forms of
organizations?
– Post Fordist organisation, Post-bureaucratic (Heckscher 1994
quoted by Hodgson 2004)
– Pots modern organisation (Clegg 1990),
– High performance organization (Lawler, Pfeffer 1998),
– Organizational network (Castells 1996),
– Flexible Firm (Périlleux 2001),
– Liberal organizational model (Chatzis et al. 1999 ; Courpasson
2000),
– adhocracy (Mintzberg 1982)
– Agile Organization
– Boundaryless organization
– Intelligent organization
– Virtual organization
Stephanie Chasserio
22
Characteristics of new organizational forms
• General Attributes
– Globalisation
– Hyperflexibility
– Continuous
improvements
– Tolerance for uncertainty
• Structural features
– Lean Structure
– Decentralisation
– Auto organizing network
– Boundaryless
organization
/permeability
– Coherence fit between
structure and working
processes
Stephanie Chasserio
23
Characteristics of new organizational forms
• Communication and
Information
– Technologies
– Web 2.0
• Conception of jobs
– Empowerment of teams
and people
– Lifelong learning
– Learning organisation
– Multidisciplinary teams
• Management
– Liberated leadership,
distributed leadership,
post heroic leadership
– Tolerance for ambiguity
– Network
– Confidence
Stephanie Chasserio
24
HRM issues in new organizational
forms
• More individual autonomy
and empowerment
• Search for loyalty or
• Project teamwork
skills?
• High qualified/skilled
• Confidence
people
• What sort of
• Less hierarchical layers
psychological contract?
• Constant presence and
pressure of clients
• Search for organizational
flexibility
• Boundaryless career
Stephanie Chasserio
25
• High mobility
Some forms of « new » organizations
• Lean Management/ intelligent organizations
(Clegg)
• Vertical networks/ vertical firms quasi
integrated
– Ex: automotive industry
• Horizontal networks/ partnership/
– Aeronautic, film makers
– Harley Davidson
Some interesting cases
•
•
•
•
•
Morningstar
GoreTex
Harley Davidson
Pepsico
FAVI
•
•
•
•
•
Zappos
Sew Usocome
Biscuiterie Poult
Vargas
Rabobank
Focus on an exemplar company
MORNING STAR
Morning Star
Work done by Margaux CORTES MEJEAN – Julie KILLIAN
– Clémence THIEBAUT – Adrien WACRENIER
Table of content
Presentation of the company
Organizational structure
Environment
Innovative management practices
Presentation of the company
• The founder and the activity
Manufacturer of bulk tomato products : paste,
diced, purees, ketchup and crushed products
Focus on freshness and efficiency: They harvest
and haul their own tomatoes
Commitment: to improve customers’ lives
through
• Cost effectiveness
• Excellent service
• Superior customer support
Importance of innovation
• To streamline processes
• To reduce costs
Chris Rufer,
- Founder of Morning Star
Company
- Founder and board member
of Self Management Institute
Education
- BA , Economics University
of California
- MBA , Finance & Corporate
Planning
- MS , Agricultural Sciences
Presentation of the company
• The history
The Morning Star
Packing Company-Los
Banos : 530 tons of
Creation
1970
1982
Creation of a
tomato paste
processing plant
and
implementation
of 2 innovations
tomatoes/ hour
Liberty
Packing
Company,
Santa Nella
1990
2002
Today
1995
1)The Morning Star
Packing CompanyWilliams 630 tons of
-
tomatoes/hour =largest
tomato processing
facility in California
2)California Sun
Harvesting Company
-
-
25% of Californian
processing tomato
production
40% of US ingredient
tomato paste and diced
tomatoe markets
Industrial sales=
$350million
Organizational structure
Morning Star implemented an original way of operating and managing
people
A bit of theory...
A FLAT ORGANIZATION (also called horizontal or delayering) refers
to an organization with few or no level of middle management
between staff and executives.
The idea behind is that workers will be more productive if they are
directly involved in decision making rather than closely supervised.
Organizational structure
• Advantages and drawbacks
Advantages
Cost savings
Adaptability
Collaboration
Innovation & Creativity
Drawbacks
Confusion
Generalist/Specialist
Small business only
Growth limitation
Director
Manager
Employee
Employee
Employee
Manager
Employee
Employee
Employee
Employee
Organizational structure
Flat Organization at Morning Star
Key characteristics
Impact on employees
Hyper-flexibility
Continuous Improvement
Decentralisation
Lean structure
Tolerance for uncertainty
People empowerment
Distributed leadership
Trust
Autonomy
No promotion
“Self-Management”
Business Units mode
Organizational structure
Flat Organization at Morning Star
“ORG CHART: 400 LEADERS, 0 BOSSES”
http://youtu.be/qqUBdX1d3ok
Environment
90% of this production come
from California which is the
most prolific tomato growing
region.
USA = more than 10 millions tons of
processing tomatoes per year.
= A and C vitamins
= Cholesterol free
A little bit of History:
Tomatoes are embraced
by Europe and the USA
Tomato
= Poison
1830
Morning Star:
- 25% of the California processing
tomato production.
- Supplying 40% of the USA
ingredient tomato paste and diced
tomato markets.
Today, Morning Star is able to produce 1400 tons of
processing tomatoes which represent the largest tomato
processing facility in California.
Creation of the canning
technology (without
hands)
1890
Juice extractor is
invented
1920
Mechanical
harvesting
1960
Environment
Who may have the
control on the
price?
You?
Can you imagine a
world without
tomato?
No!
So, suppliers like
Morning Star have
the control.
Environment
Exhibit 1
Exhibit 1a
2014 California Tomato Paste Processing Capacity
Facility
Location
Year
Built
Annual Tomato Paste Processing Capacity
Equivalent
Tomato Paste
(tons/hour)
(Pounds/Hour)
8,000
M arketers
Santa Nella
1975/02
880
288,667
Williams
1995
749
245,614
Morning Star Packing Company
Los Banos
1990
661
216,849
Los Gatos Tomato Products*
Huron
1991
512
167,871
Olam Tomato Processors
Lemoore
1990
448
146,806
Ingomar Packing Company*
Los Banos
2000
410
134,274
J.G. Boswell Tomato Company*
Bakersfield
2000
405
132,739
Short Tons per Hour of Tomatoes
Liberty Packing Company
Morning Star Packing Company
J.G. Boswell Tomato Company*
Corcoran
2008
333
109,231
Ingomar Packing Company*
Los Banos
1983
329
107,778
Pacific Coast Producers*
Woodland
1943/02
296
97,135
Toma Tek
Firebaugh
1989
250
82,118
Olam Tomato Processors
Williams
1982
249
81,798
Stanislaus Food Products
Modesto
1942
75
24,430
5,598
1,835,308
1975
302
98,952
Sub-Total
13
7,000
6,000
Total
5,000
4,000
Private
Self-Manufacturers
3,000
2,000
1,000
Remanufacturers
Grower
Campbell Soup Company
Dixon
Con-Agra Foods (Hunt Foods)
Oakdale
<1970
206
67,483
Con-Agra Foods (Hunt Foods)
Helm
1990
206
67,483
Campbell Soup Company
Stockton
1967
171
56,046
Definitions
Unilever (Ragu)
Stockton
<1970
165
54,032
Self-M anufacturers: Companies that make paste predominately for internal uses.
Del Monte Corporation
Hanford
1976
88
28,741
Sub-Total
Total
6
1,137
372,738
19
6,735
2,208,046
Private: Privately held companies that sell paste on the open market.
Grower: Grower-owned companies that sell paste on the open market.
Copyright 2014 by The Morning Star Packing Company
* Grower owned and controlled processor.
Definitions:
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2007
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
0
2006
Processor
Tomato Capacity
for Tomato Paste
(Short Tons/Hour)
Environment
Exhibit 4
Exhibit 5
U.S. Tomato Paste Consumption
U.S. Tomato Paste I mports and Exports
(pounds 31% NTSS)
3,000
1,000,000,000
R² = 0.9811
900,000,000
2,500
U.S. Exports
Pounds of Tomato Paste
2,000
1,500
1,000
700,000,000
600,000,000
500,000,000
400,000,000
300,000,000
200,000,000
500
U.S. Imports
100,000,000
2013
2010
2006
2002
1998
1994
1990
1986
1982
1978
1974
2013
2010
2007
2004
2001
1998
1995
1992
1989
1986
1983
1980
1977
1974
1971
1968
1965
1970
0
0
1962
Pounds of Tomato Paste (in millions)
800,000,000
Innovative management practices
• Their innovative manners to manage human capital
Philosophy of self-management
 The base of their management : no line of management in the
company, everyone is a manager, and no directives given
 That way, employees take personal responsability for their
deeds and for achieving their mission
 There is no micro management in the company
 No ladder to climb
 Motto : together everyone achieves more
Innovative management practices
• Their innovative manners to manage human capital
Process of recruitment
 The first point is to explain the system of management during
approximately 2 hours : people need to be ready for it
 The candidates will meet up to 13 people of the company
 When they are recruited, they have one year to fully adapt to the
company and self management
Innovative management practices
• Their innovative manners to manage human capital
– Team work
 No approvals from manager to obtain to work on a project, but the
approval of the people concerned by the project
 Creativity and innovation are highly valued
 Communication and consultation are two key points
 When there are disagreements : the two people need to work it
out together, but can call and third party if needed. If not enough :
college of colleagues (approx. 10 people). Last level is to send the
matter to the President of Morning Star
Innovative management practices
• Their innovative manners to manage human capital
– The College letter of Understanding
 The employees forge the agreements in the company
 Regular reunion to discuss the matters in the company
 Doesn’t mean all employees are equal : areas of expertise are
known and valued
Innovative management practices
• Impact on performance
– The employees
 High feeling of pride to belong to the company
 Feel like they can express all their talent : they have more
initiative, more flexibility, more expertise, more collegiality,
better judgment and more loyalty.
 They are motivated and involved in the welfare of the company
Innovative management practices
• Impact on performance
– The company
 Largest tomato processing company in the world
 400 full-time employees produce over $700 million a year in
revenues
 Global market leader
 Over the past 20 years, Morning Star’s volumes, revenues, and
profits have grown at a double-digit clip, claims Rufer. (Industry
growth, by contrast, has averaged 1% a year. )
Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones (2013)
CREATING THE BEST WORKPLACE
ON EARTH
“The organization of your dreams”
• The organization stands for something
meaningful
• The work is intrinsically rewarding
• No stupid rules
Exercise
• Identify the concrete HR policies which are
efficient in such context?
• 10 minutes
How to create a great workplace?
• Let people be themselves
– Notion of organization culture
– Promote adequate behaviors (HR practices: clear
incentives systems and career paths. Competence
models appraisal systems, management by
objectives, tightly defined recruitment policies
– Self determination
– Organic solidarity
• Unleash the flow of information
– Open discussion
– Transparency
– Culture of radical honesty
– Organizational facilitation
• Magnify people’s strengths
– Make your better employees even better
– Rewards
– Training: policies of qualifications, developing
people’s skills
• Stand for mare than shareholder value
• Show how the daily work makes sense
• Have rules people can believe in
Few words about facilitation (and art
of hosting)
• Mediation
• Tools of cooperation
• http://learningforsustainability.net/tools/facili
tation.php