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this file - ICOM-CC
ICOM-CC Interim Meeting
Hosted by:
With the contribution of:
MiBAC
ISCR
ENEL Sole
UNIC - Unione Nazionale Industria Conciaria
APICE
CASALE DEL GIGLIO
CPR Roma - Centro Prodotti Restauro
INIZIATIVE VENETE
OTTART Prodotti per l’Arte
RUBELLI
Servizio Giardini, Comune di Roma
With the support of:
ICCROM
ICOM Italia
and:
Segretariato Generale della Presidenza della Repubblica
Musei Vaticani
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei
Comune di Roma, Sovraintendenza ai Beni Culturali
Opificio delle Pietre Dure
Museo Stibbert
Arti Doria Pamphilj
Acknowledgments to:
Donna Gesine Pogson Doria Pamphilj
Marchese e Marchesa Giulio e Giovanna Sacchetti
Sotto l’Alto Patronato della Presidenza della Repubblica
International Council of Museums – Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC)
Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali
Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro (ISCR)
Program Committee
Local organising committee
WGs coordinators and assistant coordinators:
ISCR
Diana Adami
Patrizia Anselmi
Laura Carbone
Silvia Checchi
Barbara Davidde
Maria Antonietta Gorini
Paola Iazurlo
Anna Valeria Jervis
Marina Marchese
Clara Mancinelli
Anna Marcone
Mariabianca Paris
Lidia Rissotto
Jacopo Russo
Paolo Scarpitti
Sergio Tagliacozzi
Manuela Zarbà
LEATHER AND RELATED MATERIALS
Mariabianca Paris, Rome, I
Céline Bonnot-Diconne, Moirans, F
Jutta Goepfrich, Offenbach, D
MURALS, STONE, AND ROCK ART
Andrew Thorn, North Melbourne, AUS
Isabelle Brajer, Kongens Lyngby, DK
Valerie Magar, Rome, I
Zdravko Barov, USA
SCULPTURE, POLYCHROMY,
AND ARCHITECTURAL DECORATION
Kate Seymour, Maastricht, NL
Arnold Truyen, Maastricht, NL
Line Bregnhøj, Kgs. Lyngby, DK
Jonathan Gration, Amsterdam, NL
Topsy de Guchteneire, Maastricht, NL
TEXTILES
Elsje Janssen, Antwerp, B
Jan Vuori, Ottawa, CAN
Pia Christensson, Helsingborg, S
Rebecca Rushfield, New York, USA
Namrata Dalela, New Delhi, IND
Christine Müller-Radloff, Leipzig, D
Foekje Boersma, The Hague, NL
WOOD, FURNITURE, AND LACQUER
Malgorzata Sawicki, Sydney, AUS
Rui Filipe Teixeira Xavier, Lisbon, P
ICCROM
Catherine Antomarchi
Valerie Magar
Rosalia Varoli Piazza
ICOM-CC
Joan Reifsnyder
Meeting secretariat
Daniela Sauer
Designed by:
Jacopo Russo
Legomena srl
Edited by:
ISCR
Neve Cavallari
Fiamma Formentini
Anna Valeria Jervis
ICOM-CC
WGs coordinators and assistant coordinators
Printed by:
Iacobelli srl
Copyright:
ICOM-CC
International Council of Museums – Committee for Conservation (ICOM-CC)
Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali
Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro (ISCR)
A
MU L T I D I S CIPLINARY CONSERVATION
H O L I S T I C V IEW FOR HISTORIC INTERIORS
Joint Interim Meeting of Five ICOM-CC Working Groups
LEATHER AND RELATED MATERIALS
MURALS, STONE, AND ROCK ART
SCULPTURE, POLYCHROMY, AND ARCHITECTURAL DECORATION
TEXTILES
WOOD, FURNITURE, AND LACQUER
Complesso Monumentale di San Michele a Ripa, sala dello Stenditoio
Rome 23 – 26 March 2010
FOREWORD
It is with great pleasure that the Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione
ed il Restauro (ISCR) will host the Interim Meeting of five Working
Groups of ICOM-CC. Cooperation with international institutions and organizations is an integral part of the history of our Institution and this
meeting represents a significant episode in the relationship established
with the International Council of Museums over forty years ago based
on common objectives.
For this reason I would like to acknowledge the pioneering work and research carried out by Paolo and Laura Mora, longtime conservators at Istituto Centrale del Restauro (today ISCR) and by Paul Philippot on the
techniques and the conservation methods of mural paintings. It was in
the course of the ICOM meetings in the sixties that the results of their
studies, which would later lead to the publication of the volume La Conservation des Peintures Murales, were first drafted and made known. A first
version was presented in 1965, at the 5th joint meeting of the ICOM
Committee for Museum Laboratories, as a report on the joint work carried out by ICR, ICCROM and ICOM. In 1969, only a few years later, Giovanni Urbani became coordinator of the ICOM-CC Working Group on
Stretchers and emphasized the scientific importance of structural data
(in this case referring to canvas paintings). His concept of conservation
rested not as much on the historic and artistic value attributed to a single
work of art, but rather on its belonging to a system worthy of protection,
that of the cultural heritage.
One of the fundamental aims which has guided and still guides the activities
of both ISCR and ICOM-CC is to understand conservation of cultural heritage in its multiple aspects and complexity. This principle is in accord with
the character of the conference dedicated to historic interiors: in this case
too the importance of preserving a context in its entirety and multiform
complexity is stressed, rather than focusing on the excellence of a single
work of art, whose significance lies not in its individual value but rather in
its being a part of an historic and artistic whole worthy of protection.
The cooperation between ICOM-CC and ISCR in the organization of this
meeting is significant in relationship to research and conservation activities
conducted not only on famous works of art, painting and sculpture masterpieces of international renown, but also on objects and artifacts that are
expressions of so called minor arts and crafts, the importance of which
becomes evident within a complex cultural framework, to be preserved and
protected as a whole. Within both the ICOM-CC and the ISCR, conservation
professionals from different fields have worked together. From the very beginning an interdisciplinary approach has been among the founding values
of both institutions where different disciplines and specializations have always cohabited and worked together. To this purpose I wish to recall the
work of Rosalia Varoli Piazza, formerly art historian at ICR, within the Textile
Group of ICOM-CC, which she coordinated from 1996 and 2001. One of
her main objectives has been to promote an interdisciplinary dialogue
among conservators, curators, scientists and art historians.
Lastly, I would like to thank all those who, both at an institutional and personal level, have made this meeting possible through their scientific commitment and their work.
Special thanks to the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities which allowed the use of the Stenditoio Hall, to ICOM Italia and ICCROM for their organizational support and to the sponsors for their generous contribution.
Gisella Capponi
Director of ISCR
ABSTRACTS
PAPERS
23 March
HISTORIC INTERIORS IN THE NETHERLANDS: AN OVERVIEW
23 March
9:40
S
ince 1997 the Dutch national service for
built heritage, from 2009 named the Cultural Heritage Agency, has had an ‘Historic
Interiors Specialist’. Although at the time this
was for The Netherlands a novelty. In Belgium, and more specifically Flanders, there
were at that moment several experts working
within this field, as both art historians and
conservation consultants. However, as far as
is known, no other countries employ such experts within their national services for built
heritage. This position was created in The
Netherlands to recognize a thematic year on
the Dutch historic interior. In 2001 a series
of events on this theme, several publications,
and exposures in various media were realized. This was a great success and stimulated
this neglected field within the heritage world.
Since then the interior is recognized as a specialty on its own.
Subsequently the focus has spread from individual conservation projects, which included
farmhouses, town halls, country houses and
Royal Palaces, to the integration of the subject within the organization, encouraging cooperation with other specialists such as
building and architectural historians, architec-
tural paint researchers and policymakers.
This has been aided by the spread of knowledge through lecturing, writing articles and
thematic publications, amongst which Farm
Interiors (2003), Historic Floors (2008),
Stucco and Plaster (2010). Keeping the subject alive with no more than just two generalists for the whole of the country is a major
challenge1. The role of the private society ‘The
Dutch Historic Interior’, founded in 2000, and
its activities can hardly be overestimated.
Working as a generalist within historic interiors brings to surface the diverse approaches
by the various disciplines, for example the differences between the museum world and the
world of the built heritage is striking. On one
hand there are the well established conservation specialists in paintings, furniture, paper,
and leather to mention just some, while on the
other hand there are specialists working with
different point of views such as those working
with plaster, stone, or electrical equipment.
Their conservation and restoration ethics differ seriously. Beyond this, most of the conservation projects regarding built heritage are
dominated by management control systems
with keywords such as ‘Money’, ‘Organization’,
ELOY KOLDEWEIJ – HISTORIC INTERIORS SPECIALIST, MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SCIENCE,
CULTURAL HERITAGE AGENCY, AMERSFOORT, THE NETHERLANDS
12
‘Time’, ‘Information’, and ‘Quality’. Planning,
rather than conserving the object, is too often
the main issue. The interdisciplinary approach, necessary for conserving the whole is
a real challenge. This paper will illustrate
these points with various projects in The
Netherlands.
One other topic will be brought to attention:
the theme of interior ensembles. This is one of
the most complex and challenging subjects,
both from the point of view of conservation
and of recognition. Splitting the movable and
immovable within the system of laws, working
traditions, the museum world and built heritage has made this theme into a Gordian
knot. Even though the significance of furnished
historic interiors are today relatively easy to
recognize, it has become more difficult to convince policymakers of the value of these ensembles regardless of the Recommendation
of the Council of Europe in 1998 and the obvious significance of the ensemble for the integral perception of cultural heritage.
1
In addition to the author this is Mr Harrie Schuit MA, interior (conservation) assessor in the province Noord-Brabant,
as part of the provincial ‘Monumentenwacht’.
THE INTEGRATED APPROACH OF MONUMENTENWACHT IN FLANDERS (BELGIUM): A MODEL
FOR IMPLEMENTING PARTICIPATIVE PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION FOR HISTORIC INTERIORS
T
he mission of Monumentenwacht in Flanders is to stimulate, inform and support its
members (owners and managers of approx.
5500 historic buildings) to care for and preserve their cultural heritage. Inspired by the
Venice charter, the focus of the non-profit organization is on preventive conservation and
maintenance. Main aim is to empower local
custodian care and thereby, to reduce significant heritage losses and costs on the long
term. Core activities are regular condition and
risk surveys, constituting the monitoring of the
condition of heritage and its main risks on the
long term and on a large scale. The supportive
services to its members include on-site advice,
publications, helpdesk functions, workshops
and demonstrations.
Founded in 1991 after the original Dutch
model, the staff consists mainly of architectural surveyors which inspect a building from
attic to cellar, in and out, with special attentions to areas that are less accessible and
sensitive to decay (e.g. gutters, roofs, etc.).
Since 1997 a team of interior surveyors
joined in; in 2007 a team of ship heritage surveyors started and in 2009 services are
VEERLE MEUL
being developed for archaeological sites and
landscapes.
The team of interior surveyors is multidisciplinary in itself: art historians with a degree in
conservation-restoration in different disciplines
(paintings, stone, textile, furniture, paper, etc.).
On the spot, teams carry out a concise risk assessment of the agents of deterioration and
an overall condition assessment of objects, fixtures and fittings of the historic interior. This
usually entails much communication with local
custodians, caretakers and managers of historic interiors and - much appreciated - demonstrations of housekeeping and preventive
conservation strategies.
The reports with recommendations for
conservation and housekeeping strategies
are important resources for local conservation management planning. Currently,
Monumentenwacht is building a central database to facilitate the management and analysis,
the recording and reporting of the assessment
data. It should facilitate the integration of procedures and data from the condition surveys,
the environmental monitoring and risk assess-
ment. A sharper priority ranking of conservation strategies – based on a risk- and valuesbased decision-making matrix – improves
substantially the effectiveness of the reports
as planning tools. Member historic interiors
(predominantly churches, public buildings, castles and historic houses) are rarely supported
by professional staff or structural conservation
budgets. Rational conservation management
for historic interiors means allocating the
scarce resources where loss of heritage significance is expected to be the highest.
23 March
10:00
Internationally, the model of Monumentenwacht
is being considered as a feasible strategy for implementing preventive conservation for immovable heritage. This is one of the reasons for the
erection of similar organizations in Europe and
the allocation of the UNESCO chair in preventive
conservation to the RLICC (Louvain). Monumentenwacht Flanders wants to share and advocate in particular its integrated approach for
historic interiors outside of the museum environment: integrating both movable and immovable heritage, using a toolbox of combined
methodologies and relying on custodial participation in preventive conservation.
– ADVISOR HISTORIC INTERIORS, MONUMENTENWACHT VLAANDEREN VZW, ANTWERP, B
13
ATTINGHAM RE-DISCOVERED , THE NATIONAL TRUST
23 March
10:20
H
istoric interiors are invaluable repositories
of artistic, architectural, decorative and
social culture. No single specialism can deal
with the complexity of these treasure houses,
and a balanced, combined approach is crucial
if each and every aspect of their conservation
and presentation is to be considered as an integral whole.
An ambitious, long-term project called Attingham Re-discovered is now into its third year of
reviving the historic interiors at Attingham
Park, a late Georgian mansion with Regency interiors owned by the National Trust in Shropshire, England.
This project brings together a huge range of
curatorial and conservation disciplines, all contributing their various specialisms, vital in ensuring a holistic approach to the multi-faceted
nature of furnished historic interiors. The project’s proposals are founded on years of extensive archival and technical research and the
resulting work ranges from stablisation, to con-
servation, to restoration, depending on each
particular case but, crucially, judged within the
context of the whole.
The project has highlighted the challenges
and rewards of working within a multi-discipline team where differences of opinion encouraged further research and investigation
as well as new approaches to problem solving. The variety of decorative techniques and
materials and the damages caused by wear
and tear, subsequent over-painting and partial loss presented problems related not only
to conservation but also the interpretation of
analytical results and the ethical dilemmas of
conservation versus restoration or recreation. Initial trials related to the recreation of
parts of decorative schemes revealed the difficulties associated with the use of traditional
methods and materials.
The paper will address these various issues
with reference to a number of rooms in the
property which reflect the variety of decorative
SARAH KAY – FREELANCE PROJECT CURATOR, ON BEHALF OF THE NATIONAL TRUST, UK; CHRISTINE
SITWELL – PAINTINGS CONSERVATION ADVISOR, THE NATIONAL TRUST, UK; CATRIONA HUGHES –
FREELANCE PROJECT CONSERVATOR, ON BEHALF OF THE NATIONAL TRUST, UK; ANDREW BUSH – PAPER
CONSERVATION ADVISOR, THE NATIONAL TRUST, UK
14
surfaces, the different levels of preservation of
objects and surfaces and the approach to
achieving an overall balance, as well the technical conservation difficulties of removing overpaints from fragile surfaces.
The Project’s aim is to ensure not only the
highest standards of conservation and ethics,
but also the interpretation of the conservation
work and the increasingly important aspect of
engaging the public with the fascinating complexities and dilemmas involved. Attingham Rediscovered is being held up as an example of a
new approach to transparency in conservation
projects. Not only does it allow people maximum opportunities to witness the work being
carried out in front of them, but it also puts
them in the Curator’s and the Conservator’s
shoes, and highlights the fact that conservation is a complex, collaborative business involving many and varied skills, and that there are
often a whole plethora of possible approaches
to conservation projects but never necessarily
a right or a wrong answer.
CONSERVATION WORKS IN REFECTORIES IN THE CASTLE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN MALBORK:
BETWEEN HISTORY AND AESTHETIC FUNCTIONALISM
T
he restoration treatment of the Convent
Refectory and Great Refectory of Malbork
Castle raises an interesting discussion about
the permissible range of conservation and
restoration works. The discussion is based on
the work of Conrad Steinbrecht (1849-1923),
an outstanding representative of the German
conservation school.
Thanks to his method of ‘scientific conservation’ (archaeological and architectonical researches, scientific journeys, evaluation of
archive sources) Steinbrecht elaborated a
vision of the model Teutonic fortress. He
propagated the rule of homogeneity of style
and removed modern overlayers. In the decorative layer his realizations were always
heterogeneous. Beside conservation par excellence (e.g. restoration of gothic paintings
of the Crucifixion and Coronation of Mary),
MARCIN KOZARZEWSKI
he recreated decorative interiors through
historicism of painting, referring to the bible
and scenes from the Teutonic period.
Copies of gothic furniture and handicraft, mannequins of monks and knights of the order fulfilled specific types of theatre, referring to the
times of Teutonic domination. These entire
works were funded from the Prussian government budget and performed a very important
ideological function for the Hohenzollerns as
well as for the Third Reich, particularly for
campaigns in Poland.
War damage in 1945, fire in the roof above
the Great Refectory in 1959, threat of structural catastrophe and especially the subsequent political climate sealed the fate of
Steinbrecht’s decorations. In the 60s and
70s all the furnishings had been removed, as
well as the decoration glorifying the power of
Deutsche Orden. Jan Matejko’s Battle of
Grundwald, the symbol of Polish knighthood,
was exhibited in the Great Refectory against
a background of the wall with scenes of Teutonic victory. The Malbork Castle was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage list
in 1997 as a place for the evolution of modern philosophy and practices of conservation
and restoration.
23 March
11:20
Overcoming animosities and prejudices has
been the key to making decisions about returning to the aesthetically coherent, although historically controversial Steinbrecht
vision. Thanks to perfect archive materials, a
large programme of restoration works could
be realised. Their range was actively discussed. The monument’s duality between history and aesthetics has been respected.
– CONSERVATOR, MONUMENT SERVICE MARCIN KOZARZEWSKI, MICHALOWICE, P
15
THE SACRISTY OF THE MOSTEIRO DE SÃO MARTINHO OF TIBÃES (PORTUGAL):
TO EXEMPLIFY THE PRESERVATION OF A UNIQUE HISTORIC ENSEMBLE
23 March
11:40
T
he Mosteiro de São Martinho of Tibães –
church, sacristy, outbuildings and precinct
included – has existed as a listed monument
since 1944. It was purchased by the Portuguese state in 1986, and a model conservation and rehabilitation project has been
underway since 1987. As the parent complex
of the Benedictine community, this religious estate reflects today the developments in architecture and changes in taste as they were
introduced by the monks between 1614 and
1803, which has been disseminated to more
than fifty other monasteries.
Just like the remaining monastic heritage of
Tibães, the sacristy challenged the conservation practices and involved the co-ordinated action of numerous specialists. Interior fittings
give evidence of the imposing features of
Baroque and Rococo styles, and testify well to
the religious, artistic and politic trends of each
period. In fact, two ornamental campaigns
were undertaken in this interior in 1680-1683
and 1751-1764, both managed to create a
perfect symbolic and aesthetic unity (the socalled Gesamtkunstwerk in German). The sec-
ond programme sought to design a new decorative scheme, producing new elements but
maintaining also a few from the first programme, modifying their appearance to bring
the whole in line with the contemporary fashion.
According to a symmetrical layout, very different cultural properties were thus combined: a
pair of long chests for chasubles, twelve fullsized terracotta statues (painted twice over),
one gilded carved altarpiece and two polychromed busts reliquaries, four monumental
paintings on canvas, four mirrors and several
gilded-wooden frames. The architectural structure still makes this holistic view complete, with
mural painting on the coffered ceiling, decorative paving stones and colourless stained glass.
The conservation of the sacristy was carried
out following the conception of a global project on the monumental scale, relying on a
multidisciplinary approach and various strategies ensuring continuity, as well as a longterm management plan. This paper surveys
as much the human, material and technical
aspects as the working methods involved in
such cultural expression, with the purpose to
AGNÈS LE GAC – ASSISTENTE, DEPARTAMENTO DE CONSERVAÇÃO E RESTAURO DA FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS E
TECNOLOGIA/UNIVERSIDADE NOVA DE LISBOA, CAPARICA, P; MARIA JOÃO DIAS COSTA – GESTORA,
MOSTEIRO S. MARTINHO DE TIBÃES, DIRECÇÃO REGIONAL DA CULTURA DO NORTE, MIRE DE TIBÃES, P; ISABEL
DIAS COSTA – CONSERVADORA-RESTAURADORA DE BENS CULTURAIS, MOSTEIRO DE TIBÃES, DIRECÇÃO DE
SERVIÇOS DOS BENS CULTURAIS DA DIRECÇÃO REGIONAL DA CULTURA DO NORTE, PORTO, P
16
enhance its history, function and authenticity.
Different aspects are focused:
– Importance of historical and oral records in
understanding how the sacristy has been
used over 304 years (1683-1987).
– Relationships between environmental conditions (temperature, relative humidity, light
levels), building features (foundations, roofing, openings/windows-doors, drainage), and
damages assessed (infiltrations, ascending
damp, salts efflorescence, pests).
– Characterization of the constituent materials of the artworks and analyses of intrinsic agents of deterioration.
– Interventions carried out according to each
object category and damage.
– Appropriate measures, handling, maintenance and security undertaken for safeguarding this unique sacred interior.
– Specific uses to guaranty the sacristy sustainable conservation, as heritage integrated in a parish church, in a monastery
that accommodates a religious community
and also receives tourists and visitors for
cultural events.
CHARACTERIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF PADMANABHAPURAM PALACE:
AN ANALYTICAL STUDY
P
admanabhapuram Palace, a magnificent
wooden structure of the 16th century, lies
at the land's end of mainland India. An enticing
monument to any lover of art and architecture,
this old palace of the Rajas of the erstwhile Travancore (1550 to 1750 AD) is a fine specimen
of Kerala's indigenous style of architecture. The
antique interiors are replete with intricate wood
carvings and sculpted decor. The palace complex consists of several structures - Mantrasala
(Council Chamber), Thai Kottaram (Mother's
Palace), Nataksala (Hall of Performance) Uppirikka Malika (Four-storied central building) and
Thekee Kottaram (Southern Palace).
The entire palace complex is magnificent with
elaborately carved wooden pillars, doors, beams
and ceiling. Windows are glazed with semitransparent colored mica, which keeps heat and dust
out and the inside of the council chamber cool
and dark. The performance hall has solid granite pillars and gleaming black floor, with a fine
and perfect finish. The four-storied building at
the centre of the palace complex served as the
worship chamber of the royal household. Its
walls are covered with exquisite 18th century
murals. There are several rooms just below the
worship chambers, which included the king's
bedroom with ornamental bedstead made from
64 types of herbal and medicinal woods. The
kitchen with granite tubs carved out of single
stone was used to cool curds and buttermilk.
The Padmanabhapuram Palace came under
the control of the Department of Archaeology,
Thiruvanandapuram, Kerala in 1956. The palatial house was dilapidated when taken over by
the Department. Since then restoration work
has been carried out in phases.
Preservation and restoration is being carried
out in multi-levels i.e., understanding the original
materials and methods, with treatments guided
by ethical and technical considerations that may
arise during the course of conservation. This
multidisciplinary study is focused on the interior
of the house that includes wooden interiors, murals and floors.
The finely carved and profusely ornamented
wooden ceilings and pillars are made of rose
wood which has stood the test of time. This is
maintained or preserved by periodic cleaning
done manually and treated using traditional materials and methods.
The mural in the worship chamber depicts
scenes from the puranas with a few scenes
from the social life of the Travancore family
of that time. The treatment materials, both
organic and inorganic were procured and
prepared locally. Restoration work was carried out understanding the ingredients used
to prepare the pigments and executed meticulously by local ethically minded artisans.
23 March
12:00
The dark colored floors are made from a
mixed assortment of substances including
burnt coconut shell, lime, egg white, jaggery
and myrobalam. The remarkable aspect is
the finish and texture. The sheen of the floor
is maintained by physical cleaning using
water and oil mopping and polishing with jute
gunny bags, a traditional method of preservation.
In the late 18th century, the capital of Travancore was shifted from here to Thiruvananthapuram and the palace lost its former glory.
However, the palace complex continues to be
the best example of traditional Kerala architecture and remains as a silent witness to
our Indian cultural heritage.
BESSIE CECIL – RESEARCH SCHOLAR, CHEMICAL CONSERVATION AND RESEARCH LABORATORY, GOVERNMENT
MUSEUM, CHENNAI, IND; MOHANAN PALLAI – DIRECTOR (CONSERVATION), DEPARTMENT OF ARCHAEOLOGY,
THIRUVANANDAPURAM, KERALA, IND
17
TEXTILE FURNISHINGS IN HISTORIC INTERIORS: RECREATING THE PAST
23 March
14:00
T
he role played by textile furnishings is essential in the characterization of historic interiors. Fabrics dress up rooms with colour
and warmth, while at the same time highlighting the style of a specific period.
For these reasons, while analyzing the conservation of historic buildings, it appears crucial
to give adequate attention to these ‘soft’ furnishings, often very fragile e neglected, either
with specific conservation treatments, or,
whenever necessary in order to preserve the
original fabrics or because the originals have
been irreparably damaged or lost, substituting
them with accurate reproductions.
The paper intends to illustrate the philological
approach employed in the restoration of period
buildings by Rubelli S.p.A., a textile company that
has been a partner of many cultural institutions
in several complex restoration projects, explaining the different solutions found in each case,
from the reproduction of the originals, to the
creation of custom-made patterns. This delicate
task is made possible by the unique company’s
ISABELLA CAMPAGNOL
VENICE, I
18
structure, such as its own in-house design staff
and textile historian, the company-owned mill in
Como with 28 state-of-the-art Jacquard looms
and 4 hand-looms and the invaluable ancient
textile collection, where over 6000 textiles
dated from the Renaissance until present day
are carefully preserved and offer invaluable documentary sources for the creation of historically-accurate reproductions either in the
materials and in techniques.
Among the case studies presented in the paper
will be the recreation of the textile furnishings
of the Teatro La Fenice in Venice after the
1996 fire, of the Albertina Museum in Wien and
of the Villa Reale di Monza (work in progress).
Rubelli had, in fact, originally provided the textile
furnishings of the Teatro La Fenice in the early
twentieth century and several samples of the
textiles were still preserved in the company’s
archive. However, working in close contact with
the board of the theatre, it was decided not to
exactly replicate the original design, but to operate a small change, substituting the two partridges of the old pattern with a phoenix, apt
– CURATOR RUBELLI HISTORICAL COLLECTION AND ARCHIVES, RUBELLI S.P.A.,
symbol of the rebirth of the opera house. A different methodology was needed in the recreation of the textile furnishings of the Albertina
Museum in Wien. Because of the heavy damages suffered during World War II, it had lost
the original fabrics, making it necessary, following the indication of the inventories for materials and colours and the style of the building
as guidelines, to research in the company
archive period textiles with suitable patterns,
to recreate fabrics as close as possible to the
lost originals.
The current collaboration with the Soprintendenza ai Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici di
Milano in the restoration of different areas of
the Villa Reale di Monza is marked by a more
diversified approach, comprising both the reproduction of period fabrics, and, once again
using inventories and period textiles from the
Rubelli historical collection as guiding principles, the recreation of historically-coherent fabrics. Other case histories that will be presented
are: Milano, Palazzo Reale, Teatro alla Scala;
Racconigi, Castello.
VILLA DELLA REGINA, TORINO. AN HISTORICAL ROYAL VINEYARD NOW OPENED TO THE PUBLIC.
RESTORATION 1994-2009
V
illa della Regina is one of the Savoy family
Royal Estates and is now protected by UNESCO. The Villa is the last and the only surviving
Vigna amongst several Vineyards built at the beginning of the seventeenth century using the design of ancient Roman Villas. The property was
updated in seventeenth century and again at
the beginning of the eighteenth century by the
architect Filippo Juvarra. The unity and identity
of the Villa, situated in the centre of an Italian
designed garden containing pavilions, grottos,
fountains, vegetable gardens, woods and vineyards, was maintained when the property became a College in1868. After the closure of the
College in 1975, the lack of maintenance
brought the complex to the verge of collapse.
In 1994 the whole estate was entrusted to the
Soprintendenza per i Beni Storici Artistici ed Etnoantropologici del Piemonte and a conservation project was studied in order to preserve its
identity, to open the estate to the public and to
establish compatible activities (Centro Documentazione).
The project (1994-2009) has analyzed the history of the estate and the causes of damages
and has undertaken a conservation program for
the buildings, with their decorations and furniture, as well as for the gardens and agricultural
parts as a whole. A financial plan with private
and public institutions has been defined and a
dedicated database for all historical and conser-
vation information has been created. The conservation project has involved the whole estate,
including the apartments (plasters, mural paintings, decorative stuccos, painted wooden ceilings, floors, door and window frames, boiseries,
alla China panels, paintings on canvas, fixed and
movable furnishings, mirrors, textiles) and the
surrounding gardens (plasters, decorative sets
and displays, fountains, green belts and agricultural areas).
23 March
14:20
This presentation analyzes the approach to conservation problems and some of the solutions
for different typologies of materials and techniques, involving the conservators who worked
at Villa della Regina.
CRISTINA MOSSETTI – DIRECTOR OF VILLA DELLA REGINA, PROJECT COORDINATION, SOPRINTENDENZA PER
I BENI STORICI ARTISTICI ED ETNOANTROPOLOGICI DEL PIEMONTE (SBSAE), TURIN, I; SIMONA ALBANESE –
FREELANCE ARCHITECT (TURIN), OPERATIVE DIRECTION OF LAYOUT OF THE APARTMENTS; ROBERTA BIANCHI
– PAINTINGS CONSERVATOR AND RESPONSIBLE FOR THE STUDIES OF ANCIENT JAPANNING TECHNIQUES, SBSAE,
TURIN, I; LAURA D’AGOSTINO – DIRECTOR OF TEXTILE HISTORICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PROJECT, ISTITUTO
SUPERIORE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE ED IL RESTAURO, ROME, I; FEDERICO FONTANA – FREELANCE ARCHITECT
(TURIN), PLANNING AND DIRECTION OF ARCHITECTURAL WORKS AND GARDENS; PAOLA MANCHINU – ART
HISTORIAN, ASSISTANT TO THE DIRECTION OF VILLA DELLA REGINA; ELENA RAGUSA – DIRECTOR OF THE
CATALOGUE OFFICE, SBSAE, TURIN, I; PAOLA TRAVERSI – ART HISTORIAN ASSISTANT TO THE DIRECTION OF
VILLA DELLA REGINA; MARIA CARLA VISCONTI CHERASCO – SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF ARCHITECTURAL
WORK, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI ARCHITETTONICI E PAESAGGISTICI DELLE PROVINCE DI TORINO, ASTI, CUNEO,
BIELLA, VERCELLI (SBAP), TURIN, I
19
CONSERVATION OF CHINESE ROOM IN WILANÓW PALACE IN WARSAW
AS A RESULT OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT
23 March
14:40
T
he Royal Palace in Wilanów is one of the
most valuable Baroque residences in
Poland. Among its beautiful interiors is a decoration of the Chinese Room, one of the
chambers adjacent to the King’s Jan III bedroom. It is a unique example of the European
lacquer technique attributed to the famous
18th century craftman, Martin Schnell, and his
workshop.
The European lacquer decorative technique,
which imitates an oriental lacquer, is a
method of applying many layers of clear or
coloured resins that were available in Europe,
to a specially prepared ground layer. The scientific analytical methods allowed reconstruction of the technique and revealed the
workshop secrets. As a result, it became possible to attribute the artwork to a particular
author basing on both analysis of the style and
identification of technology.
The conservation and restoration works of the
Chinese Room were undertaken due to its poor
state of preservation. Re-introducing Baroque
into the Museum display rooms forms an integral part of the conservation management
strategic plan for the years 2004 – 20131.
Identification of the original materials is neces-
sary to establish a proper conservation and
restoration program for the artworks2.
The 3D scanner produced the complete documentation of the state of preservation of the
entire room. The interior environment of the
Chinese Room was carefully investigated. Different factors have been taken into account,
such as microbial contamination of the decoration, relative humidity, temperature and microbial air pollution. This study focused on
identifying any correlation between the level
of microbial air contamination cfu/m3 and the
number of cfu isolated on the sampling test
surfaces taken from the original parts of European lacquerwork.
The paint samples form the subsequent stratigraphic layers were taken and analysed with
SEM-EDS technique. Cross-section samples
were also embedded in resin and examined
with Ultraviolet Fluorescence Microscopy. Microscopic examination of paint samples embedded in blocks of resin gives much
information about the way the artist worked
and sometimes proves the artwork originality.
It was neccesary to conduct investigation of
particular stratigraphic paint layers, while
analysing the binding media was the most dif-
IRMINA ZADROZNA – CHEMIST, FACULTY OF CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF WORKS OF ART, WARSAW
ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS, WARSAW, P; ANNA GUZOWSKA – HEAD OF PAINTINGS CONSERVATION
DEPARTMENT, MUSEUM PALACE AT WILANOW, WARSAW, P; ELZBIETA JEZEWSKA – CONSERVATOR OF FINE
ARTS, WOOD TECHNOLOGIST, FACULTY OF CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF WORKS OF ART, WARSAW ACADEMY
OF FINE ARTS, WARSAW, P; AGNIESZKA LESKIEWICZ-LAUDY – MICROBIOLOGIST, CONSERVATION
DEPARTMENT, MUSEUM PALACE AT WILANOW, WARSAW, P
20
ficult task. Application of the most advanced
analitical techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and
High Performance Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC/MS) allowed the
precise identification of binding media.
The conducted complex research gave amazing results. Under the green parts of the
wooden panelling, certainly not original, were
discovered delicate blue and pink paint layers.
The cornice finish of the wooden panels and
the unique avanturine-lacquered main parts
of the panelling with the Schnell paintings
seem to not be overpainted. It has been discovered that some parts of the wooden panelling were removed and replaced with copies
painted in a different technique.
The conservation and restoration works in the palace interiors are undertaken within the project Revitalization and
digitalization of the 17th century palace and garden complex in Wilanow – stage 3. The project is co-financed by the
European Union with the funds of the European Regional
Development Fund within the Program Infrastructure and
Environment.
2
The project is funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and
Higher Education, project number: NN 105 022 734.
1
CONSERVATION OF THE HOUSE OF OWLS AT VILLA TORLONIA IN ROME.
AN EXAMPLE OF ARCHITECTURE AND DECORATIVE ARTS
I
n the last few years a number of Villa Torlonia’s buildings, dating from several phases
of development between the beginning of the
1800’s and the early 1900’s, have been the objects of complex conservation projects. These
interventions have focused both on the Villa’s architecture and its rich decoration. All of the
buildings are characterized by a close union between architecture and the various forms of
decoration, which include wall paintings,
sculpted marble, stucco, mosaics, hand-painted
ceramic tiles, stained glass windows, wrought
iron, terracotta, inlaid wood and imitation marble produced through painting and by using the
scagliola technique which utilizes coloured plaster. Due to the serious state of ruin of the buildings and the damage or loss of part of the
decorative elements, each intervention required
challenging considerations regarding to which
extent and in what manner to preserve, reintegrate, or reproduce ex novo, and it was necessary to continually evaluate the criteria and
methods used for each endeavour.
The project was began initially with the Casina delle
Civette, a construction built in 1840 and completely transformed between 1910 and 1930
using an overabundance of decorative elements of
various materials, which makes it a fascinating example of eclectic techniques and styles. Of particular importance among the decorative elements
were 105 colourful, leaded stained glass windows
which were restored and replaced in their original
positions, flanked by sketches, preparatory drawings, cartoons and trial pieces that illustrate the
process involved in creating stained glass windows.
This rich collection made the building the apt location for what today is the Museum of Stained Glass.
The conservation of the Casino Nobile, or
Main House was also quite complex and
challenging. A splendid example of a princely
residence built between the beginning and
the middle of the 1800’s, almost all of the
rooms have wall decoration using varying
techniques such as fresco, mezzo fresco,
tempera and oil. The conservation was on
an extensive scale and a number of different methods were used. Some of the most
difficult elements of the conservation project were the efforts to refurbish ruined
portions of walls that were covered by imitations of antique yellow and breccia
coralline marble using the scagliola technique, or marmoridea as it is called in
Rome. This building is also a museum, an
example of an aristocratic residence of the
1800’s.
23 March
15:00
ALBERTA CAMPITELLI – DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF HISTORIC VILLAS AND PARKS, CULTURE MONUMENTS AND
FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT OF THE CITY OF ROME, I
21
THE RESTORATION OF THE RACCONIGI CASTLE’S SECOND FLOOR.
HISTORICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS
23 March
16:30
R
acconigi Castle is one of the most famous
Savoia’s residences. Originally a medieval
fortification, it was transformed into a residence by the Savoia-Carignano cadet branch,
based on a project by Guarino Guarini (16241683). In the second half of the eighteenth
century the architect Giovan Battista Borra
(1713-1770) built new parts of the castle in
neoclassical style. Since 1832 the building and
the Park have been a favourite resort for the
royal holidays of king Carlo Alberto. He entrusted the architect Ernest Melano (17841867) with an enlargement and the architect
and painter Pelagio Palagi (1765-1860) with
supervision of the decorations.
During the nineteenth century new operations
involved the castle, that was lived in by the
Savoia Family till 1980, when it was bought by
the Italian State. After the delivery to the So-
printendenza per i Beni Ambientali e Architettonici del Piemonte, it was restored. The Park,
Royal Greenhouse and the Margaria have been
the object of many interventions. An important
filing program concerned chattels and art objects preserved in the residence. These works
were possible after a deep research of ancient
documents and historical pictures.
This paper aims to present the conservation
and organisation works of the Queen’s Apartments, that took place on the second floor of
the castle. These works were completed in the
summer of 2009. There is the intention to
focus on the methodologies which influenced
the choices made with a view to return in the
Queen’s Apartments (Maria Teresa, Maria
Adelaide, Elena di Montenegro, Maria Josè),
to the stratification of the different historical
and artistic phases they went through from
MIRELLA MACERA – DIRECTOR OF CASTELLO DI RACCONIGI, PROJECT COORDINATION, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR
OF ARCHITECTURAL WORKS, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI ARCHITETTONICI E PAESAGGISTICI DELLE PROVINCE DI
TORINO, ASTI, CUNEO, BIELLA, VERCELLI, TURIN, I; ROSSANA VITIELLO – CURATOR OF THE COLLECTIONS AND
SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR OF THE CONSERVATION WORKS FOR PAINTINGS AND FURNITURE OF RACCONIGI CASTLE,
SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI STORICI ARTISTICI ED ETNOANTROPOLOGICI DEL PIEMONTE, TURIN, I; SILVANO
BRIZIO – TECHNICAL COORDINATION OF THE PROJECT, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI ARCHITETTONICI E
PAESAGGISTICI DELLE PROVINCE DI TORINO, ASTI, CUNEO, BIELLA, VERCELLI, TURIN, I; RENATO BALESTRINO
SERENA FUMERO – CULTURAL ACTIVITIES COORDINATION, ORGANIZATIONAL COORDINATION; CRISTINA
CORLANDO LAURA GALLO SAMANTHA PADOVANI – ART HISTORIANS, HISTORICAL AND
DOCUMENTARIES RESEARCHES, CRITICAL ELABORATIONS TO SUPPORT CONSERVATION AND ORGANISATION WORKS;
FRANCESCO ALBA ROBERTO CASALE MONICA NARETTO SILVIA SPERTINO –
ARCHITECTS, HISTORICAL AND DOCUMENTARIES RESEARCHES, CRITICAL ELABORATIONS TO SUPPORT CONSERVATION
AND ORGANISATION WORKS; ALESSANDRA LONGO – PHOTOGRAPHER, ICONOGRAPHICAL MATERIALS
RESEARCHES; PROGETTO CANTOREGI – ORGANISATION CONSULENT; ELISA BRIZIO – ADMINISTRATIVE
ACTIVITIES
22
1832 to the 1930’s. The restoration of decorations in the rooms was followed by moving
most of the paintings and furniture still preserved in the Castle to their original placement as inferred from the descriptions of
historical inventories.
Particular attention was paid to wallpapers
and tapestries: where they are still preserved,
they have undergone an accurate conservation
treatment; where absent, they have been rewoven from scratch according to the indications provided by documents and historical
models found in the archives of Turin Royal
Palace and in Agliè Castle.
This methodological choices have enabled to
display the historical evolution of the rooms
and chambers without losing the allure of
places that have been lived in.
STRUCTURAL EVALUATION FOR CONSERVATION OF DECORATIVELY PAINTED WOOD
AT MISSION SAN MIGUEL ARCANGEL
T
he adobe church and sacristy of Mission
San Miguel Arcangel, constructed c.1818,
is one of California's cultural treasures and
home to an active congregation. The painted
interior has extraordinary integrity and significance, and retains much the same appearance as it did when the church was founded.
Plastered walls and wooden elements, including the wood ceiling, retablo and pulpit are all
incorporated in the elaborate early 19th century murals and decorative paint scheme that
cover the church interior. In 2003, the 6.5magnitude San Simeon earthquake hit the central California coast. Mission San Miguel,
located just 35 miles from the epicenter, suffered considerable damage and was closed to
the public. Since then, an extensive project has
been underway to stabilize the building structurally and seismically, and conserve the interior decoration.
With respect to painted wood, many structural
elements were displaced during the earthquake and are deteriorated due to termite infestation, decay, and weathering. Planning for
wood conservation followed two separate lines
of investigation: 1. Inspection of the structural
woodwork using a videoscope, resistance
drilling, and digital radioscopy to characterize
section losses and evaluate member capacity,
and; 2. Treatment testing of painted wood to
characterize period paints and develop materials and techniques for cleaning, treatment of
stains, consolidation of friable paint and wood,
selective removal of over-paint, void-filling, and
in-painting. A multidisciplinary team, which included an architectural conservator, a wood
scientist, a furniture conservator, a wall paintings conservator, and a preservation carpenter,
worked together to complete nondestructive
evaluation, treatment testing and pilot treatment of the painted wood.
This paper will focus on the role of technology
in building investigation and nondestructive testing at Mission San Miguel to determine the
structural capacity of the decorative wood ceiling, which was critical to the seismic retrofit design and planning for conservation of the
polychrome decoration. Evaluation involved determination of section losses in the vigas,
corbels, deck, and various elements of the
retablo and pulpit to produce quantitative information on wood condition. Investigative
techniques included resistance drilling, a
quasi-non-destructive technique that measures resistance of the wood to a probe. Structural timber was graded based on wood species,
knot location and size, and the slope of grain to
determine allowable design stresses, potential
impacts on structural capacity, and repair options. A videoscope inspection was conducted of
selected portions of wooden structural elements
installed in the adobe walls. Distribution of section losses in vigas and ceiling deck elements
was further characterized using digital radioscopy to create images of element interiors.
23 March
16:50
The inspection yielded a great deal of information quickly that was useful in prescribing additional investigations, designing broad treatment
strategies, and generating approximate quantities for planning and estimating purposes.
Based on the results of the structural investigation, integrated with treatment testing of period paints, a plan for conservation of the
painted wood was developed and implementation is underway.
DOUGLAS W. PORTER – SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT, USA; RONALD W.
ANTHONY KIMBERLY D. DUGAN – ANTHONY AND ASSOCIATES, FORT COLLINS CO, USA
23
DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL HERITAGE WOODEN STRUCTURES.
TWO CASE STUDIES
23 March
17:10
T
he article proposes the presentation of the
work of engineering and its limits within the
framework of restoration of wooden structures. Starting from the brief recollection of
the examples of the monumental building sites
(Gallery of Apollo, Museum of Louvre; Chinese
living room, Castle of Fields on the Marne), the
tools and diagnostic methods will be presented. In both cases, one of the difficulties of
the diagnoses is related to the fact that wood
is not visible (hidden by plaster).
Methodology consisted of using slightly destructive diagnostic tools, which informs the
development of a mathematical model. In two
examples, the results of the studies conclude
with conservative, relatively non-traumatic solutions for the building. In reality, the architects used information from the diagnosis,
but undertook their work without taking into
account the modelling results. In the second
part of the article, the authors try to explain
the contradiction between the prior study and
the work carried out.
They support their arguments with the limitations of the diagnostic tools, but also with
the assumptions of digitalization: questions
are posed about the approach to the material regarding its ageing and its durability.
The basic assumptions of the modelling of
the wood structures are called into question
within the framework of their use on old
buildings.
The questions of security are integrated with
the problems encountered: these are guaranteed in general by the project superintendents whose decisions will briefly be outlined.
Today, the project superintendent cannot give
the technical opinion on the current diagnostic methods.
EMMANUEL MAURIN – WOOD ENGINEER, HEAD OF THE WOOD DEPARTMENT, LABORATORY OF RESEARCH ON
HISTORICAL MONUMENTS, (LRMH), CHAMPS SUR MARNE, F; PHILIPPE GALIMARD – SENIOR LECTURER,
UNIVERSITÉ BORDEAUX 1, UNITÉ DES SCIENCES DU BOIS ET DES BIOPOLYMÈRES, TALENCE CEDEX, F
24
THE MURAL PAINTINGS IN S. MARIA MADDALENA CHURCH IN CAMUZZAGO:
THE CONSERVATION PROCESS
S
anta Maria Maddalena church was built in
1152 and it was embellished with frescos
from a well-known Lombard painter, Bernardino
Butinone, in the first decade of 16th century and
with secco paintings dated back to a period between the second half of 19th and the first half
of 20th century.
The conservation project for the building and
its interiors is focused on a multidisciplinary approach, in fact it has been drawn up with the
collaboration of several professionals, with their
different skills, from the beginning of the conservation process. It is necessary to consider
the building as a complex system ruled by the
interactions among the technological elements
which constitute the architecture.
The knowledge phase started with the historical research and then continued with the survey, which has been made with laser scanner
technology. Following this the assessment and
diagnostic campaign investigated the indoor microclimate conditions, the conservation condi-
tions of the painted surfaces, the chemical and
physical features of the materials, in particular
the mortars and pigments.
The diagnostic analyses have been planned with
the advice of specialist technicians. The diagnostic campaign foresaw a first set of characterization analysis and microclimatic monitoring for
eighteen months. Further analysis is scheduled
during the site treatment campaign to evaluate
the efficacy of treatments and compatibility with
the materials of the paintings.
These various studies gather up the information set and main events that have characterized the history of the building. In this way it has
been possible to establish the criteria for the
conservation project, based on the issues of
preventive and planned conservation.
The restoration of the frescos, which display advanced deterioration, and a renewed engagement within the church are the main goals, so
the project has had to match the requirements
of the conservation of painted surfaces with
functional and structural requirements, to allow
continued use of the building.
To achieve these results it has been necessary
to acknowledge the relevance of the information from each contribution, in fact it is relevant
to point out that the outcomes of these analyses have guided the choice of each intervention:
the structural safety is required by law, but it is
equally important to guarantee that structural
interventions don’t damage the frescos, and
furthermore the balance between the preservation of painted surfaces and the thermal-hygrometric comfort is a significant problem.
23 March
17:30
Ongoing use ensures continuous care, but it
isn’t sufficient to put into effect only activities
that limit the risk of damage whilst maintaining
the integrity of the architecture. In fact it is necessary to plan a monitoring system and a series
of maintenance intervention through a long
term programme of preventive conservation.
FEDERICA CARLINI – PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECT, STUDIO CARLINI MOIOLI, VIMERCATE (MB), I; DARIO
FOPPOLI – PROFESSIONAL STRUCTURAL ENGINEER. FOPPOLI MORETTA E ASSOCIATI S.R.L., TIRANO (SO), I;
MARCO GASPAROLI – RESTORER, GASPAROLI S.R.L., GALLARATE (VA), I; GIANNI MIANI – PROARTE
S.N.C., NOVENTA VICENTINA (VI), I; ROSSELLA MOIOLI – PROFESSIONAL ARCHITECT, STUDIO CARLINI MOIOLI,
VIMERCATE (MB), I; ELISABETTA ROSINA – ARCHITECT, BEST, POLITECNICO DI MILANO, MILANO, I
25
PAPERS
24 March
FROM THE POPES TO GARIBALDI. A PALIMPSEST ON THE WALLS
T
24 March
9:00
he Diocesan Museum of Rieti is found in
the Room of the Hearings of the Papal
Palace, built between 1283 and 1288 by the
architect Andrea Magister. In the XVII century,
it was decorated with frescoes of the coats of
arms of the Bishops of Rieti, covered with tempera paintings through a decision by the bishop
Gaetano Carletti (1849 -1867) after
Garibaldi’s troops had left writing and obscene
sketches on the walls at the time of the Roman
Republic. The monumental complex sets interesting maintenance problems.
28
ILEANA TOZZI
– DIRECTOR OF MUSEO DIOCESANO, RIETI, I
UPHOLSTERY CONSERVATION IN THE ACTON COLLECTION, VILLA LA PIETRA, FLORENCE
T
he Acton Collection consists of more than
5000 objects that include many fine art objects in addition to the furnishings and artifacts
that belonged to the Acton family and were
used by them during the twentieth century. The
collection at Villa La Pietra passed to New York
University with the bequest of Sir Harold Acton
in 1994. Since then, a comprehensive program of conservation and collection care has
been undertaken, in which addressing many of
the seriously deteriorated textiles has been a
high priority.
Early on, the upholstery was identified as being
a conservation priority. Like many historic
houses, the Acton collection includes examples
of historic furniture which had been re-upholstered by the Acton family with fragments of a
variety of historic textiles. The Actons, as was
typical of the taste of their time, also embellished their furniture with tassels, ribbons, embroidered appliqués, and other
trims. Therefore, the conservation approach
CLAUDIA BEYER
TESSILE SNC, FLORENCE, I
may differ from that of a typical museum where
restoring an original material or presenting a
historically accurate object may be the goal of
the treatment. Since what we are trying to preserve is the Acton aesthetic in all of its distinctive style, the patchwork assemblies and even
the occasional home-style repair, are preserved.
The paper will look at the general approach to
upholstery conservation at Villa La Pietra
which typically includes thorough documentation and treatments designed to stabilize the
Acton-era materials. The degree of intervention is, of course, tailored to the specific object
and sometimes calls on the expertise of furniture and paintings conservators. Examples will
be used to illustrate interesting divergences
and complications of the general approach
and will include a set of curtains made of
patches of green damask, an armchair with a
difficult structure, chairs with worn silk velvet,
problematic shattered silk seats, and a screen
with an oil painting on one side and textiles on
the other. The textiles range in date from the
17th to the 20th century.
To end the paper, one room of Villa La Pietra,
the Sala Studio will be highlighted. In addition
to the usual upholstery problems, a roof leak
had caused terrible water stains on an unvarnished distemper painting, the wall fabric, and
a sofa. The solutions to these problems,
which in the case of the sofa is one of the rare
instances of replacing the Acton-era fabric,
will be illustrated. The treatment approaches
taken in the Sala Studio illustrate the challenges the conservators have faced. These include working with a wide variety of materials
and techniques while balancing the concerns
of the US conservation consultants from
NYU, who are responsible for the collection,
and of the Florentine Soprintendenza, under
whose jurisdiction the Acton Collection falls,
as it is a registered Italian national cultural
property.
24 March
9:20
COSTANZA PERRONE DA ZARA, FREELANCE TEXTILE CONSERVATORS, RESTAURO
29
VILLA ABEGG – FROM PRIVATE RESIDENCE TO MUSEUM
T
24 March
9:40
he Villa Abegg in Riggisberg, Switzerland,
was built as the private home of the collectors Werner and Margaret Abegg in the
1960s. It is situated near the building complex
housing the museum of the Abegg-Stiftung
with its exhibition galleries, textile conservation
workshop, library and offices. Built in a neobaroque style the Villa Abegg was designed to
incorporate historic architectural elements,
such as a Renaissance ceiling, an eighteenthcentury mirror cabinet and eighteenth-century
textile and painted paper wall hangings and
parquet-flooring. It is filled with historic furniture (dating from the sixteenth to the twentieth
century) and innumerable works of art.
The founders had always intended their private
home to be opened to museum visitors after
their time. Mr. Abegg died in 1984 while his
wife lived until 1999. In the year 2000 the
Board of Trustees of the Abegg-Stiftung decided to inventory the complete contents of the
house, to have the condition of all objects
checked by specialized conservators, to install
climate control and subsequently to open the
house to visitors. Respecting the wishes of their
founders, it was agreed to keep the villa exactly
as they had left it and to present to the public
how twentieth century collectors lived with historic artworks. The transition took a few years,
and since 2003 visitors are admitted to the
rooms on the ground floor of the villa in guided
tours in groups of up to five persons at a time.
Transforming a formerly private residence into a
museum is a complicated issue, especially if the
prerequisite is not to change anything in the interiors. The aim of this paper is to highlight the tension that arises between the politics of
preserving a historic interior unchanged and the
requirements of conservation, both being motivated by ethical considerations. Case studies will
reveal that loyalty to the founders and conservation needs may sometimes contradict each
other and require compromises to be made.
Most examples will be drawn from the textiles in
ANNA JOLLY – CURATOR, ABEGG-STIFTUNG, RIGGISBERG, CH; CONSERVATOR, ABEGG-STIFTUNG, RIGGISBERG, CH
30
CORINNA KIENZLER
– TEXTILE
the villa, including eighteenth century fitted wall
hangings, twentieth century wall coverings with
signs of wear, the creative use of Renaissance
embroideries as upholstery material on eighteenth century seats, a twentieth century sofa
and lamp shades with light damage, as well as
eighteenth century dressed puppets that were
mounted for an exhibition. Other works that were
studied are limestone garden sculptures and
stuffed birds. A further issue for debate is the use
of problematic modern materials employed in
some of the original furnishings and fittings of the
house during the 1960s.
We should like to present this paper jointly, with
Anna Jolly, curator, speaking first about the history of the Villa Abegg and its transformation
into a museum, and Corinna Kienzler, textile
conservator, subsequently showing several
case studies of conservation treatments on textiles and other works of art. Both speakers have
been working together on the project and would
like to present their interdisciplinary approach.
THE RESTORATION OF MRS. MILLS’S ROOMS AT STAATSBURGH STATE HISTORIC SITE:
AN AMERICAN GILDED AGE EXAMPLE OF THE HOLISTIC VIEW FOR HISTORIC INTERIORS
S
taatsburgh (formerly Mills Mansion) State
Historic Site, the Hudson River Valley country estate of Ogden and Ruth Livingston Mills,
was an 1895 design of architect Stanford
White and interior designer Jules Allard. Donated to New York State in 1938, the house
retains almost all of its original furnishings, including a rich collection of period textiles. A
lack of professional museum management
until the mid-1970s, however, led to the deterioration of many collections. Thus in the mid1980s, when New York State committed to
restoring the house, there was an almost overwhelming number of conservation and restoration needs.
Following a period of research and study, which
included consultations with building, furniture,
and textile conservators and curators and
managers of similar historic houses, those
working on Staatsburgh agreed that the public
would be best served if the house was shown
looking, as far as possible, as it did in its heyday, between 1895 and 1920. They understood that a successful restoration of the
property would require taking a holistic approach to restoring/conserving rooms.
Over the past 20 years, site staff and New
York State Bureau of Historic Sites conservators have collaborated on the restoration of
six rooms. The approach taken in each room
has varied, based, in part on the design of the
rooms. For example, in Mrs. Mills’s bedroom
the rich pink damask used for wall coverings,
window and bed hangings, and furniture is the
primary feature of the room. The reproduction of this fabric set the direction for the
restoration of the room. The décor of Mrs.
Mills’s boudoir (office) is, on the other hand,
incorporates many media: painted and gilded
walls, gilded furniture, paintings, a boldly patterned carpet, and at least five different patterned fabrics. This led to some different
choices and emphases in the restoration of
this room.
This paper will discuss the different approaches taken in the restoration of these
two rooms. The authors, who have both been
working on the project since the late 1980s,
will explore the challenges and solutions for
fundraising, decision-making, sourcing reproduction materials, and coordinating the work
of colleagues and outside contractors, while
maintaining the overall goal of accurately presenting the house in its period appearance.
24 March
10:00
DEBORAH LEE TRUPIN – TEXTILE CONSERVATOR, NEW YORK STATE OFFICE OF PARKS, RECREATION AND
HISTORIC PRESERVATION, BUREAU OF HISTORIC SITES, WATERFORD, NY, USA; MELODYE MOORE – HISTORIC
SITE MANAGER, STAATSBURGH STATE HISTORIC SITE, STAATSBURGH, NY, USA
31
THE CONSERVATION CAMPAIGNE AT VILLA STIBBERT.
CASE STUDIES
[To the memory of Peter Thornton and his pioneer work at Ham House and Osterley Park]
T
24 March
11:10
oday it is generally accepted that the aim
in conserving a Historic House is to bring
it back to a pristine condition. The problem is to
decide which is the most appropriate moment.
In the case of the conservation of the Royal
Apartments of Palazzo Pitti which we were
faced with a couple of decades ago, we chose
the 1911 inventory, the last to be drawn up
while the building was still used to its original
purpose, that is as a royal residence.
In the case of the Stibbert Museum which we
started tackling ten years ago, it seemed obvious
to go back to the notary inventory of 1906,
drawn up at the death of the owner and collector.
Frederick Stibbert left a unique legacy in his
house and museum on the hill of Montughi in
the northern outskirts of Florence. A legacy of
arts and crafts, past and present, which we
felt it to be our moral obligation to restore to
its former glory. In the century that followed
his death, the unity of his vision had been for-
32
gotten, and arms and armour invaded even
the former living rooms.
Our task was twofold: 1. to recapture the original aspect of the interiors and 2. to recuperate
– and where necessary restore – the original
furnishings and works of art.
Both problems had in a way been codified in
the work we had done with the re-furbishing
of the Royal Apartments where, however, the
documentary material at our disposal was infinitely greater due to its court status. At the
Stibbert we had only the one inventory. There
were no inventories drawn up during Stibbert’s lifetime and few contemporary photographs of the rooms. The notary would be a
man without specialized art historical knowledge but on the other hand by his very profession absolutely reliable.
After a careful study of the inventory, the next
task was to identify the objects and paintings
mentioned. They had often been moved to other
rooms or relegated to the deposit, or even wantonly dismantled. The work progressed by
stages. Not only had the objects to be cleaned
KIRSTEN ACHENGREEN PIACENTI – STIBBERT MUSEUM DIRECTOR, FLORENCE, I
but the very rooms had to be restored and in so
doing we touched upon just about every type of
conservation.
During the symposium, experts will be dealing
with the individual methods employed. In my talk
I intend to describe a series of case-studies, follow room by room the problems that faced us
and the solutions we chose: the ball-room, the
dining room, the Sala Rossa, the study with the
Sienese banners and the tooled leather hangings, the Quadreria Antica.
As will be seen we were not able to follow a fixed
policy but had to consider each case separately
and at times only a compromise was possible.
We also had to make adjustments as we went
along but we were fortunate in having the loyal
support of our patron, the Florentine bank Ente
Cassa di Risparmio, and a loyal group of research workers and conservators. Without
their collaboration the work could not have been
undertaken. It is still in progress.
I welcome and look forward to the comments of
the participants during the planned visit to the
museum after the symposium.
HISTORICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE 18 TH CENTURY FRENCH GILT
LEATHER TAPESTRY RESTORATION IN AN HISTORICAL HOUSE: THE MAISON MANTIN
PROJECT (MOULINS, FRANCE)
L
ouis Mantin was a collector from the upper
middle-class in Moulins (France), who lived
during the second half of the 19th century. He
was a very wealthy man and he built his house
between 1893 and 1897. In this beautiful
home, built in a mixture of two styles, the NéoGothic and the Louis XIII revival, Louis Mantin
laid out his encyclopaedic collection of approximately fifteen hundred objects (furniture,
enamels, tapestries, paintings, and ceramics).
In accordance with his will, it was planned to
make this residence a “house-museum”, but its
opening to the public was made possible only a
hundred years after its death.
In 2005, the Conseil Général de l’Allier decided to launch the major simultaneous
restoration of the building and its interiors.
The organisation of such huge project was a
challenge; it required employing in each field
a specialised craftsmen. The complexity of
the project had also an impact on establishing exceptional building site that was initiated
in 2007.
Among the treasures of this house is the
room of Louis Mantin. The walls are entirely
covered with a gilt leather tapestry made up
of polychrome panels manufactured in the
Boissier workshop, in Avignon, in the first
quarter of the 18th century. The gilt tapestry
was largely modified and supplemented at
the time of its installation in the house at the
end of the 19th century. In the current project
this exceptional decoration was entirely demounted and restored in line with the wishes
expressed by Louis Mantin in his will that have
conditioned most of the conservation options.
24 March
11:30
CÉLINE BONNOT-DICONNE – LEATHER CONSERVATOR, 2CRC, MOIRANS, F; JEAN PIERRE FOURNET
BENOIT-HENRY PAPOUNAUD, CURATOR, HEAD OF MUSÉE ANNE-DE-BEAUJEU,
– ART HISTORIAN, PARIS, F; MOULINS, F
33
THE GOOD FIGHT: CONSERVATION OF THE ROUSE HILL HOUSE & FARM INTERIORS
T
24 March
11:50
he Historic Houses Trust of New South
Wales (HHT) is a government authority responsible for the management of historic sites,
including houses and public buildings, operating as museums. The conservation strategy for
each site, in particular the interiors, is approached in a unique and specific way. This
paper will focus on the path developed to conserve the interiors and objects at Rouse Hill
House & Farm over the last twenty three years
of management by the HHT.
One of only a handful of early colonial houses
in public ownership, Rouse Hill House is set
apart by its remarkably intact 19th century
decorative schemes and original collection of
furnishings, objects and ephemera associated with long occupation of the Rouse family,
from 1820 until the government acquisition
in the 1980’s.
During a decade of dramatic over restoration
of publicly owned historic buildings, a strict
management policy of minimal intervention
was developed in an attempt to preserve the
unique coherence and ambience found within
this house. Twenty years on, the importance
of these interiors, as an un-curated experience of the 19th and early 20th centuries, is
increasing exponentially with each generation, though the drift towards their disintegration is perilously close.
Driven by a significance hierarchy and importance to the integrity of the whole, the conservation of the Rouse Hill interiors is a history of
incremental holding actions rather than grand
projects. This paper will discuss the long term
development of a holistic preventive and remedial conservation approach-mistakes, successes and changes in direction-through three
MATTHEW SCOTT – CONSERVATION & CURATORIAL ADVISOR / PREVENTIVE CONSERVATOR AND CURATOR
HISTORIC HOUSES TRUST OF NSW, SYDNEY, AUS
34
rooms and their integral collection components over a ten year period.
Selected examples will focus upon the differing
remedial approach to furnishing textiles, works
of art, gilding and furniture, as well as the integral preventive practices: cleaning, pest management, building stability, environment, staff
access, public access and monitoring condition
and deterioration. The influence of external factors on the preservation of these interiors – resources, visitor levels and climatic conditions –
will also be explored.
The future of the interiors at Rouse Hill are finite.
Many objects now face their second or third remedial treatment since the early 1990’s, and as
the frequency and aggressiveness of the treatments increases, the practical conservation options to hold the interiors together decreases.
WALLPAPER AND TEXTILE SUPERPOSED: DESTINATION AND PRESENTATION AFTER REMOVAL.
THE CHINESE BOUDOIR CEILING CONSERVATION FROM THE CHÂTEAU D’ISSOU (YVELINES, FRANCE)
T
he purpose of this paper is to discuss the
discovery, investigation, conservation and
presentation of a décor superimposed using a
case study of a reconstitution. Murals decorations in historic interiors are usually composed
of different materials, either juxtaposed or superimposed. Investigations are providing plenty
of information and clues about the decorative
art history and modifications to a building.
These also indicate the social statute and aesthetic taste of the occupants.
The preservation of historical wallpapers and
textiles has become more developed and popular in the last few decades. These materials
were often hung on the top of each other due
to practical circumstances. Thus, several layers of paper either superimposed or interspaced with textile are often found when a
stratigraphic research is completed.
In June 2006, investigations were undertaken
for preserving historical wallpapers at the
Château d’Issou, Yvelines, France. Although in
JEAN-BAPTISTE MARTIN
poor condition today, the building still presents
an important an eclectic overview of various
wallpapers from the 18th to 20th century period. Among these, a Chinese wallpaper dating
from the 18th century was discovered on the
ceiling under a toile de Jouy cotton fabric with
a Chinese design. Fragments found still attached to the top level of the walls indicated
that the wallpaper had covered the entire
room in the past. The composition is based on
the tree of life design, with hand painted flowers, birds and insects. It is one of the last productions made in Canton for the India
Company. It could be deduced, according to
the presence of a small fragment of fake wood
wallpaper beneath the Chinese paper, that it
was hung after 1850 in the château. Various
elements found suggest that the toile de Jouy
textile was stretched, using bamboo sticks, directly onto the paper around 1926. The contemporary style of the room remained in the
toile de Jouy style, which is also reflected in the
Chinese style furniture. It is thus unclear why
the Chinese paper was covered at that time.
The main goal for multidisciplinary team consisting of wallpaper, textile and wood conservators was to remove the textile decoration,
analyse and preserve it. The toile de Jouy cotton fabric was seriously damaged, mostly by
smoke from a chimney, but had acted as a protective layer for the wallpaper, which was found
in good state of preservation below the textile.
The future destination of the textile decoration
was discussed once the conservation treatment was completed. The cotton fabric was
judged as important as the wallpaper within
the context of the history of the room. The
château is unfortunately in bad state of decay
and is not secure enough today to preserve
the textile decoration in situ. With this in mind,
the opportunity arose in which the two different layers of wallpaper and textile could be
shown separately. This type of ‘reconstruction’
allows for more than just a didactic presentation to the public, it helps to show and understand the different steps of the decoration
history within the same room.
24 March
13:50
– PAPER AND WALLPAPER CONSERVATOR, TOURS, F
35
UPHOLSTERY, HOW TO DEAL WITH THE TEXTILE COVERINGS?
CASE STUDY: PROJECT WEISSENSTEINFLÜGEL
T
he palace Weißensteinflügel was build
from 1786 to 1790. Most of the historic
interiors are preserved intact, except for
some changes that have occurred in the
past.
24 March
14:10
One of the major groups of objects is the upholstered furniture. There are about 1300
upholstered objects with textile coverings
listed in the inventories. One look at them
shows that they are in desperate need of conservation. However, due to the shortage of finances there was only little that could be
done to undertake at least some of the care
necessary for the textiles.
In 2006, the responsibility for the Kassel
Palaces changed hands into those of the Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel. In 2007, the
Hessian Ministry of Culture embarked on a
conservation project to treat the entire castle:
the building and the interior. The aim of this
ambitious project is to reconstruct the original
construction and design from its conception to
JULIA DUMMER
KASSEL, D
36
the present day. In 2008, in the course of this
project, conservators for textiles, furniture and
metal, art historians and monument conservators have had long and intense discussions
about how to reach an overall harmonious impression of the conserved interiors. The people
involved are the staff of the Museumslandschaft Hessen Kassel in charge of the project,
as well as specialist freelancers.
Textiles are usually the most sensitive elements of the upholstery group. They show
most conspicuously and quickly damages due
to their open exposure: textiles fade in colour,
become dusty and brittle, until, finally, the fibre
itself disintegrates. In the case of the Weißensteinflügel textiles, it is possible to clearly determine when the severe damage has started
and how fast it developed: most of it occurred
during the last century, when the castle was
opened to the public.
There were many discussions, which were
often very controversial regarding how to deal
– DIPL.REST. TEXTILE AND LEATHER CONSERVATOR, MUSEUMSLANDSCHAFT HESSEN KASSEL,
with the various problems. It soon turned out
that the wooden frames generally are in a good
condition and so are the metal fittings. The
most complex and difficult material is the textile
element itself. There are two different scenarios. Firstly, the original textile cover still exists
in its original frame and is either in a good, fair
or bad condition. The second scenario is that
the original cover has been changed at some
point. Sometimes the textile has been exchanged with the same fabric taken from an
object which still was/is in a better condition. In
other cases, the object or the entire ensemble
was re-upholstered.
The discussion group arrived at various solutions for this problem, amongst them was
making covers according to historic information while perhaps leaving some of the upholstered furniture covered. Finally, a plan was
worked out: the treatment is to be decided
upon individually with the overall guideline of
minimal intervention. Treatment should be carried out in situ if possible.
INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION TO UNDERSTAND AND RECREATE THE SPLENDOUR
OF THE MARBLE CLOSET AT BOSWORTH CASTLE
T
he investigation and representation of the
Marble Closet (a small but exquisitely decorated room c.1619) involved the close collaboration of the following specialists:
– Conservation architect/Structural investigation
– Historic Interiors Researcher/Documentary and historic paint analysis
– Textile Historian/Textile history and technology
– Stone Conservator/Marble conservation
– House Painter/Manufacture and application of historic paint
– Metal Conservator/Conservation of 17th
century metal balcony
Structural and documentary investigation of
the Marble Closet revealed that the room had
an interesting history. It was remodelled within
three years of being fitted out c.1619 to ensure that the interior was decorated in the latest fashion for black and white marble. The
black and white marble of the ceiling vaults,
chimneypiece and floor, now dominates the
room, but what was the treatment of the
walls? Research established that the panelling
lining the walls had only been partially painted
(in an expensive copper resinate glaze) suggesting that the unpainted sections walls had
been hung with fabrics or tapestries.
This discovery instigated close research collaboration between the paint researcher and
the textile consultant, as the placement of the
paint informed the design and hang of the
textiles. When it was decided to recreate this
scheme another partner was added to the
team: a house painter. His skills were required to assist in the recreation of copper
resinate glazes (obsolete since the early eighteenth century) and their application on a
large scale.
The Marble Closet extended onto a balcony.
Treatment of this element required the collaboration of the paint researcher, the painter and
the metal conservator. An original c.1619
green and gilded scheme had been discovered
on this element.
24 March
14:30
The room has now come to life reflecting the
extravagant luxury the room was originally intended to convey. The success of the project
depended on the willingness of all parties to understand each other values and methodologies. A synergy was created which allowed
researchers to ‘get inside each others’ minds’.
Without this the project would have been a series of disparate conservation reports.
HELEN HUGHES – PROPRIETOR OF HISTORIC INTERIORS RESEARCH & CONSERVATION (HIRC), LONDON, UK
37
MARRIAGE OF CONSERVATORS AT PARIS' 19 TH ARRONDISSEMENT CITY HALL
T
24 March
14:50
he 19th arrondissement town hall in Paris
was built in 1876-1878 by Davioud and
Bourdais. In 1879 a public competition was
held for the interior decorative theme for the
wedding hall. The winning design represented the moral and civic ideals of the 3rd
Republic depicted in six large paintings by
Gervex and Blanchon. The painting's themes
were reinforced by the decorative elements
employed for the frames. The frame design
was exceptionally innovative. Fresh plants
were chosen to symbolically reinforce each
painting's theme and were then covered by
tin leaf.
In 2006, we were selected to restore these
frames and used the opportunity to study
the primary elements of the wedding hall, including furniture, wooden panels, paintings
and frames. The conservator in charge gath-
ered a multi-disciplinary conservation team.
It included conservators specialised in conservation of paintings, gilding, metal, and
paper who were also experienced in herbarium’s conservation. Additionally, botanists
were consulted to identify specific plants in
order to reproduce those which were destroyed, and the LRMH (research laboratory) identified the nature of the metal
leaves. Finally, a condition report was produced, allowing each of the specialists to influence decisions based on aesthetic and
historical criteria.
Due to its ongoing function as a wedding hall,
the project had severe time constraints.
Analyses were performed and interpreted by
each engaged specialist, forming a base for
rapid development of treatment plans. Three
years later, we wish to share our experience,
MARIE DUBOST – GILDER, ATELIER DE LA FEUILLE D'OR, PARIS, F; ANNE-MARIE GEFFROY – METAL
CONSERVATOR, FREELANCE, PARIS, F; EMMANUELLE HINCELIN – PAPER CONSERVATOR, FREELANCE, PARIS,
F; MARLÈNE MARGEZ – HEAD OF BOOK AND PAPER CONSERVATION, BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE,
PARIS, F; EMMANUELLE PARIS – PAINTING CONSERVATOR, FREELANCE, PARIS, F
38
and discuss the challenges that could be
common for any multi-disciplinary restoration project. Instead of focusing on the work
itself, we propose to discuss the following
questions:
– How to choose between different specialists? (Sometimes, the disciplines have
something in common.)
– How to encourage communication between different specialists? Multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary?
– How to combine tests, analyses, knowledge of
materials and techniques required to make
decisions about restoration processes?
– Why is it so important to have a conservator in charge: who and how to make decisions?
– Why is it so difficult to increase the number
of multidisciplinary projects in France?
STROZZI SACRATI PALACE IN FLORENCE ‘A MUSEUM IN ITSELF’.
TAPESTRIES AND WALLPAPER CONSERVATION TREATMENT
T
he Palace, situated in the old core of Florence just opposite Brunelleschi’s dome, is
one of the city’s most notable historical
dwellings, especially for its internal decor, expressing the changing tastes between late
baroque and the eclecticism of the 19th century.
Arising around 1604 on the boundary with
the Opera del Duomo and steadily extended
by the Guadagni family until the end of the 18th
century, it took on its present guise after the
works ordered by Anna Strozzi, and her son
Carlo Riccardi, who bequeathed it to Massimiliano Strozzi Sacrati in 1871 who in turn continued the transformations until the 20th
century.
Acquired by the Tuscan Region in 1988, the
building has been converted into headquarters
of the Regional Council. The restoration of the
interiors each with their own ornaments, tapestries, doors, chimneys and antique chandeliers, began with a methodical research
process and laboratory testing. The completion of the return to the Regional Council
(2009) enabled the surviving works of art and
furnishings that formerly embellished the
Palazzo to be reinstated, rendering the building
a ‘museum in itself’. In this perspective great
care was devoted not only to the conservation
of mural paintings and plastic ornamentation,
but also to the tapestries, both in fabric and
wall paper.
All the wall coverings, dating from the 19th and
20th centuries, are found on the second floor.
In the preliminary phase (2001), every element
was documented, dismounted, numbered and
transported to the Regional council’s storage
facilities. The intervention was realised between 2006 and 2008.
The textiles, in silk or silk-linen with floral motifs, appeared covered with superficial and
also greasy dirt, with darkening, especially
near the radiators. The majority of the wall
coverings and curtains showed signs widespread degradation, according to the characteristics of the fabric, room use and sunlight
exposition. The projects guiding ‘rule’ was the
conservation of all the tapestries, given their
significant historical testimony. In general the
repairs employed interventions with needle or
mixed needle-resin.
The wallpapers, dating from the second half of
the 19th century, present a decorative module
of large red flowers on a golden copper based
background. The maintenance work was realised without the detachment of paper, due to
the adhesives used and the probable application
on fresh plaster. The paper was variously deteriorated, with detachment and bulging. The original colour of the decorative elements resulted
irreversibly altered in various zones, with discolouration and oxidation imputable to illumination as well as deposits of atmospheric
particles. The consolidation was realised in several phases. The operations differed in material
and method depending on the condition and
specific problems of the single artefacts, always
aiming to restore the original functional and
aesthetic integrity.
24 March
16:20
PAOLO CRISOSTOMI – CONSERVATOR, SOCIETÀ STUDIO P. CRISOSTOMI S.R.L., ROME, I; MARIA GIORGI
– TEXTILES CONSERVATOR, SOVICILLE SIENA, I; GRAZIELLA PALEI – CONSERVATOR, SIENA, I;
MASSIMILIANO PANDOLFI – CONSERVATOR, SOCIETÀ IL LABORATORIO S.R.L., FLORENCE, I; SPIRA
S.R.L. – SERVIZI DI PROGETTAZIONE INTEGRATA PER IL RESTAURO ARCHITETTONICO, FLORENCE, I
39
UNITED NATIONS – UNITING PROFESSIONS?
I
24 March
16:40
n the years 2009 to 2011 the UN building in
New York will undergo a massive renovation.
The building from 1952 is now badly worn and
in urgent need of renovation. So are many of
the works of art that during the last sixty years
have been presented as gifts to the United Nations by its member states. In 2008 a small
team of conservators from the Modern Museum, Stockholm and the Swedish National
Heritage Board went to New York to investigate and evaluate the state of the Swedish donations to the building.
The Scandinavian countries decorated the
three council chambers for the Security Council, the Trusteeship Council and the Economic
and Social Council. The Swedish architect Sven
Markelius – who took part in the planning of
the building together with a team of architects
among them Le Corbusier – was chosen to design the chamber for the Economic and Social
chamber, the so called ECOSOC chamber. In
the early sixties the Secretary General Hammarskjöld initiated the meditation room and
MARGARETA BERGSTRAND
HERITAGE BOARD, STOCKHOLM, S
40
took part in planning it as well as commissioning a mural painting by the Swedish painter Bo
Beskow. Later on the Dag Hammarskjöld Library was furnished with furniture and carpets
from Sweden. The Swedish donations to the
UN building form a landmark in Sweden´s art
history albeit unknown to a larger public.
This paper will focus on the ECOSOC chamber
and issues when dealing with the heritage of
the 20th century and the modern period. The
ECOSOC chamber was designed for 52 member states but the room now houses members
of 192 states. How can we keep the atmosphere of the room while at the same time making necessary renovation and observing safety
and security issues?
Furthermore the 220 m2 curtain, an artwork
by the Swedish artist Marianne Richter, woven
in a well known still existing workshop, was destroyed by a combination of flame retardant
treatment, sunlight and humid climate conditions. In the 80´s the curtain was taken down
– CONSERVATOR, CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT, SWEDISH NATIONAL
and substituted with a velvet curtain with a
geometric printed pattern designed by Sven
Markelius. Also this curtain is now soiled and
showing signs of damage from fire retardants
as well as bad handling and will be taken down.
We now face issues of either reconstructing
the first original curtain or conserving the second one, if possible.
Another option that the Swedish National Public Art Council and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs is contemplating is a donation of a
contemporary work of art for the ECOSOC
chamber in the 21st century. Whatever option
is chosen representatives from the Modern
Museum and the Swedish National Heritage
Board will take part in the planning and act as
a guarantee for the conservation values while
taking into account new technology and high
risk security. This will give us a unique opportunity to work in a team involving conservators,
curators, conservation scientists, security and
fire experts as well as artists and researchers
into new materials.
DECORATION OF AN ITALIAN THEATRE AFTER THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY IN 1870: TECHNICAL
IMPLEMENTATION AND CONSERVATION AFTER THE GREAT WARS IN AN EARTHQUAKE ZONE
T
he theatres of Italian towns after the Unification of Italy in 1870, saw a flourishing of
complete redecorating. The study and restoration of the Marrucino Theatre in Chieti shows
a quite similar history to many Italian
provinces. The architectural structure, in
horseshoe plan, was decorated in the vault,
arch and arch stage with tempera mural paintings on lime plaster.
The subjects were traditionally inspired by the
Muses of the Arts and the great masters of
Music and Literature. Inaugurated in 1876
with a new gas lighting system, these standard
decorations stylistically matched the painted
curtain, and are the focus of this current project. The decorative schemes distinguish each
city in a particular way, celebrating a local
event or historical figure associated with that
city. Everything is expressed in a style between
historical realism and the impressionist style
of light and colors, marking a change from academic art to a new modern realism.
GRAZIA DE CESARE
The technique of execution is related to the
elasticity of the architectural structure built
from the roof with a frame of wooden beams
and joists, connecting a cane trellis which in
turn supports the painted plaster. This system has allowed the painting’s preservation,
passing unscathed through two world wars
and the recent earthquake of April 2009.
The only damage has resulted from water infiltration.
24 March
17:00
The large canvas painting is characterized by a
rapid technique using animal glue and egg,
with a terpene resin, analyzed by FTIR and
micro and histochemical tests. It suffers mechanical problems of a semi-free canvas without tension in the horizontal direction, secured
at the top and tensioned along the bottom by a
wooden beam tacked to the canvas edge. It
was made by a Neapolitan painter, Filippo Ponticelli, famous for this kind of work and student
of Mancinelli, painter of the most famous curtain at the San Carlo Theatre in Naples.
– CONSERVATOR, CHIETI, I
41
STUDY FROM HOLISTIC VIEW TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEM OF TEMPLE PAINTING CONSERVATION
IN TAIWAN
T
24 March
17:20
emples in Taiwan are entrusted as the spiritual centers of the people. The polychrome
paintings or frescos on the interior beams and
rafters are not only resplendent, but are full of
moving stories which are morally educational.
The painted decorations combine religious images with traditional art, humanity and history.
These form an essential element of the valuable
cultural heritage of Taiwan.
Temples are considered as ‘the dwelling places
of the Gods’. Thus the more popular a temple
becomes, which usually means that more donations are collected, the more often it will be redecorated and repaired. This has been
traditionally seen within Taiwanese culture as a
pious manner in which to pay respect to the
Gods. The concept of cultural heritage preservation and conservation is becoming more widespread in Taiwan. The increasing scarcity of
professional temple painting masters and the
fact that younger painters cannot produce as
JANET TUNG YING-YING
CULTURAL AFFAIRS, TW
42
high quality work as the old masters has aided
the spread of this concept. These factors have
also contributed to the awareness of preserving
and maintaining paintings in temples within the
general population. However, the conservation
of temple interiors is still often included within
projects to preserve the structural aspects of
the monument itself. These projects are supervised by construction architects who pay little
or no attention to the conservation of the paintings nor have right methodology to undertake
the project successfully.
The construction architects, who used to hire
painting masters to repaint the temples, are
now asking conservation specialists to restore the paintings. Nevertheless contracts
are often given to conservation professionals
who lack the long-term experience to perform
the necessary tasks, or must cooperate with
foreign professionals. In short, the construction architects lack an overall vision of the
– HEADQUARTERS ADMINISTRATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE. COUNCIL FOR
conservation required, nor have the right
mindset for the job. Thus to date few projects
have succeeded successfully.
This research paper uses various case studies undertaken in Taiwan to analyze, review
and to reflect on the factors that cause the
conservation projects to fail or succeed. It
aims to return the conservation of temple
paintings back to the hands of professionals
by encouraging investigation and examination
of the art works, as well as promoting the experimentation of appropriate materials, and
by championing the planning and implementation of conservation projects. This paper suggests, through the described case studies, to
the government officials, temple owners and
worshipers, conservation professionals and
local residents, how the encountered current
struggles can be resolved in restoring Taiwan’s temple paintings with the cooperation
of foreign conservation professionals.
HARMONIA EST DISCORDIA CONCORS 1 : HARMONY AND DISCORD AS PRESERVED
AFTER RESTORATION WORKS
T
he development of Byzantine architecture
in Greece paved the way for a series of important monuments built from 1040 on. One
of those monuments, the church of Taxiarchis
Michail built in 1158, is to be sited in the island
of Andros (north-west Aegean sea) at Messaria that was the medieval both Byzantine and
Venetian capital of the island. In 1204 Andros
was given to Marco Dandalo, the nephew of
the Doge of Venice, and remained under the
rule of the Venetians until 1566, when Andros
was seized by the Turks.
The church located at the island of Andros a
crossroad of the Byzantine Empire on the
road to Italy and Constantinople, not far from
Athens, may itself reveal certain historical
facts and symbolisms. The cross-in square
plan domed church of Taxiarchis Michail
dates from the 12th century. In particular it
dates from 1158 a.C. as it results from two
dedicatory inscriptions on the two marble octagonal columns that support the dome to
west. It is one of the few Byzantine monuments whose dating its not only based on stylistic ground.
With the above famous dedications, a few mosaics (opus sectile) survived until today, its diversity of marbles used as pavement revetment
and its carved marbles and limestones it is
probably a very important Byzantine monument
NIKOLIA IOANNIDOU
MONUMENTS, ATHENS, GR
to have survived in Greece. Otherwise, the design of the church, its harmonious and accurate
proportions and the use of the appropriate lithic
materials were no doubt intended to focus to
the importance of the church.
In medieval times as in byzantine times people
believed that through art and architecture
they could capture more absolute truths
which could only be accessed by indirect methods. Thus, they sometimes used a metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing
particular materials or objects with symbolic
meaning. The physical universe, then, and an
architectural construction is a kind of language that invites a spectator to decipher it,
although this does not yield a single message
so much as a network of associations. Those
symbols are not allegories, intended to represent; they are instead intended to evoke particular states of mind.
Otherwise, in the history of all monuments are
various events that are irrevocably associated
with the popular imagination of that monuments. The remembrance of those events has
been sustained through popular stories, pictures and testimonies and through the presentation of officially sanctioned histories. But
the memories people hold of significant events
are intimately connected with a specific sense
of space and place. Restoration as a human
activity always existed as an act that has the
purpose to extend the natural cycle of life of
the physical elements that constitute and
transmit the image of a piece of Art or Architecture.
If the original piece of art or architecture is
distinguished for its harmonious proportions
preserved among all through its original features and materials as it happens at the
church of Taxiarchis Michail in the island of
Andros, can restoration ensure the preservation of those original features?
24 March
17:40
In particular the restoration ‘in loco’ of the
two marble octagonal columns of the church,
that bear the inscriptions of 1158 a.C. posed
many problems. One has to consider their origins, their material, their possible ways or
restoration and so on as this church is one
of the few Byzantine monuments whose dating its not only based on stylistic ground.
After all, following some restoration examples,
our purpose is to think over restoration project-restoration works as preserving the original ‘harmony and discord’ coexisting in many
Byzantine, renaissance and modern monuments.
1
Franchino Gaffurio, Angelicum ac divinum opus musice, Milano 1508
– ARCHITECT, IUAV, MINISTRY OF CULTURE, DIRECTORATE RESTORATION BYZANTINE
43
PAPERS
25 March
DANISH CHURCH INTERIORS AND THEIR CHANGE IN COLOUR APPEARANCE DUE TO REPEATED
REPAINTING OF THE FURNITURE
T
his paper will present aspects of an ongoing PhD research project. The research
aims to gain new knowledge about the colour
history of Danish church interiors from the
middle of the 16th century until today.
25 March
8:40
Since the middle of the 16th century Danish
church interiors have undergone a changing
colour history due to repeated repainting of
church furniture. Repainting of altarpieces, pulpits, chairs, pews, panels, sculptures and other
pieces of furniture has always been an essential undertaking that brought new colour expressions to the traditional whitewashed
interior of Danish churches.
Even today historic furniture is repainted, and
since the 16th century the choice of colours
was never dictated by the church clerics. The
choice has always been free, reflecting the surrounded community´s favourite colour
throughout time. To date no research or publications exist detailing the chronology of the
colour history of Danish church furniture. This
PhD1 project will investigate how the church interior has changed its appearance over time
due to repeated repainting of the furniture.
Since 1880 conservators in Denmark have
carried out archaeological colour surveys of
church furniture. A set of rules has existed
since 1892, which dictated that the archaeological records should be delivered to a national central archive. This is the
Antiquarian-Topography Archive at the National Museum, which today has an inventory
of at least 8000 colour archaeological
KARIN VESTERGAARD KRISTIANSEN
COPENHAGEN, D
46
records. These paint archaeological records
are very extensive and nationwide, and represent a hitherto untapped source of knowledge
about Danish colour history.
This paper will present the basic premise of my
PhD project, which is to use the archive´s archaeological records as a source to gather information and investigate the colour history
within Denmark. Thereby, this PhD will use or
exploit the knowledge, which over time has
been obtained by conservators, in a new holistic and multidisciplinary way.
Furthermore, the paper will present how this
PhD project methodically collects and
processes historical colour source data into a
database, which can be used to carry out further analysis. The database can be used to
consider the colour data of each element of
furniture in a holistic manner, as well as one
part of a unifying whole. Combined together
the information will produce an image of the
overall colour history. The analysis of the data
will be both nationwide and focused. The
chronological results will be communicated by
NCS2 colour atlases.
This doctoral research is multidisciplinary and
the holistic view will also include answers on
some contextual questions, which will enlighten
the culture historical influence on the colour
history. Based on the historical knowledge of
ownership and affinities, national (and local)
culture history and furniture history in each
– PHD FELLOW, THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF DENMARK,
church, the analysis will answer questions such
as “when and how often was the furniture repainted” and “was the furniture more often repainted in certain geographical areas or in
some periods than in others”. Further questions like “why was the furniture repainted and
who paid for the work” are posed. Answering
these questions will provide new knowledge
about the cultural and historical context in
which contemporary repaintings and church
conservation must be considered. Furthermore, the research findings will promote an
awareness of colour as part of the church cultural values and heritage.
It is hoped that the PhD results can be presented at an upcoming ICOM-CC meeting. By
presenting the doctoral purpose and methods
at this ICOM-CC interim meeting, it is my hope
to achieve a mutual dialogue on the subject
with conservators, curators and scientists
working with the colours that surrounded people in the past.
1
The PhD is titled: The Colour History of Church Interiors
and Furniture – a Chronological and Contextual Investigation
with the National Museum Antiquarian-Topography Archive
as a Gathering Source. The PhD is carried out at The National Museum of Denmark, and financial supported by the
museum, State Government research foundations and private foundations.
2
NCS: Natural Colour System is a colour communication
system with digital atlases of 1950 standardised colour
samples with individual codes. (see Scandinavian Colour Institute AB at www.ncscolour.com)
CLEANING, CONDITION, SURVEYING AND MAINTENANCE: HOUSE KEEPING SWEDISH STYLE
S
kokloster Castle and the Hallwyl museum in
Sweden are two historical houses and opendisplay museums with diverse climate control
problems. Both interiors and collections have
been cared for through the ages in a traditional
manner. Conservators and curators started to
document this work only in the 1990ies and
after about twenty years it is now time to draw
conclusions from the accumulated experience
of this work and of its documentation.
Skokloster Castle was built in the late Baroque
era and is situated in a rural setting outside
Stockholm. The collections consist of objects
brought there by all its owners from the late 17th
century to the early 20th century. The interiors
comprise tapestry, gilt leather, furniture and
paintings of which many have been kept in the
castle for more than 400 years! The collections
also contain books, weapons, applied art, scientific instruments and house hold textiles. At Skokloster Castle, which is not heated, the RH reaches
levels of as much as 80 % indoors during damp
autumn days. Apart from occasional corrosion
problems, this often results in reoccurring mould
growth on all kinds of organic material.
The Hallwyl museum was originally the Hallwyl
Palace, built in 1897 in central Stockholm and
was one of the earliest buildings to be fitted with
central heating in the country. The palace was
built to house Countess von Hallwyls’ collections,
as well as serve as a home and office for the
von Hallwyl couple. In the Hallwyl House we
hardly see any corrosion on metal surfaces at
all, simply due to the fact that the indoor climate
is extremely dry. The house is centrally heated
and even with the thermostat at its lowest, the
RH still hovers around 30%. Here the organical
material suffers from drying damages.
In both houses conservators and curators cooperate in a project to clean, condition survey
and maintain the collections, working with one
or two rooms per year. To start, the room is
emptied of all movable objects. The ceilings,
walls, windows and floors are vacuum cleaned.
All objects are carefully dusted off, thoroughly
examined and condition surveyed and documented. We look for corroding metal and organic parts are examined for insect attack,
signs of fading, cracking and so on.
A form is filled in for each object or a group of
objects if the condition is similar. Each object is
graded according to need of conservation treatment. Object in need of urgent care are treated
more or less immediately. Mountings may be
adjusted or other improvements are made, before re-opening the room. As visitors in both museums often can see the work during progress,
it is not unusual for tour guides to take the opportunity to talk briefly about the maintenance
and conservation work. Conservators on their
side are happy to answer direct questions
posed by visitors.
25 March
9:00
ANN HALLSTRÖM – CONSERVATOR, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND PHOTO, LIVRUSTKAMMAREN,
SKOKLOSTERS SLOTT, HALLWYLSKA MUSEET, TUMBA-STOCKHOLM, S; ERIKA HEDHAMMAR –
CONSERVATOR, NATIONAL HERITAGE BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION, VISBY, S; LISEN TAMM –
CONSERVATOR, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND PHOTO, LIVRUSTKAMMAREN, SKOKLOSTERS SLOTT,
HALLWYLSKA MUSEET, TUMBA-STOCKHOLM, S
47
THE WEB ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SHEET FOR MUSEUMS
AND TEMPORARY EXHIBITIONS
T
he Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione
e il Restauro, has developed the Environmental Data Sheet (EDS), as suggested in the
document concerning museum management
titled Atto di indirizzo sui criteri tecnico–scientifici e sugli standard di funzionamento e
sviluppo dei musei and issued by the Italian
Ministry of Culture in 1998 (art. 150, comma
6, D.L. n. 112/1998). The EDS is based on
knowledge gained from a long working relationship with museums and exhibition spaces
all over Italy.
25 marzo
9:20
The EDS proposes a methodology to collect
data regarding the museum building, its environment and management. It is a rigorous
tool but, at the same time, it is user friendly
and flexible. More precisely the EDS consists
of a biological, chemical and physical monitoring program for 2 to 4 weeks, for each season of the year.
From our experience in using the EDS it is clear
that this methodology can be very helpful in evaluating the environmental conditions of exhibitions space and storage areas. It is also useful in
collecting information for temporary exhibition
organizational issues, such as the completion of
the Facility Report linked to works of art loans. In
case of works of art transportation, the EDS is
also very suitable, particularly if used together
with the object’s Conservation Condition Data
Sheet that accompanies the object in transfer.
The use of EDS helps to evaluate the compatibility of the environmental conditions of the lending
museum with the borrowing institution, to control the shipping conditions as well as the exhibition conditions.
In this last year a web version is undergoing
testing. A data-entry has been developed that
will allow the use, management and analysis of
EDS data via internet-intranet.
CARLO CACACE – INFORMATION SYSTEMS MANAGER, ISTITUTO SUPERIORE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE E IL
RESTAURO (ISCR), ROME, I; ELISABETTA GIANI – PHYSICIST, ISCR, ROME, I; ANNAMARIA
GIOVAGNOLI – CHEMIST, ISCR, ROME, I; LIVIA GORDINI – CONSERVATOR, SCIENTIFIC CONSULTANT,
BOLOGNA, I; MARIA PIA NUGARI – BIOLOGIST, ISCR, ROME, I
48
APPLYING PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR SILK IN HISTORIC HOUSES
T
extiles in historic houses are commonly on
open display, increasing the risk to the objects from fluctuating humidity, light, pollution
and dust. Amongst the natural fibres found in
historic houses, silk is reported to be the most
vulnerable to damage, especially from light.
Historic houses tend to utilise natural lighting
from windows, however it can be difficult to balance sufficient light to view collections whilst
controlling the dose. Further research on historic tapestries reported the poor condition of
samples taken from the reverse side, despite
their bright colours, indicating light may not be
the only important deterioration factor for silk.
There are few published studies on the effect
of humidity on silk deterioration. Therefore
recent research has looked at a wide range
of humidity levels common to open display as
well as the effect of light. This has found high
humidity causes much greater silk deterioration than light levels common to museum
and historic house displays. Monitoring behind tapestries has demonstrated higher humidity microclimates are formed, which may
explain the poor condition of unfaded silks.
This was further tested by analysis of a number of samples where the same thread was
sampled from both the front and reverse of
a tapestry. Despite differences in the remaining colour of the samples, the condition was
similar for all samples.
The research has developed preventive conservation recommendations for historic silk
collections, together with isoperms. Historic
houses contain mixed material displays including wood, textiles and metals, and the
display conditions need to balance the optimum environment for each. Therefore it is
important to understand the exact risk function for each material, for example metals
generally require low RH levels whereas middling RH levels are reported as most suitable
for organics. As silk is reported as most vulnerable this has been selected as an exemplar for all textiles for research to determine
the risk to these objects. Based on the research results, and consideration of the
other objects displayed alongside the silk,
possible modifications to the display environment are discussed.
25 March
9:40
NAOMI LUXFORD – PHD STUDENT, ENGLISH HERITAGE, LONDON, UK; DAVID THICKETT – SENIOR
CONSERVATION SCIENTIST, ENGLISH HERITAGE, LONDON, UK; PAUL WYETH – FORMER VISITING RESEARCH
FELLOW IN CONSERVATION SCIENCE, TEXTILE CONSERVATION CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON, WINCHESTER, UK
49
PAINTED WOOD AS CLIMATE INDICATORS? – EXPERIENCES FROM A CONDITION SURVEY
OF PAINTED WOOD PANELS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN LÄCKÖ CASTLE, A PARTLY
DEHUMIDIFIED HISTORIC BUILDING
W
25 March
10:00
ith a pre-history in medieval times, and
with its present structure mainly dating
from the late 17th century, Läckö Castle is an
impressive building. It is located on a small
peninsula in the Lake Vänern in southern Sweden. During its lifetime the building has had
several owners, but for long periods it has also
been deserted or only used as a warehouse.
The building has never been permanently
heated and in the majority of the rooms the
temperature and relative humidity are closely
following the outdoor climate, both on a daily
and seasonal basis. There is no original furnishing left in the castle but in the majority of the
rooms original painted doors, wall panels and
ceilings still exist.
Towards the end of the 1900s climate monitoring was initiated and air exchange was
measured using a passive tracer gas technique. The result showed high infiltration and
high fluctuations in temperature and relative
humidity for parts of the year. These conditions
are assumed to have prevailed over the centuries. Reports on humidity-induced damages
on paintings and the result of the climate investigation led to the installation of the dehumidification plant in two stages during 2000 and
2003, along with secondary glazing of the windows. The installation of the dehumidification
plant has improved environmental conditions,
thus allowing for temporary exhibitions as well
as furnishing historical rooms.
This paper will present the experience gained
from installing a dehumidification plant in an historic building as well as the results of comparing the indoor climate with the state of
preservation of painted wooden panels. Photographs of painted surfaces were taken in 2000
and repeated in later years for comparison and
evaluation of the effectiveness of the dehumid-
CHARLOTTA BYLUND MELIN – CONSERVATOR MSC, PHD STUDENT, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION,
UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG, GOTHENBURG, S; JONNY BJURMAN – ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, CONSERVATION
SCIENTIST, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION, UNIVERSITY OF GOTHENBURG, GOTHENBURG, S; MARIA
BRUNSKOG – FURNITURE CONSERVATOR, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, GOTLAND UNIVERSITY, VISBY, S; ASTRID
VON HOFSTEN – PAINTING CONSERVATOR, THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, STOCKHOLM, S
50
ification plant. The preliminary condition survey
of additional wooden panels shows that despite
the severe indoor climate the majority of them
are well preserved. Nevertheless, some panels
were either partly replaced or the paint layer
was completely reconstructed by conservators
in the 1920s due to their poor condition. Is it
possible to establish a connection between the
climate and state of preservation of the painted
wooden panels? Would other factors be influential such as painting techniques of various
artists, painting materials, the processing of
the wood prior to painting, or earlier restoration treatments? What information can be concluded from archival photos and records?
This work has given conservators-restorers and
building engineers valuable experience from
which conclusions can be drawn that hopefully
can be useful in maintaining other similar historical buildings.
THE GALLERY OF THE FORMER TOWN HALL OF AMSTERDAM.
AN INTERRELATION BETWEEN PAINTING, ARCHITECTURE AND LIGHT?
T
he town hall of Amsterdam (today the Royal
Palace) was built following a drawing (or
blueprint) by Jacob van Campen. The building
was designed as a Gesamtkunstwerk wherein
architecture, sculptured decorations, and paintings would harmoniously interact with one another.
The galleries surrounding the central hall are
decorated with eight paintings. They hang at
about nine metres above ground level in half
moon shaped niches, surrounded by sculptured
walls and vaults. The compositional schemes of
the paintings were chosen with an eye to their
unusual shape and position, taking into account
the height of the horizon and the size of the figures. Some trompe l’oeil effects enhance the interaction between the ‘real’ world of the
architecture and sculpture, and the fictive world
as represented in the paintings. In addition, the
direction of the painted light imitates the actual
light in the gallery.
The Stichting Restauratie Atelier Limburg
treated the paintings within a larger conservation project between April 2006 and September 2008. Due to their condition prior to
treatment, the relationship between the architecture and the paintings could no longer be appreciated; in the white painted gallery the dark
paintings stood out as unreadable obscure ‘islands’. The conservation project allowed a better insight into the original appearance of the
decoration scheme.
Research indicated that several tonal changes
had taken place in the ensemble:
– The oil paintings had darkened over time, because of natural ageing and former conservation treatments.
– The amount of natural light sources in the
gallery had been reduced.
– Today’s bright white painted sandstone vault,
was originally unpainted. Its natural beige colour,
that might have gradually changed over time to
a mid grey tone, was painted white in the mideighteenth century.
The darkening of the paintings on the one hand,
and the lightening of the architectural setting on
the other hand, has disturbed the original tonal
balance of the ensemble. However, when evaluating the scheme’s original tonality, the following
aspect should also be taken into account:
– Van Campen quit the project in 1654. His
plans for the paintings in the galleries were not
carried out. One may wonder if this is also true
for his plans for the colour of the walls and
vaults.
– The pictures must have been quite dark from
the start. They all have a dark ground layer,
which is much used in the final modelling effect. Moreover, two paintings are night scenes
and others depict a situation at dusk. Notably,
the (too) dark appearance of the paintings was
already mentioned at an early stage of their
history.
– Financial difficulties severely delayed the completion of the decoration of the galleries, some
parts even today remained unfinished. Therefore, the fact that the vault was left unpainted
may not have been prompted by aesthetic reasons, but by motives of costs.
25 March
11:10
Hence, one may wonder whether a true harmonious interaction between painting, architecture
and sculpture, as was intended by Van Campen,
was also the goal of the commissioners and artists
who were involved in the decoration after 1654.
EMILIE FROMENT – CONSERVATOR AND EDUCATOR, STICHTING RESTAURATIE ATELIER LIMBURG (SRAL),
MAASTRICHT, NL; MARGRIET VAN EIKEMA HOMMES – RESEARCHER AND EDUCATOR, UNIVERSITY OF
AMSTERDAM (UVA), RESEARCH GROUP HISTORY OF RENAISSANCE AND EARLY MODERN ART, AMSTERDAM, NL;
ANNA ZWAGERMAN – POSTGRADUATE STUDENT, UVA/SRAL, MAASTRICHT, NL; LUC MEGENS –
RESEARCHER, NETHERLANDS INSTITUTE FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE (ICN), AMSTERDAM, NL; MATTHIJS DE
KEIJZER – SENIOR RESEARCHER, ICN, AMSTERDAM, NL
51
A ROCOCO ROOM FROM A HOUSE ALONG THE AMSTERDAM CANALS ON DISPLAY
IN THE NEW RIJKSMUSEUM
W
hen the Rijksmuseum reopens its doors
in 2013 it will include various period
rooms. One of those will show the visitor how
exuberant the interiors of the houses along the
Amsterdam canals were.
25 March
11:30
This room was created in ca. 1743 for the
wealthy merchant Matthijs Beuning. It has wall
panelling made of Cuba mahogany with wonderful woodcarving, a big marble chimney
piece with a painting above and a very opulent
plaster ceiling. It is one of the first rooms in the
Netherlands where mahogany was used and
the carving is of the highest quality. The room
is big; 7.80 by 8.20 m and 4.60 m high.
The house, which contained this room, was demolished in 1885 and the room and its ceiling
were moved to the Stedelijk Museum where it
became part of a series of six period rooms. In
1975 the period rooms of the Stedelijk Museum were dismantled and put in the storage
of the Amsterdam Historic Museum to make a
place for modern art, the new focus of the
Stedelijk Museum.
52
PAUL VAN DUIN
The rooms were fortunately not forgotten and
in 2001 the main parts of the mahogany room
were conserved to become part of the
Rijksmuseum exhibition Rococo, Nederland
aan de zwier. This was very successful and the
Amsterdam Historic Museum, not having
enough place to erect the room, proposed to
include the room in the plans for the New
Rijksmuseum.
Changes that were made when the room was
installed in 1885 in the Stedelijk Museum included the adaptation of the wall originally containing three windows into a wall with one large
window, which was a part of the museum building. The wooden structure of the ceiling was
also adapted, but we only found out about that
when conservation was started: all beams were
‘new’ and the planks onto which the plaster was
fixed were partly removed during construction.
As the room was dismantled twice, once from
the original location and once in 1975, the ceiling was also cut twice into sections, which
could be transported. The adaptations and
– HEAD OF FURNITURE CONSERVATION, RIJKSMUSEUM, AMSTERDAM, NL
saw cuts made the ceiling unstable. We removed all later additions and made wooden
frames onto which the sections of the ceiling
could be fixed.
At present, conservators, who specialize in
plaster conservation, work on the ceiling,
while furniture conservators work on the
wall panelling. In order to stabilize the sections of the ceiling these two disciplines have
to work together. This is not always easy
task as the background is very different and
it is rare to find a plaster ceiling which is not
fixed to a building.
The lecture will focus on artistic and historical
aspects of the project, on the quality of the
room (woodwork, marble, picture, and plaster), on research into the implications of dismantling and reconstructing of the room, on
conservation of the different materials, as well
as on decision-making process about displaying of the room and adapting of the varied installations (air-conditioning, lighting, fire
distinguishers, etc).
OLD FRIENDS, NEW PLACES. RELOCATION AND CONSERVATION OF TWO DECORATED DOORS
BY AUSTRALIAN ARTIST, DONALD FRIEND AND BALINESE CARVER, I MADE JOJOL
D
uring his long association with Asia, Australian artist Donald Friend decorated a
number of antique doors both for his own
home and for others. Friend painted a set of
French doors An exotic garden viewed at different levels (1957) while living in Sri Lanka
and later he gave them to the well known local
architect Geoffrey Bawa, in order to settle a
debt. The painted doors remained as an entrance to Bawa’s house until they were acquired by the Art Gallery of NSW in 1988. This
acquisition coincided with the opening of a
major retrospective of Donald Friend’s work,
held at the Gallery in 1990, which then toured
to other Australian institutions.
The Gallery’s paintings conservators worked
with the curators in preparing the exhibition.
The importance of this artwork was highlighted when the conservators successfully
argued their case to prevent this fragile work
DONNA HINTON
from being included in the touring component
of the exhibition.
Many years later, in 2005, the Gallery acquired another decorated door, Jungle motif
with devotional figure; self portrait on Balinese door (1978). It was painted and gilded
by Donald Friend on one side and carved by
Balinese artist, I Made Jojol on the other. This
work was referred to the Objects Conservation section of the Gallery for treatment and
display preparation.
This later acquisition had been installed in
Friend’s museum in Bali. The building was designed by Geoffrey Bawa in keeping with their
grand vision for a housing development ‘Batujimbar’, located near Sanur on the east coast
of Bali. Bawa wrote: “Each house has 30 meters of beach front and a wide view. A primary
aim is to give the best possible view from every
vantage point in every room, whether it be of
sea, inner garden, courtyard, reflecting pool, or
of an antique painted door set into white walls”.
Both doors once enjoyed a functional place in
architecturally designed buildings. Now, displayed adjacent to one another in an intimate
space in the Gallery, the results of different approaches to treatment and presentation, carried out at different times by different
conservation specialists, are obvious.
These decorated doors provide an opportunity to review two different treatments and
display approaches applied to similar works
by the same artist. How would Donald Friend
respond to this interpretation of his art? In
my paper I will explore the differences and
similarities in treatments and consider the effects they have on our understanding and enjoyment of the works.
25 March
11:50
– SENIOR OBJECTS CONSERVATOR, ART GALLERY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, SYDNEY, AUS
53
THE CONSERVATION OF A CHINESE COROMANDEL LACQUER PANEL
FROM THE COLLECTION OF VILLA LA PIETRA
T
he 15th century Florentine Villa La Pietra
was purchased by the Acton family in
1908, and subsequently bequeathed by Sir
Harold Acton to New York University upon his
death in 1994, with the proviso that the collection be maintained as it was while the family
lived there. A gathering place for the early 20th
century expatriate American and British artistic and literary community in Florence, its
eclectic collection of antiquities, artwork and
antiques spans many centuries, serving as a
testament to the taste of the day.
25 March
13:50
In the Camera Verde, a fine 17th century Chinese Coromandel lacquer panel depicting a
courtly palace with figures, trees and pavilions,
hung for at least 60 years. The panel was acquired by the Acton family in its present form,
either in their exotic travels or, more likely, from
a dealer who traded in objects intended to appeal to the British taste of the time, as an ap-
propriate furnishing to adorn the wall of their
majestic 14th century Italian villa.
A 12-piece folding screen was cut down in
length, the sections sawn lengthwise in half, the
backs presumably discarded. Four front sections were used to create the present panel,
immobilized with a modified wooden cradle and
frame prior to purchase by the Acton family. Severe cupping and detachment of lacquer surfaces relate to the original fabrication method
typical of export products, to the methods subsequently used to create a framed, immobilized
panel from a folding screen, as well as to the
effects of environmental instability on the work.
Examination and analysis have identified aspects of the original constituents as well as
components subsequently altered or added
which have exacerbated condition problems.
Treatment includes the adaptation of traditional Asian methods to set down flaking and
PAMELA HATCHFIELD – FIIC, FAIC, FAAR, ROBERT P. AND CAROL T. HENDERSON, HEAD OF OBJECTS
CONSERVATION, MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS, BOSTON, USA
54
detached lacquer, in addition to structural stabilization using an extruded aluminium framework. Methods for addressing old restoration,
loss compensation and reintegration must
consider its location in a historic house and
the intention to minimize changes in appearance, avoiding over-restoration.
Decisions about the treatment, final appearance and long term preservation measures
involve collaboration between curators, historians, objects conservators, panel painting
conservators, and exhibit case manufacturers. Conservation students from New York
University’s Institute of Fine Arts participate
in this multi-year treatment process. This
paper will describe the collaborative decision-making process to determine appropriate and achievable goals of the project,
and the ongoing process of examination
and treatment within the context of a historic setting.
FROM HISTORIC INTERIORS TO THE CONSERVATION STUDIO: A ROUTE TO KNOWLEDGE
OF A JAPANESE MULTI-MATERIAL TEXTILE FROM THE STIBBERT MUSEUM IN FLORENCE
T
his paper aims at explaining many challenges in the interpretation of the object and
the evaluation of the conservation treatment options of a textile artefact, bearing in mind its
main characteristics:
1. The provenance from a museum collection,
which has – among its primary aims that include an appropriate conservation of the works
of art – the respect for the requirements of the
collector, who had strongly sought the museum
and supervised it to the last detail;
2. The use of different materials (animal fibres;
vegetal fibres, natural dyes, horn, leather, metal,
lacquer);
3. The provenance from a complex and distant
artistic production such as Japan (Manchira,
part of a Samurai’s Armour, Edo period).
The diagnostic project, art-historical study, and
interaction among multiple professional compe-
tences such as scientists, historians and conservators are fundamental elements to let the
object speak about itself in its own special language, telling us its own story and inevitably
guiding us towards future conservation treatment and preservation.
Among the techniques studied and ‘rediscovered’,
particular attention has been paid to the dyeing
of leather called shobu-gawa in Japanese. Thanks
to the above-mentioned professional synergy, it
has been possible to investigate the constituent
materials and reconstruct the original technique
of this particular type of decoration on leather.
Another important subject to study was the
iconography of the dyed leather, rich in meanings
tied to important Japanese historical events.
Among the choices leading to our conservation
treatment, particular importance and significance
has also been given to the textile's structural con-
solidation. The specific typology of degradation
concerning the object enabled us to make conservation choices using differentiated methods.
The conservation and exhibition projects have
been then enriched with all the data collected
during the study carried out while the object was
in the studio. Finally they have been necessarily
compared to the provenance of the object from
a collection and museum as particular as the
Stibbert one. This museum was strongly desired
by Frederick Stibbert at the end of 19th century.
He arranged it in every detail (display cases and
mannequins included) establishing how he
wanted it to be handed down to posterity.
Therefore many are the challenges to make operative conservation choices which may enable
us to maintain unchanged the collector’s will, and
at the same time respect the delicate balance of
these works of art made of different materials.
25 March
14:10
SUSANNA CONTI – TEXTILE CONSERVATION DIRECTOR, OPIFICIO DELLE PIETRE DURE E LABORATORI DI
RESTAURO, FLORENCE, I; LICIA TRIOLO – TEXTILE CONSERVATOR, OPIFICIO DELLE PIETRE DURE (SAF), FLORENCE, I;
MARIA RIZZI – BIOLOGIST, OPIFICIO DELLE PIETRE DURE, FLORENCE, I; FRANCESCO CIVITA – CURATOR
OF THE JAPANESE DEPARTMENT, STIBBERT MUSEUM, FLORENCE, I; NAOMI KATO – COSTUME AND TEXTILE
HISTORIAN, FLORENCE - NAGASAKI, J
55
CHURCH OF THE TRANSFIGURATION OF OUR LORD IN TALLINN AND CONSERVATION
OF ITS CARVED-WOOD ICONOSTASIS
T
his paper will discuss the history of Church
of the Transfiguration of Our Lord in Tallinn,
its interior decorations and magnificent
Baroque carved-wood iconostasis. Emphasis is
given to the long history and complexity of conservation of the iconostasis.
25 March
14:30
Originally belonging to St. Michael's Convent of the
Cistercian Order, the church of the Transfiguration of Our Lord (Suur-Kloostri St. No.14, Tallinn)
was given to an Orthodox congregation in 1716.
The church has retained its original gothic form,
save for the addition of a Baroque spire in 1776
and exterior renovations in the early 1800s. The
treasured so-called Slavic Baroque iconostasis,
made in 1720s by Russian adept Ivan Zarudny,
is one of the most impressive of its kind. The
iconostasis is over 15 metres long; carved of
wood, gilded and painted. It also contains 34
icons, painted on canvas. Therefore, there is work
for a multidisciplinary team of wood, polychrome
wood, painting and metal conservators.
The conservation of the iconostasis is an ongoing project, which started almost 10 years
ago, and will fortunately reach a conclusion
within the year 2010. During this period, the
conservators from the Conservation Centre
Kanut and KAR-Grupp worked on the project.
Since the conservation project is ongoing, and
some parts of the iconostasis still show the
general condition before conservation, it is
possible to speak of it in the present tense.
The condition of the original materials is very
poor. The constructional part of the iconostasis is damaged by cracks, enhanced by the
damage caused by previous consolidation
with wax. Most of the metal joints are rusted.
The gilding is rather inhomogeneous (consists
of various gold types), which together with
time and active usage of the iconostasis results in major deteriorations: the gilding is
partially missing, the preserved parts are either worn out or flaking. The majority of gilded
parts have also been covered with bronze
paint in order to restore them visually, but the
bronze paint has changed its colour to nearblack by now. The paint layers of the icons
have also been damaged and the aged var-
MARIA LILLEPRUUN – POLYCHROME OBJECTS CONSERVATOR, CONSERVATION CENTRE KANUT AND ESTONIAN
ACADEMY OF ARTS, TALLINN, EST; KRISTE SIBUL – DIRECTOR, CONSERVATION CENTRE KANUT, TALLINN, EST
56
nish has darkened. The whole iconostasis is
quite dirty, and its upper parts are thickly covered with dust.
The iconostasis has been conserved several
times in the 19th Century: in 1930s, 1950s,
1960s and 1991. The last major conservation works began in 2000, and as mentioned are about to be completed. The
target of the conservation process is to prepare a very detailed documentation of the
iconostasis, to clean all the surfaces, to consolidate the gilding and the polychrome layers, to conserve the icons and homogenize
the view of all details. Preferred conservation methods, tools and materials are to be
discussed in this paper.
Church of the Transfiguration of Our Lord is
definitely a beautiful example of an Orthodox
congregation church in Tallinn, but its iconostasis is a real pearl of Estonian sacral heritage. Nowadays, the great value of the
iconostasis is recognized, and it is being given
proper supervision and maintenance.
TECHNICAL STUDY OF POLYCHROME CLAY SCULPTURES FROM THE BUDDHIST TEMPLE COMPLEX
AT NAKO, HIMACHAL PRADESH, NORTH INDIA
T
he major scope of an ongoing comprehensive scientific study of the supports and
painting materials used at the Nako temple
complex to preserve its unique artistic decoration has focused on the technical study of the
polychromy from the clay sculptures of the
temple interiors.
A substantial part of the Buddhist temple complex in Nako, Western Himalaya region, North
India can be dated back to the period of its foundation at the end of the 11th and beginning of the
12th century. While a lot of artworks and evidence
of the Indo-Tibetan history has already been lost
in Chinese Tibet, fortunately, the temple complex
in Nako has survived. Due to its artistic qualities,
the temple complex has become one of the most
important and unique art works of its kind in the
world. Boasting four temples, this complex preserves the earliest artistic heritage of the Tibetan
Buddhism in the form of mural paintings, polychrome clay sculptures, decorated wooden architectural elements, and painted ceiling panels.
This paper deals with the scientific results of
the examination of two sets of polychromed
clay sculptures originating probably from the
12th century: five sculptures from the Translator’s Temple (Lotsawa Lhakhang) and nine
sculptures from the Upper Temple (Lhakhang
Gongma).
Sculptures from both temples are nowadays
heavily overpainted, and therefore, the primary
goal of the research was to reveal the appearance and material composition of the original
polychromy and to compare them with materials used in surrounding wall paintings originating in 12th century. Documentation of later
interventions and their examination was another aim of the project.
Since the application of non-invasive techniques was ruled out due to the unfavourable
geographical and working conditions (e.g. no
access to electricity, pure infrastructure, no
transportation facilities, etc.), the research
was based on an on-site inspection and extensive examination of microsamples. Paint
cross-sections were studied using incident
light and UV fluorescence microscopy and
high resolution SEM. Technical examinations
of clay samples, pigments and binding media
comprised polarised light microscopy, microchemical reactions, SEM-EDX, XRD, MRS, and
GC-MS.
The investigations have revealed that while
the oldest preserved polychromy of the
Gongma sculptures is based on the full-area
gilding over the gypsum ground with two later
interventions, the oldest polychromy of the
Lotsawa sculptures is different. The sculptures were not gilded but painted onto the
smoothened gypsum ground in different vivid
colours. The artistic technique and materials
used appear to be similar to those used in
the original wall paintings. Lotsawa sculptures show signs of several reparation
phases and up to six-seven overpainting
phases.
25 March
14:50
Before the sampling, all sculpture surfaces
were cleaned after careful removal of the mud
deposits resulting from the ingress of water.
During the cleaning the mostly endangered
fragile areas were stabilised and consolidated
when necessary.
TATJANA BAYEROVA – CONSERVATION SCIENTIST, HEAD OF THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY, CONSERVATION
DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED ARTS VIENNA, VIENNA, A; MARIA GRUBER – CONSERVATOR, PHD
STUDENT, CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED ARTS VIENNA, VIENNA, A; GABRIELA KRIST
– CONSERVATOR, HEAD OF THE INSTITUTE (DEPARTMENT), CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED
ARTS VIENNA, VIENNA, A
57
CLEANING OF TANNED LEATHER: TESTING WITH INFRA RED SPECTROSCOPY AND SEM-EDAX
L
25 March
16:20
Introduction
eather is one of the most sensitive materials used in everyday applications and art
objects, that is subject to hard use, harsh environmental conditions, etc. Leather cleaning
techniques involve the use of various solvents,
soaps and detergents, surface dry-cleaners,
etc. The major concern of most research work
carried out on the use of these cleaning products and techniques has aimed basically at the
effectiveness of cleaning procedures. However,
physical/chemical interaction of the various
cleaning products or techniques with the proteinaceous material, as well as with possible
added compounds (due to tanning processes,
etc.) is an issue that merits investigation. In the
present work, the results of spectroscopic
(FTIR, FTIR-microscopy and SEM-EDAX) evaluation of the possible effects of various cleaning
procedures on leather samples are presented.
Results and discussion
Leather samples were cleaned in one area, leaving almost half of the surface in a non-cleaned
state for comparative purposes. Cleaning prod-
ucts and techniques used: organic solvents
(white spirit, trichloroethane, acetone, ethanolwater mixture), acidic and alkaline media (hydrochloric acid, aqueous ammonia solution),
water-based detergents (Texapon®, Synperonic
N®), a hydro-carbon-based detergent (Vulpex®
in white spirit) and a natural rubber-based surface dry-cleaner (Groomstick®).
FTIR spectra (KBr samples and microscopy on
surface and cross sections) were examined
comparatively between cleaned and noncleaned adjacent areas on each of the tested
leather samples. In the cleaned areas, the most
notable changes were observed in the case of
acetone, ammonia solution and ethanol-water
(reduction of esters and protein-related components), trichloroethane (reduction of protein-related components), and Vulpex® in white spirit
(reduction of hydrocarbon chains and ketones).
Analysis of cleaned leather surface, with SEMEDAX showed significant increase of Chlorine
(Cl) for hydrochloric acid - cleaned surface,
Sodium (Na) for Texapon® and Potassium (K)
for Vulpex®. Finally, small increase of Sulphur
(S), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca) and Silicon
KATERINA MALEA – LECTURER, TEI OF ATHENS, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION OF ANTIQUITIES & WORKS
OF ART, EGALEO, ATHENS, GR; STAMATIS C. BOYATZIS – ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, TEI OF ATHENS,
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION OF ANTIQUITIES & WORKS OF ART, EGALEO, ATHENS, GR; MARINA KEHAGIA
– POSTGRADUATE STUDENT IN MUSEUM STUDIES, TEI OF ATHENS, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION OF ANTIQUITIES
& WORKS OF ART, EGALEO, ATHENS, GR
58
(Si) and appearance (low levels) of Sodium
(Na), Silicon (Si) and Chlorine (Cl) was detected in the case of Groomstick®. Residual
quantities of cleaning agents have also been
found through SEM analysis in the case of
acetone, Vulpex® in white spirit and Groomstick®.
Conclusions
FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX were employed to investigate the alterations on the
surface of tanned goat-skin induced by a number of cleaning products and techniques. FTIR
spectroscopy and SEM-EDAX were employed
to investigate the state of tanned leather
after treatment with a number of cleaning
agents. Detergent in non-polar solvent
(Vulpex® in white spirit) and Groomstick selectively remove hydrocarbon-related components (wax or oily impurities) and possibly
oxidation products. In many cases, like treatment with acetone, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, trichloroethane) bulk material has been
removed, while the organic additives (such as
wax) have been affected to a lesser extent.
ANALYSIS AND PRESERVATION OF AN ANCIENT ALUM TAWED PARCHMENT
T
he Temple Scroll is one of the most beautiful items belonging to the famous Dead
Sea Scrolls collection. It is written on a light
coloured parchment that measures 8.148
metres long and hardly exceeds 0.1 millimetres in thickness.
Palaeographic studies revealed that the Scroll
consisted of two parts dating from different
eras: the larger part of the Scroll dates to the
middle of the 1st century BCE, whereas the
smaller part, which was probably applied as a
antique repair sheet, is supposed to have
been adhered and copied in the middle of the
1st century CE.
Allegedly, Bedouins discovered the Temple
IRA RABIN
Scroll in 1956 wrapped in a cloth and deposited in a clay jar in Qumran cave 11. When
scholars finally accessed the Scroll in 1967
it was severely damaged by humidity.
The results of the analytical study of the surface of both parts of the scroll conducted recently by means of SEM/EDX, µ-XRF, FTIR and
Raman spectroscopy show that the larger
part of the scroll has been tawed with alum.
Whereas no sulphate salts could be detected
in the repair sheet, it was found that chalk has
been applied to its surface.
The Temple Scroll is the only alum tawed
parchment in the whole collection. Questions
relating to its preservation will be discussed
in this presentation.
25 March
16:40
– SCIENTIST, FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH AND TESTING (BAM), BERLIN, D
59
MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGED HINOKI ( CHAMAECYPARIS OBTUSA ENDL.)
WOOD FROM JAPANESE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS
W
ood has always played a major role in
Japanese traditional culture. More than
90% of buildings listed as a national property
or a nationally important cultural property of
Japan are constructed of wood. In the ancient
capitals Kyoto and Nara, many traditional
wooden buildings are recognised as World Cultural Heritage by the UNESCO. The most famous and the world’s oldest wooden
construction still standing is Horyu-ji temple
from the second half of the seventh century.
25 March
17:00
Wood is present in many cultural heritage
objects due to its capacity to resist strain
over long period of time. However, the transformation of its properties in regular use remains insufficiently known. The present
study on the effects of wood aging takes advantage of the Japanese context where
building traditions have been maintained for
centuries.
One major difficulty for the research on
‘aging of wood’ is the gathering of suitable
samples, with well-defined origin, certified
dating and permission of publication by conservation administration. The Japanese con-
text, where traditional uses of wood have
been maintained for more than 1600 years,
offers a unique opportunity to address the
question of wood aging. Since 2004, the
wood samples from various temples and
other historical buildings were being gathered by the Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Japan.
The matching of specimens from different
origins is another typical obstacle. Wood is
a variable material due to genetic variations
and dependency on growing conditions of
the trees. To discuss property changes due
to aging, a recent reference is required.
However, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to obtain recent wood that closely
matches a given old wood sample. To overcome this difficulty, well-established structure-properties relationships can be used to
produce corrections that will allow comparing data from slightly mismatched samples.
Three points bending test were performed
in longitudinal (L) and radial (R) directions on
small clear wood specimens cut from 8 historical samples and one modern reference
MISAO YOKOYAMA – POST DOCTORAL FELLOW, RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SUSTAINABLE HUMANOSPHERE,
(RISH), KYOTO UNIVERSITY, KYOTO, J; JUNJI SUGIYAMA – PROFESSOR, RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF SUSTAINABLE
HUMANOSPHERE (RISH), KYOTO UNIVERSITY, KYOTO, J; SHUICHI KAWAI – PROFESSOR, DIRECTOR OF
RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF SUSTAINABLE HUMANOSPHERE (RISH), KYOTO UNIVERSITY, KYOTO, J
60
considered of high quality by craftsmen. Although aged wood appeared more rigid and
stronger than recent wood, after density
and humidity corrections were applied, variation of strength in L direction was not significant, but variation of rigidity in R direction
was observed. The post-linear behaviour of
stress-strain curves, however, was drastically influenced by wood age especially in R
direction where the strength and rupture
energy decreased noticeably with the time
elapsed since the wood was processed.
Aged wood can be considered as safe as
long it is not loaded perpendicular to grain.
This paper focuses on mechanical characteristics of aged hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa
Endl.) wood of Japanese historical buildings,
especially their Young’s modulus and rupture
energy. It will benefit not only the basic scientific knowledge on aging of wood, particularly,
the unique indigenous Japanese hinoki-wood,
but also the common and universal understanding of world-wide wooden cultural heritage. This research will have a positive
impact on preservation and conservation of
wooden cultural properties in the world.
ALTERATION OF GILTS ON MEDIEVAL MURAL PAINTINGS
N
umerous metallic decorations survive on
Romanesque mural paintings. Generally
the metallic leaf has not survived on the wall
due to poor environmental conditions leading
to degradation. However traces of fixing
agents (mordants) can be detected by UV fluorescence. Sampling of the remnant gilded
areas provides enough trace metal to permit
analysis by FTIR and SEM/EDS. This allows the
analysts to define the kind of metal (Sn, Au, Ag,
etc.) and the gilding technique.
Furthermore, alterations of gilded mural
paintings were studied. First on experimental
FLOREAL DANIEL
samples made by a restorer according the
recipes of mediaeval treatises. Secondly on
different types of ‘pure’ organic binders (protein or lipid). The two kinds of samples (the reproduction of ancient gilts and their binders)
were submitted to accelerated ageing and
analyzed.
The detection of traces of gilt and the understanding of alteration phenomena allows the
proposal, on a mural painting of the 12th century (vault of the ancient abbey home in
Moissac), a virtual reconstruction of the
gilded elements of the paintings.
25 March
17:20
AURÉLIE MOUNIER – CRPAA, UNIVERSITÉ BORDEAUX 3, BORDEAUX, F
61
POSTERS
23 MARCH POSTER
THE NINFEO OF SACCHETTI PALACE IN ROME
T
he Ninfeo of Sacchetti Palace on Via Giulia
is still to be found in its original historical
setting in the garden of the palace. The Ninfeo
is placed in front of the river Tiber in the outer
reaches of the garden.
Like many of the luxury palaces constructed in
Rome between the mid fifteenth and end of the
sixteenth centuries, the Sacchetti palace was
designed within a garden setting that contained a ninfeo. The palace remains one of the
most representative buildings of the fifteenth
century Roman architecture. This monument,
a fusion between two building typologies, the
loggia and the ninfeo, is unique within the design of the ninfei and the gardens of the
Roman Manierismo.
The Ninfeo has never been the object of an in
depth study probably because the Palace
decoration was so important to obscure the
monument visibility. Furthermore, the precarious state of its preservation has also
prevented the correct legibility of the decoration.
The conservation treatment carried out by Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione ed il
Restauro (ISCR, former ICR) has therefore
given an opportunity for a in depth study of the
Ninfeo that emphasized some problematic aspects that were until today neglected. These
are listed below:
– The analysis of the decorative techniques
used in the construction of the Ninfeo using visual observations combined with the comparison of information obtained from sources.
– The definition of the multiple causes of the
degradation resulting mostly from the position-
ELISABETTA ANSELMI – CONSERVATOR, ISTITUTO SUPERIORE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE E IL RESTAURO (ISCR),
ROME, I; CARLA D’ANGELO – CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; MARIA CAROLINA GAETANI –
CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; GIORGIA GALANTI – FREELANCE CONSERVATOR, ROME, I; MARIA ENRICA
GIRALICO – CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; DANIELA GENNARI – CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I;
VALERIA MASSA – CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; ANNAMARIA PANDOLFI – ARCHITECT, ISCR, ROME, I
64
ing of the Ninfeo and its proximity to the water.
– The necessity to carry out an extensive historical review in order to understand the
technical and construction characteristics
which became evident while work on the
Ninfeo was ongoing.
Archival research was therefore carried out to
identify some essential documents, which
could be used to decipher characteristics of
the Ninfeo in terms of its construction and its
decoration.
The complexity and diversity of the materials
utilised for the construction of the Ninfeo combined with its inherent architecture, a loggia
that is opened on two sides, and its location on
the Lungotevere (one of the major arteries of
a densely populated city) mean that this is a
building that must be constantly monitored
and maintained.
T
he conservation of the Frieze hall, placed
on the ground floor of Villa Farnesina, represents an interesting case of intervention on
historical decorated interior. The project is
part of the recovery of Villa Farnesina, one of
the most relevant renaissance mansions in
Rome, representing a complete example of the
cultural climate in the first decades of the sixteenth century from the architectural and figurative points of view.
The small hall presents on the top of the walls
a perimetric frieze painted by Baldassare Peruzzi, probably with pupils, between 1508 and
1509. It portrays mythological scenes mostly
derived from Ovidius Metamorphoses and it is
connected to the caisson ceiling by a complex
wooden carved and painted frame.
Before conservation, which was started by Istituto Superiore per la Conservazione e il
Restauro (ISCR, formerly ICR) in 2003, the
walls were covered by textile hangings placed
in the 1930s. From previous photographic
documentation and from samples taken at the
beginning of the intervention, it was possible to
reconstruct the overall appearance of the
room at the end of the ninteenth century. It
was characterised by the presence of a decoration painted on wallpaper: false drapes, connected to a painted frame underlying the
frieze, fell covering almost entirely the walls
until 150 cm from ground level. The state of
conservation was critical particularly in the
north wall (north–east corner) because of previous water infiltrations due to presently inactive plumbing and of wide losses of paper
decoration due to extensive masonry remodelling and obliteration of electrical cables, running all around the top of the walls.
Following the conservation of the frieze with
mythological scenes, the complete recovery of
the hall painted surfaces (ceiling and walls)
was undertaken based on a critical and
methodological approach, with the contribution
of different specialists such as architects, art
historians, conservators, chemists and physicists. The purpose was to organically recreate
the hall appearance at the end of the nineteenth century, before that the textile hangings
application made the walls monochromatic,
with the aim of exalting and isolating the decorative element considered more relevant: the
sixteenth century frieze.
The conservation, taking account of the original
execution technique of the painted surfaces and
their poor state of conservation, was particularly complex and delicate and required the set
up of an experimental procedure which was established following numerous studies and texts.
23 MARCH POSTER
ROME, VILLA FARNESINA ALLA LUNGARA, THE FRIEZE HALL. THE CONSERVATION OF THE FRIEZE
BY BALDASSARRE PERUZZI AND THE RECOVERY OF THE 19 TH CENTURY DECORATION
The intervention was originally conducted by
ISCR with students and it continued with freelance conservators under the technical and
scientific direction of the Institute.
MARICA MERCALLI – ART HISTORIAN, ISTITUTO SUPERIORE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE E IL RESTAURO (ISCR),
ROME, I; ANNAMARIA PANDOLFI – ARCHITECT, ISCR, ROME, I; COSTANZA MORA – CONSERVATOR,
ISCR, ROME, I; FEDERICA DI COSIMO – CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; COSTANZA LONGO –
CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; PAOLO SCARPITTI – CONSERVATOR, ISCR, ROME, I; ALESSIA FELICI –
FREELANCE CONSERVATOR, ROME, I; CRISTIANA DE LISIO – FREELANCE CONSERVATOR, ROME, I
65
23 MARCH POSTER
CONSERVING TRAVELING WALLPAPER. ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION
IN THE MID TO END 18 TH CENTURY REFLECTED IN THE HISTORIC INTERIOR
T
he reason for this study was the identification of four identical wallpapers that, over
a period of five years, were found in four different locations in two countries (in The Netherlands and the United Kingdom). It was
discovered that the designer was a London
based paper-stainer whose client base
reached from Continental Europe, including
Great Britain, to America in the second half of
the eighteenth century. The wallpapers were
studied as part of the conservation and
restoration of these historic buildings. In two
of the locations, it was decided that fragments
of the wallpapers found were to be reproduced for a historically accurate reconstruction of the rooms.
In the process of reconstruction the conservator and the designer worked together in
studying the texture, colours, printing techniques and application of the wallpapers. Discoveries were made, such as the proof that all
four wallpapers were printed from the same
The study of how the individual wallpapers
were actually made was done in the course of
reconstructing the papers. It is extremely important to have a thorough understanding of
the original manufacturing methods before decisions can be made regarding the reconstruction using a combination of original and
modern printing techniques and paint materials. Here, the experience and interdisciplinary
cooperation of conservator, designer, historian
and printer come together.
This occasion, of course, triggered comparisons for other wallpapers. It was discovered
that a different pattern was traded to Ireland,
Great Britain and Boston; all manufactured
from the same blocks, with possibly one
copied from the other two. It was found that
yet another pattern was copied from a printed
Parisian textile, which was manufactured in
ELSBETH GELDHOF – CONSERVATOR ARCHITECTURAL ARTS, BLUE TORTOISE CONSERVATION, LONDON, UK;
ROBERT WESTON – ARCHITECTURAL HISTORIAN AND HISTORIC WALLPAPER DESIGNER, HAMILTON WESTON
WALLPAPERS, RICHMOND, SURREY, UK
66
blocks but with a different printing technique
resulting in extremely clever permutations.
London and traded to The Netherlands and
Boston. A close study of the original pigments,
materials and techniques by a conservator, in
collaboration with a designer, allowed for specific research questions to be posed. A simple
visual comparison of the patterns would never
have led to these conclusions.
Wallpapers are not just about decoration, nice
patterns or wonderful eye pleasing colours. They
represent a story about the house and contemporary society, in which international trade was
the root from which the spread of many more
goods than previously thought grew. On a more
abstract level it shows that authenticity and attention to detail in the conservation of historic
interiors is vital for the ability of the historic property to tell its story. This can only be reached by
the close collaboration of different fields that are
not restricted to traditional conservation disciplines alone. This research is still ongoing and
we would like to invite anybody who has a contribution to this subject.
J
uanqinzhai, the Studio of Exhaustion from
Diligent Service, is the most private building
in the retirement complex built under the direct supervision of the Qianlong Emperor in
the northeast corner of the Forbidden City between 1771 and 1775. It is a nine bay post
and beam tier structure (Tailiang) with masonry infill walls, four bays of which comprise a
two story theater and the other five bays of
which comprise a group of private rooms on
two floors that surround an entry court.
The interior is distinguished by the use of different design schemes in the two halves of the
building and by the rarity of the decorative materials preserved in both. The theater is
renowned in particular for the trompe l'oeil
mural paintings that cover the entire ceiling
and walls that were executed in tempera on
silk by Wang Youxue under the influence of
Giuseppe Castiglione (1688-1766). The other
surfaces in the theater are decorated with polychrome and faux-bamboo painted finishes, lacquer
and gold leaf. The entry court is distinguished by
naturalistic scenes and geometric patterns created from veneers of assorted hardwoods and
inner bamboo, dyed bamboo strips, as well as
jade insets, embroidered silk windows, and paintings mounted to the walls. Many of these fragile
surface treatments are the last surviving original
examples of their type in the Forbidden City.
The conservation departments of the Palace
Museum (Forbidden City) have enormous collective expertise in diverse areas of specialty,
however a request was made to the World
Monuments Fund for assistance in planning
and executing a project that would reflect
current international standards and practices of conservation. This involved the location of craftsmen familiar with the unusual
materials found; the comparison of methods
of practice between Chinese and western
conservators to identify how traditional practices could be executed, revived or varied to
meet both modern conservation criteria for
stability of materials, reversibility, and documentation as well as the guidelines pertaining
to the preservation of Chinese heritage sites.
It also involved determining how such different materials in such in varied states of condition and appearance could be integrated
esthetically and how reproduction materials
and finishes could be conscientiously introduced with a similar objective. The conservation project was organized into four areas:
the architectural structure, the mural painting, the interior painted finishes, and the interior decorative materials. Other projects that
were directed at the interior included the introduction of a discreet air handling system
to improve the environmental conditions, lowvoltage lighting, and the development of an interpretation program that would minimize
the impact of visitor traffic. Because of the
success of Juanqinzhai as a cooperative project, it was identified as a prototype for conservation of the entire Qianlong Garden
complex of twenty-seven buildings to be undertaken over the next decade as a joint project of the Palace Museum and the World
Monuments Fund.
23 MARCH POSTER
THE INTEGRATION OF CONSERVATION STRATEGIES FOR THE INTERIORS OF JUANQINZHAI
IN THE FORBIDDEN CITY, BEIJING
T.K. MCCLINTOCK – DIRECTOR OF STUDIO TKM CONSERVATION OF FINE ART AND HISTORIC WORKS ON PAPER,
SOMERVILLE, MASSACHUSETTS, USA; JOHN STUBBS – VICE PRESIDENT OF FIELD PROJECTS, WORLD
MONUMENTS FUND, NEW YORK, AND ADJUNCT ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, GRADUATE PROGRAM IN HISTORIC
PRESERVATION, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, NEW YORK, USA
67
23 MARCH POSTER
ST PANCRAS INTERNATIONAL STATION – SHARING CONSERVATION DECISIONS
C
onstruction began on the train shed of St
Pancras Station in 1866. It is an immense
interior, 689 foot long, 100 foot high at its
apex and at that time spanning the largest covered area in the world, and almost half of its
surface glazed!
The station is now the main entry point to
the UK for visitors arriving via Euro Star. Visitors now emerge into a light airy space,
dominated by a light sky-blue. How this decorative scheme was determined and agreed
is a testament to successful interdisciplinary
collaboration.
In the mid 1990s it was the focus of a major
redevelopment of the Channel Tunnel Link, alterations to a busy London Underground intersection and the redevelopment of a blighted
area of central London. Decisions about the future presentation of a Grade I listed building
had to be made some nine years before the
planned opening, and even then the project
68
HELEN HUGHES
was working to tight deadlines dictated by submissions, consent approvals and lead in times
for massive construction orders.
The correlation of the archaeological and documentary evidence to establish the decorative
chronology was relatively simple. Understandably, as the colour of the metal of the metal
ribs of the station would have a great impact
on the final scheme, Rail Link Engineering (RLE)
headed by their principal architect, who had designed the modern extension and new undercroft of the station, were not happy with the
idea of having an ‘historic scheme’ imposed on
upon them.
This poster outlines how the decision making
process in reaching an agreement about the
final decoration of this interior. It was important to be aware of the subjectivity of all conservation decisions. Such decisions are always
based on a consensus and the values of the
parties or stakeholders involved, and do not re-
– PROPRIETOR OF HISTORIC INTERIORS RESEARCH & CONSERVATION (HIRC), LONDON, UK
flect some hidden fundamental truth. It was important to be aware of and respect the different approaches favoured by the various agents
involved in the St Pancras project.
The discussion was opened out to wider consultation to include Camden Council and the
Victorian Society. Various schemes, shades of
colours were scrutinised. Certain parties
favoured ‘a less rigid application of the historical evidence’ while others argued for strict authenticity. The Historic Building Inspector
managed to maintain a balance of steely determination, perfectionism and pragmatism. A
compromise was reached – archaeological
rigour and late twentieth century taste was
reconciled – with no great loss of face on either side.
In 2007 the station was opened and the
scheme received tremendous acclamation.
Who says committees cannot make good decisions.
T
he blue drawing room at Wildenfels castle
near the city of Zwickau in Saxony (Germany) contains a blue coloured silk wall,
which is decorated with a probably oriental
dense tambour frame embroidery. It shows
repeating depictions of niche motifs which
contain vases with bouquets of flowers. The
fabric and also the colourful embroidery
threads were made of silk. Metal threads of
silver or gilded silver around silk cores have
been even used. The material shows the motives as well their high quality and value. With
a probable Ottoman or Persian origin, it
might have been the inner shell of a state tent
from the beginning of the 18th century. Until
now no comparable piece of such high quality
and extensive size of about 26 square metres is known at all. This is why its art historical significance and importance for research
is undoubted.
Until the end of the Second World War the
wall decoration was still in a good condition,
as the room rarely used and due to this fact
mostly kept in darkness by the almost perma-
ROXANA NAUMANN
nently closed window shutters. Furthermore,
the room was almost never heated. These
circumstances changed in the 1950´s when
the room was used as an office and its subsequent use in the 1960´s as a storage facility
for the city library. This led to significant mechanical damages such as crack formations
and blemishes, paint splashes from repeated
painting of the ceiling; and, in parts, heavy
soot deposits, caused by a stove heating,
which both effect the legibility and seal the
surface.
In the 1950´s, a first series of tests were
undertaken to find a suitable solution for the
cleaning of the panels. However, these only
led to dissatisfying results. In 2007, the Saxonian Department of Monuments and
Sights in Dresden began to cooperate with
the Institute of Conservation and Restoration Science of the University of Applied Sciences Cologne. The decoration of the walls
became the (main) subject of a Diploma
Thesis, the target of which was to find a suitable solution to clean and stabilize the pan-
els in a way that allowed display at Wildenfels castle again.
After the condition was recorded, an extensive research was done into the handling of
the soot-damaged textiles as well as cleaning
tests on dummies. Given the limited possibilities for cleaning silk in combination with silver
and due to the fact that the removal of soot
requires some mechanical action, only specific methods were tested. As it was possible
to reduce the soiling successfully, the cleaning method was tested on the first panel. In
the meantime further pieces were sent to
Dresden to be conserved, while the classical
shell of the room was also undergoing treatment. The research on the wall decoration
continues to be ongoing since the manufacturing technique seems to provide important
information about this kind of embroidered
textiles, which have been seldom considered
in the past. The project gives deeper insight
into the Ottoman or Persian tent culture and
the reasons for these textiles surprisingly
good state of preservation.
23 MARCH POSTER
CONSERVATION OF A PRESUMABLY EMBROIDERED ORIENTAL SILK WALL DECORATION
WITH SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO THE PROBLEMATIC NATURE OF THE REMOVAL
OF SOOT DEPOSITS AND PAINT SPLASHES
– DIPL.-REST. TEXTILE CONSERVATOR, LICHTENBERG, D
69
23 MARCH POSTER
NICHELINO (TORINO), PALAZZINA DI CACCIA DI STUPINIGI:
THE TEXTILES CONSERVATION PROJECT
T
he conservation of the textile heritage of
the Palazzina di Caccia di Stupinigi takes
its place within a larger project of extraordinary maintenance, conservation and re-fitting of the Palazzina itself. It has been
preceded and followed by organised investigation of the documentary sources.
The conservation started in 2003 with the
treatment of the tapestries from the Appartamento di Levante. This treatment was allocated to the Tessili Antichi s.r.l. of Viterbo
by the local Soprintendenza.
ANNA MARIA BAVA
DEL PIEMONTE, TURIN, I
70
These tapestries underwent adverse invasive
treatments in the 1960s. They date from the
eighteent century and show characteristics
typical of the period. The tapestries consist of
two different lampas with brocade weft, two
painted taffetas (péquis of western manufacturing), and a rare taffetas chiné à la branche.
The authors would like to present the complex
conservation of the two painted taffetas tapestries, destined to be returned to their original
settings, together with the conservation of the
upholstery of two stools. These comprise four
different stratigraphic layers (of textile).
– ART HISTORIAN, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI STORICI, ARTISTICI ED ETNOANTROPOLOGICI
D
uring 2008–2010 we were commissioned to conserve one of a set of 17th
century wall hangings from Ham House, a National Trust property in Richmond near London, England. The hanging has four silk damask
panels, surrounded by blue silk velvet borders
with gold metal thread embroidery. Other sections of the set were conserved during the
1980’s and opinion was that the hangings
were original and intact pieces from the 16791684 period, as described in the inventories.
During treatment it was revealed that there
had been an earlier silk damask and the current silk damask panels were replacements.
Detailed research was carried out into all aspects of the materials, dyes, metal threads,
weave analysis, as well as the paper on the
walls behind the hangings. This has led to the
discovery that the silk damask panels were
MAY BERKOUWER
installed as part of a restoration project in
the 1890’s by G F Bodley and Thomas Garner, normally known for their restoration of
churches. It had been known that Bodley and
Garner supplied wall papers for Ham House,
but until now it was not known that they had
also worked on the textiles.
The research has revealed that a group of
fragments of other wall hangings at Ham
House are closely related, leading to further research into the original arrangement and furnishings of the rooms at Ham, and may result
in an adjustment in the understanding of the
dating of the furnishings at Ham House.
The ongoing research work will be developing
over the coming winter and all new information
will be included in the talk. The conservation
treatment will be alluded to but will not be the
main focus of the presentation.
23 MARCH POSTER
CONSERVATION AND WEAVE ANALYSIS REVEALS ANOTHER LAYER OF HISTORY
ON 17 th CENTURY WALLHANGINGS AT HAM HOUSE, SURREY, ENGLAND
– ACR, MAY BERKOUWER TEXTILE CONSERVATION, SUDBURY, SUFFOLK, UK
71
23 MARCH POSTER
TEXTILES FOR UPHOLSTERY: FROM REPAIR TO CONSERVATION
T
he conservation of upholstery represents
a crucial and interesting subject in textile
conservation. Difficulties of treatment, exhibition requirements and interdisciplinarity with
other competences are the main problems to
be resolved.
The main requirements involved are that of preserving furnishings, enabling their reinstatement
and use within the environment of a ‘residence’
and not a museum. Valances and curtains have
to go back to their original place at windows.
Sofas and ‘soft furnishings’ must regain their
original form, trying to reduce treatments on the
structure as much as possible. Textiles must recover their character and value, at the same
time trying to balance the treatments with those
that are meanwhile carried out on the lacquering and/or on the gilding. As a result, the conservation of furnishing textiles requires a
continuous collaboration between different professional figures (conservator, curator, art historian, upholsterer, furniture conservator and
sometimes conservator of paintings).
The cases presented in this paper concern
treatments carried out on upholstery textiles
72
CINZIA OLIVA
– TEXTILE CONSERVATOR, TURIN, I
belonging to three residences. The textiles
were in very different stages of deterioration,
which determined their condition, and influenced the conservation choices.
Palazzo Reale, Turin. Four divans covered in silk
lampas, 19 th century
All four divans presented an advanced state of
chemical-physical deterioration, with a complete lack of mechanical strength and a loss of
the covering material. The padding of the seats
and backs had lost their original shapes, thus
altering the form and explication of the original
material. The textiles were carefully dismantled
and subjected to vacuum-cleaning. A professional upholsterer dealt with the padding, substituting the deteriorated material and
restoring the original shape of the seats and
backs. In this way, the new forms worked as
‘supports’ to the deteriorated textiles, which
were in turn positioned on a coloured cotton
support with an ‘overlapping’ technique. The
consolidation was completed by a nylon net,
stretched on the surface.
Santena Castle, Turin. Painted silk panels
The four panels were mounted on a wooden
frame. They had deteriorated badly due to
light and mechanical tension, and underwent
cleaning and consolidation with a mixed technique of adhesion and sewing. The problem
of their reassemblage was of the utmost importance, which had to be carried out in such
a way as to make easier the handling operations. For this purpose, a plan was worked
out in collaboration with a blacksmith – architect in order to produce an adequate support
in aluminium that was covered by a strong
linen, on which the panels could be stretched
after conservation.
Masino Castle, FAI. Covering materials of a
four-poster bed, 18 th century
Textile in silk chinè à la branche that covers the
ceiling, bed curtains, valances, headboard and
counterpane. The textiles, in an advanced state
of deterioration due to light and dust, were
conserved together with the wooden structure. The dismantling and the execution of the
treatment in conjunction with the conservation
of the structure, allowed the study of the bed
(structure and textile mounting), trying to balance the cleaning and conservation of textiles
with the wooden structure.
T
his project focuses on five medieval tapestry fragments, woven in the Southern
Netherlands around the end of the 15th century. The fragments depict the story of the allegory of the hunt of the frail stag, representing
human life during all its stages.
The tapestry fragments were a bequest of
Adele Lehman to the Metropolitan Museum of
Art in 1965. It will be demonstrated that these
fragments were originally part of one tapestry,
probably a choir hanging. The preparation of
the fragments for display, following the principles of tapestry conservation, in the medieval
gallery of the Museum will be discussed.
The fragments existed in the Abbey of Saint
Martin Aux Bois, a small town close to Beauvais in France. This attribution is based on the
presence of Guy de Baudreil’s coat of arms on
one of the fragments. He served there as
abbot from 1492 to 1531.
The tapestry fragments are small. They are in
fair condition. In 1966 they were stitched
mounted onto cotton fabric and then mounted
onto wooden frames. In order to develop a new
conservation treatment and conduct precise
technical analysis, a photographic documentation of each of the fragments was made. Subsequently they were removed from their frames.
Afterwards, a colour graphic report was carried out from the reverse of each fragment.
This allowed a differentiation between the original tapestry portions and any previous repairs
or additions, as well as permitting suggestions
about their original size, shape, and the missing
design of each fragment to be made. This
phase of the project has been done with reference to the size of the choir stalls in the Saint
Martin Aux Boix Abbey and also with reference
to other examples of choir tapestries.
A.S. Cavallo and, recently Prof. Chris
Henige have made hypotheses about the
original sizes of each fragment, about the
possibility that these could originally have
existed as more than five panels. Both authors have theorised about the right historical sequence.
The current technical analysis allowed a further contribution to this study. The half column
design on the second fragment is the key element in combining it with the next fragment.
Two of the five fragments could thus be
mounted on the same support. The remaining
three fragments were mounted on individual
supports. On the wall of the Medieval Gallery
all the five fragments will be displayed next to
each other, allowing some space between
them for the public to understand that the
hanging is not complete. It is also suggested
that illustrating labels, showing the missing
scenes and design elements could be helpful
to visualize the fragments, originally intended,
as a choir tapestry.
23 MARCH POSTER
THE HUNT OF THE FRAIL STAG : ANALYSIS, CONSERVATION, AND DISPLAY
OF FIVE MEDIEVAL TAPESTRY FRAGMENTS
GIULIA CHIOSTRINI – ANDREW W. MELLON CONSERVATION FELLOW 2008–2010, DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE
CONSERVATION, THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART, NEW YORK, USA
73
23 MARZO POSTER
PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF TEXTILE FRAGMENTS
FROM ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN THE HISTORICAL CENTRE OF CANINO, VITERBO
T
he archaeological research that Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell’Etruria
Meridionale carried out during the renovation
of the Rocca square in Canino (Viterbo) between 2002 and 2003 has contributed to increase of knowledge regarding the history of
the historic centre during the Medieval and
Renaissance period. The archaeological excavation revealed many pits and architectural remains which were the underground floors of the
buildings constructed on the square until first
half of the 1800s, at which time Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of Canino expanded the square.
Very interesting finds were recovered from the
pits and structures, which included ceramics,
coins, metals and textile materials, all dating
from the fourteenth to eighteenth centuries.
This paper contribution concerns in particular
the conservation of small fragments of fabric
ENRICA
and textile decoration, made with metal
threads, recovered from an underground
room filled up with the ruins of Renaissance
buildings, that had been destroyed by the Bonaparte demolition. Preliminary examinations
aimed at the characterisation of materials and
their state of preservation. These were carried
out with the aid of optical microscope (OM and
SM) and scanning electron microscope with
variable pressure (SEM–VP) and equipped with
a system for energy dispersion X ray microanalysis (EDS).
Studies were also carried out to identify the
weaving technique of the decoration fragments. Methods of consolidation and cleaning
treatments were finally applied according to
the extremely brittle condition. The approach
applied depended upon their composition and
environment excavation.
FOSCHI – CONSERVATOR, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI ARCHEOLOGICI DELL’ETRURIA MERIDIONALE, ROME, I;
RITA GIULIANI – BIOLOGIST, ISTITUTO SUPERIORE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE E IL RESTAURO, ROME, I;
DANIELA FERRO – CHEMIST, ISTITUTO PER LO STUDIO DEI MATERIALI NANOSTRUTTURATI CNR-ISMN, ROME, I
MARIA
74
A
cid deterioration can be defined as red rot
in leather and particularly occurs in vegetable tanned leather manufactured from the
mid 19th century onwards. Acid deterioration
is observed in a variety of leathers including
bookbinding leather, gilt leather, screens, wall
hangings, upholstery and luggage. The deteriorated leather shows a lower pH, sometimes
below 3.0, and lower hydrothermal stability, indicating the loss of collagen structures. The
visible changes in the deteriorated leather usually include fine cracking, a powdery surface
(often reddish/brownish, hence the common
term for acid deterioration as red rot) and
complete or partial loss of the grain layer.
Current research has shown that environmental pollutants (e.g., sulfur dioxide and nitrogen
dioxide) and the leather manufacturing processes
are thought to be responsible for the acid deterioration. However, further investigation is
required not only to refine the possible causes
of the acid deterioration but also to determine
the chemical and physical changes that occur
as a result of this type of deterioration in
leather.
Current conservation treatments include the
application of a cellulose-based compound
such as hydroxypropylcellulose in isopropanol.
Based on the STEP leather project, it was
shown that aluminium alkoxide, particularly aluminium diisopropoxide acetoacetate ester
chelate, provides some protection against acid
deterioration. The recommendation of the report was to treat severely deteriorated leather,
(where the shrinkage temperature or hydrothermal stability is below approximately
30°C and the pH is below 3), with the aluminium alkoxide. Further research is therefore
required to determine the penetration of aluminium alkoxide, and the physical and chemical
changes in the treated leather. A further review of the past and current products used to
treat acid deterioration is required in order to
determine the effectiveness of the applied
products based on the changes in the physical
and chemical properties of the treated leather.
Due to limitations in the current products
there is also a need to develop or design a new
product to prevent acid deterioration. The
aims of the study are therefore as follows:
24 MARCH POSTER
ANALYSIS OF ACID DETERIORATION OF LEATHER
1. To review and study the causes of acid deterioration.
2. To study the physical and chemical
changes that may have occurred due to acid
deterioration.
3. To review and study the past and current
products used for the treatments of acid deterioration and associated problems.
4. If suitable, modify available products to ensure they are acceptable within the conservation field.
5. Potentially to design and develop a new
product to treat acid deterioration.
ANNE LAMA – KTP ASSOCIATED, THE LEATHER CONSERVATION CENTRE, NORTHAMPTON, UK; PAULA
ANTUNES – SENIOR LECTURER, BRITISH SCHOOL OF LEATHER TECHNOLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTHAMPTON,
NORTHAMPTON, UK; YVETTE FLETCHER – ACTING HEAD OF CONSERVATION, THE LEATHER CONSERVATION
CENTRE, NORTHAMPTON, UK; JEFFRY GUTHRIE-STRACHAN – SENIOR LECTURER, BRITISH SCHOOL OF
LEATHER TECHNOLOGY, THE UNIVERSITY OF NORTHAMPTON, NORTHAMPTON, UK; KAREN VIDLER – SENIOR
BOOK CONSERVATOR, THE LEATHER CONSERVATION CENTRE, NORTHAMPTON, UK
75
24 MARCH POSTER
GILT LEATHER WALL HANGINGS IN THE STIBBERT MUSEUM OF FLORENCE
T
his paper will present a study of the gilt
leather panelling in the Stibbert Museum.
The study is part of a general plan for the re-organizing of display in the Florentine house-museum. It consists of a historical investigation
on the origin of the works, and is a necessary
preliminary study which will influence future
conservation operations.
The study consists of an accurate research of
the ornamental patterns on the panels and
their execution technique, as well as a comparison with other specimens and with textile
samples; it also compares specific literature
and historical research, starting from a careful
analysis of the purchase documents stored in
the Stibbert archives. Of no lesser importance,
in view of future conservation operations, is the
study of the many historical documents describing the assembling and up-keep of the
works. These documents allow conservators
an insight into the materials and techniques
used conserving the objects in the past.
The collection of this Museum is remarkable
for the number and quality of leather works:
not only gilt leather, such as frontals and hangings, but also upholstery and leather fittings
worked and decorated in different techniques.
Such variety makes this collection an impor-
76
MONICA BERCÈ
tant source of knowledge for several artistic
techniques linked to the use of leather and related materials.
In this account attention will be focused on
painted gilt leather that decorates some of the
rooms: in particular the red-gold hanging in the
Library; the silver flowered spiral pattern on
display in four rooms; and some Vogeltapete
(bird patterned panelling) in the Dining Room.
The furnishing of the Louis XV Parlour will be
briefly mentioned, as it was panelled in an unusual way (like other rooms) by fixing frontals
and spalliere on the walls.
Hypotheses on the origin and dating of the Library and Dining Room hangings are based on
the analysis of manufacturing technical
processes and the observation of pattern style.
In the red-gold leather panelling, the alternate
oval shaped pattern is typical of sixteenth century materials, while the decoration grandeur,
added to a rather large pattern, suggests a
later manufacture date, possibly seventeenth
century.
The Vogeltapete hangings, on the contrary,
belong to the noticeable corpus of symmetric
patterned panels with natural elements
whose original design is to be connected with
– ART HISTORIAN, TEXTILE AND LEATHER CONSERVATOR, FLORENCE, I
one of the Patrons d’Etoffes et the Velours
by Daniel Marot issued in 1703, and can be
dated back to the production of Carolus Iacobus, active in Mechelen between 1693
and 1728. From this time onwards the ornamental patterns of these panels was constantly repeated, and such reiteration makes
it difficult today to tell the first specimens
from their copies. Although a good quality
product, such panelling shows rather low relief and only two prevailing shades, which
could prove the hypothesis of a nineteenth
century leather replicas.
The silver flowered panelling has a different
origin: through the finding of a series of significant documents and the comparison with
another corpus of similar works, kept in
palaces Chigi Zondadari in Siena and S.
Quirico d’Orcia, these panels have been connected with cardianal Flavio Chigi, a prominent member of the Roman family well
known as connoisseurs of this form of art.
Following the trail of the purchase documents and expense accounts of the cardinal’s Venetian agent, it can be suggested
that these panels came from Venice and
date them between 1684 and 1687, the period when this type of wall decoration was
widely spread in Italy.
T
The palace
he fiefdom of Ariccia was acquired by the
Chigi family (princes Mario, Agostino and
cardinal Flavio, all nephews of Pope Alexander
VII) in 1661 and the palace, already widely restructured by the Savelli in the end of the
1500s, was partly transformed and enlarged
between 1666 and 1672. This reconstruction
was executed by Carlo Fontana using plans designed by Bernini for a typical scheme for a
country residence, Contemporary work with a
consistent theme was undertaken in beautiful
park. Further enlargements and extensive decorations took place during the 1700s.
The palace, a rare example of baroque residence unaltered in its own environment, was
sold by the Chigi family to the town hall of Ariccia in 1988. The past twenty years have seen
the conservation of the architectural structures, maintenance and/or conservation and
restoration of relevant paintings (Gaulli, Mario
de’ Fiori, Salvator Rosa, Cades, etc.), sculptures and rich furnishings. Among the latter,
for instance, are the leather wall hangings,
present in numerous rooms. The palace is
nowadays the setting for important exhibitions
and houses a main collection of paintings and
drawings of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth
centuries, donated by illustrious scholars in the
last decay.
The leather furnishings
The inventories from 1672 and 1673, taken
to coincide with the two spectacular musical
events created and designed by Carlo Fontana
allow an overview of the decorations and furnishings within the palace. These include descriptions of the leatherworks, such as
portieres, table covers, cushion covers as well
as wall hangings in gilt and painted leather, in
some cases embossed or flocked.
All the leatherwork has been registered in an
extensive computerized Report begun in
1990. This field survey, executed by Istituto
Superiore per la Conservazione e il Restauro
(ISCR, formerly ICR), gathered not only descriptive data on the artefacts, including
archival documentation, but also information
on the techniques employed and the objects’
condition. The section of the Report on techniques describes the various procedures for
working and decorating leather: incised,
moulded, embossed, gilt, painted, flocked, etc.,
principal types of punch marks, the joining of
MARA NIMMO – CONSERVATOR AND ART HISTORIAN, ROME, I; CURATOR OF PALAZZO CHIGI, ARICCIA (ROME), I
FRANCESCO PETRUCCI
skins, original inscriptions and stamps, etc.
The examination of inventories and accounts
has allowed the dating of most of the leatherwork, and the identification of the artisans involved in the execution and installation: from
the carver of the wooden mounds, to the
leather artisan, to the painter in charge of
painting the family arms, medallions, etc. Information on the original setting of the leathers,
provenance and displacements, etc. has been
provided as well.
24 MARCH POSTER
ARICCIA: IN THE BAROQUE COUNTRY DWELLING OF THE CHIGI FAMILY, GILT LEATHER
AND ARCHIVAL DOCUMENTATION
The research has also enabled the collection
of data regarding the historical technical terminology related to the artefacts, procedures
and materials.
In conclusion
The archival research allows on one hand the
idea of the decorative richness and original numerical importance of the leatherworks to
form and helps to identify the correct location
of the objects preserved. On the other hand it
enriches the knowledge of historical terms relative to these types of artefacts, contributing
to define a global history of materials and techniques in the field.
– ARCHITECT,
77
24 MARCH POSTER
THE CONDITION OF THE GILT LEATHER WALL HANGINGS IN THE PALAZZO CHIGI, ARICCIA, ITALY
R
esearch has been performed on the gilt
leather wall hangings in the Palazzo Chigi
in Ariccia as part of a European project entitled
Chisius, set up for the conservation of the outside of the palazzo, the garden and the interior
(1997–1999). The palazzo contains nine
rooms with gilt leather wall hangings, unique examples of the Italian baroque period. The
rooms, the decoration and the wall hangings
are closely connected to each other and in
order to return the palace in its original state it
is necessary to comprise the treatment of the
leather in the total plan for the conservation.
The wall hangings were removed from the
walls 55 year ago and replaced five years
later. In the interim period some pieces of
leather panelling belonging specific rooms
with a specific pattern were put into another
room. During the latest conservation and
restoration of the gilt leather these mistakes
were corrected and the rooms could be
brought back into the original state. In most
78
PETER HALLEBEEK
– CHEMIST, AMSTERDAM, NL
of the rooms the condition of the leather is
relatively good, however a consistent balance
does not exist. This situation can be corrected by the application of specific conservation treatments. No overpaint was
detected on any of the wall hangings.
In each of the rooms the gilt leather is directly
nailed to the wall with iron nails. Degradation
from the cotton thread in the seams has
caused extensive separation of the panels.
From the results of the measurements on 40
samples for pH, differential number, sulphate
content and shrinkage temperature one may
conclude that the general chemical state the
leather is fair to good expect for a few parts
attacked by red rot. This means that conservation could be limited to the application of a
dressing and a buffer.
Also flock leather is present, in less good condition, which has no print on the front side,
but a metal foil and gold varnish. This type of
gilt leather is in relatively weak condition and
the connection between surface layers and
leather is very weak or broken.
The physical damage to the leather is more extensive and comprises: deformation, discoloration of the metal foil, discoloration of
organic pigments, change of colour of copper
containing mineral pigments, damage caused
by copper and iron nails, missing parts and
gaps, local detachment of the paint layer, tears
and holes, water damage on parts around the
windows due to leakage caused by bad condition of the walls and the windows.
Recommended conservation treatments are:
cleaning of the surface; superficial consolidation of paint layers; removal of the nails; partial
flattening of the leather; partial relining; application of new leather on the edges; sewing the
panels together, using the original holes; filling
gaps and tears; attachment of the panels to a
wooden framework.
T
he eleven panels of Chinoiserie gilt leather
wall hangings are in a private house in
central England. They date from around
1725–1775, and were probably made in
London. They are the only known Chinoiserie
hangings in the UK. The leather is mounted
on wooden boards set into wooden panelling.
In the 1970’s they were in poor condition
with many splits, and were faced with Japanese paper and an unknown PVA adhesive.
When the present work started in 2009 the
paper had split, and the leather had distorted,
but the paper still supported the edges, preventing loss.
Following documentation, the facing was removed with a non-polar solvent, Leksol, nPropyl Bromide, a substitute for 1,1,1
trichloroethane. The more obvious solvents
for the PVA were mainly polar and dissolved
the varnish and paint of the gilt leather. The
leather surface was cleaned with slightly
damp micro-fibre cloths.
THEO STURGE
The leather was removed from the boards,
and the splits were repaired with patches of
Scandinavian archival calf from J Hewit and
Sons. Once the leather had been skived to a
suitable thickness, the edges of the patches
were pared down to give a smooth join with
the original. It was coloured with water
based dyes from J Hewit. The adhesive was
a mixture of Lascaux acrylic dispersions.
Three parts of the harder 498HV to one
part of the softer 360HV added to give
greater flexibility. Prior to the application of
the patches the leather was humidified using
Sympatex, a textile with a semi-permeable
membrane on one side. This allowed the
leather to be relaxed so that the edges could
be brought together as accurately as possible. To hold the leather in alignment, very
small patches of Reemay, a non-woven polyester textile, were applied along the joins
using Beva Film as an adhesive. This was incorporated into the final repairs with the
leather patches.
The tacking edges of the leather were quite
fragile and were reinforced with a narrow
strip lining of thin archival calf with the Lascaux mix as an adhesive. Except for one panel
which had a painting on it which was kept
separate, the leather was replaced on the
original wooden boards using stainless steel
staples.
24 MARCH POSTER
CONSERVATION OF CHINOISERIE GILT LEATHER HANGINGS IN THE UK
There were some very small areas of loss
and these were filled with solid Beva 371.
The Beva 371 is warmed to make it liquid, a
very small amount of earth pigment is
added to colour it, and then it is dried on silicone paper. The resulting solid material
makes a flexible filler that can be applied
with a heated spatula. The fills were painted
with artists’ quality acrylic paints, and any inpainting needed on the original leather was
carried out with Winsor and Newton artists’
quality water colours. No varnish was applied to the leather as this can cause serious problems for future conservators.
– LEATHER CONSERVATOR, STURGE CONSERVATION STUDIO, NORTHAMPTON, UK
79
24 MARCH POSTER
IDENTIFICATION AND SYMBOLOGY OF PLANT SPECIES
IN GILT AND PAINTED LEATHER
T
he Alps are a most impressive range of the
mountains separating central from
Mediterranean Europe. Since Roman times
and especially the Middle Ages, many passages (e.g. via Francigena) have provided access to important commercial trade between
the French, Swiss, Austrian, and Slovenian
side, and Italy (from west to east: Liguria, Valle
d'Aosta, Piemonte, Lombardia, Trentino Alto
Adige, Veneto, and Friuli Venezia-Giulia).
Local fashion, ritual practice and climate
have presumably allowed a certain number
of gilt, painted and hand-stamped artistic
works on leather to survive. The original
areas were selected to be described in two
pending publications.
80
Over ten years ago, systematic research
started in Italy to identify the pieces in order to
better understand techniques and materials,
to recognize centres of manufacture and to
identify preservation and conservation systems for the future care of these artistic
works. In this contribution, the author, coordinator of the project, gives the outline of the results concerning the identification of 40 plants
that can still be found locally in nature, and that
were painted on leather dating mostly back to
the 17th century.
The research was carried out in collaboration
with the curator of an important botanical garden and a natural sciences researcher in the
North East of Italy.
MARINA L. REGNI – FREELANCE PAPER, PARCHMENT AND LEATHER CONSERVATOR, ROME, I
ROSSELLA MARCUCCI – BOTANIST, PADUA, I; EMILIA REGNI – NATURAL SCIENTIST, PADUA, I
T
he Balla House in Rome was the private
residence of Giacomo Balla from 1929
until his death in 1958 and was conceived according to the futurist vision in every element
of the furnishings and decoration: mural paintings, pictures, drawings, posters, embroidered
fabrics, and furniture. Balla also designed
clothing which has been preserved in the
house as well. The Balla House has been declared of particular cultural interest and is
since 2004 protected by cultural heritage
laws. It is not just a study, but is a private
home-study which still bears traces of personality of Giacomo Balla and his desire to engage
in art every aspect of life.
Within the section of Conservation of Contemporary Art Materials, the Istituto Superiore
per la Conservazione e il Restauro (ISCR),
under the guidance of Patrizia Miracola (an art
historian at ISCR), has catalogued the collection noting the representative state of conservation of artworks therein. This allowed the
condition of the paintings made in enamel to
be noted: the collection contains a number of
works of art executed in enamel, which was a
relatively new technique developed in the
1930s by Siqueiros.
The enamels became a popular substitution
for drying oils because of their rapid drying
time and insolubility to water, as well as their
capacity to form brilliant homogenous films.
Thus, they allowed for fast execution. The following works were studied in depth and were
subjects of conservation treatments: the triptych Le mani del Popolo Italiano (1926),
painted on paper with geometrical patterns;
the sketch for a large mural painting which
was never realized; and the so called studiolo
(1929) decorated with abstract motif on wall,
wallpaper and furniture.
The enamels of the sketch are similar to the
better known nitrocellulose and alkyd paints,
of American and English origin, which were introduced in the 1930s but remained available
until later in their production history in the Italian market. Through the observation of their
characteristics and a literature study, these
paints are presumed to be either phenolformaldehyde resins, resol type, produced
from 1905, or oleo resinous paints made
from stand oil and terpenoid resins such as
copal or rosin, stabilized and neutralized with
lime (Standeven 2007).
Considering the difficulty of a unequivocal
identification of the paint media, solubility
tests were carried out with organic solvents:
the wide ranging colours of the extensive
palette used fro the sketch are insoluble in
xylene, and only the green and the red paints
are soluble in acetone and ethyl alcohol;
while, of the four colours used in the studiolo
decoration, only the blue is insoluble in the
same solvents, while the red, yellow and
green paints are soluble in ethyl alcohol and
acetone but not in xylene.
At the moment scientific investigations and a
didactic conservation worksite are in progress.
24 MARCH POSTER
THE BALLA HOUSE IN ROME: FUTURIST CONTEXT AND INDUSTRIAL PAINTING MEDIA
Special thanks to Bronwyn Ormsby, Tate
Gallery Conservation Dept., for her precious
contribution to the chemical analyses.
MAURIZIO COLADONATO – CHEMIST, ISTITUTO SUPERIORE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE E IL RESTAURO (ISCR),
ROME, I; GRAZIA DE CESARE – CONSERVATOR, LABORATORIO DI RESTAURO MATERIALI DELL’ARTE
CONTEMPORANEA, ISCR, ROME, I; PAOLA IAZURLO – CONSERVATOR, LABORATORIO DI RESTAURO MATERIALI
DELL’ARTE CONTEMPORANEA, ISCR, ROME, I; GIANCARLO SIDOTI – CHEMIST, ISCR, ROME, I
81
24 MARCH POSTER
THE CHURCH OF SAINT SAVIOR IN PRIZREN (KOSOVO): A DOUBLE CHURCH
I
n Kosovo Orthodox monuments have been
objects of violence and destruction. Today
they are under military protection and some of
them are under the protection of Cultural Institutions and competent Non Governmental Organisations (NGO). The church of St. Savior in
Prizren stands as an important testimony to
the late Byzantine architecture and mediaeval
Serbian fresco paintings. The church is located
in the historical quarter of Nënkalaja/Podkalaja, which was traditionally inhabited by
Serbs, in the southern part of Prizren town.
The church of St. Savior in Prizren is a double
church. It is composed of two major architectural
campaigns, the older of which dates from the
14th century. The pattern on the facade is formed
by the alternation of stone and brick interspaced
with bands of mortar, with extensive additional
use of terracotta decorative elements. The frescoes in the sanctuary were carried out in the middle of 14th century. The later building phase
remains unfinished and comprises of a more re-
82
SIMONA SAJEVA
cent annex dating from the 19th century. This incorporates a larger stone church with an accompanying belfry. The high walls remained around
the churchyard, together with the belfry.
This complex structure was burnt in 1999
and again in 2004, when the remaining section of this urban inheritance was destroyed,
and the monument was badly damaged. The
church continued to be in use until 1999,
after which it was then abandoned.
The church is now the object of a conservation study, managed by the French NGO Patrimoines sans Frontières. UNESCO has
designated this NGO as the project manager.
An international, multi-disciplinary team has
been appointed to study the monument and
its interaction with the environment. The
team included structural and geotechnical
engineers and architects. The project started
in July 2009 and focused on investigating
and understanding the monument.
– ENGENEER, STUDIO SAJEVA, PALERMO, I
The project mission was devoted to the research and the analysis of existing documentation, to undertaking an architectural and
topographical survey, to the analysis and to
the understanding of structural elements, to
the geological, geotechnical and hydro geological survey and to the archaeological investigations. Each action was carried out
under the supervision of the Institute for the
Protection of Cultural Monument of Prizren
Municipality.
The exchange of information between the experts, concerning the different elements of
the project, has permitted a better understanding of the structure, of its actual condition and of the risks for its safeguard. The
authors propose a new hypothesis about the
history of the church: how the smaller church
was totally surrounded by the later building
and how the multi-disciplinary approach has
contributed to the development of this new hypothesis.
U
sually during a conservation project of historical buildings, technical fixtures or fittings are often neglected, forgotten or
substituted with new items. The content of this
poster, starting with study cases of projects
carried out by the author, will tackle the problem of how is it possible to reuse, preserve and
update electrical switches, stoves, ventilation
and warming conduits. These elements are related to the comfort (aesthetic perception and
engineering) of the householder and without
preservation, they will disappear. A different
approach is needed in order to bring these ‘accessories’ to the attention of architects, engineers, art historians and highlight the need for
the inclusion of their treatment within a conservation project.
The first step is the recognition of their existence and of their historical importance: it is
not true that architecture of the past had no
fixtures or fittings. Architects or engineers
often ‘don’t see’ these elements because they
are taken for granted and often considered of
no use, of no value or obsolete in a ‘modern’
GIACINTA JEAN
setting. A few working groups in Europe are
studying the history of technical fixtures and fittings. These groups are highlighting the attention that past architects gave to the comfort
of the householder. The general history of architecture can be enriched by the study of how
water, light and heat conduits were introduced
into a building.
The second step is related to mapping these
elements inside an existing building: very
often the fixtures and fittings are severely degraded and they do not survive in a good
state of repair.
The third and last step will try to answer the
question: is it aesthetically and technically
possible to reuse existing fixtures and fittings and how can they be integrated with
new needs? Can these antiquated elements
guarantee a good level of comfort? What is
a good level of comfort nowadays? How
does the level of comfort change between
public and private buildings? Does the manner in which these elements are used
change according to daily or exceptional
usage (such as large-scale events in historic
buildings)? How can the conservation of
electrical installations be implemented at
the same time as guaranteeing the safety of
the system?
The main project illustrating the poster will
be the conservation of a private palace in the
countryside near Cremona (Italy) built around
1830. The owner was a wise silk producer
and he introduced in his house all of the most
avant-garde innovations that he was developing for his factory. Many different solution
were used to re-establish the current
rewiring of this building while preserving its
character and fabric and allowing the warm
air ventilation conducts to continue to function. The old ceramic tumbler switches could
still work at a low voltage; the main cables
used are now thin mineral insulated cables
with a copper sheathing or PVC cables covered with a silk similar to the original wiring;
the sockets were specially designed to fit in
with the character of the internal spaces.
24 MARCH POSTER
THE CONSERVATION OF TECHNICAL FIXTURES OR FITTINGS IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
– ARCHITECT, SUPSI–DACD, CANOBBIO, CH
83
24 MARCH POSTER
THE SEQUENCE OF INSCRIPTIONS IN THE HALL OF MIRRORS REVEALED BY CROSS-SECTION
T
he sculpted and painted decor of the Hall
of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles, masterpiece created by Charles Le Brun, was recently conserved. This conservation project
has received scientific support dedicated to
forming a better technical understanding of
the place from its genesis and in several
stages during the Revolution, and those more
recent in the mid-twentieth century.
Particular attention was given to the inscriptions in order to clarify their composition. The
painted inscriptions are situated on twelve
large stucco cartouches and on twelve smaller
cartouches painted on plaster, which are
arranged around the oval medallions (four
painted on canvas and eight on plaster). The
indications of pre-existing underlying texts,
both in the cartouches and in the central
stucco shields of trophies, had been noted
while examining the areas in raking light and
by studying infrared photographs. The text of
six octagonal medallions in the ceiling, painted
in blue camaïeux, was suspicious because of
their absence in the engravings of Massé created in the 18th century.
84
NATHALIE BALCAR
The scientific investigation involved taking
micro-samples, mounting these in cross-section form and studying them under magnification, using various light sources. Further
examination using SEM-EDX was implemented
as necessary.
In all, 120 cross-sections were taken to study
the inscriptions. The sample locations were
chosen to study the composition of letters and
backgrounds on which they are placed. Some
samples showed up to fifteen layers from the
support to the surface.
The interpretation of the stratigraphic build
up of the samples was combined with the investigation of archival documents and in situ
observations. It was thus possible to establish
with certainty that a first campaign of Latin
inscriptions had existed on two-thirds of the
vault from the North. These had been replaced by order of the King. The new scheme
covered one-third of the vault and incorporated either ornamental decoration in the
shields, or two successive texts in French, by
different hands, elsewhere.
– CHEMIST, CENTRE DE RECHERCHE ET DE RESTAURATION DES MUSÉES DE FRANCE, PARIS, F
With the exception of eight cartouches, located
above the medallions painted on plaster, the inscriptions of the late seventeenth century were
hidden during the Revolution. Most of these were
covered by ‘bronzine’, and were subsequently restored differently using, for instance, gilt letters
on a dark green background for the cartouches.
Thus, the cross-sections provide invaluable information, unpublished until the recent conservation: Latin inscriptions, similar to the two in
French, were applied on a gilt background with
lettering in blue smalt, a pigment whose quality
has varied over successive campaigns. In addition, the octagons included the inscriptions from
the outset. The presence of deteriorated
‘bronzine’ paint is probably the origin of the
change in color of cartouches during their
restoration in 1814.
The results of these investigations influenced the
decision-making process for the current restoration in which the (original) inscriptions were reconstructed in dark letters on gilt cartouches, a
state corresponding to that of these elements
before the Revolution.
T
he article aims to report the scientific findings of a diagnostic test campaign carried
out in the private Chapel of St Leo in Bova, Reggio Calabria (Italy), a building constructed in the
late eighteenth century, which contains a fine
altar dedicated to Saint Leo, in baroque style,
built between 1722 and 1732 and characterized by the presence of four columns in polychrome marble and an interesting stone and
marble cladding.
The inappropriate conservation conditions of
this cladding, which featured many lacunas
and also some detached and/or improperly
restored parts, required a careful investigation before a suitable treatment was selected.
It was important to determine which areas required the removal of the cladding sections
before the application of an adhesive and their
subsequent replacement or which areas
could be re-adhered without prior removal or
indeed which areas did not require any intervention at all.
In order to determine the structural condition
of the cladding substrate, it was decided to
carry out a thermographic and ultrasonic
campaign that could identify detached areas.
These techniques exploit the differences in
emissive power and the difference in ultrasonic speed between sections of stone that
are adhered well and those that are detached. This provided conservators with a
cognitive instrument that gave more information than simple visual inspection, although
the latter remains a necessity.
24 MARCH POSTER
UNCONVENTIONAL THERMOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONIC TESTS FOR A CASE STUDY
OF THE STONE DECORATION OF ST LEO CHAPEL, IN BOVA, REGGIO CALABRIA, ITALY
The contribution that the in situ diagnostic
tests have provided to this conservation project, in terms of multidisciplinarity in the conservation of art, fits within the criteria of
minimal intervention.
ALESSIA BIANCO – RESEARCH FELLOW, M.A.RE. LABORATORY – PAU DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF REGGIO
CALABRIA, REGGIO CALABRIA, I
85
25 MARCH POSTER
RESTORATION AND SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION OF EXQUISITE HISTORIC FURNITURE
FROM THE COLLECTIONS OF THE PRINCE OF LIECHTENSTEIN
I
n the frame of an ongoing principal renovation and restoration of the Liechtenstein
Palais in Bankgasse, Vienna, a simultaneous
pilot study concerning the scientific investigations on the coatings of selected antique furniture and the subsequent restoration of this
splendid mobiliar has been performed.
In 1691 the Palais was constructed according to plans of Andrea Zuccarelli; it was acquired when still unfinished by Prince Johann
Adam Andreas and re-designed as a residence palais of the Liechtensteins. The construction was accomplished by Domenico
Martinelli and from 1705 the Prince’s collections were exhibited in the upper floors of the
Palais. Between the years 1836-1847 the
Palais was rebuilt in High Rococo style by the
architect Peter Hubert Desvignes and the interior décor re-designed by Carl Leistler and
Michael Thonet. After the completion of the
still ongoing restoration the new modern galleries exhibiting unique artworks will be reopened in the ambiance of the original
historic rooms by 2012.
The paper shows the latest results of the comprehensive research project, which includes
several exceptional pieces of European and
Asian furniture. In particular, four 19th century
gilded upholstered chairs executed by Carl
Leistler, one 18th century di pietre dure table
produced in the workshops of Giovanni Guliani
and the Castruccis, two 17th century Japanese
Maki-e lacquer cabinets, and three 19th century chests with incorporated Chinese lacquer
panels, are presented.
One of the primary aims of the restoration was
the reconstruction of the preserved original
coating on the upholstered chairs and the
study of the applied coating techniques. By
means of microscopy and simultaneous analysis of binding media by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) an animal glue
based ground layer was detected followed by
an oil-resinous coating composed of pre-polymerised linseed oil, Manila copal, pine resin,
and Venice turpentine. Manila copal, firstly used
in Europe in the middle of the 19th century, indicates that contemporary materials of the period were applied. In the case of the 18th
century table, during the initial documentation,
an original dark green polychrome layer was
observed under the current gilding, which was
examined with regard to its stratigraphy, pigments, and binding media. The main goals of
the restoration performed were the stabilization and preservation of the historic gilt surface
VÁCLAV PITTHARD – CONSERVATION SCIENTIST, CONSERVATION SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, KUNSTHISTORISCHES
MUSEUM, VIENNA, A; SUSANNE KÄFER – FREELANCE FURNITURE AND WOODEN OBJECTS CONSERVATOR,
VIENNA, A; SILVIA MIKLIN-KNIEFACZ – FREELANCE CONSERVATOR, ATELIER FOR CONSERVATION AND
RESTORATION (METALS, URUSHI), VIENNA, A; MARTA ANGHELONE – CONSERVATION SCIENTIST,
CONSERVATION SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM, VIENNA, A; MARTINA GRIESSER –
CONSERVATION SCIENTIST, HEAD OF THE CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT, CONSERVATION SCIENCE DEPARTMENT,
KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM, VIENNA, A; SABINE STANEK – CONSERVATION SCIENTIST, CONSERVATION
SCIENCE DEPARTMENT, KUNSTHISTORISCHES MUSEUM, VIENNA, A
86
using the most reversible possible materials
and the completion of the missing carving.
Investigations were carried out on the two lacquer cabinets which are richly decorated with
high quality hira- and taka-makie with gold, silver, and other metal powders. These investigations clarified the multilayer stratigraphy of the
coating based on several layers of a black lacquer and transparent varnishes of European
origin. Due to the varnishes the appearance of
these furniture pieces is that of European lacquer cabinets and the Japanese origin was,
therefore, doubtful. By Pyrolysis-GC-MS urushiol was detected in the black lacquer layers,
which proves the Japanese origin.
Concerning the three chests, which are said to
be manufactured in Vienna during the third
quarter of the 19th century, certain doubts
about their origin came up as the front doors
seem to be Chinese lacquer panels. The investigations revealed that the furniture incorporates Chinese lacquer panels within frames to
build the doors, the body of the chest itself is
veneered and coloured. The aim of conservation of this Asian lacquer furniture is still in discussion and will be fulfilled after the completion
of the current conservation survey.
T
he boiseries of the Library and Private
Archives of His Majesty were built for the
Royal Palace in Turin in 1739, and in 1843
they were moved to the Moncalieri Castle.
Since 1852 the boiseries are located in the
residence of the Palazzina di Caccia di
Stupinigi. In current years the boiseries have
been the object of an extraordinary conservation project committed to the Conservation
and Restoration Centre La Venaria Reale.
25 MARCH POSTER
THE STUPINIGI LIBRARY’S BOISERIES :
TWO CENTURIES OF CHANGES AND ADJUSTMENTS
The poster will present the first stage of this
project, which focused on the formation of a
mapping of the materials, in order to distinguish between the original 18th century elements and the cabinet-maker Gabriele
Capello’s 19th century alterations, and consequently, to define a restoration methodology.
FRANCO GUALANO – ART HISTORIAN, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI STORICI, ARTISTICI ED
ETNOANTROPOLOGICI DEL PIEMONTE, TURIN, I; MASSIMO RAVERA – HEAD OF FURNITURE CONSERVATION
DEPARTMENT, CENTRO CONSERVAZIONE E RESTAURO “LA VENARIA REALE”, VENARIA REALE (TO), I; PAOLO
LUCIANI – CONSERVATOR, FURNITURE CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT, CENTRO CONSERVAZIONE E RESTAURO “LA
VENARIA REALE”, VENARIA REALE (TO), I
87
25 MARCH POSTER
THE IMPACT OF THE FRAME: ONE PAINTING’S JOURNEY WITHIN THE ART GALLERY OF NEW
SOUTH WALES
A
large painting in a highly structured frame
greatly impacts the aesthetic look of the
historic interior. The interior’s renovation or
redecoration similarly presents challenges
due to the large size of the object. Such challenges were overcome throughout the history
of the painting The Defence of Rorke`s Drift
1879 by Alphonse De Neuville and its frame,
both of which hang at the Art Gallery of New
South Wales.
One of Sydney’s most distinctive landmarks,
the Art Gallery of New South Wales, has become the fourth house to display Sydney`s art
collection. The gallery was designed by Government Architect Walter Liberty Vernon. The
façade and old wing of the Gallery were built
between 1896 and 1909. Architecturally, Sydney's Art Gallery reflects nineteenth century
ideas about the cultural role of a gallery as a
temple to art and civilizing values. In its Old
Courts the gallery accommodates the oldest
part of the collection.
The photo essay, which I will show in my poster,
follows the journey of the The Defence of
Rorke`s Drift 1879 by Alphonse De Neuville.
The elaborate frame and the painting inside it
have greatly impacted every interior in which
they have been displayed since their purchase
in 1882. I would like to emphasize the importance of the object to the gallery’s collection
and the impact it has had on historic interiors
and the public that has viewed it.
The frame, which measures 377 cm by 257 cm
and is 50 cm wide and 40 cm deep, is the heaviest and one of the largest in the Gallery. The
painting in its frame was initially hung in the Art
Annex and in 1885 was moved to the Art Barn.
In 1899 it was moved again to the present building of the Art Gallery where it was moved around
several times during the renovation of the interiors as well as for conservation treatments of the
painting or the frame. In 1947 it was moved to
Court 12 and was the most important object
there, hung in the middle of the southern wall.
BARBARA DABROWA – CONSERVATOR OF FINE ARTS-FRAMES, CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT, ART GALLERY
OF NEW SOUTH WALES, SYDNEY, AUS
88
The condition of the frame has deteriorated
throughout the years. In 1972 it was heavily
painted over with bronze paint, which completely covered the remains of the original
pure gold-leaf finish. Major restoration treatment of the frame took place between 2006
and 2008 when the painting and its frame
were dismantled and moved from their home
in the Old Courts of the Art Gallery and taken
to the conservation department. The conservation treatment involved removing the
bronze overpaintings, surface cleaning, replacing three missing corner decorations and
other losses in ornaments, in-gilding, re-touching with new gold leaf using non-traditional
gilding techniques, toning down to match the
original finish, and finally the application of protective coating.
The painting and frame were finally reunited in
December of 2008. On display in Court 10, they
continue to impress the public and to dominate
the historic interior in which they hang.
O
n the occasion of the restoration of the
chairs from the gilt room of Malmaison
Castle research was carried out to determine
the different gildings used on these objects.
While certain interventions, following minor accidents, were easily identified as old bronzine
restorations, the gilding on the top of the feet
showed a matte aspect with a greenish tint
which raised numerous questions. Was this
also a bronzine restoration or was it a gold-silver alloy, or had a deliberately tinted coating
been used or one that had subsequently altered its color?
As a first step, a comparative stratigraphic
study was carried out using micro-samples
from the ‘golden’ gilding (with both matte and
burnished finishing) and the ‘greenish’ matte
gilding as well as in the bronzine restoration.
Observations with a photon microscope established the burnished gilding as the original; suggested that the matte gilding was a subsequent
regilding; confirmed that a bronzine restoration
had indeed been carried out and suggested
that this same material had been used for the
greenish gilding because of the relative thickness of the metal leaf observed. No coating
was detected by these stratigraphs.
These observations were followed up by a
study using MEB-EDX micro-analysis system.
The results of the elementary analysis attest
to the use of pure gold for the gilding with a
greenish tinge, and BSE imaging revealed clear
analogies between the two matte gildings as
well as showing atypical characteristics compared to those normally encountered on gold
finishing: that is to say a thickness of 8 µm as
opposed to the more common 1 µm and a facies which suggests the use of gold flakes
rather than gold leaf.
To support our interpretation, mock-ups were
made by the gilding team at the C2RMF using
gold flakes and gold shell and similar analyses to
that carried out on the chairs was performed.
The images obtained from this experiment confirmed our hypothesis of the use of gold in a form
other than leaf but did not allow us to choose
one of the two alternative techniques.
At the conclusion of these first investigations
it is possible to conclude that the greenish
gilding is of pure gold and that it has not been
covered by a tinted or altered layer. It would
most likely imply the use of a technique of gilding using powdered gold such as that described in Roret’s encyclopedia, Dorure sur
bois à l’eau, et à la mixtion, the principle weakness of which is that it gives a dark gold. But
this study has thrown up new questions. Why
does this dark aspect not concern all of the
matte ‘powdered gold’ gilding? Are two different techniques being used? Does the absence of priming between the greenish
gilding and the original gilding contribute to
this effect? These questions incite us to undertake further investigation.
25 MARCH POSTER
GILDING TECHNIQUES: CASE STUDY OF THE CHAIRS OF THE GILT ROOM OF MALMAISON CASTLE
Y. VANDENBERGHE – CHEMIST, CENTRE DE RECHERCHE ET DE RESTAURATION DES MUSÉES DE FRANCE
R. FÉVRIER – C2RMF, PARIS, F; N. BALCAR – CHEMIST, C2RMF, PARIS, F
(C2RMF), PARIS, F; 89
25 MARCH POSTER
THE CHALLENGE OF CONSERVING FURNITURE WITH MISSING PARTS:
THE CASE STUDY OF A BED FROM THE BYZANTINE AND CHRISTIAN MUSEUM OF ATHENS, GREECE
T
his poster is about the conservation of an
upholstered bed with a wooden frame. It is
a composite object made of different materials, including wood, textile and metal. In addition, it was missing an integral part of its
original structure.
The bed originally belonged to the Ziller residence. It is now part of the collection of the
Byzantine and Christian Museum (BCM) in
Athens. The Ziller residence, built by Ernst
Ziller between 1882-1885, is located at the
centre of Athens. Ernst Ziller was a German
architect, who lived and worked in Greece from
the early 1860s. Many landmark buildings in
Athens are of his designs. In 1934 the building
was donated to BCM.
The bed’s frame is made of beech painted in
an off-white colour. It is decorated with
carved reliefs with a floral-and-geometric pat-
tern at the headboard, the footboard, and
the side rail. The upholstery is a brocaded
textile. It is executed on a light blue satin
background, decorated with brocaded flowers. It is made of cotton and silk threads, and
attached to the wooden frame with iron
tacks. Underneath each upholstered area
lies a padded support. Different materials
have been used for the padding of the headboard and footboard and for the padding of
the side rail. The padding was in almost pristine condition.
The bed was in an overall poor condition,
mainly because one of its parts is missing. It
originally consisted of four parts, but only three
of them have survived: the headboard, the footboard and only one of the side rails. In addition,
the surface of the wooden frame was covered
with dust, dirt and white-coloured stains. Apart
from the missing side rail, partial wood loss
FLORA KORAKI VICTORIA KOUVELA – GRADUATE STUDENTS, DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION OF
ANTIQUITIES AND WORKS OF ART, SCHOOL OF GRAPHIC DESIGN AND APPLIED ARTS, TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTION OF ATHENS (TEI), EGALEO, GR CHRISTINA MARGARITI – TEXTILE CONSERVATOR, DEPARTMENT
OF CONSERVATION OF ANTIQUITIES AND WORKS OF ART, SCHOOL OF GRAPHIC DESIGN AND APPLIED ARTS,
TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION OF ATHENS (TEI), EGALEO, GR; ANTONIS PATERAKIS – HEAD OF
CONSERVATION, BYZANTINE AND CHRISTIAN MUSEUM OF ATHENS, ATHENS, GR
90
and cracks were also observed. Finally, tiny
holes were present, which were probably the
result of insect infestation. The textile suffered
from surface and ingrained dirt and was also
stained by oxidation products from the iron
tacks. Overall, the textile fibres were weakend
from mechanical abrasion, which occasionally
had developed to areas of loss, exposing the
underside.
Two issues were the most challenging in this
project. The first was whether the textile
should be separated from the wooden frame
for conservation. The second issue, whether
the missing side rail should be replaced, and
how and with what materials. The condition
of the object, its future role, ethical considerations and the collaboration between wood
and textile conservators and the Museum’s
curators, formed the background to address
this challenge.
E
xperiments have been conducted to test
selected gap-fillers to determine their
suitability for restoration of wooden objects,
such as archaeological wood, turned wooden
objects, screens, icons, iconostasis, furniture, etc.
The following gap-fillers were tested:
1. Beechwood dust as a filler, and animal glue
as a binding material.
2. Calcium carbonate and zinc oxide powders
as a filler, and animal glue as a binding material.
3. Calcium carbonate powder as a filler, and
animal glue as a binding material.
4. Beech wood dust as a filler, and white shellac 60% in alcohol as a binding material.
5. Beech wood dust as a filler, and gum Arabic 60% as a binding material.
6. Wax and colophony (rosin) 1:1 by weight.
7. Wax, colophony (rosin), and wood dust
1:1:1 by weight.
8. Beechwood dust as a filler, and Araldite PY
1092 with hardener HY 1092 as a binding
material.
9. Beechwood dust as a filler, and RTV Silicone 2000 as a binding material.
10. Beechwood dust as a filler, and polyvinyl acetate emulsion as a binding material.
11. Beechwood dust as a filler, and Paraloid
(Acryloid) B72, 60% in toluene, as a binding material.
12. Beechwood dust as a filler, and Primal AC
33 as a binding material.
Testing involved studying the materials properties including handling properties, paintability,
compression modulus, and the effects of accelerated thermal aging to both the gap-filler
and to its compression modulus. The best results were achieved using the gap-filler n. 12. It
appeared to be most useful for restoring gaps,
holes, and cracks.
The compounds in the gap-filler n.12 are almost neutral (pH = 6.8 - 7.3 and became 6.6
– 6.9 after accelerated thermal ageing that
has been done at 110˚C for one month). This
mixture is easy to model with a spatula to desired shape. It does not flow during application,
and it holds a required shape. At the same
time it has a good setting time (20-25 minutes), it does not discolour the wood in contact
with it, and when dry it is easy to carve, sand
and paint. It does not crack or shrink, does not
discolour, it is easy to be compressed (2,1
MPa and became 2 MPa after accelerated
thermal ageing) and it is easy to be remove if
required.
25 MARCH POSTER
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOME GAP-FILLERS FOR WOOD RESTORATION
The experimental work and the results will be
described in detail.
HANY HANNA AZIZ HANNA – SENIOR CONSERVATOR, GENERAL DIRECTOR OF CONSERVATION, HELWAN, ELSAF AND ATFEH SECTOR, SUPREME COUNCIL OF ANTIQUITIES (SCA), ET; PROFESSOR, INSTITUTE FOR COPTIC STUDIES
IN CAIRO, ET
91
25 MARCH POSTER
ESTABLISHING A CONSERVATION PROJECT FOR THE HIGH ALTAR BY BERNT NOTKE (1483).
THE PRELIMINARIES
T
he Holy Spirit Church is one of the oldest
churches in Tallinn, dating back to the 14th
century. It is also one of the very few churches
in Tallinn whose interior has survived throughout the centuries and has been least damaged
by devastating fires. One of its main accents is
a unique treasure in an Estonian context: the
15th century altar by the famous Lübeck artist
Bernt Notke (listed monument number 1290).
This is a polyptych with two movable wings and
carved central scene, representing the Pentecost and the Descent of the Holy Spirit. The
inner sides of the wings are designed with carvings and sculptures of various Saints (St. Victor,
St. Barbara, St. Gertrud), while the outer wings
are painted with the scenes of the Passion and
scenes from the life of the Saint Elizabeth.
One of the oldest pulpits in Estonia (1597) belongs to the later layer of the church interior,
together with the carved and painted lofts built
in the 17th – 18th century at the North, South
and West walls of the church and several epitaph and panel paintings from the same time
period. All the various parts of the interior are
connected with each other, representing not
only doctrines of the Lutheran Church, but also
conveying ideas directly associated with the
Church of the Holy Spirit. During the past few
years the interior (the lofts and epitaphs in particular) has undergone several conservation
and restoration processes.
In 2007, the upper part of the altar (the tabernacle) was dismantled due to the maintenance
works carried out on the altar. Passing a vigorous tendering process at the beginning of
2009, the Conservation Centre Kanut (CCK)
began research and conservation projects on
the tabernacle. Detailed documentation with illustrations regarding the conservation of tabernacle will be presented in this poster.
Along with the conservation of the tabernacle,
the detailed research serves as a great starting point for establishing a large-scale interdisciplinary research and a conservation project
for the whole altarpiece. By the end of 2009,
PIA EHASALU – ART HISTORIAN (PHD), CHIEF CURATOR, DEPUTY HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF PAINTINGS
AND POLYCHROME OBJECTS CONSERVATION, CONSERVATION CENTRE KANUT, TALLINN, EST; KRISTE SIBUL –
DIRECTOR, CONSERVATION CENTRE KANUT, TALLIN, EST
92
CCK will provide a project framework, including
the list of research methods to be applied on
the altar and provisory schedule for conservation works.
The Church of the Holy Spirit is one of the main
tourist attractions in the Old Town of Tallinn,
therefore any conservation activity carried out
there is prone to the continuous interest of
stakeholders, financiers and tourists.
As project leader, CCK has the responsibility
to look for compromises when it comes to in
situ conservation of most parts of the altar,
finding ‘timeslots’ for both research and conservators without disturbing the daily life of
the congregation. As long as sustainable financing and resources are provided, the
Project of the Century , so called by the project financiers, will be finished approximately
by 2015/16. More information about the
project and our partners (amongst whom
one can find internationally respected specialists) will be provided in the poster.
T
he statue, richly gilded and painted, is composed of one central group, the Madonna
and Child, surrounded by angels, and was
carved and decorated by Giovanni Battista
Santacroce, an artist active in Genoa in the
first half of the 17th century. The statue, now
situated in N.S. della Consolazione, originally
comes from the neighbouring church of San
Vincenzo. It was moved to its current site in
1811 together with its stucco base, which exhibits an angel holding a cloud, made by
Pasquale Bocciardo (1705-1791). It is presumed that the sculpture had probably a processional use.
The statue was extensively retouched at different times, the last in 1931, when the whole
chapel was restored. The numerous repainted
parts, together with soot deposits deriving
from candles, and a reddish oil-resin layer applied at an unknown date, has greatly darkened
the polychromy of artwork reducing its aesthetical impact. The determination of the original eighteenth century paint layers proved
difficult. This surface was eventually identified
using, as a marker, the corresponding paint
layers on the altar. The correct identification
of the original stratigraphy became more evident, when it was discovered that the statue
had been repainted in the front, but not on the
reverse which faces the wall. The original paint
surface had remained completely preserved in
this area.
A team of conservation scientists1 carried out
diagnostic analyses with the cooperation of conservators2. Conservators indicated areas which
could be sampled to give a better understanding the stratigraphic build up of the polychromy
layers found on the front of the statue. The scientists mounted the cross-sections and observed them with an optical microscope (OM).
Further investigation of the samples involved an
elemental analysis of pigments present in the
layers using a scanning electron microscope
with attached energy dispersed X-ray analytical
capacities (SEM- EDS). The original 17th century
ground and paint layers were applied directly to
the wooden support in some samples; these layers were not present in other samples. This result confirmed the conservator’s hypothesis
that the original polychromy had been lost completely in some areas. Moreover, the identification of the wood structure of different elements
of the statue was carried out. These analyses
were implemented using an optical microscope
(OM) and allowed for the determination of the
diverse wood species used to construct different elements.
25 MARCH POSTER
MADONNA DEL ROSARIO IN N.S. DELLA CONSOLAZIONE CHURCH, GENOA:
SCIENCE DEALING WITH CONSERVATION
Raffaella Bruzzone and Lucia Frassoni.
Flavio Brunetti and Patrizia Magliano, supervised by
Francesca De Cupis.
1
2
RAFFAELLA BRUZZONE – CONSERVATOR SCIENTIST, L.A.S.A., BOTANY DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF GENOA,
LUCIA FRASSONI – CONSERVATOR SCIENTIST, DCCI, UNIVERSITY OF GENOA, GENOA, I;
FRANCESCA DE CUPIS – ART HISTORIAN, SOPRINTENDENZA PER I BENI STORICI, ARTISTICI ED
ETNOANTROPOLOGICI DELLA LIGURIA, GENOA, GENOA, I; PATRIZIA MAGLIANO – CONSERVATOR, PATRIZIA
MAGLIANO DITTA INDIVIDUALE LABORATORIO DI RESTAURO, GENOA, I; FLAVIO BRUNETTI – CONSERVATOR,
GENOA, I; CENTRO DI PALAZZO D’ORIA DI FLAVIO BRUNETTI, GENOA, I;
93
25 MARCH POSTER
SMOOTH AND GLOSSY BLUE SURFACES ON WOODEN SCULPTURES OF THE 13 TH CENTURY
IN THE MOSAN REGION: A TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH
T
his poster presents some results of the
technological study relating to the polychromy of wooden mosane sculptures of the
13th century. The research was performed at
the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (IRPA,
Brussels) and the results were given in a Ph-D
thesis presented by the author at the University
of Liège, in December 2008. A brief presentation of the study was published in the ICOM–CC
Newsletter n. 1 Sculpture, Polychromy and Architectural Decoration (triennium 2008–2011).
This poster proposes to focus on the technological aspects and in particular on the examination of blue paint layers.
Twenty six sculptures have been examined either at IRPA or in workshop conditions (under
magnification). The research profited from the
collaboration with our colleagues from the labo-
ratory at IRPA specialised in the scientific identification of paint materials (analyses were carried out with SEM–EDX, GC–MS, MRS, HPLC
instrumentation).
The study of the materials and their application
makes it possible to propose that the mosan
sculptures of the 13th century are characterized by a taste for luminous materials resulting
in the use of smooth and glossy surfaces,
whether these be coloured or metallic. These
effects are achieved by various technical
means: the use of underlayers with white or red
lead pigments, glazes, varnish, yellow glazes applied over gilding and oil as a binding media.
This information match the results of analysis
carried out on objects from the 13th century in
Europe N. Bertoni, S. Cren (2000), A. Bohrloch,
O. Wagner (2002), B. Bruni (2004), M. Ciatti
EMMANUELLE MERCIER – POLYCHROME SCULPTURE CONSERVATOR, ATELIER DE CONSERVATIONRESTAURATION DES SCULPTURES EN BOIS POLYCHROME, INSTITUT ROYAL DU PATRIMOINE ARTISTIQUE (KIK-IRPA),
BRUSSELS, B
94
(1996, 1997), E. Howe (2006), K. Kollansdsrud (1997, 2002), U. Plahter (2004), U.
Plahter, R. White (2004), M. Scharff (1999),
P. Tångeberg (1989), etc.
The use of oil as a medium and the presence
of white and orange underlayers also is related to paint layers containing azurite, usually known to be used coarsely ground in an
aqueous medium. Consequently, the blue layers offer a deep and dark tonality combined
with a smooth and glossy appearance that
contrast with the mate aspect which characterises the blue layers found on sculptures in
the following centuries. Macro photography
and samples from sculptures housed in Belgian churches and museums as well as in
the Catharijneconvent Museum in Utrecht
(NL) will illustrate investigation.
C
onsidered as one of the finest examples of
a “gold church”, Santa Clara, in the city of
Porto (Portugal), combines a gothic architectural structure (15th century) with a Baroque
interior decoration. In the 18th century the
gilded wood invaded the church interior covering the walls in a complex and structured architecture, carved by Miguel Francisco da Silva
(c. 1730) and gilded by Pedro da Silva Lisboa
and António José Pereira (c. 1744).
According to Robert C. Smith chronology, the
Portuguese Baroque wood working can be divided in two major periods: barroco nacional
(c.1680-1729) and barroco joanino (c.17291750), the Santa Clara interior being one of
the most interesting works from the second
period.
Although there are several works about Portuguese Baroque altarpieces, these studies
are focused on the iconographic, social, economic and religious aspects. The approach
has been different for the study of the mate-
rials and techniques. To date, this has mainly
been based on the analysis of documents
such as treatises and orders from the manufacturing period, with references to the materials (wood, gold, pigments, varnishes) and
where and how they should be applied. There
is still a gap concerning a direct study, focusing only on the gold leaf and its origin and
characterization.
25 MARCH POSTER
A NEW INSIGHT INTO THE 18 TH CENTURY GOLD LEAF
FROM A BAROQUE ALTARPIECE
The work that has been developed, aims to provide a new approach to Portuguese Baroque altarpieces, by investigating the gold leaf and its
elemental analysis. The qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of the samples collected
from Santa Clara main altarpiece were performed by optical microscopy (OM) of crosssections using reflected and polarised light and
by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopy
(EDS). The results provided a new insight into
the gilding technique and on the gold leaf composition, namely the presence of a gold/silver/copper alloy and a 23 gold carat.
ANA BIDARRA – FREELANCE CONSERVATOR AND PHD CANDIDATE, GEOSCIENCES DEPARTMENT, AVEIRO
UNIVERSITY, AVEIRO, P; JOÃO COROADO – HEAD OF CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION DEPARTMENT,
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF TOMAR, TOMAR, P; FERNANDO ROCHA – HEAD OF GEOSCIENCES DEPARTMENT,
AVEIRO UNIVERSITY, AVEIRO, P
95
25 MARCH POSTER
PROJECTO RETABLOS . AN INTERACTIVE TOOL ON MATERIAL APPEARANCE, CULTURAL CONTEXTS
AND CONSERVATION APPROACHES ON WOODEN POLYCHROMED ALTARPIECES
P
olychromed wooden altarpieces are unique
artefacts that combine a wide range of
artistic, technical and material appearance.
Given their composition, function, and the nature of the physical contexts in which they are
found, altarpieces comprise a very distinct category of cultural heritage. Created to transmit
a religious message, these objects of devotion
are now seen to embody a multiplicity of values.
Their artistic and historic values have long been
acknowledged. However, altarpieces are not
only historic objects and works of art, but also
important components of the religious and social life of a community and potentially focal
points for social and economical development.
The Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Historico
and the Getty Conservation Institute jointly organized a seminar on Methodology for the conservation of Polychrome Wooden Altarpieces which
took place in Seville (Spain), in May 2002. The objective of this workshop was to discuss and propose a methodology for approaching the
conservation of altarpieces that would incorporate all their theoretical and contextual aspects.
Fifteen different case studies were selected
from Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador,
Italy, Mexico, Peru, Portugal, Spain and the
United States. To reflect the diversity of disciplines involved in altarpiece conservation, and
the importance of interaction among the various players in the decision-making process, participants were chosen from professionals of
both public institutions and the private sector,
representing the most relevant disciplines (architects, conservators, art historians). Over
three days, twenty five participants exchanged
ideas through case study presentations, visits
to works of art, and discussions.
The Document on Retablos 2002 formalised
these sessions. It identifies guiding principles
and the process to be followed when formulating a conservation strategy for any type of altarpiece, from the very modest to the complex.
Throughout the seminar the great richness of
the body of knowledge already accumulated on
this topic was noted, as well as the gaps and
uncertainties that still confront professionals
today as they approach altarpiece intervention.
Concerned with this issue and the importance of
making the workshop’s principal results available
to all those involved in altarpiece conservation
and management, the two organizing institutions
FRANCESCA TONINI – SCULPTURE AND PAINTING CONSERVATOR, REANA DEL ROJALE, UDINE, I; LECTURER AT
CÀ FOSCARI UNIVERSITY, VENICE, I; CONSULTING ADVISOR FOR THE PROJECTO RETABLOS AT THE GETTY CONSERVATION
INSTITUTE, LOS ANGELES AND THE INSTITUTO ANDALUZ DEL PATRIMONIO HISTORICO, SEVILLE
96
have prepared several dissemination tools, with
the collaboration of an advisory committee:
1. Altarpieces: Illustrated Basic Terminology
provides detailed visual information on the
definition and history of altarpieces, and compiles key terminology and more than 3,000
reference images to illustrate the most significant aspects of altarpieces in a multilingual format. The terms, organised both
hierarchically and alphabetically, are logically
structured into three blocks, considered as
macro-categories: Design Components, Materials, Building Systems and Techniques.
2. A Bibliography compiles key references
useful for understanding the history and construction of altarpieces, the choice of appropriate research tools, causes of deterioration,
and relevant intervention techniques.
3. A monograph, Methodology for the Conservation of Polychromed Wooden Altarpieces, available in English and Spanish,
compiles the case studies presented at the
workshop and illustrates the great diversity
of material expressions, cultural contexts,
and conservation approaches existing today.
All demonstrate the ever-present challenge
of reconciling theory with practice in complex
physical and cultural environments.
E
comuseo della Valsesia has started to research the activity of a group of native workers from the small Walser village of Rima. They
were employed across Europe in the production
of artificial marble. They used the eighteenth
century scagliola technique as their model.
Since the middle of the nineteenth century,
firms were established in several foreign countries. The most important was founded in Wien
by Antonio de Toma. In Kunstmarmor, they created a large number of the best decorations
of the Ring’s public buildings (the Burgtheater,
the University, the Opera, and the Parliament,
where Hansen chose their firm as his official
company); moreover, they produced the precious artificial marble decorations of Palazzo
Revoltella in Trieste (1855 c.) and several pri-
vate residences. Branches were settled in
other European capitals, again directed by
Rima’s craftmen, and later turned into self-sufficient businesses. Namely, these companies
were in Berlin, Russia, and allied countries
(decorations executed for the St Alexander
Newsky Cathedral in Sofia, Bulgaria, are particularly notable), and Romania (royal residences of Sinaia and Cotroceni, etc).
Art historians often mistake their decorations for
real marble. Actually, creating artificial marble is
indeed a unique and ‘modern’ technique; despite
the repetition of old-fashioned elements, the buildings from the Beux-Arts and Eclectic period can
not in fact be assimilated to the ‘antique’.
Our contribution intends to highlight: the pecu-
ENRICA BALLARÉ – ARCHITECT AND ART HISTORIAN, NOVARA, I; GIANLUCA
HISTORIAN, SERVIZIO MUSEI, ASSESSORATO ALLA CULTURA, REGIONE PIEMONTE, TURIN, I
KANNES
liarities of this technique; the differences existing between it and painted imitations; the difficulties of restoration and conservation; our
discoveries about the differences between the
various firms. Another aim of this contribution
is to present the first results of the historical
inquiry on the work of the firms from Rima.
Ecomuseo of Valsesia commissioned this recent research to Laboratorio del Marmo Artificiale di Rima. The project, soon to be
published, is led with the collaboration of the
Ion Mincu University of architecture and urbanism, Bucarest (professor Nicolae Lascu) on
the activity of the Axerio’s brothers in Romania
between 1882 and 1930. This publication represents the first example of a census on the
activity of a firm operating in the field of building and decoration in this country.
25 MARCH POSTER
KUNSTMARMOR : AN UNKNOWN PRESENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL INTERIORS
OF THE SECOND-HALF OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
– ART
97
PROGRAMME
PROGRAMME
23 March
9:40 - 12:20
HISTORIC INTERIORS AND WIDE RANGING CONSERVATION PROJECTS
Chair: Kate Seymour
9:40 - 10:00
HISTORIC INTERIORS IN THE NETHERLANDS: AN OVERVIEW
Eloy Koldeweij
10:00 - 10:20
THE INTEGRATED APPROACH OF MONUMENTENWACHT IN FLANDERS (BELGIUM): A MODEL FOR
IMPLEMENTING PARTICIPATIVE PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION FOR HISTORIC INTERIORS
10:20 - 10:40
ATTINGHAM RE-DISCOVERED, THE NATIONAL TRUST
11:20 - 11:40
CONSERVATION WORKS IN REFECTORIES IN THE CASTLE OF THE TEUTONIC ORDER IN MALBORK:
BETWEEN HISTORY AND AESTHETIC FUNCTIONALISM
11:40 - 12:00
THE SACRISTY OF THE MOSTEIRO DE SÃO MARTINHO OF TIBÃES (PORTUGAL): TO EXEMPLIFY THE
PRESERVATION OF A UNIQUE HISTORIC ENSEMBLE
Veerle Meul
Sarah Kay, Christine Sitwell, Catriona Hughes, Andrew Bush
Marcin Kozarzewski
Agnès Le Gac, Maria João Dias Costa, Isabel Dias Costa
12
13
14
15
16
12:00 - 12:20
12:30 - 12:55
CHARACTERIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF PADMANABHAPURAM PALACE: AN ANALYTICAL
STUDY
Bessie Cecil, Mohanan Pallai
17
POSTER SESSION
THE NINFEO OF SACCHETTI PALACE IN ROME
Elisabetta Anselmi, Carla D'Angelo, Maria Carolina Gaetani, Giorgia Galanti, Maria Enrica Giralico, Daniela
Gennari, Valeria Massa, Annamaria Pandolfi
ROME, VILLA FARNESINA ALLA LUNGARA, THE FRIEZE HALL. THE CONSERVATION OF THE FRIEZE BY
BALDASSARRE PERUZZI AND THE RECOVERY OF THE 19TH CENTURY DECORATION
Marica Mercalli, Annamaria Pandolfi, Costanza Mora, Federica Di Cosimo, Costanza Longo, Paolo Scarpitti, Alessia
Felici, Cristiana De Lisio
CONSERVING TRAVELING WALLPAPER. ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION IN THE MID TO END 18TH CENTURY
REFLECTED IN THE HISTORIC INTERIOR
Elsbeth Geldhof, Robert Weston
THE INTEGRATION OF CONSERVATION STRATEGIES FOR THE INTERIORS OF JUANQINZHAI IN THE
FORBIDDEN CITY, BEIJING
T.K. McClintock, John Stubbs
ST PANCRAS INTERNATIONAL STATION – SHARING CONSERVATION DECISIONS
Helen Hughes
64
65
66
67
68
PROGRAMME
23 MARCH
14:00 - 15:35
HISTORIC INTERIORS AND WIDE RANGING CONSERVATION PROJECTS
Chair: Elsje Janssen
14:00 - 14:20
TEXTILE FURNISHINGS IN HISTORIC INTERIORS: RECREATING THE PAST
14:20 - 14:40
VILLA DELLA REGINA, TORINO. AN HISTORICAL ROYAL VINEYARD NOW OPENED TO THE PUBLIC.
RESTORATION 1994-2009
Isabella Campagnol
Cristina Mossetti, Simona Albanese, Roberta Bianchi, Laura D'Agostino, Federico Fontana, Paola Manchinu, Elena
Ragusa, Paola Traversi, Maria Carla Visconti Cherasco
14:40 - 15:00
CONSERVATION OF CHINESE ROOM IN WILANÓW PALACE IN WARSAW AS A RESULT OF
MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT
15:00 - 15:20
CONSERVATION OF THE HOUSE OF OWLS AT VILLA TORLONIA IN ROME. AN EXAMPLE OF
ARCHITECTURE AND DECORATIVE ARTS
Irmina Zadrona, Anna Guzowska, Elbieta Jeewska, Agnieszka Leśkiewicz-Laudy
Alberta Campitelli
18
19
20
21
15:35 - 16:00
POSTER SESSION
CONSERVATION OF A PRESUMABLY EMBROIDERED ORIENTAL SILK WALL DECORATION WITH
SPECIAL CONSIDERATION TO THE PROBLEMATIC NATURE OF THE REMOVAL OF SOOT DEPOSITS AND
PAINT SPLASHES
Roxana Naumann
NICHELINO (TORINO), PALAZZINA DI CACCIA DI STUPINIGI: THE TEXTILE CONSERVATION PROJECT
Anna Maria Bava
CONSERVATION AND WEAVE ANALYSIS REVEALS ANOTHER LAYER OF HISTORY
ON 17 TH CENTURY WALLHANGINGS AT HAM HOUSE, SURREY, ENGLAND
May Berkouwer
TEXTILES FOR UPHOLSTERY: FROM REPAIR TO CONSERVATION
Cinzia Oliva
THE HUNT OF THE FRAIL STAG : ANALYSIS, CONSERVATION, AND DISPLAY OF FIVE MEDIEVAL
TAPESTRY FRAGMENTS
Giulia Chiostrini
PROBLEMS AND PROPOSALS FOR THE CONSERVATION OF TEXTILE FRAGMENTS FROM
ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXCAVATIONS IN THE HISTORICAL CENTRE OF CANINO (VITERBO)
Enrica Foschi, Maria Rita Giuliani, Daniela Ferro
69
70
71
72
73
74
16:30 - 18:05
HISTORIC INTERIORS AND WIDE RANGING CONSERVATION PROJECTS
Chair: Margaret Sawicki
16:30 - 16:50
THE RESTORATION OF THE RACCONIGI CASTLE’S SECOND FLOOR. HISTORICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL
ELEMENTS
Mirella Macera, Rossana Vitiello, Silvano Brizio, Renato Balestrino, Serena Fumero, Cristina Corlando, Laura Gallo,
Samantha Padovani, Francesco Alba, Roberto Casale, Monica Naretto, Silvia Spertino, Alessandra Longo, Progetto
Cantoregi, Elisa Brizio
16:50 - 17:10
STRUCTURAL EVALUATION FOR CONSERVATION OF DECORATIVELY PAINTED WOOD AT MISSION SAN
MIGUEL ARCANGEL
17:10 - 17:30
DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL HERITAGE WOODEN STRUCTURES. TWO CASE STUDIES
17:30 - 17:50
THE MURAL PAINTINGS IN S. MARIA MADDALENA CHURCH IN CAMUZZAGO: THE CONSERVATION
PROCESS
Douglas W. Porter, Ronald W. Anthony, Kimberly D. Dugan
Emmanuel Maurin, Philippe Galimard
Federica Carlini, Dario Foppoli, Marco Gasparoli, Gianni Miani, Rossella Moioli, Elisabetta Rosina
22
23
24
25
PROGRAMME
24 March
9:40 - 12:40
MUSEUMS AND PRIVATE RESIDENCES: PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION
Chair: Elsje Janssen, Andreas Schulze
9:00 - 9:20
FROM THE POPES TO GARIBALDI. A PALIMPSEST ON THE WALLS
9:20 - 9:40
UPHOLSTERY CONSERVATION IN THE ACTON COLLECTION, VILLA LA PIETRA, FLORENCE
9:40 - 10:00
Ileana Tozzi
Claudia Beyer, Costanza Perrone Da Zara
VILLA ABEGG – FROM PRIVATE RESIDENCE TO MUSEUM
Anna Jolly, Corinna Kienzler
10:00 - 10:20
THE RESTORATION OF MRS. MILLS’S ROOMS AT STAATSBURGH STATE HISTORIC SITE: AN AMERICAN
GILDED AGE EXAMPLE OF THE HOLISTIC VIEW FOR HISTORIC INTERIORS
11:10 - 11:30
THE CONSERVATION CAMPAIGNE AT VILLA STIBBERT. CASE STUDIES
11:30 - 11:50
HISTORICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE 18TH CENTURY FRENCH GILT LEATHER TAPESTRY
RESTORATION IN AN HISTORICAL HOUSE: THE MAISON MANTIN PROJECT (MOULINS, FRANCE)
Deborah Lee Trupin, Melodye Moore
Kirsten Achengreen Piacenti
Céline Bonnot-Diconne, Jean Pierre Fournet, Benoit-Henry Papounaud
28
29
30
31
32
33
PROGRAMME
24 MARCH
11:50 - 12:10
12:20 - 12:45
THE GOOD FIGHT: CONSERVATION OF THE ROUSE HILL HOUSE & FARM INTERIORS
Matthew Scott
34
POSTER SESSION
ANALYSIS OF ACID DETERIORATION OF LEATHER
Anne Lama, Paula Antunes, Yvette Fletcher, Jeffry Guthrie-Strachan, Karen Vidler
75
GILT LEATHER WALL HANGINGS IN THE STIBBERT MUSEUM OF FLORENCE
Monica Bercè
76
ARICCIA: IN THE BAROQUE COUNTRY DWELLING OF THE CHIGI FAMILY, GILT LEATHER AND ARCHIVAL
DOCUMENTATION
Mara Nimmo, Francesco Petrucci
THE CONDITION OF THE GILT LEATHER WALL HANGINGS IN THE PALAZZO CHIGI, ARICCIA, ITALY
Peter Hallebeek
CONSERVATION OF CHINOISERIE GILT LEATHER HANGINGS IN THE UK
Theo Sturge
IDENTIFICATION AND SYMBOLOGY OF PLANT SPECIES IN GILT AND PAINTED LEATHER
Marina Regni
77
78
79
80
13:50 - 15:25
INTERDISCIPLINARY ISSUES
Chair: Rosalia Varoli Piazza
13:50 - 14:10
WALLPAPER AND TEXTILE SUPERPOSED – DESTINATION AND PRESENTATION AFTER REMOVAL. THE
CHINESE BOUDOIR CEILING CONSERVATION FROM THE CHÂTEAU D’ISSOU (YVELINES, FRANCE)
14:10 - 14:30
UPHOLSTERY, HOW TO DEAL WITH THE TEXTILE COVERINGS?
CASE STUDY: PROJECT WEISSENSTEINFLÜGEL
14:30 - 14:50
INTERDISCIPLINARY COLLABORATION TO UNDERSTAND AND RECREATE THE SPLENDOUR OF THE
MARBLE CLOSET AT BOSWORTH CASTLE
14:50 - 15:10
MARRIAGE OF CONSERVATORS AT PARIS' 19TH ARRONDISEMENT CITY HALL
Jean-Baptiste Martin
Julia Dummer
Helen Hughes
Marie Dubost, Anne-Marie Geffroy, Emmanuelle Hincelin, Marlène Margez, Emmanuelle Paris
35
36
37
38
PROGRAMME
24 MARCH
15:25 - 15:50
POSTER SESSION
THE BALLA HOUSE IN ROME: FUTURIST CONTEXT AND INDUSTRIAL PAINTING MEDIA
Maurizio Coladonato, Grazia De Cesare, Paola Iazurlo, Giancarlo Sidoti
THE CHURCH OF SAINT SAVIOR IN PRIZREN (KOSOVO): A DOUBLE CHURCH
Simona Sajeva
THE CONSERVATION OF TECHNICAL FIXTURES OR FITTINGS IN HISTORIC BUILDINGS
Giacinta Jean
THE SEQUENCE OF INSCRIPTIONS IN THE HALL OF MIRRORS REVEALED BY CROSS-SECTION
81
82
83
Nathalie Balcar
84
Alessia Bianco
85
UNCONVENTIONAL THERMOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONIC TESTS FOR A CASE STUDY OF THE STONE
DECORATION OF ST LEO CHAPEL IN BOVA, REGGIO CALABRIA, ITALY
16:20 - 18:20
PRESERVING ORIGINAL CONTEXT WHILE MAINTAINING A FUNCTIONAL ROLE
Chair: Valerie Magar
16:20 - 16:40
STROZZI SACRATI PALACE IN FLORENCE 'A MUSEUM IN ITSELF'. TAPESTRIES AND WALLPAPER
CONSERVATION TREATMENT
Paolo Crisostomi, Maria Giorgi, Graziella Palei, Massimiliano Pandolfi, Spira s.r.l.
39
16:40 - 17:00
UNITED NATIONS – UNITING PROFESSIONS?
17:00 - 17:20
DECORATION OF AN ITALIAN THEATRE AFTER THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY IN 1870: TECHNICAL
IMPLEMENTATION AND CONSERVATION AFTER THE GREAT WARS IN AN EARTHQUAKE ZONE
17:20 - 17:40
STUDY FROM HOLISTIC VIEW TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEM OF TEMPLE PAINTING CONSERVATION
IN TAIWAN
17:40 - 18:00
HARMONIA EST DISCORDIA CONCORS : HARMONY AND DISCORD AS PRESERVED AFTER
RESTORATION WORKS
Margareta Bergstrand
Grazia De Cesare
Janet Tung Ying-Ying
Nikolia Ioannidou
40
41
42
43
PROGRAMME
25 March
8:40 - 10:40
PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION, CARE AND MAINTENANCE
Chair: Margaret Sawicki
8:40 - 9:00
DANISH CHURCH INTERIORS AND THEIR CHANGE IN COLOUR APPEARANCE DUE TO REPEATED
REPAINTING OF THE FURNITURE
9:00 - 9:20
CLEANING, CONDITION SURVEYING AND MAINTENANCE: HOUSE KEEPING SWEDISH STYLE
9:20 - 9:40
THE WEB ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SHEET FOR MUSEUMS AND TEMPORARY EXHIBITIONS
9:40 - 10:00
10:00 - 10:20
Karin Vestergaard Kristiansen
Ann Hallström, Erika Hedhammar, Lisen Tamm
Carlo Cacace, Elisabetta Giani, Annamaria Giovagnoli, Livia Gordini, Maria Pia Nugari
APPLYING PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SILK IN HISTORIC HOUSES
Naomi Luxford, David Thickett, Paul Wyeth
PAINTED WOOD AS CLIMATE INDICATORS? EXPERIENCES FROM A CONDITION SURVEY OF PAINTED
WOOD PANELS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING IN LÄCKÖ CASTLE, A PARTLY DEHUMIDIFIED
HISTORIC BUILDING
Charlotta Bylund Melin, Jonny Bjurman, Maria Brunskog, Astrid von Hofsten
46
47
48
49
50
11:10 - 12:20
CULTURAL PROPERTY: CHANGES IN THE ORIGINAL CONTEXT
Chair: Rui Filipe Teixeira Xavier
11:10 - 11:30
THE GALLERY OF THE FORMER TOWN HALL OF AMSTERDAM. AN INTERRELATION BETWEEN
PAINTING, ARCHITECTURE AND LIGHT?
11:30 - 11:50
A ROCOCO ROOM FROM A HOUSE ALONG THE AMSTERDAM CANALS ON DISPLAY IN THE NEW
RIJKSMUSEUM
11:50 - 12:10
OLD FRIENDS, NEW PLACES. RELOCATION AND CONSERVATION OF TWO DECORATED DOORS BY
AUSTRALIAN ARTIST, DONALD FRIEND AND BALINESE CARVER, I MADE JOJOL.
12:25 - 12:45
Emilie Froment, Margriet van Eikema Hommes, Anna Zwagerman, Luc Megens, Matthijs de Keijzer
Paul van Duin
Donna Hinton
POSTER SESSION
RESTORATION AND SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION OF EXQUISITE HISTORIC FURNITURE FROM THE
COLLECTIONS OF THE PRINCE OF LIECHTENSTEIN
51
52
53
Václav Pitthard, Susanne Käfer, Silvia Miklin-Kniefacz, Marta Anghelone, Martina Griesser, Sabine Stanek
86
Franco Gualano, Massimo Ravera, Paolo Luciani
87
THE STUPINIGI LIBRARY’S BOISERIES : TWO CENTURIES OF CHANGES AND ADJUSTMENTS
PROGRAMME
25 MARCH
THE IMPACT OF THE FRAME: ONE PAINTING’S JOURNEY WITHIN THE ART GALLERY OF NEW SOUTH
WALES
Barbara Dabrowa
88
Y. Vandenberghe, R. Février, N. Balcar
89
GILDING TECHNIQUES: CASE STUDY OF THE CHAIRS OF THE GILT ROOM OF MALMAISON CASTLE
THE CHALLENGE OF CONSERVING FURNITURE WITH MISSING PARTS: THE CASE STUDY OF BED FROM
THE BYZANTINE AND CHRISTIAN MUSEUM OF ATHENS, GREECE
Flora Koraki, Victoria Kouvela, Christina Margariti, Antonis Paterakis
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOME GAP-FILLERS FOR WOOD RESTORATION
Hany Hanna Aziz Hanna
90
91
13:50 - 15:25
COMPOSITE MATERIAL ARTEFACTS: CONSERVATION PROJECTS
Chair: Caterina Bon Valsassina
13:50 - 14:10
THE CONSERVATION OF A CHINESE COROMANDEL LACQUER PANEL FROM THE COLLECTION OF VILLA
LA PIETRA
14:10 - 14:30
FROM HISTORIC INTERIORS TO THE CONSERVATION STUDIO: A ROUTE TO KNOWLEDGE OF A
JAPANESE MULTI-MATERIAL TEXTILE FROM THE STIBBERT MUSEUM IN FLORENCE
Pamela Hatchfield
Susanna Conti, Licia Triolo, Maria Rizzi, Francesco Civita and Naomi Katō
54
55
14:30 - 14:50
CHURCH OF THE TRANSFIGURATION OF OUR LORD IN TALLINN AND CONSERVATION OF ITS
CARVED-WOOD ICONOSTASIS
14:50 - 15:10
TECHNICAL STUDY OF POLYCHROME CLAY SCULPTURES FROM THE BUDDHIST TEMPLE COMPLEX AT
NAKO, HIMACHAL PRADESH, NORTH INDIA
15:25 - 15:50
Maria Lillepruun, Kriste Sibul
Tatjana Bayerova, Maria Gruber, Gabriela Krist
56
57
POSTER SESSION
ESTABLISHING A CONSERVATION PROJECT FOR THE HIGH ALTAR BY BERNT NOTKE (1483). THE
PRELIMINARIES
Pia Ehasalu
MADONNA DEL ROSARIO IN N.S. DELLA CONSOLAZIONE CHURCH, GENOA: SCIENCE DEALING WITH
CONSERVATION
Raffaella Bruzzone , Lucia Frassoni , Francesca De Cupis , Patrizia Magliano , Flavio Brunetti
SMOOTH AND GLOSSY BLUE SURFACES ON WOODEN SCULPTURES OF THE 13TH CENTURY IN THE
MOSAN REGION: A TECHNOLOGICAL APPROACH
Emmanuelle Mercier
A NEW INSIGHT INTO THE 18TH CENTURY GOLD LEAF FROM A BAROQUE ALTARPIECE
Ana Bidarra, João Coroado, Fernando Rocha
92
93
94
95
PROGRAMME
25 MARCH
PROJECTO RETABLOS. AN INTERACTIVE TOOL ON MATERIAL APPEARANCE, CULTURAL CONTEXTS
AND CONSERVATION APPROACHES ON WOODEN POLYCHROMED ALTARPIECES
Francesca Tonini
KUNSTMARMOR: AN UNKNOWN PRESENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL INTERIORS OF THE SECOND-HALF
OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Enrica Ballaré, Gianluca Kannes
16:20 - 18:10
MATERIALS AND ARTEFACTS: TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC UPDATE
Chairman: Céline Bonnot Diconne
16:20 - 16:40
CLEANING OF TANNED LEATHER: TESTING WITH INFRA RED SPECTROSCOPY AND SEM-EDAX
16:40 - 17:00
ANALYSIS AND PRESERVATION OF AN ANCIENT ALUM TAWED PARCHMENT
17:00 - 17:20
MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGED HINOKI (CHAMAECYPARIS OBTUSA ENDL.) WOOD FROM
JAPANESE HISTORICAL BUILDINGS
17:20 - 17:40
ALTERATION OF GILTS ON MEDIEVAL MURAL PAINTINGS
Katerina Malea, Stamatis C. Boyatzis, Marina Kehagia
Ira Rabin
Misao Yokoyama, Junji Sugiyama, Shuichi Kawai
Floreal Daniel, Aurélie Mounier
96
97
58
59
60
61
PERSONAL NOTES
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March 2010