26 et 27 septembre 2012 Lyon • Qualité de l`air intérieur

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26 et 27 septembre 2012 Lyon • Qualité de l`air intérieur
Parce que chacun a droit à la qualité de l’air qu’il respire au quotidien ...
Because the quality of the air we breathe is our everyday right ...
3e Edition
International Conference
• Qualité de l’air intérieur
Indoor air quality
• Emissions atmosphériques
Air emissions
26 et 27
www.atmosfair.fr
©
septembre 2012
Lyon
En partenariat avec / In partnership with
Un événement
UCIE
L’Union des Consultants et Ingénieurs en Environnement
2012
Enviro-Invest
&
Risques Environnementaux et Sécurité des Investissements
Environmental
Due Diligence
Environmental Safety in Operations and M&A
e
4th conferenc
y
b
sponsored
14 - 15 novembre 2012 - Paris
Proposed & sponsored by
Programme et Inscription :
www.webs-event.com
In partnership with
An event by
Mercredi 26 septembre 2012
Qualité de l’air intérieur / Indoor air quality
08h30
Accueil et inscription des
participants / Welcome and
participant’s registration
09h00
Discours de bienvenue / Welcoming
speech
Allocution de / Speech of: Président
du Congrès / Conference President
09h20 - 09h40
Matériaux d’aménagement et
produits de construction : la
réglementation de la qualité de
l’air intérieur entre correction et
anticipation des risques / Interior
finishes and building materials:
the regulation of indoor air quality
between correction and anticipation
of risks
Françoise Labrousse &
David Desforges, Jones Day
09h40 - 10h00
La gestion des risques dans des
maisons riveraines d’un site
industriel – Approche juridique /
Risk management in houses
neighboring industrial sites – A legal
approach
Joëlle Herschtel, King & Spalding
10h00 - 10h20
Etude de la contamination fongique
de bioaérosols dans des habitations
dégradées par la mérule (Serpula
lacrymans) et les moisissures :
évaluation de l’exposition humaine
et impact génotoxique (projet
MYCOAEROTOX) / Fungal profiles
of bioaerosols collected in houses
damaged by Serpula lacrymans and
molds: exposure and genotoxicity
assessment
David Garon, Université de Caen
10h20 - 10h40
Mycotoxines de l’habitat et le
Généraliste / Indoor mycotoxins
and the General Practitioner
Marcel Tony, Healthvalue
10h40 - 11h00
Coffee Break
11h00 - 11h20
Pollution dans l’air intérieur de
logements, résultant de l’activité
d’établissements de nettoyage à sec
et d’établissements de manucure
«ongleries» / Indoor air pollution
induced by drycleaning and by
manicure shops
Laurence Schang, Laboratoire Central
de la Préfecture de Police
11h20 - 11h40
Combined professional and
residential toxicological exposure
risks by VOC
Frank Karg, HPC Envirotec
11h40 - 12h00
Suivi temporel des niveaux de
concentration en atmosphère
intérieure lors de l’application
d’insecticides ménagers / Monitoring
of time related concentration levels
in indoor air during household
insecticide application
Aude Vesin, Laboratoire Chimie
Environnement
12h00 - 13h00
Questions - Answers - Discussion
13h00 Déjeuner / Lunch
14h00 - 15h20
Table ronde / Round table
Qualité de l’air intérieur –
Formaldéhydes et COV /
Indoor air quality –
Formaldehyde and VOCs
Impact des émissions de matériaux
sur la qualité de l’air intérieur :
dosage simultané des COV et du
formaldéhyde dans l’air intérieur et
à l’interface air/matériau / Impact
of material emissions on indoor air
quality : simultaneous quantification
of VOCs and formaldehyde in indoor
air and at the air/material interface
Delphine Bourdin, Nobatek
Development and validation of a
colorimetric passive flux sampler for
formaldehyde emission rate measurements in indoor environments
Sébastien Dusanter, Ecole des Mines
de Douai
Qualité de l’air intérieur : Bilan
des mesures de Kudzu Science
sur les COV et aldéhydes dans
l’air intérieur / Indoor air quality :
Review of Kudzu Science data on
indoor VOCs and aldehyde measurements
Vincent Peynet, Kudzu Science
Qualité de l’air intérieur : détermination des sources secondaires
de formaldéhydes dans des établissements scolaires de la Région
Centre / Indoor air quality : determination of the secondary sources
of formaldehyde in educational
institutions of the «Region Centre»
of France
Carole Flambard, Lig’Air
Mesure des composés nouvellement réglementés dans les ERP
de la ville de Nogent-sur-Marne /
Measurement of newly regulated
compounds in the Publicly open
establishments of Nogent-surMarne
Etienne de Vanssay, Cap Environnement
15h20 - 15h40
Coffee Break
15h40 - 16h00
Capteurs chimiques colorimétriques
pour la détection de teneurs
ppb de trichloramine / Chemical
and colorimetric sensors for the
detection of nitrogen trichloride at
ppb level
Thu-Hoa Tran-Thi, CEA
16h00 - 16h20
Qualité de l’air intérieur habitacle.
Application du champ des odeurs –
Approche pour l’évaluation de
l’odeur de pièces automobiles / Car
cabin air quality: Application of the
« Field Of Odors® » approach in a
sensory descriptive analysis for the
evaluation of car part smells
Marie Verriele, Ecole des Mines de
Douai
16h20 - 16h40
La modélisation 3D de la qualité de
l’air en milieu confiné, un outil de
conception et de diagnostic / 3D
modelling of indoor air quality : a
tool for design and diagnosis
Lobnat Ait Hamou, Fluidyn
16h40 - 17h00
Modélisation de la qualité de l’air
à l’intérieur de halls industriels /
Numerical modeling for indoor air
quality in industrial halls
Catherine Turpin & Perrine Volta,
Sillages Environnement
17h00 - 17h20
Projet Vaicteur Air2 / Vaicteur Air2
project
Philippe Petit, CIAT
17h20 - 17h40
La photocatalyse génère-telle du formaldéhyde lors du
traitement d’air intérieur ? /
Does photocatalysis increase
formaldehyde production during
VOC degradation under indoor air
conditions?
Benoît Kartheuser, Certech
17h40 - 18h00
Dépollution de l¹air par
photocatalyse : Etat des lieux et
développements futurs. Stratégie
pour progresser sur un marché
émergent / Indoor air pollution
removal by photocatalytic process :
state of art
and futur development. Strategy for
this emerging market development
Didier Chavanon, BMES & Pascal
Kaluzny, Tera Environnement
18h00
Fin de la première journée / End of
Day One
Interior Finishes and Building Materials: the Regulations of Indoor Air Quality between
Correction and Anticipation of Risks – September 26, 2012
Matériaux d’aménagement et produits de construction : la réglementation de la qualité de l’air
intérieur entre correction et anticipation des risques – 26 septembre 2012
Jones Day
2 rue Saint-Florentin
75001 Paris
www.jonesday.com
Françoise Labrousse
Partner
Certified Specialist in
Environmental Law in France
+33 1 56 59 39 39
[email protected]
David Desforges
Of Counsel
+33 1 56 59 39 39
[email protected]
Abstract
Except in intensive industrial settings, indoor air quality has long
been a non issue. With an ever expanding range of interior and
construction materials with physical and technical properties,
the issue of the health, safety and environmental impact of such
materials has now become a matter of concern.
Law n° 2010-788 of July 12, 2010 added another layer to the
construction of a regulatory framework aiming at ensuring safe
working but also housing conditions from a materials standpoint
rather than from an activities perspective only.
These
amendments to the French environmental code (Code de
l’environnement) complement the labor code (Code du travail),
the public health code (Code de la santé publique) and the
housing and construction (Code de la construction et de
l’habitation) each of which participate to the building of a
comprehensive approach to this issue.
The 2010 law provides for a future definition of eco-materials
(éco-matériaux) not yet adopted which shall take into account
not only the actual health, safety and environmental properties
of materials while in use but also their health, safety and
environmental impact throughout their life cycle.
Interestingly, the 2010 law also enforces a labeling obligation
for construction and furniture materials as well as for wall and
floor paneling materials, paints and varnishes releasing
substances in ambient air. This framework already includes
enforceable indoor air quality limit values for formaldehyde and
benzene. A list which will probably expand in the future.
Our presentation will offer a comprehensive view of the state of
the law today and an outlook to foreseeable developments.
Jones Day
Today, we are one of the largest international law firms, with
more than 2,400 lawyers in 37 offices around the world. Our
clients - a substantial number of whom have trusted us for
decades - are among the Fortune Global 500. The Paris Office
opened in 1970 and counts more than 90 lawyers.
Jones Day’s Environmental, Health & Safety practice is one of
the most substantial in the world. Our lawyers help clients in
Europe, the U.S. and Asia comply with complex laws and
regulations pertaining to solid and hazardous waste, air
emissions, water quality, and employee health & safety. We
have extensive experience with the full range of environmental,
health & safety laws that relate to litigation, transactional and
regulatory compliance matters. We also advise clients on all
climate change and REACH related issues.
The Paris team is ranked among the top environmental
practices in France in the guides Chambers Europe, PLC Which
lawyer? and The Legal 500 - EMEA.
LAGESTIONDESRISQUESDANSDESMAISONSRIVERAINESD’UNSITEINDUSTRIEL
Fondé sur des retours d’expérience, l’exposé abordera la gestion des risques liés à la qualité de l’air
intérieurdemaisonsriverainesd’unsiteindustriel,générésparunepollutiondelanappephréatique.
Lagestiondecesrisquess’articuleautourdetroisvolets,technique,juridiqueetdecommunicationqui
sontétroitementimbriqués,etcetoutaulongdesdifférentesétapesqu’impliquentl’identificationetla
maîtrisedesrisquesinduitsparunepollutiondel’airintérieurd’habitations.
Ainsi, la mise en œuvre de ces phases s’intègre dans un cadre méthodologique et juridique qui sera
développé dans la présentation. Il convient de l’accompagner d’une étroite information de
l’Administration (Préfet, Inspection des Installations Classées, ARS…) ainsi que d’une communication
ciblée avec les riverains concernés, de même qu’avec les différentes parties prenantes (maire,
associations…).
Si la gestiondes risquessanitaires est la priorité, les aspects patrimoniaux sont souvent à l’origine de
contentieuxinitiésparlesriverainsquisaisissentsoitlesjuridictionspénalessoitlestribunauxcivilsen
vued’obtenirl’indemnisationdelapertedevaleurdeleurmaison.L’appréciationtantduprincipeque
duquantumd’untelpréjudiceestparticulièrementdélicate.
RISKMANAGEMENTINHOMESADJACENTTOANINDUSTRIALSITE
Based on feedback from experience, the presentation will address risk management related to the
indoor air quality of homes that are adjacent to an industrial site, and generated by the pollution of
groundwater.
Themanagementoftheserisksfocusesonthetechnical,legalandcommunicationcomponentsthatare
closely intertwined, throughout the different steps involved by the identification and management of
risksinducedbythepollutionoftheindoorairqualityofhomes.
Thus,theimplementationofthesesphasesispartofalegalandmethodologicalframeworkwhichwill
be developed in the presentation. It should go with a thorough information of the public authorities
(Prefect,ClassifiedInstallationsInspection,ARS)aswellasatargetedcommunicationwiththeresidents
concerned,andwiththevariousstakeholders(Mayors,Associations).
Ifthehealthriskmanagementisapriority,theestateaspectsareoftenthecauseoflitigationinitiated
bytheresidentswhobringclaimsbeforethecriminalorcivilcourtstoobtaincompensationfortheloss
of value of their homes. The assessment of both the principle and quantum of such damage is
particularlysensitive.
JoëlleHERSCHTELͲAvocatAssociéͲKing&SpaldingLLP
T+33(1)73003918ͲF+33(1)73003959Ͳ[email protected]
12coursAlbert1erͲ75008Paris,France
www.kslaw.com
Etudedelacontaminationfongiquedebioaérosolsdansdeshabitationsdégradéesparla
mérule(Serpulalacrymans)etlesmoisissures:évaluationdel’expositionhumaineet
impactgénotoxique(projetMYCOAEROTOX)
[FungalprofilesofbioaerosolscollectedinhousesdamagedbySerpulalacrymansandmolds:
exposureandgenotoxicityassessment]
VirginieSéguin1,VéroniqueAndré1,JeanͲPhilippeRioult1,DidierPottier1,MathieuGuibert1,Alain
Bourreau1,RachelPicquet2,ValérieKientzͲBouchart2,PhilippeVérité3,DavidGaron1,*
1
UnitéABTEEA4641ͲEquipeToxEMAC,UFRdesSciencesPharmaceutiques,UniversitédeCaen
BasseͲNormandie
2
LaboratoireFrankDuncombe,Caen
3
UnitéABTEEA4641ͲEquipeToxEMAC,FacultédeMédecineͲPharmacie,UniversitédeRouen
*DavidGaron,UnitéABTEEA4641ͲEquipeToxEMAC,BâtimentGRECANͲCentreF.Baclesse,
avenueGénéralHarris,BP5026,14076CAENcedex05,[email protected]
Depuisquelquesannées,lescasdedégradationd’habitationspardeschampignonslignivorestels
quelamérule(Serpulalacrymans)sontenrecrudescence,enparticulierdansl’OuestdelaFrancequi
esttrèsdurementtouché.Cechampignonquipossèdeundéveloppementrapidedansdesconditions
d’humidité importante est très sporulant. De plus, sa présence s’accompagne de la croissance
d’autresespècesfongiques,enparticulierdenombreusesmoisissures,parmilesquellesdesespèces
capables de produire des métabolites potentiellement toxiques (mycotoxines). La contamination
fongique de ces environnements intérieurs paraît donc complexe. Le manque de connaissances
concernant la nature et les effets sanitaires de cette contamination fongique nécessite la mise en
place d’une approche transdisciplinaire. Ainsi ce projet évalue la contamination fongique de
bioaérosols et matériaux prélevés dans des habitations atteintes par un champignon lignivore. Les
bioaérosolssontprélevésaumoyendepompesportatives(filtres)etd’uncollecteurCoriolis®(liquide
stérile).Ilsfontl’objetd’unecaractérisationfongique(identificationdesmoisissuresetchampignons
lignivores,recherchedemycotoxines)ettoxicologique(évaluationdelamutagénicité);lepotentiel
toxinogèneetmutagènedesisolatsfongiquescollectésestégalementexploré.
Lesdonnéesobtenuesdoiventpermettredemieuxcaractériserlerisquefongiquedeshabitations
touchées par la mérule et d’évaluer l’exposition humaine aux spores fongiques et mycotoxines au
seindeceshabitationsdégradées.
Projet réalisé avec le soutien financier du MEDDTL (Programme Primequal 2: Qualité de l’air à
l’intérieurdesbâtimentsetdestransports:effets,causes,préventionetgestion.
Contact:[email protected]
Indoor Mycotoxins and the General Practitioner
Tony Georges MARCEL, MD, PhD, HealthValue,1
En matière de maladies liées aux mycotoxines il est impossible en France, à l'heure actuelle, en
routine médicale, de faire pratiquer une recherche dans le sang ou les urines de mycotoxines, et très
difficile de demander la recherche d'un panel de mycotoxines sur les murs. Il faut au mieux, se
contenter de l'une d'entre elles.
Qui plus est une réputation d'usurpation flotte sur tous ceux qui se plaignent de pathologies diverses
apres dégât des eaux, et les publications de l'Institute of Medicine ne sont pas faites pour dissiper
cela.
Quand donc le médecin doit-il évoquer le rôle pathogénique d'une mycotoxine dans l'habitat (par
DDE et/ou d'origine alimentaire), et à laquelle penser?
Deux attitudes d'exploration diagnostique sont possibles dans le cas de maladies humaines et de
mycotoxines de l'habitat.
1/D'une part, devant certaines pathologies, il peut être raisonnable de s'enquérir d'un dégât des
eaux dans les mois ou années qui ont précédé l'éclosion de cette pathologie. Si tel est le cas, la
recherche de certaines mycotoxines peut être importante, dans un but d'établir un lien
physiopathologique .
cancer de l'estomac
cancer primitif du foie
cancer de l'oesophage
cancer des voies urinaires
cancer spino-cellulaire cutane
Cancer du poumon (adeno-)
asthme
mycobacteriose atypique
hemorrhagies alveolaires
Ballonnements abdominaux, nausees
Ballonnement abd. et
hypothermie nocturne
sterigma
aflatoxine
fumonisine
OTA
sterigma
ster+ DON
nombreuses
satratoxine
OTA
DON
Parkinson
Alzheimer
Ataxie
Probl mnesiques
Anosmie d'apparition rapide
Vertiges
OTA
OTA
Tricho, Fumo, DAS
Tricho, Fumo, DAS
roridine
Tricho, Fumo, DAS
roquefortine,
Fibrillations musculaires
tremorotoxines
Anomalie tube neural
Fumonisine
Vertige parox. benin resistant Sterigma, Afla
Aplasie medullaire
DAS
Glomerulosclerose focale et
segmentaire
OTA
2/D'autre part, devant un dégât des eaux avec existence de moisissures, un bilan médical devrait
être fait, ne serait-ce que pour établir l'état initial du ou des patients, car une pathologie peut
s'installer après un délai.
On recherchera:
- Sur le plan hepato-gastroenterologique:
-des douleurs épigastriques, pouvant amener à une fibroscopie (K estomac, sterigma);
- une gêne à la déglutition, pouvant amener à pratiquer transit baryté oeso-gastrique, ou
endoscopie (cancer de l'œsophage, fumonisine);
- ballonnements abdominaux, surtout s'ils sont associés une sensation nocturne
d'hypothermie (DON), ou des nausées importantes (OTA);
- douleur de l'hypochondre droit, avec sd biologique de rétention, surtout si HBA et/ou HCA
positif, avec ou sans à l'interrogatoire ingestion en outre d'Aflatoxine possible: cacahuètes, laitages
suspects, voyage en pays endémique (riz parfois).
1
[email protected]
- Sur le plan rénal et urinaire:
- hématurie, pouvant amener à vérifier l'état des voies urinaires (cancer: OTA);
- protéinurie évoquant une glomerulosclerose focale et segmentaire, nécessitant une
biopsie, sur laquelle l'OTA doit être recherchée.
- Sur le plan neurologique:
- des troubles de la marche, impressions de vertige, avec élargissement du polygone de
sustentation, et impossibilité de marche de funambule (un pied devant l'autre): trichothecenes,
Fumonisine, DAS. Une recherche fine d'éléments ataxiques est nécessaire: Romberg, sensibilité
vibratoire au diapason. L'exploration vestibulaire peut mettre en évidence des anomalies d'autant
plus intéressantes qu'elles ne régressent pas apres manœuvre de Dix et Hallpike;
- des fibrillations musculaires sous-cutanées visibles, spontanées (sans chiquenaude pour les
provoquer), associées à des sd. de type neuropathie périphérique, cliniquement et à l'EMG
(tremorotoxines, roquefortine).
- Sur le plan ORL:
- Une anosmie d'apparition rapide (roridine), une hypoacousie pour les fréquences élevées
(toxicité pour canaux BK)
- Sur le plan hématologique:
- une cytopénie (DAS);
- une lymphopénie, avec en particulier chute des CD4 et/ou des CD8 peut être le fait de
nombreuses mycotoxines; un phenotypage peut montrer un accroissement des TREG.
- Sur le plan infectieux:
- mycobacteriose atypique (image évocatrice au scanner thoracique) en dehors d'une
sérologie HIV positive: plusieurs mycotoxines peuvent en être cause.
- Sur le plan gyneco-obstetrical:
- naissance d'un enfant avec anomalie du tube neural (Fumonisine.)
Toutes ces anomalies connues pour être liées parfois aux mycotoxines, sont observées soit dans
d'autres contrées, soit chez l'animal, et dans quelques cas explorées dans l'espèce humaine.
Cependant pour l'espèce humaine, outre la dénégation de ce lien, la difficulté voire l'impossibilité
de faire doser les mycotoxines, fait que le lien de causalité n'est pas démontré, tout comme pour
le Mal décrit par Bright quelques années avant qu'on ne dose l'urée sanguine, et le tabes dont le
diagnostic reposait sur la clinique et la notion de chancre ancien, jusqu’à ce que Bordet et
Wassermann grâce a la déviation du complément, permettent d'établir le lien de causalité.
Des cas cliniques seront présentés pour illustrer ces éléments.
Indoorairpollutionoccursbydrycleanerandmanicureestablishments
II.
I.
L.SCHANG,G.GOUPIL,L.PAILLAT,G.THIAULT,
LaboratoirecentraldelaPréfecturedePolice,39bisruedeDantzig,75015PARIS,FRANCE
OBJECTIVE:
The Central Laboratory of Police headquarters (LCPP) is a public department responsible for
assessingtheimpactofurbanandindustrialactivitiesontheenvironment.Inthiscontext,theLCPPis
regularlyasked,duetoproblemsofodornuisances,tomakemeasurementsindwellingsneardrycleaner
andmanicureestablishmentsinstalledingroundfloorbuildings.Thesemeasuresaimsatdeterminethe
impactoftheseactivitiesontheindoorairqualité.Airsamplesarecarriedoutbypassivesensorduring
1to7daysorbyusingactivesamplingduring1to8hours.
DRYCLEANING
Thepresentationwillfocus on theconcentration levelsof tetrachlorethylenecan be achieved in
homeslocatednearthelaundryandthepossiblepathways.
A statistical review of concentrations measured by the LCPP tetrachlorethylene (up to 120 000
ʅg.mͲ3)inasampleof122homeslocatedneardrycleaningfacilitieswillbepresentedandcompared
withreferencevalues.Aspecialstudywillbedetailedtoillustratethepathwaysoftetrachlorethylenein
housing.
This investigation concerns a building in which the LCPP was asked to odor problems.
Measurementsperformedinemergencyrevealedhighconcentrationsoftetrachlorethyleneindwellings
(1600 ʅg.mͲ3 on the 5th floor). The measurements were performed by passive sampling (activated
carbon)followedbydesorptionsolventandadeterminationbyGC/FID.Adrycleanerlocatedonthe
ground floor of the building was quickly suspected to be responsible for these emissions. The dry
cleaningmachinewasstoppedpendingthecompletionofworkforcomplianceofthefacility(installation
of a mechanical ventilation system with activated carbon treatment). Following this work and before
restarting the machine dry cleaning, new measurements of concentrations of tetrachlorethylene were
conductedinthebuilding.
Concentrations were significantly reduced compared with the first steps, but the longͲterm
guidelinevalueof250ʅg.mͲ3recommendedbyANSES,whichisalsothebenchmarkofairqualitysetby
theHCSPisstillexceededintheaccommodationandpublicareas.Theresultshaveshownadecreaseof
concentrationsintheapartmentsasyougoupthefloors.Thehighestconcentrationsaremeasuredin
theapartmentsonthefirstfloorofthebuilding.
MANICUREESTABLISHMENTS
Although there are not reference value of the main chemical compounds used in these
establishments, the LCPP realized analysis of organic volatile compounds in the indoor air of flats to
identifyandmeasuremethacrylateofmethylorethylandethylacetate,whoarethemainsubstances
usedbymanicureestablishments.
The methacrylate of methyl or ethyl are specific compounds used to manufacture resins (for
manicure establishments and teeth prosthesis), and should not be presents in indoor air or in
atmosphere.
The results of these measures had to be less as detection limit value, but our investigations
realized in 2010 and 2011 showed the presence of these compounds in indoor air of flats at
concentrationssometimeshigh.
Twostudieswillbeexposed..
Thefirstone,concernstheméthylmethacrylateobservedinacoveredwaybyaglassroof,where
were installed several manicure establishments, and in flats situated just upstairs. The concentrations
observed in the air of the way covered are between 93 μg/m3, and 380 μ/m3. The concentration
observedinthelivingroomofaflatjustupstairstwoestablishmentsis240μg/m3,.
Thesecondoneconcernstheethylmethacrylateinaflatjustnearamanicureestablishment.We
measuredintheroom adjoiningtheestablishment 2700μg/ m3 withactivesamplingon7hours.This
anormaly very high result showed the impact of manicure establishment activities on the indoor air
pollution.Inthiscaseourresultshowedadefaultofinsulationofthepartywall.
TherearenoreferencesvaluesconcerningthesesubstancesinFrance,butforinformationwecan
findaCanadianreferencevalueof52μg/m3,forthemethylmethacrylate.Wefoundhighervaluesin2of
7flatsanalyzedinthecoveredway.
Wecansupposedaequivalenttoxicityfortheethylmethacrylatebecauseitschemicalstructureis
nearlythesameofmethylmethacrylate.
DISCUSSIONANDCONCLUSIONS
Despite compliance with the dry cleaner establishments including the installation of mechanical
ventilation equipped with activated carbon filters, the activity still has an impact on indoor air quality
housing.Inspiteofimprovementoftheairquality,thereferencevaluearenotrespected.Clothesstored
and manual detaching activity and ironing activity.are also emitting sources of tetrachlorethylene in
additiontoemissionsfromtheuseofthedrycleaningmachine.
Tetrachlorethyleneinhousingspreadsbothbytheoutsideair,especiallywhenthedismissalofthe
mechanical ventilation system leads in front of the dry cleaner establishment, and the air inside the
buildingduetoleakageofthewallsandfloors.Thespreadonthefloorsisalsobythechimneyeffectof
thestairwell.
Concerningthesubstancesusedinmanicureestablishments,methacrylateo methylorethylare
both toxic irritant and sensitizing. In France, there are no regulatory reference value for these
compounds. It is therefore difficult to recommend the facilities and necessary work that would limit
nuisancetoneighbors.Therecommendationsandadvicearesometimesinadequate.
CombinedprofessionalandResidentialToxicologicalExposureRisksbyVOC
Risques croisés d’exposition professionnels et dans les habitations par des COV
KARG, Frank / HPC Envirotec S.A. / France
Scientific Director of HPC-Group Germany & International
1 rue Pierre Marzin, Noyal-Châtillon sur Seiche, CS83001, 35230 SAINT ERBLON / FRANCE
Tél : +33 (0) 299 131 450, Fax : +33 (0) 299 131 451, Email : [email protected]
Introduction:
Professional Exposure Risks are known concerning VOC, and especially in case of solvent use
or in case of applications and use of hydrocarbons as BTEX, aliphatics or PAH (Poly-AromaticHydrocarbons). Solvent use can include also chlorinated solvents, as TCE, PCE or polar VOC.
Additional in-door residential exposure to toxic VOC can be happen if professional VOC air
pollution sources are nearby housings, as in case of lots of petrol stations, dry cleaning
installations (Pressings), etc.
The research work concerning “Combined professional and Residential Toxicological Exposure
Risks by VOC” showed, that in some cases residential exposures and professional exposures
are nearly the same, especially in case of residential spaces very close to professional spaces
of Petrol Stations,etc.
The presented case studies shows exposures to aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in
buildings with professional use of three (3) Petrol Stations and nearby apartments with
residents,includingchildren.Personsinprivatespacesareexposedinthesecasesnearlyinthe
samewayastheprofessionals.
A pragmatic and transparent application of Health Risk Assessments concerning pollutant exposures was
realized by Toxicological Exposure Risk Quantifications (TERQ). Results of this kind of Health Risk
Assessment are used to define also Remediation Goals for corrective actions, as contamination source
reduction, etc. AmbientAirAnalyses:
Thefirstcase(“A”)ofinvestigationswasaPetrolStationwithprivateapartmentlivingspacein
ground&1stfloor,directlyoverthePetrolStation“A”(cf.Fig.1).InͲdoorambientairanalyses
resultsshowedabout5.9mg/m3oftotalhydrocarbons.Indetailthefollowingconcentrations
wereobtained(cf.Tab.1):
Substance
HC6Ͳ12
Benzène
Toluène
Ehylbenzène
mͲ&+pͲXylène
oͲXylène
Naphtalène
Conc.(mg/m3)
5,8
0,005
0,051
0,010
0,019
0,011
0,001
Tab.1:residentialAmbientAirConcentrationsof“CaseA”
1
The ambient air analysis results showed an exposure especially concerning C6Ͳ12Ͳaliphatic
hydrocarbons(includingnͲhexane),benzeneandnaphthalene.
Thesecondcase(“B”)ofinvestigationswasaPetrolStationwithprivatelivingspaceinahouse,
directly next to a Petrol Station “B” (cf. Fig. 2). InͲdoor ambient air analyses results showed
about10.3mg/m3oftotalhydrocarbons.Indetailthefollowingconcentrationswereobtained
(cf.Tab.2):
3
Substance
HC
Conc.(mg/m )
Benzène
Toluène
Ethylbenzène
mͲ&pͲXylène
9,5
0,012
0,205
0,079
0,171
oͲXylène
Naphtalène
0,124
0,001
6Ͳ12
Tab.2:ResidentialAmbientAirConcentrationsof“CaseB”
The ambient air analysis results showed an exposure especially concerning C6Ͳ12Ͳaliphatic
hydrocarbons(includingnͲhexane),benzene,toluene,ethylbenzene,xylenesandnaphthalene.
2
Thethirdcase(“C”)ofinvestigationswasaPetrolStationwithprivatelivingspaceinahouse,
directly next to a Petrol Station “C” (cf. Fig. 3). InͲdoor ambient air analyses results showed
about 0.2 mg/m3 of total hydrocarbons. In detail the following concentrations were obtained
(cf.Tab.3):
3
Substance
Conc.(mg/m )
0,003
0,004
0,008
0,004
0,003
0,004
0,07
0,003
(C5Ͳ12)
0,006
0,014
0,013
0,008
0,008
0,048
0,025
(C10Ͳ40)
0,015
0,003
0,039
0,006
0,020
0,006
2ͲMéthylͲpentane
3ͲMéthylͲpentane
nͲHéxane
MéthylͲcyclopentane
2ͲMéthylͲhexane
3ͲMéthylͲhexane
nͲHéptane
4ͲMéthylͲheptane
2,4ͲDiméthylͲhéptane
2,4ͲDiméthylͲ1Ͳhéptene
4ͲMethylͲoctane,
alpha.ͲPinène
DͲLimonène
Undécane
Benzène
Toluène
Ethylbenzène
m+pͲXylène
oͲXylene
Tab.3:ResidentialAmbientAirConcentrationsof“CaseC”
3
The ambient air analysis results showed an exposure especially concerning C6Ͳ12Ͳaliphatic
hydrocarbons(includingnͲhexane)andBETEX.
TERQ:ToxicologicalExposureRiskQuantification:
The TERQ: Toxicological Exposure Risk Quantification shows different Exposure Risks for
residents(adultsandchildren),whilecompliancetoallworkspacerelatedconcentrationlimits
existed. A conceptual scheme (Fig. 4) shows the “coͲexistance” of the residential exposure
spaceandtheprofessionalexposurespacefordefinitionoftheexposurescenarios.
Fig. 4: Conceptual Scheme of the Exposure Scenario
The detailed comparison between the on-site measured pollutant concentrations and limit Values for work
space or residential use, shows, that Compliance to Work place related Limit Values (as for ex.
concerning the French VLEP or VME) exist (cf. Tab. 4). Non-compliance exists to Limit Values for
residential site use, according WHO and the French Agency for Environmental Health (ANSES: VGAI).
Based on the fact, that existing Limit Values are given only for mono-pollutant exposures needs a site and
pollutant cocktail specific definition of Concentration limits for acceptable risks (as the ICR: Individual
Cancer Risk of 10-5 or the NCR: Non-Cancer-Risk of 1 = DED: Daily Exposure Dosis/ADI: Acceptable
Daily Intake). Site and Pollutant Cocktail specific Limit Values for Residential and Professional Exposure
4
Scenarios, defined by a TERQ shows, that these values are exceeded for aliphatic hydrocarbons C6Ͳ12,
benzene, ethyl benzene (in one case), ethyl benzene and xylenes in one case and naphthalene in two
cases.
Paramètres
HC C -C
European
Community
Health
related Limit
value
WHO
Limit
Value
Site and
Site and
Work
French
Pollutant
Pollutant
space
recomCocktail
Cocktail
related
mended
specific specific Limit limit Value
Value for
Limit value:
value:
VLEP/VME
Indoor
Residential Professional In France
(ANSES)
(TERQ)
(TERQ)
3
Concentrations in (mg/m )
Case A
Case B
Cas C
-
-
-
0,84
3,80
1000
9,5
5,8
-
Benzène
0,005
0,0017
0,002
0,0014
0,017
3,25
0,012
0,005
0,003
Toluène
-
0,26
-
5,5
24
192
0,205
0,051
0,039
Ethylbenzène
-
-
-
0,01
0,034
88,4
0,079
0,01
0,006
m,p-Xylène
-
-
-
0,019
0,02
-
-
1
0,171
-
0,24
221
o-Xylène
221
0,124
0,011
0,006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,004
-
-
-
0,55
2,1
72
-
-
0,008
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,004
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,004
-
-
-
-
-
1668
-
-
0,003
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,006
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,014
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,013
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,008
alpha-Pinène
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,008
D-Limonène
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,025
Undécane
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
0,015
Naphtalène
-
-
0,01
0,00077
0,0025
50
0,001
0,001
-
5
12
Méthylpentane
3-Méthylpentane
n-Hexane
Méthylcyclopentane
2-Méthylhexane
3-Méthylhexane
n-Heptane
4-Méthylheptane
2,4-Diméthylheptane
2,4-Diméthyl1-heptene
4-Méthyloctane
Tab. 4: Analyses results of ambient air of the three case studies and comparison with different Limit
values
The case study concerning “Case A” showed non-acceptable Cancer Risks for the professional
exposure scenario of the site specific pollutant cocktail concerning ethyl benzene and non-acceptable
Non-Cancer-Risks concerning aromatic hydrocarbons C>10-12. The case study concerning “Case A”
showed also non-acceptable Cancer Risks for the residential exposure scenario of the site specific
pollutant cocktail concerning benzene and ethyl benzene and non-acceptable Non-Cancer-Risks
concerning benzene, xylenes and aromatic hydrocarbons C>7-12.
5
CASE A: Professional
CASE A: Residential
ADULTS
PROFESSIONNEL
Benzene
Toluene
Xylenes
Ethyl benzene
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
ADULTS
Children
AD + C
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
0,24
0,0082
0,26
0,033
6,7E-06
2,3E-05
1,11
0,037
1,21
0,081
2,9E-05
5,40E-05
0,85
0,028
0,93
0,12
5,6E-05
2,1E-05
risques
Cancer
Risk
8,5E-05
7,5E-05
0,06
-
0,046
-
-
0,013
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,030
-
0,13
-
0,10
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,16
-
0,730
-
0,56
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C
-C
0,014
-
0,064
-
0,049
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
7
0,01
-
0,045
-
0,034
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C -C
8
0,61
-
2,77
-
2,14
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C -C
2,49
-
11,2
-
8,65
-
-
5
6
>6
8
>8
>10
10
12
>5
>7
>8
Aromatic hydrocarbons C
10
-C
0,88
-
4,00
-
3,09
-
-
n-Hexane
Naphthalene
Total ICR: Individual Cancer Risk
0
0,066
Limit: 1E-05
3,9E-06
3,3E-05
0
0,30
Limit: 1E-05
9,2E-06
9,2E-05
0
0,23
3,6E-06
8,0E-05
1,29E-05
1,7E-04
Total Non-Cancer-Risk
Neurotoxicity (1+2+3+5+6+13+14)
Hepatotoxicity (2+3+4+7+8+9+10)
Nephrotoxicity (2+4+9+10)
Vesicular toxicity (1+7+8+13+14)
Immunotoxicity (1+2+10)
Pulmonary toxicity (3+13+14)
Body Wight effects (11+12+14)
Intestine toxicity (14)
Reprotoxicity (2+3+4)
Limit: 1
0,636
1,11
0,667
0,491
0,871
0,336
2,56
0,067
0,311
-
-
2,21
3,88
2,33
1,71
3,03
1,17
8,89
0,233
1,09
-
-
>10
12
Limit : 1
2,86
4,94
2,93
2,21
3,92
1,51
11,51
0,301
1,33
Tab. 5: Cancer Risks and Non-Cancer-Risks concerning “Case A” for the site specific & pollutant
cocktail specific professional and residential exposure scenarios.
The case study concerning “Case B” showed no non-acceptable Cancer Risks for the professional
exposure scenario but non-acceptable Non-Cancer-Risks concerning aromatic hydrocarbons C>8-10. The
case study concerning “Case B” showed also non-acceptable Cancer Risks for the residential exposure
scenario of the site specific pollutant cocktail concerning benzene and non-acceptable Non-Cancer-Risks
concerning benzene, xylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons C>7-12.
6
CASE A: Professional
CASE A: Residential
ADULTS
PROFESSIONNEL
ADULTS
Children
AD + C
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Benzene
Toluene
Xylenes
Ethyl benzene
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,103
0,002
0,027
0,0042
2,80E-06
2,92E-06
0,46
0,0092
0,12
0,010
1,21E-05
6,83E-06
0,35
0,0071
0,095
0,016
2,33E-05
2,69E-06
risques
Cancer
Risk
3,5E-05
9,5E-06
0,0084
-
0,036
-
0,028
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,018
-
0,083
-
0,064
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,099
-
0,44
-
0,34
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C
-C
12
0,0087
-
0,039
-
0,03
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
7
0,0061
-
0,027
-
0,021
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C -C
8
0,37
-
1,69
-
1,31
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C -C
1,52
-
6,84
-
5,28
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C
0,54
-
2,44
-
1,89
-
-
n-Hexane
Naphthalene
Total ICR: Individual Cancer Risk
0
0,066
Limit: 1E-05
3,9E-06
9,6E-06
0
0,301
Limit: 1E-05
9,2E-06
2,8E-05
0
0,23
3,6E-06
2,9E-05
1,2E-05
5,7E-05
Total Non-Cancer-Risk
Neurotoxicity (1+2+3+5+6+13+14)
Hepatotoxicity (2+3+4+7+8+9+10)
Nephrotoxicity (2+4+9+10)
Vesicular toxicity (1+7+8+13+14)
Immunotoxicity (1+2+10)
Pulmonary toxicity (3+13+14)
Body Wight effects (11+12+14)
Intestine toxicity (14)
Reprotoxicity (2+3+4)
Limit: 1
0,22
0,52
0,38
0,27
0,48
0,094
1,59
0,067
0,033
-
-
0,78
1,82
1,35
0,96
1,67
0,32
5,52
0,23
0,11
-
-
5
6
>6
8
>8
>10
10
>5
>7
>8
>10
10
-C
12
Limit : 1
1,02
2,35
1,74
1,25
2,16
0,425
7,14
0,30
0,143
Tab. 6: Cancer Risks and Non-Cancer-Risks concerning “Case B” for the site specific and pollutant
cocktail specific professional and residential exposure scenarios.
7
The case study concerning “Case C” showed no non-acceptable Cancer Risks and Non-Cancer-Risks
for the professional exposure scenario. The case study concerning “Case C” showed non-acceptable
Cancer Risks for the residential exposure scenario of the site specific pollutant cocktail concerning
benzene but no non-acceptable Non-Cancer-Risks.
CASE A: Professional
CASE A: Residential
ADULTS
PROFESSIONNEL
ADULTS
Children
AD + C
Benzene
Toluene
Xylenes
Ethyl benzene
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,061
0,0015
0,023
0,0025
1,6E-06
1,7E-06
0,27
0,0070
0,10
0,0062
7,2E-06
4,1E-06
0,21
0,0054
0,082
0,0097
1,4E-05
1,6E-06
risques
Cancer
Risk
2,1E-05
5,7E-06
6
0,00016
-
0,00074
-
0,00057
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,00037
-
0,0017
-
0,0013
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,0022
-
0,0090
-
0,0070
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C
-C
12
0,00017
-
0,00080
-
0,00061
-
-
Aliphatic hydrocarbons C -C
7
0,00012
-
0,00056
-
0,00043
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C -C
8
0,0076
-
0,034
-
0,026
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C -C
0,030
-
0,13
-
0,10
-
-
Aromatic hydrocarbons C
0,011
-
n-Hexane
Naphthalene
Total ICR: Individual Cancer Risk
0,0037
0
Limit: 1E-05
0,0E+00
3,3E-06
0,049
0,0091
0
Limit: 1E-05
0,0E+00
1,1E-05
0,038
0,014
0
0,0E+00
1,5E-05
0,0E+00
2,7E-05
Total Non-Cancer-Risk
Neurotoxicity (1+2+3+5+6+13+14)
Hepatotoxicity (2+3+4+7+8+9+10)
Nephrotoxicity (2+4+9+10)
Vesicular toxicity (1+7+8+13+14)
Immunotoxicity (1+2+10)
Pulmonary toxicity (3+13+14)
Body Wight effects (11+12+14)
Intestine toxicity (14)
Reprotoxicity (2+3+4)
Limit: 1
0,091
0,037
0,011
0,067
0,071
0,027
0,034
0
0,027
-
-
0,31
0,13
0,042
0,23
0,24
0,096
0,12
0
0,097
-
-
5
>6
8
>8
>10
10
>5
>7
>8
>10
10
-C
12
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Non-cancer
Risks
Cancer
Risk
Limit : 1
0,40
0,16
0,048
0,29
0,32
0,11
0,14
0
0,12
Tab. 7: Cancer Risks and Non-Cancer-Risks concerning “Case C” for the site specific and pollutant
cocktail specific professional and residential exposure scenarios.
Conclusion:
It must be concluded, that:
¾ Professional ambient air exposure can become also residential ambient air exposure, as showed
by examples of Petrol Stations, dry cleaning installations (pressings), Car Garages, Panting
Workshops, etc.,
¾ In case of exposure to pollutant cocktails, a simply comparison of obtained ambient air
concentrations with “generic Limit Values” for professional or residential scenarios is not
sufficient. HRA: Health Risk Assessments, as TERQ: Toxicological Exposure Risk
Quantifications should be done.
8
¾ Fine HRA / TERQ application shows, that in case of Compliance to “mono-exposure” Limit
Values for ambient air, “Pollution Cocktails” can show non-acceptable Cancer Risks and nonacceptable systemic Non-Cancer-Risks. In this case corrective actions, as for ex. Pollution Source
reduction or building equipment, etc. are necessary.
References:
[1]
Karg, F., Robin-Vigneron, L., Hintzen U., Grauf, TH., Olk, C. (2006): TERQ (Toxikologische
Expositionsrisiko-Quantifizierung):
Die
standortspezifische
Gefährdungsbewertung
und
Sanierungszieldefinition unter Berücksichtigung der Vielstoffbetrachtung – Beispiel: Standort RAGRütgers Chemicals in Oberhausen: - Gefahrschwellenmanagement im Vollzug (HRA: Health Risk
Assessment and site specific Remediation Goal determination at the RAG-site in Oberhausen /
Germany). Handbuch Altlastensanierung und Flächenmangement: 11/2006 in Press.
[2]
Karg (2007): Site investigations and Risk Assessment on Sites Polluted by Military Chemicals. Congress
Handbook INTERSOL 2007, 28/03/2007, Ivry-sur-Seine.
[3]
Karg, F., Hintzen, H. (2007): Umweltchemie und gesundheitliche Risiken von toxischen Aminen und
heterozyklischen Stickstoffverbindungen auf belasteten Standorten. (Environmental Chemistry and
Health Risks by Amines and Heterocyclic Nitrogene Compounds on Contaminated Sites).
Altlastenspektrum Berlin 05/2007, p. 222 – 228.
[4]
Karg, F. (2008) : Caractérisation du danger des substances sans seuil d’effet (Danger Characterization of
Compounds without exposure effect-limit). Exposition aux faibles doses un défi pour l’évaluation et la
gestion des risques pour l’homme et l’environnement . Colloque ARET : Association pour la Recherche en
Toxicologie. Paris – Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, 09 – 10/06/2008.
[5]
Dor, F., Karg, F., Robin-Vigneron, L. (2009) : Recensement et identification des menaces
environnementales pour la Santé Publique (Inventory and identification of Environmental Threats to
Public Health). ERS, 2009.
[6]
AFSSET, Karg, F. et al (2010) : Valeurs toxicologiques de référence (VTR) pour les substances
cancérogènes (Toxicological Reference Values for cancerogenic Compounds) - Méthode de
construction de VTR fondées sur des effets cancérogènes - Saisine n°2004/AS16. Agence Française de
Sécurité Sanitaire de l’Environnement et du Travail, 05/2010 (aujourd’hui ANSES : Agence Nationale de
Sécurité Sanitaire).
http://www.afsset.fr/upload/bibliotheque/141844903203317036420911165719/VTR_cancer_methodologie_afsset_
mars10.pdf
[7]
Karg, F. (2010) : Recensement des menaces environnementales pour la santé publique et l’importance de la
pollution de l’air ambiant. Rapport de l’INVS / Inventory of environmental threats on public health
and links with ambiant air pollution. INVS report – Minutes AtmosFair, Lyon 28/09/2010.
[8]
Karg, F. (2011):
Evaluation des risques liés aux amines aromatiques et aux composés
hétérocycliques (Risk Assessment linked to Aromatic Amines and Heterocyclic Compounds. AtmosFair
21-22/06/2011. Paris : Minutes of Congress.
[9]
Karg. F. (2011): TERQ: Toxicological Exposure Risk Quantification for Heterocyclic PAC and Aromatic
Amine Contamination in case of DNBA Site Remediation. Book of Minutes of ISPAC: International
Society for Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds; Munster, Germany, 04-08/09/2011.
9
Evaluationofthehouseholdinsecticideconcentrationsduringandaftertheirapplicationin
indooratmospheres
AudeVesin
DoctoranteauLaboratoireChimieEnvironnement
EquipeInstrumentationetRéactivitéAtmosphérique(IRA)
3,placeVictorHugoͲCase29
13331MARSEILLECedex3
The evaluation of the exposure to environmentallyͲsignificant and healthͲrelevant compounds in
indoorenvironmentsbecomesagrowingissueofconcernsincepeoplespendonaveragemorethan
80% of their time indoors (Klepeis et al., 2001). In this context, the increasing application of
commercial household insecticides in indoor environments is becoming a health concern due to
hazardous properties of the active substances. OnͲline monitoring of household insecticidal
substancesintheaircompartmentduringandimmediatelyaftercommercialinsecticideapplication
via electric vaporizers or aerosol cans can provide key parameters such as peak concentration and
increase/decayrates.Duetothehightimevariabilityoftheconcentrationsduringtheseapplications,
the use of high timeͲresolution instruments is relevant to supplement the stateͲofͲtheͲart offͲline
methods(BergerͲPreissetal,2009).Dataonconcentrationlevelsandkineticsareactuallysignificant
informationinaperspectiveofhumanexposureevaluation.Inhalationactuallyappearstobeoneof
theprimaryroutesforresidentialpesticideexposureinsomestudies(Hahnetal.,2010;Whyattet
al.,2007).
Thestudyisspecificallyfocusedonsyntheticpyrethroids,whichbelongtothehouseholdinsecticide
familymostfrequentlyappliedtoday(Feoetal.,2010;Frenchauthorizedbiocidedatabase).Evenif
humanhealtheffectsstillremainunclear(Feoetal.,2010),insecticideapplicationhasbeenshownto
cause some adverse effects, specifically impacting children and pregnant women (ATSDR, 2003).
Thus, a European workshop on endocrine disruptors includes pyrethroids in a list of chemicals
suspected to interfere with the hormone system (European Commission, 2004). In addition, some
pyrethroids were classified by the US EPA as possible human carcinogens (US EPA RED reports for
permethrinandcypermethrin,2006).
TheanalyticalstrategyconsistsintheutilizationofaHighSensitivityProtonͲTransferͲReactionMass
Spectrometer(HSͲPTRͲMS)(Ionicon)forthemeasurementofthegaseousphase(Vesinetal.,2012)
andaHighResolutionAerosolTimeͲofͲFlightMassSpectrometer(HRͲToFͲAMS)(AerodyneResearch)
for the measurement of aerosols. Both instruments provide highͲtimeͲ and chemicallyͲresolved
measurements. Field measurements involving three electric vaporizers and four aerosol cans were
carriedoutunderairexchangerate(AER)controlledconditionsinafullͲscaletestroom,locatedin
the“MechanisedhouseforAdvancedResearchonIndoorAir”(MARIA)experimentalhouse,atthe
Scientific and Technical Centre of Building (CSTB) in MarneͲlaͲVallée, France (Vesin et al., under
review).
The concentration profile for the active ingredients obtained from the electric vaporizers
experimentsshowsarapidincreaseassoonastheelectricvaporizerispluggedin,beforereachinga
peak a few minutes after unplugging (up to 8.5 μg/m3). The active ingredient concentration then
starts decreasing, to finally come down close to the initial background level in several hours. The
mathematicalmodellingofthedatashowsthatfromakineticpointofview,ventilationisthemain
or even the exclusive elimination mechanism of transfluthrin from the room, therefore crucial to
maintainanacceptableairquality.Massbalancecalculationsneverthelessunderlinethesignificance
of adsorption on indoor surfaces that appears to be the major elimination process of transfluthrin
from the gaseous phase, however acting as a temporary sink due to the reversible nature of this
mechanism(Vesinetal.,underreview).Theanalysisofthevapoursemittedbythecommercialrefills
finallyhighlightsthequalitativeandprobablyalsoquantitativesignificanceoftheadditivesrelativeto
thepesticideespeciallyasregardstheliquidrefills.
Due to the known harmful health effects of the active substances present in the aerosol cans, an
innovativedatatreatmentoftherawHRͲToFͲAMSdataisrealizedtodissociatethecontributionof
the pesticides alone relative to the additives. The study of the pesticide size distribution shows a
meanparticlediameteraround6μm.Thepesticideaerosolisthereforepartoftheinhalablefraction
(PM10)andisconsequentlylikelytohaveasignificanthealthrelevance.Reachedafewsecondsafter
vaporization, the peak concentrations of pesticide are of the order of several dozens of μg/m3,
followedbyarapideliminationfromtheaircompartment(t1/2 =22to39min),primarilyduetoair
exchangeandparticlesdeposition.Surfaceadsorption,coagulation,reactivityphenomenamayalso
occur in the room. These high concentrations coupled to the “cocktail effect” due to the
simultaneouspresenceofseveralactiveingredientsresultinapotentiallysignificantexposureafter
theapplicationofcommercialaerosolcans.
Theuseoftheseinnovativeanalyticaltoolshavingahightimeresolutionenablestocarefullyfollow
the pesticide concentration profiles during and after the application of household insecticides in
indoor atmospheres. Consequently, such results may serve as foundations to study the exposure
levels and gives a more accurate output on the exposure doses and duration that turn out to be
crucial,especiallyforfragilepopulationssuchaschildrenandpregnantwomen.
This study is funded by the French Agency for Environmental Health Security (ANSES), the French
EnvironmentandEnergyManagementAgency(ADEME)andtheFrenchNationalCentreforScientific
Research(CNRS).
REFERENCES
ATSDR, 2003. Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids. U.S. Department of health and human
services,PublicHealthService.
BergerͲPreiss,E.,Koch,W.,Gerling,S.,Kock,H.,Appel,K.E.,2009.Useofbiocidalproducts(insectspraysand
electroͲvaporizer)inindoorareas–exposurescenariosandexposuremodelling.InternationalJournalof
HygieneandEnvironmentalHealth212,505Ͳ518.
EuropeanCommission,2004.CommissionStaffWorkingDocumentonImplementationoftheCommunityfor
Endocrine Disruptors Ͳ a range of substances suspected of interfering with the hormone systems of
humansandwildlife,SEC(2004)1372,EC,Brussels,Belgium.
Feo, M.L., Eljarrat, E., Barcelo, D., 2010. Determination of pyrethroid insecticides in environmental samples.
TrendsinAnalyticalChemistry29,692Ͳ705.
Frenchauthorizedbiocidesdatabase,editedbytheFrenchMinisterofEcology,consultedon10/2011,available
at:biocides.developpementͲdurable.gouv.fr.
Hahn, S., Schneider, K., Gartiser, S., Heger, W., Manglesdorf, I., 2010. Consumer exposure to biocide –
identificationofrelevantsourcesandevaluationofpossiblehealtheffects.EnvironmentalHealth9,1Ͳ7.
Klepeis, N.E., Nelson, W.C., Ott, W.R., Robinson, J.P., Tsang, A.M., Switzer, P., Behar, J.V., Hern, S.C.,
Engelmann,W.H.,2001.TheNationalHumanActivityPatternSurvey(NHAPS):aresourceforassessing
exposuretoenvironmentalpollutants.JournalofExposureAnalysisandEnvironmentalEpidemiology11,
231Ͳ252.
US EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Cypermethrin – List B, Case No. 2130, 2006, Prevention,
Pesticides and Toxic Substances, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPAͲHQͲOPPͲ2005Ͳ
0293Ͳ0036).
US EPA Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin Ͳ Case No. 2510, 2006, Prevention, Pesticides
andToxicSubstances,UnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgency(EPA738ͲRͲ06Ͳ017).
Vesin, A., Bouchoux, G., Quivet, E., Temime, B., and Wortham, H. (2012) Use of the HSͲPTRͲMS for onͲline
measurements of pyrethroids during indoor insecticide treatments. Analytical and Bioanalytical
Chemistry403,1907Ͳ1921.
Whyatt,R.M.,Garfinkel,R.,Hoepner,L.A.,Holmes,D.,Borjas,M.,Williams,M.K.,Reyes,A.,Rauh,V.,Perera,
F.P., Camann, D.E., 2007. WithinͲ and betweenͲhome variability in indoor air insecticide levels during
pregnancy among an innerͲcity cohort from New York city. Environmental Health Perspectives 115(3),
383Ͳ389.
Impactofbuildingmaterialemissionsonindoorairquality:simultaneousquantificationof
VOCsandformaldehydeinindoorairandattheair/materialinterface
DelphineBourdin1,2,PierreMocho3,ChristopheCantau1andValérieDesauziers2
1
Nobatek,67ruedeMirambeau,64600Anglet,France
Laboratoire Génie de l’Environnement Industriel (LGEI) – Mining school of Alès (site de Pau) –
Hélioparc,2avenueduprésidentPierreAngot,64053PauCedex9,France
3
Laboratoiredethermiqueenergétiqueetprocédés(LaTEP)ͲUniversityofPau–RueJulesFerry–
BP7511–64075PauCedex,France
Contact:DelphineBourdin,R&DEngineer,[email protected]
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is nowadays recognized as a major public health issue. In France, the
legislation is evolving with the publication of two decrees on indoor air quality in public buildings
making compulsory to measure some pollutants and giving guideͲvalues for formaldehyde and
benzene. Plus, the labeling of all building materials according to their VOCs emissions will become
effectivein2013.Indeed,theimpactofbuildinganddecorationmaterialsonindoorairqualityisnow
wellknownandrecognized.Inthiscontext,itisimportanttohaveefficientanalyticaltoolsableto
studybothindoorairandair/materialinterface.Thesekindsoftoolscouldbeusedtorealizeindoor
air diagnosis or to identify the materials responsible of an indoor pollution. All the standard or
developingmethodsusedtoanalyseIAQorbuildingmaterialemissions(DNPHcartridges,Radiello£
tubes,FLEC£…)involveanalysisofVOCsandaldehydesbytwodifferentways.Thefirstoneisusually
realized by gas chromatography (GC) whereas the second one is made by high pressure liquid
chromatography (HPLC) after a derivatization. Our analytical method relies on solidͲphase
microextraction (SPME). This sampling method consists in concentrating the pollutants on a fiber
which is then directly desorbed into a GC injector prior to a gas chromatographic analysis. This
samplingdevicewasusedtorealizesimultaneousquantificationofVOCsandaldehydes.Inorderto
evaluatethe analytical performancesofthedevelopedmethod, thefiberwas exposed tostandard
atmospheres enclosed in a 250mL vacuum sampling vial. The SPME extraction was made in static
mode.AsSPMEcanbeconsideredasapassivesamplerthefirstFick’slawofdiffusioncanbeapplied.
Thus, the amount of pollutant adsorbed on the fiber is proportional to the product of the
concentrationofthepollutantinthevialandtheextractiontime.Theanalyticalmethodwastested
on a mixture of 9 compounds: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, toluene, pͲxylene, styrene, 1,2Ͳ
dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethylene, alphaͲpinene and hexanal. These compounds are either
concerned by the labeling of building material products or representative of wooden construction.
For these nine compounds, with FID detection, a good linearity was obtained up to a mg.mͲ3
concentrationlevelfora5minuteSPMEextraction.Witha20minuteSPMEextraction,weobtained
limits of detection ranging from 1.4 to 11.3 μg.mͲ3 with FID and from 0.005 to 0.124 μg.mͲ3 with a
massspectrometry(SM)detectionoperatinginsingleionmonitoring(SIM)mode.Itwasalsoproven
thatairrelativehumidity(0Ͳ70%)didnothaveanyimpactonsampling.Finally,afirstcomparisonof
our method with the standard one was made for the analysis of formaldehyde in indoor
environmentsandemittedbybuildingmaterialsinanenvironmentalchamber.Theresultsobtained
withthesetwomethodswerecomparable.
2
This simultaneous quantification of VOCs and aldehydes was then applied in a new office building,
builtfollowingthe“HQE”approach.Inthemeetingroom,indoorairqualityaswellastheinterfaceof
air/material were studied with our SPME analytical method. In indoor air four VOCs among our 9
modelcompoundswerequantified.
For formaldehyde, all the material emissions were determined by a new method developed in our
laboratory (patent pending). Air exchange rate was evaluated with a CO2 injection. From these
results, a simple box model was applied to predict the formaldehyde indoor concentration in the
studied room. The theorical concentration obtained was 6.4 μg.mͲ3 whereas the measured
concentration was 7.0 μg.mͲ3. This modelling, which should be strengthened with further studies,
could offer the possibility to predict indoor air quality and to try different scenarios in order to
evaluatetheimpactofvariousparametersofbuildingmanagement(ventilation,materials...)
A fast, sensitive and easy to implement analytical method for the evaluation of both VOCs and
carbonyl compounds, including formaldehyde, was developed. The modeling of indoor air quality
gaveveryencouragingfirstresultsandwillnowbeadjustedthankstoa6Ͳmonthstudyinanewhigh
school.
DevelopmentandvalidationofaColorimetricPassiveFluxSamplerforformaldehyde
emissionratemeasurementsinindoorenvironments
Guillaume Poulhet1,2,3, Sébastien Dusanter1,2,4*, Sabine Crunaire1,2, Philippe Karpe5, Yves Bigay5, Pascal
Kaluzny3,NadineLocoge1,2,PatriceCoddeville1,2
1
UnivLilleNorddeFrance,FͲ59000,Lille,France
2
EMDouai,CE,FͲ59508Douai,France
3
TeraEnvironnement,Crolles,France
4
SchoolofPublicandEnvironmentalAffairs,IndianaUniversity,Bloomington,IN,USA
5
ETHERA,Grenoble,France
*
Correspondingemail:[email protected]Ͳdouai.fr
Formaldehyde(HCHO),classifiedascarcinogenictohumansbytheInternationalAgencyforResearchon
Cancer[IARC2004],isoneofthemostabundantvolatileorganiccompoundinindoorenvironmentsdue
to the presence of many diffuse sources such as building and furnishing materials (particleboard,
hardwood plywood paneling, medium density fiberboard…) as well as point sources from human
activities (cosmetics, carpet cleaners, tobacco smoke…). As a consequence, indoor concentrations are
severaltimeshigherthanoutdoorlevels(afewʅg/m3)asobservedduringanationalcampaigninvolving
morethan500Frenchdwellings(medianconcentrationof19.6ʅg/m3)[Kirchneretal.,2007].Itisworth
notingthatindoorconcentrationsareusuallyhigherthantheactualguidelinevalueof10μg/m3forlong
term exposures (HCSP: High Committee on Public Health, 2009), bringing questions about potential
adversehealtheffectsthatcouldresultfromindoorexposure.
Sincebuildingandfurnishingmaterialsareknowntobeamongstthelargestemittersofformaldehyde,
an efficient reduction of indoor concentrations could be achieved by replacing these emitters by
materials exhibiting lower emission rates. However, measurement techniques that are available to
monitorinͲsituemissionratesareeithertoocumbersome(FieldandLaboratoryEmissionCellcoupledto
asuitableanalyticalinstrument)ortootimeconsumingwhenadelayedlaboratoryanalysisisrequired
(PFSͲPassiveFluxSamplers[Blondeletal.,2010;Shinoharaetal.,2007]).Itisclearthatthereisaneed
todeveloprealͲtime,lowͲcostandeasyͲtoͲuseanalyticaltoolstopinpointthestrongestemittersandto
quantify their impact on indoor concentrations of HCHO. It is a prerequisite to propose efficient
strategiesforthereductionofindoorconcentrationsofformaldehyde.
ETHERA, TERA Environnement and l’Ecole des Mines de Douai initiated a collaborative project to
develop a lowͲcost PFS that is suitable for inͲsituand quasiͲreal time measurementsofformaldehyde
emissionratesfrombuildingandfurnishingmaterials.ThisPFSismadeofasmallexpositioncell(5Ͳcm
diameter,2.5Ͳcmheight)containingasensormadeofananoporousSolͲGelmatrice(SiO2)dopedwith
FluoralͲP [Mariano et al., 2010]. When exposed for a few hours onto surface areas characteristic of
indoor environments, the sensor acts as a trap where FluoralͲP selectively reacts with formaldehyde
emissions. A color change of the sensor, depending on the amount of formaldehyde reacted, allows
estimatingthestrengthofanemissionsourcebyasimplevisualcomparisontoacolorcodedchart.A
lowͲcost optical detector can also be used to measure the sensor’s opacity at 410 nm to perform
accurate and precise measurements of emission rates. This new colorimetric PFS is currently being
calibratedbyexposingittobuildingmaterialswhoseformaldehydeemissionrateshavebeenmeasured
using an emission chamber under standardized conditions (ISO 16000Ͳ9), as made previously to
characterizeadifferentPFS[Blondeletal.,2010].PreliminaryresultsindicateagoodlinearityofthePFS
responseandalimitofdetectionofapproximately10μg/m2/h,whichislowenoughforindooremission
monitoring.
In this communication, we will present a complete characterization of the performances of this new
colorimetric passive flux sampler and we will discuss its potential for the identification of emission
sourcesinindoorenvironments.
References:
Blondel, A., and H. Plaisance (2010), Validation of a passive flux sampler for onͲsite measurement of
formaldehyde emission rates from building and furnishing materials, Analytical Methods, 2(12),
2032Ͳ2038.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2007. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity to
humans.In:IARCMonographs,vol1Ͳ96
ISO16000Ͳ9:2006IndoorairͲPart9:determinationoftheemissionofvolatileorganiccompoundsfrom
building products and furnishings – Emission test chamber method. Standard, ISO 16000Ͳ9:2006
(2004Ͳ05Ͳ15)
Kirchner,S.,J.ͲF.Arenes,C.Cochet,andM.Derbez(2007),Étatdelaqualitédel’airdansleslogements
français,Environnement,Risques&Santé,6(4),259Ͳ269.
Mariano, S., W. Wang, G. Brunelle, Y. Bigay, and T.ͲH. TranͲThi (2010), Colorimetric detection of
formaldehyde: A sensor for air quality measurements and a pollutionͲwarning kit for homes,
ProcediaEngineering,5,1184Ͳ1187.
Shinohara,N.,M.Fujii,A.Yamasaki,andY.Yanagisawa(2007),Passivefluxsamplerformeasurementof
formaldehydeemissionrates,Atmosphericenvironment,41,4018Ͳ4028.
Qualitédel’airintérieur:BilandesmesuresdeKudzuSciencesurlesCOVetaldéhydes
dansl’airintérieur
INDOORAIRQUALITY:REVIEWOFKUDZUSCIENCEDATAONINDOORVOCSANDALDEHYDESMEASUREMENT’S
V.Peynet,T.MereuetC.Burg
KUDZUSCIENCE,38ruedel’Industrie,CS80026,67401ILLKIRCHCedex,France,
www.kudzuscience.com
DepuisAvril2011,KudzuSciencecommercialisepourlesparticuliersetlesprofessionnelsdeskits
d’analyse de l’air intérieur selon le concept du Home Testing®. Les kits d’analyse de l’air intérieur
contiennent deux supports de prélèvement passif: le premier destiné au prélèvement des COVs
(GABIE)etlesecondauprélèvementdesaldéhydes(SKCͲUMEX100).Lesprélèvementssonteffectués
durant une période de 7 jours consécutifs et envoyés au laboratoire pour analyse accompagnés
d’unefichedeprélèvementrenseignantlesconditionsduprélèvement.
Les composés fixés sur les supports de prélèvement sont extraits à l’aide d’un solvant organique
adapté,puisl’extraitestanalyséparchromatographieenphasegazeusecoupléeàunedétectionpar
spectrométrie de masse (GCͲMS) pour les COVs et par chromatographie liquide couplée à une
détection UV et par spectrométrie de masse pour les aldéhydes (LCͲUVͲMS). Les concentrations
aériennes(μg/m3)sontensuitecalculéesàpartirdesconcentrationsmesuréesdanslesextraits.Les
mesures réalisées sur un total de 26 COVs et de 8 aldéhydes sont présentées dans un rapport
d’analysepersonnalisétéléchargeableavecunidentifiantunique.
Enfonctiondelaconcentrationmesuréeetdelatoxicité,unindicedepollutionestattribuéàchaque
composé. Ces indices ainsi que la concentration totale des 34 polluants recherchés permettent de
déterminerunIndicedeQualitédel’AirIntérieurquiestuneévaluationglobaledelaqualitédel’air
intérieur.
La campagne de mesure réalisée par Kudzu Science en 2011 a porté sur plus d’une centaine
d’habitationsrépartiessurl’ensembleduterritoirefrançaisetdansdifférentespiècesdeshabitations
(salon, chambre, bureau…). Dans plus de 80% des cas, les résultats obtenus ont révélé un air de
qualitémoyenneoumauvaise,impliquantlamiseenplacedemesurepouraméliorerlaqualitéde
l’airintérieur.
Un bilan des composés les plus souvent détectés est présenté avec leur occurrence dans les
échantillons,lesvaleursmoyenne,maximumetmédianedesconcentrationsmesurées.Apartirdes
données obtenues, une analyse statistique des résultats a été réalisée afin d’identifier des
différences en fonction plusieurs facteurs dont la nature de la pièce analysée, les conditions
d’aération…Uneétudedecasconcernantletétrachloroéthyleneseraégalementprésentée.
SinceApril2011,KudzuSciencecommercializesuserfriendlyindoorairqualityanalyticalkitsfor
privateindividualsandprofessionalsbasedonHomeTesting®concept.Indoorairquality analytical
kits contain two passive samplers: one for VOCs sampling (GABIE) and one for aldehydes sampling
(SKCͲUMEXͲ100).Samplingisperformedduringonecompleteweekandsamplesaresentbacktothe
laboratorytogetherwithasamplingformgivinginformationaboutsamplingconditions.
Thecompoundsthatwerefixedintothesamplingsorbentwereextractedusingappropriateorganic
solvent,theextractswerethenanalyzedusinggaschromatographycoupledwithmassspectrometry
detection (GCͲMS) for VOCs and liquid chromatography coupled with UV and mass spectrometry
detection (LCͲUVͲMS) for aldehydes. Aerial concentrations (μg/m3) were calculated with
concentrationsmeasuredintheextracts.Measurementsmadeonatotalof26VOCsand8aldehydes
arepresentedinananalyticalreportthatcanbedownloadedusinguniqueID.
Apollutionindexisattributedtoeachcompound,dependingonthemeasuredconcentrationandits
toxicity.Theseindexesandthesumoftheconcentrationforthe34compoundsarethenusedtogive
anIndoorAirQualityindexthatisadirectassessmentoftheindoorairquality.
MeasurementcampaignperformedbyKudzuSciencein2011wasconductedinmorethanhundred
homeslocatedinFranceandindifferentrooms(livingroom,bedroom,office…).Morethan80%of
the results obtained indicated average or poor indoor air quality, which need actions to improve
indoorairquality.
A review of the most frequently detected compounds will be presented together with their
occurrence in samples, mean, maximum and median value of the measured concentrations. A
statisticalanalysisofthesedatawasperformedbasedonthenatureoftheroom;airingconditions…
Acasestudyregardingtetrachlorethylenewillalsobepresented.
LQ
VMA
VAI
Fig.1:Indicedepollutionpourchaquepolluant/Pollutionindexforeachpollutant
Fig.2:Indicedequalitédel’air/Indoorairqualityindex
IndoorAirQuality:DeterminationoftheSecondarySourcesofFormaldehydeinEducational
InstitutionsoftheRegionCentreofFrance
YenyTOBON,1CaroleFLAMBARD,2BenoîtGROSSELIN,1MathieuCAZAUNAU,1AbderrazakYAHYAOUI,2FlorentHOSMALIN,2
PatriceCOLIN,2IvanFEDIOUN,1AbdelwahidMELLOUKI,1VéroniqueDAËLE1
1
InstitutdeCombustion,Aérothermique,RéactivitéetEnvironnement,CentreNationaldelaRechercheScientifique(ICAREͲ
CNRS)/OSUC,1C,AvenuedelaRechercheScientifique,45071Orléanscedex2,France
2
Lig'Air–Réseaudesurveillancedelaqualitédel'airenrégionCentre,3RueduCarbone45100Orléans,France
[email protected]Ͳorleans.fr
ABSTRACT
In this communication we present preliminary results of the studies carried out in educational institutions
(elementaryandhighschools)oftheRegionCentreinFrance.IntheframeworkoftheFORMUL’AIRprojectwe
havemeasuredformaldehydeandseveralvolatileorganiccompoundswiththeaimofidentifyingthesecondary
sourcescontributingtoincreasetheindoorformaldehydeconcentration.Numericalsimulationsoftheairmotion
inaclassroomhavealsobeenperformedtodeterminetheeffectoftheairrenewalanddefinethemoreeffective
ventilationconfigurationadaptedtotheclassroomarrangement.
INTRODUCTION
Inthelastyears,indoorairqualityhasbecomeanimportantoccupationalhealthandsafetyissue.Infact,people
spendmorethan80%oftheirtimeindoorswheretheconcentrationsofmanyVOCscanbeconsistentlyhigher
thanoutdoorenvironments.1,2Formaldehyde,oneofthemainindoorpollutants,hasbeenrecognizedasahuman
carcinogen compound by the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC.3 It is used in several
manufacturingprocesses,especiallytheproductionofwoodbindingadhesivesandresins.
Formaldehyde can be released directly (primary sources) from some building materials, cleaning agents,
disinfectants, pesticide formulations, paper products, cigarette smoke, etc. However, other VOCs could also
contribute to increase the ambient formaldehyde levels through chemical reactions within the ambient air
(secondarysources).4Consequently,theknowledgeofthesecondarysourcesofformaldehydecouldpermitnot
only to decrease the formaldehyde indoor concentration by direct control of their precursors but also to
contributetoformulateregulatorymeasures.
METHODS
TheexperimentswereorganizedinrepresentativeclassroomsofanurbanhighschoolinOrléansandanurban
elementary school in Bourges from Mars 9th to 26th, 2012 and from June 1st to 18th, 2012 respectively. The
ventilationofthehighschooldependsonasmallcontrolledmechanicalventilation(CMV)andnaturalventilation
through doors, windows and two small natural ventilation grilles. The ventilation at the elementary school
depends only on natural ventilation through doors and windows. Carbonyls compounds and other VOCs were
collectedinparallelbyactivesamplerdevices(usingNDPHandAirͲToxiccartridges),PTRͲTOFͲMSandHCHO,O3
and NOx analysers. Comfort and confinement parameters as well as outdoor O3, NOx, and PM10 concentrations
werealsomonitored.TrappedcarbonylͲNDPHcompoundswereextractedwith5mlacetonitrileandquantified
usingHPLCwithaphotodiodearrayUVdetector(Jasco).AirToxictubesanalysiswasperformedusingathermal
desorption technique with gas chromatography (GC) separation and mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Blank
sampleswerealsoanalysedunderthesameconditions.
RESULTS
High schoolͲOrléans:Formaldehyde concentration
variation monitored by the HCHO analyzer, with a
resolutiontimeof30seconds,showedthattheindoor
formaldehyde levels were kept between 3 and 20
μg/m3duringthecampaignwithanaveragenearto10
μg/m3.Asshowninfigure1,mostoftheformaldehyde
peaksareproducedintheweekdays,generallywhen
theclassesbeginoraftersomebreaks.
Figure1.Formaldehydevariationatthehighschool.
Acomparisonwiththetimetableoftheclassandsomeinformationcollectedbyaquestionnairehaspermittedto
explain some variations of the formaldehyde. As it is expected, formaldehyde level is decreased when one or
morewindowsareopenedandincreasedagainwhentheyareclosed.However,somesharpformaldehydepeaks
appearwhenthestudentsarriveinthemorningoraftersomebreaks.Asitiswellknown,peoplecanincrease
theindoorpollutionlevelsbyusingofrecentlydrycleaningclothsandperfumes.
NocorrelationbetweenformaldehydeandVOCswereobservedexceptforterpens(C10H16)intheweekdays,with
acorrelationfactoraround51%.
ElementaryschoolͲBourges:
Formaldehyde levels varied between 5 and 28 μg/m3 during the campaign with an average around 16 μg/m3
(Figure 2). The formaldehyde concentration was observed to increase on weekend 1 where the indoor
temperaturereachedaround25°C(Thehighestindoortemperatureduringthecampaign).Desorptionprocesses
havebeenevidencedbyanalysisofcorrelationbetweenformaldehydeandthetemperatureonweekends,witha
correlationfactorof0.67.
We have also found good correlation between
formaldehyde and compounds as limonene (0.53), ɲͲ
pinene (0.55), isoprene (0.43), butene (0.57), octene
(0.57),3ͲhexenͲ2,5Ͳdione(0.52)andozone(0.50),but
onlyonthenightdatawherewindowsanddoorsare
closed. Temperature was not correlated at night.
These observations could indicate some ozoneͲ
induced reactions occurring indoors that form
formaldehyde. Nonetheless, other campaigns and
analysiswillbenecessariesandarealreadyplanned.
Figure2.Formaldehydevariationattheelementary
school
CONCLUSIONS
Firsts campaigns organized in educational institutions of the Region Centre in France provide indications of the
indoor formaldehyde concentrations levels and variation according to the activities and human habits. Both
institutionscanbeconsideredtohaveagoodairquality.However,theelementaryschoolisonthetargetvalue
10μg/m3.
Inthiswork,wehavefoundsomeindicationsthatsecondaryformaldehydeismainlyproducedbyindoorozone
reaction with terpens and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Nevertheless, other reactions pathways could also
contributetothesecondaryformationofformaldehyde.
Furtherexperimentswillbeconductedinordertohavemoreevidencesandbetteridentifythesecondarysources
offormaldehydeindoors.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
TheauthorsgratefullyacknowledgetheRegionCentreforthefinancialsupportoftheFORMUL’AIRprojectand
the staff of the educational institutions CP and NL for their assistance and valuable collaboration during the
campaigns.
REFERENCES
1. Jones, A.P. Atmos Environ, 1999, 33, 4535-4564.
2. Hodgson A. T.; Beal McIlvaine D. Indoor Air 2002, 12, 235-242.
3. International Agency for Research on Cancer (June 2004). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to
Humans Volume 88, 2006: Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol.
4. M. Nicolas, O. Ramalho, F. Maupetit. Atmos Environ, 2007, 41, 3129-3138.
Présentationproposéepar:
ͲLavilledeNogentsurMarne
ͲEtiennedeVanssay,Dr(+33628090954)ͲDirigeantdeCapEnvironnement,PrésidentdeFimea
En2010,laVilledeNogentsurMarne,devançantlalégislationaémisunmarchépourlaréalisation
de mesures de la qualité de l’air intérieur dans les établissements recevant la petite enfance et
relevantdesaresponsabilité.
Après une présentation du contexte et des enjeux motivant la Ville de Nogent sur Marne dans sa
décision de faire réaliser une campagne de mesure de la qualité de l’air intérieur dans les
établissements de la commune, nous présenterons la méthodologie déployée (protocole LCSQA /
phase pilote campagne nationale) et les résultats obtenus au travers de quelques retours
d’expériences contrastés (très bonne qualité de l’air, moyenne qualité et dépassement de seuil) et
descasdefiguremettantenperspectivelesproblématiquesquel’onpeutretrouverconcernantle
benzène,leformaldéhydesetleCO2.
Suivra une rapide présentation des éléments clés des décrets promulgués dans le cadre de la
réglementation de la qualité de l’air intérieur dans les établissements recevant du public (décrets
2011Ͳ1727et1728du2décembre2011et2012Ͳ14du5janvier2012)parussuiteàlaréalisationde
laphasepilotedescampagnesdemesuresdanslesécolesetcrèches.
Lasecondepartiedelaprésentationporterasurlastratégiedegestionadoptéefaceàlaprésence
dansundesétablissementsdeformaldéhydeàdesniveauxdépassantlesseuilsrecommandés.Les
étapes de cette démarche seront décrites et commentées à la fois sur un plan technique
(méthodologie de recherche des sources, procédure de suivi régulier) et sur un aspect de
gouvernance(mobilisationetinformationdespartiesprenantes,recherchedessolutionsàmettreen
œuvreetplanificationdesactions).
LaconclusionseradéveloppéepourlaVilledeNogentsurMarnequiprésenteralesbénéficesqu’elle
aputirerdecetteexpérienceenanticipantl’applicationdelaréglementation.
Chemical and Colorimetric Sensors for the Detection of Nitrogen
Trichloride at ppb Level
T.-H. Nguyen1,2, J. Garcia1, T.-D. Nguyen1, A.-M. Laurent3, C. Beaubestre3, T.-H. Tran-Thi1
1
CEA-Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SPAM/Laboratoire Francis Perrin, URA CEA-CNRS 2453,
91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
2
3
ETHERA R&D, CEA-Saclay, Bât. 451, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France
Laboratoire d’Hygiène de la Ville de Paris, 11 rue Georges Eastman, 75013 Paris, France
In swimming pools, chlorine (Cl2) is used as a disinfectant to minimize the risk to users
from microbial contaminants. In water, Cl2 is transformed into hypochlorous acid (HOCl)
which reacts with nitrogen compounds like saliva, sweat, urine and skin, leading to the
formation of several chloramines, such as monochloramine, dichloramine and nitrogen
trichloride (NCl3)[1]. Because of its low solubility in water, the produced NCl3 is essentially
found in the air. This toxic gas provokes significant eye and respiratory irritations in
swimmers and pool attendants, [2] and epidemiologic studies have recently shown that it can
induce asthma, especially in children [3]. The detection and analysis of NCl3 at ppb level has
become of great importance. However, there is currently no direct and selective method of
measurement of NCl3 in the atmosphere.
The development of innovative chemical sensors for the direct detection of nitrogen
trichloride, is described. They are based on nanoporous materials with high adsorptive
properties and whose pores are tailored to become efficient nanoreactors. These nanoreactors,
are designed to enhance a specific reaction between a probe molecule and NCl3, thus providing
rapidity and high sensitivity. These sensors can detect NCl3 at ppb level within 20 minutes in
humid atmospheres (RH:80%) at ambient pool temperatures. Due to the fast change of colour,
from transparent to violet-blue visible with the naked eye, these sensors can be used to monitor
the air quality of indoor pools in public or private areas and in food processing plants.
We will show the comparison of the sensor performance to the currently used, but
indirect, methods during campaigns of measurements in swimming pools.
References
1] C. Colin, M. Brunetto, R. Rosset, “Les chloramines en solution : préparations, équilibres, analyse”, Analusis,
1987, 15(6), 265-274.
[2] M. Héry, G. Hecht, J. M. Gerber, J. C. Gendre, G. Hubert, J. Rebuffaud, “Exposure to chloramines in the
atmosphere of indoor swimming pools“, Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1995, 39, 427-439.
[3] A. Bernard, S. Carbonnelle, X. Dumont, M. Nickmilder, “Infant swimming practice, Pulmonary epithelium
intregrity and the risk of allergic and respiratory diseases in childhood”, Pediatrics, 2007, 119, 1095-1103.
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7, Boulevard de la Libération, 93200 Saint-Denis
Tél. 33 (0)1.42.43.16.66, Fax 33 (0)1.42.43.50.33
Email : [email protected]
http://www.fluidyn.com
La modélisation 3D de la qualité de l’air en milieu confiné, un outil de conception et de diagnostic
L. Ait Hamou, G. Vaton, A. Tripathi, C. Souprayen
Corr. [email protected], FLUIDYN France 7 bld de la Libération 93200 SAINT-DENIS
Après l’accent mis sur la déperdition énergétique qui a amené à isoler au maximum habitations et espaces
collectifs, il est maintenant de notoriété publique que la qualité de l’air intérieur est souvent plus dégradée
par rapport à la qualité de l’air extérieur, en raison d’un taux médiocre de renouvellement de l’air ainsi que
d’émissions accrues de polluants à partir de matériaux présents.
La qualité de l’air intérieur est donc devenue un enjeu de santé publique qui intervient aussi bien au niveau
du diagnostic sur les sites existants qu’au niveau de la conception sur les bâtiments nouveaux. Cette
préoccupation grandissante a pris notamment la forme d’un décret paru en 2011 enjoignant de surveiller
périodiquement et éventuellement remédier à la qualité de l’air dans les Etablissements Recevant du Public,
en particulier les établissements d’accueil des mineurs.
Afin de diagnostiquer un état de fait pour un établissement existant, les mesures sont nécessaires car elles
permettront de fournir une mesure objective. Cependant les mesures restent locales et ciblées dans le temps
et ne peuvent représenter l’intégralité du diagnostic à moins d’un déploiement coûteux. D’autre part, les
mesures ne peuvent évidemment pas permettre de prédire la qualité de l’air d’un bâtiment au stade de
l’avant-projet, pas plus que de privilégier une conception plutôt qu’une autre. En complément de la mesure,
la simulation numérique permet d’obtenir des informations sur les zones faiblement ventilées, zones de
fortes concentrations, les zones de forte convection thermique et éventuellement le couplage avec l’émission
en lien avec l’écoulement et la température sur les surfaces. Elle permet également de définir rapidement
l’impact de préconisations qu’elles soient liées à des modifications de ventilation ou de matériaux, visant à
la réduction de niveaux élevés de concentrations. Parmi les différentes modélisations possibles, la
simulation 3D basée sur les équations de la mécanique des fluides (CFD) est un outil puissant et précis. Les
outils généralistes de simulation CFD sont souvent jugés hors de portée des bureaux d’étude, architectes et
concepteurs, du fait de leur complexité et de temps de calculs élevés. Une solution logicielle dédiée ouvre
l’accès à la CFD à un usage plus répandu.
Un nouvel outil logiciel de simulation numérique 3D, fluidyn-VENTIL, est proposé, alliant une interface
simple et aisée avec des méthodes numériques pertinentes et efficaces. Cet outil a été conçu avec un certain
nombre d’objectifs :
- Prise en compte facilité de la géométrie des bâtiments, structuration en pièces et communications
(portes, couloirs) prise en compte de conditions aux limites externes (fenêtres, ouvrants) et de
l’occupation interne (encombrement, obstacles, sources).
- Possibilité de présenter des émissions canalisées et diffuses multiples simultanément.
- Possibilité d’ajouter les ventilations forcées mais aussi les ouvertures vers l’extérieur ainsi que les
points chauds (équipements actifs, personnes) entraînant les écoulements par convection naturelle.
Les résultats attendus répondent à plusieurs points des exigences réglementaires et HQE :
- Conformité avec les seuils de qualité de l’air par la connaissance détaillée des champs de
concentration de polluants
- Qualification et connaissance des sources d’émission par comparaison des résultats de concentration
avec les mesures.
- Evaluation des différentes solutions proposées (positionnement et puissance de la ventilation,
ouverture, etc.)
- Arbitrage entre les objectifs parfois contradictoires de qualité de l’air, confort des usagers et
déperdition énergétique.
L’outil contient une interface dédié pour la construction de la géométrie des volumes, pièces et bâtiments
exploitant une base de données d’objets, base augmentable, et de menus permettant la mise en place aisée
des conditions aux limites pour les sources et éléments actifs (au sen aéraulique). Une illustration simple de
l’interface associée est fournie ci-dessous Figure 1 avec les principales étapes de mise en place.
a
b
c
Figure 1 : Interface VENTIL et étapes de construction – (a) Volume et ouvertures – (b) équipement et occupations (c) cloisonnements et sources.
La base de la simulation repose sur la résolution des équations de la mécanique des fluides avec cependant
un choix orienté (pour aider l’utilisateur) sur une technique numérique robuste, les maillages 3D
automatiques des domaines de simulations, la reprise/multiplication de scénarios dont les performances
doivent être comparées.
L’analyse des résultats est réalisée avec des visualisations 3D, des coupes et des bilans en termes
d’efficacité (taux de captation, temps de séjours, flux et vitesses/humidités (pour le confort), bilans
thermiques globaux. Les extraits Figure 2 ci-dessous de la partie post-traitement de l’interface illustrent
quelques rendus graphiques fournissant l’aide à l’interprétation et les analyses d’implantation
d’équipements.
b
c
a
Figure 2 : Exemples de sorties de simulations par Ventil – (a) concentrations multidomaine, (b) zoom sur le
développement initial autour d’un équipement) (c) distribution des champs de vitesse.
Une étude de cas sera présentée pour montrer la mise en œuvre et les applications possibles.
Ce cas présente l’intérêt de montrer les couplages intérieur/extérieurs pouvant se développer naturellement
sur des bâtiments avec ouvertures (aéraulique externe fournie par un outil d’écoulement atmosphérique) et
des sources chaudes (problématique industrielle récurrente) avec des sources associées. La Figure 3 cidessous montre un état développé de l’aéraulique et des concentrations. Un pré calcul en aéraulique
externe initialise le problème et les lignes de courant en convection chaude sont analysées.
a
b
c
d
Figure 3Exemple de mise en œuvre industrielles (a-b) vitesses et pression externe au site (c ) lignes de courant
visualisant le transport convectif interne (d) concentrations en coupe du bâtiment
Une analyse de design (captation) est aussi proposée.
2012
Modélisationdelaqualitédel’airàl’intérieurdehallsindustriels
NumericalModelingforindoorairqualityinindustrialhalls
CatherineTURPIN
Ingénieurd’étudesetdedéveloppement
[email protected]Ͳenv.com
SillagesEnvironnement
64,chemindesMouilles69134ECULLYCedex
www.sillagesͲenv.com
Un habitant des pays industrialisés passe en moyenne 90% de son temps dans un milieu
confiné(habitations,bureaux,transports,etc.),cependantl’airintérieurpeutparfoisêtrepluspollué
quel’airextérieur.Larécenteprisedeconsciencequelaqualitédel’airintérieurserévèleêtreun
enjeusanitairemajeurs’accompagneaujourd’huid’unevolontédemieuxmaîtriserlaqualitédel’air
àl’intérieurdesdifférentslocauxquenousoccupons.
En regard des problématiques de qualité d’air à l’intérieur de halls industriels, la société Sillages
Environnement, experte dans le domaine de la modélisation de la mécanique des fluides
environnementale, réalise des études numériques permettant de déterminer l’aéraulique, la
thermique ainsi que la toxicité dans de telles enceintes. Différents méthodes de modélisation
peuventêtremisesenœuvreenfonctiondudegrédecomplexitédubâtimentàmodéliseretdela
précision spatiale souhaitée. A titre d’exemple, un modèle multizone permet d’obtenir une
information moyenne dans une pièce d’un bâtiment, et un modèle CFD (Computational Fluid
Dynamics), le plus précis à ce jour, modélise chaque pièce par des milliers voire des millions de
cellulescontenantchacuneuneinformationdistincte.
L’objectif de la présentation est d’exposer la méthodologie, mise en œuvre par Sillages
Environnement,permettantdereprésenterlaqualitédel’airàl’intérieurd’unbâtiment.Autravers
d’exemplestypessurdessitesindustriels,l’ensembledespossibilitésd’applicationserontprésentés.
ATMOS’FAIR International Conference – LYON – September 26th & 27th 2012
M.PETITPhilippe,CIATResearch&InnovationCenter,
Healthandhygienelaboratorymanager
700AvenueJeanFalconnier,01350CULOZ
PhoneNr:+33(0)479424368–Fax:+33(0)479424013
Email:[email protected]
VAICTEURAIR2(1)project:forahealthyAIR,acomfortableAIR,a“LowEnergy”AIR
1
2
9
9
9
9
3
withthesupportof et
Introduction:
Howtointegratethenewlegalenvironmentalrequirementsforenergyreductionandforindoorairquality
in the buildings? How to find efficient solutions to Human Health and comfort in indoor environments in
whichhespends85%ofhistime?Howtoconsiderthosenewtechnicalandhealthchallengeswherethe
issueofindoorairqualitywillincreasewiththe“LowEnergy”buildings?CIATanditspartnershavecome
together to work on a comprehensive and systemic approach of buildings in an attempt to answer these
questions:itisthebirthofVaicteurAIR2projectofficiallylaunchedinNovember2008,withthesupportof
OSEOandADEME.
PresentationofVaicteurAIR2projectinfewwords:
Purpose: Develop new innovative components for both HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning) and
IAQtechnology,heatpumpscoupledornotwithrenewableenergysources,efficientheatexchangers,air
broadcastersanddistributors,linesensorsandaircleaningtechnologies.
Schedule:2008/2014
Partners:industrialsCIAT,CAIRPOL,FAUREQEI,TECSOL
publiclaboratoriesCSTB,LaSIE(UniversityofLaRochelle),CEA,IUSTI,INERIS
R&Dbudget:25M€,financialhelp:10M€
PresentationofresultsinthetasksdedicatedtoIAQ:
9 Transports, transfers, deposits: Develop knowledge on the mechanisms and physical elementary
phenomena determining the transfer of particulate, chemical or biological pollutants in ambient
atmospheres and in the different components of the air handling units. Translate this knowledge into
softwaremodulesoftypeinput/outputrepresentingthebehaviorofpollutantsinthesystemorthetype
ofatmospheretargeted
Oneofthemainresultsofthisworkistherealizationofamodel,coupledwithTRNSYS,whichsimulatethe
spread of different types of pollutants between the outdoor and the indoor of a building such as offices
buildingsorhospitals(egahospitalroom).
1
V‹‡†‡ŽǯŠ‘‡†ƒ•Ž‡•A„‹ƒ…‡•I–±”‹‡—”‡•C‘–”ØŽ±‡•ǤT”ƒ‹–‡‡–’ƒ”E‡”‰‹‡•U–‹Ž‡•‡–R‡‘—˜‡Žƒ„Ž‡•ǤA’’‘”–
†ǯI‘˜ƒ–‹‘•R±…—””‡–‡•‡–Ȁ‘—†‡R—’–—”‡
ATMOS’FAIR International Conference – LYON – September 26th & 27th 2012
9 Biologicsensor:Developanoriginalsensorforthedetectionoftargetedmicroorganismsintheair
(bacteria,viruses).
This sensor is mainly dedicated for the fight against nosocomial infections. The specifications have been
madeinthisdirection.CEAͲLeti,themainactorofthistaskhasdevelopedthesensorinthreemodules:the
sample collection, sample preparation and finally the sample analysis by PCR which allows identification
andquantificationoftargetspeciesinalmostrealͲtime.
9 Particulatesensor:Realizationofasensorwhichcanbeintegratedintoventilationsystemsandcanmonitor
the air quality. Integration of the sensor into a ventilation system and real tests. Software development
usingthesensorcouplingtotheventilationsystem.ThissensormustallowcontinuousmonitoringofPM10
andPM2.5levelsinindoorenvironments.ThistaskismainlycarriedbytheCAIRPOLcompany
9 HealthImpact:Developandimplementamethodtotargetprioritypollutantsintermsofhealthissues,and
integrate these selected pollutants in all stages of the project process to ensure the protection of people
livingintheindoorenvironmentsstudied.
This task, mainly driven by INERIS and LaSIE has allowed the development of a methodology for
prioritization of pollutants in living spaces, according to their dangerousness and their frequency,
determining in particular, indices of acute and chronic risks. This methodology thus completes a database
calledPANDORE(acompilationofpollutantemissionsfromindoorair)enrichedduringthiswork.Itisfreely
availableonthewebsiteofLaSIE(http://leptiab.univͲlarochelle.fr/PresentationͲPANDORE.html)
9 Demonstrators: Returns of experience in real conditions on the use of equipment and control systems
developed. A new commercial building BBC (second half of 2012), will be specifically instrumented to
monitorIAQ,dependingontheoccupation,activity,particulateandchemicalpurificationsystemsdrivenby
controlalgorithmsspecificallydeveloped.Themonitoringcampaignmustbeheldbetween1and2years.
4
Conclusionsandprospects:
TheVaicteurAIR2project,currentlymidterm,hasalreadyallowedtoseeanumberofachievementsbothin
the field of energy optimization of buildings and in the area of IAQ. Advancement of knowledge,
developmentofequipmentsorsoftwaretoolsforforecasting,dedicatedsensors,areallresultsofthiswork.
ADEME has confirmed its confidence by launching, early this year, a second phase of work dedicated to
residential buildings
DoesphotocatalyticdeviceincreasetheformaldehydeconcentrationduringVOCdegradationinindoor
airconditions?
DrB.Kartheuser,SeniorScientist
CERTECHasbl,RueJulesBordetZoneindustrielleC,7180Seneffe,Belgium
[email protected]
www.certech.be
Today,mostpeoplelivinginindustrialareas,particularlyduringthecoldermonths,spendaround90%oftheir
timeinclosedenvironmentwithonlyshortairingperiods.Atthesametime,heatͲinsulatingmeasuresdecreasethe
freshairsupplyandleadtoanincreasingaccumulationofemittedsubstances,sometimesexceedingthevalues
measuredinoutdoorair.
Sourcesofindoorairpollutionmayoriginatefromthecombustionofoil,gas,coal,wood,tobacco;building
materialsandfurniture;productsforhouseholdcleaningandmaintenance,personalcareorhobbiesandoutdoor
airpollution.Inaddition,manyhealthproblemsarecausedbybiologicalagentssuchasfungi,moulds,bacteriaand
othermicroͲorganisms.
Thevolatileorganiccompounds(VOC)orsemiͲvolatileorganiccompounds(sͲVOC)foundinindoorairaremainly
aromatic,aliphaticandchlorinatedhydrocarbons,,terpenes,carbonylderivatives,alcohols...
Thecontrolofindoorairqualityisthenbecomingamajorconcerninmodernbuildings,duetotheirincreased
insulationforenergysavingandtotheuseofmaterialscontainingvolatilechemicals.Indoorairisacomplex
mediumcontainingVOCs,pathogenicornonͲpathogenicmicroorganismsandaerosols.Abettercontrolofthisair
pollutioninenclosedenvironmentmaybeachievedbycontrollingpollutionsources,increasingairexchangeand
purifyingthepollutedair.
Severalpurificationtechniquesmaybeusedseparatelyorincombinationdependingonthecomplexityofthe
mixtureofpollutantsintheairtobetreated:particlesfilters,VOCadsorption,airionisation,VOCdegradation...
Thedevicescanbeinstalledintheduckworkofahome’scentralheating,ventilatingandairconditioningorcanbe
usedasstandͲalonesystemplacesinsingleroom.
Photocatalyticoxidation(PCO)aircleaners,operatingatroomtemperatureandatmosphericpressure,arewell
suitedforcontaminatedairwithlowpollutantconcentrationandflowrate.Thustheycanachievethenecessary
reductionsinindoorVOCconcentration.
Manydifferenttypesofphotocatalyticmaterialsareavailableonthemarket,theycanbesplitintwocategories:
thepassivematerialssuchaspaints,wallpapers,tiles,curtains...forwhichpollutantsneedtoreachthesurfaceof
theactivematerials,andactivematerials(airpurifier)onwhichpollutantsareforcedtomeettheactivematerials
lightedwithUVlight.
Thereisaneedforstandardisationduetothefactthatitisdifficulttocompareresultsobtainedfromdifferent
laboratoriessincealotofdifferentoperatingconditionsareused:pollutantconcentrations,typeoflighting,
temperature,relativehumidity...
AstandardatFrenchlevelwaspublishedin2009,AFNORXPB44Ͳ013toassessthephotocatalyticactivatedof
standͲaloneairpurifierandisundervalidation.ThisstandardisproposedatCENlevelandisunderdiscussion.
CERTECH, association sans but lucratif associée à l’Université catholique de Louvain
Zone industrielle C - Rue Jules Bordet - B-7180 Seneffe
Tél.32(0)64 52 02 11 - Fax 32(0)64 52 02 10
TVA BE 0470.677.454 - IBAN : BE87.3701.1282.1494 - BIC : BBRUBEBB
E-mail : [email protected] http://www.certech.be
n°400-TEST
ThisstandardproposestoworkwithaVOCmixturerepresentativeoftheindoorairpollutant:acetaldehyde,nͲ
heptane,acetoneandtoluene.Theairpurifiersaretestedinaclosedchamberofabout1m³.Theprotocolrequires
toverifythemineralizationthroughtheproductionofCO2,butalsototracebyͲproductsthatcanbereleaseinthe
gasphase.ManystudiescarriedoutonthedecompositionofsingleVOCshowedthatformaldehydeisoneofthe
majorbyͲproductreleasedintheairfromthephotocatalystsurfaceandformaldehydeisoneofthemajor
concernedinindoorairquality
However,thestandardisnotabletoanswertothefollowingquestion:doesphotocatalyticdeviceincreasethe
formaldehydeconcentrationduringVOCdegradationinconcentrationclosedtoindooraircondition?
Inaclosedchamber,itisobviousthatformaldehydewillbefound,mainlyatthebeginningoftheexperiment,in
thegasphase.Butisitthesame,ifformaldehydeisaddedtothestandardmixture?
ThispaperwillpresentrelevantresultsobtainedinclosedroomswithairpurifiersfortheremovalofVOCmixture
includingornotformaldehydeatlowVOCconcentration.
OneexampleofVOCconcentrationasafunctionoftimeincludingformaldehydeispresentedinfigure1.
Fig1:EvolutionofVOCconcentrationversustime.
Thepaperwillshowtheimportancetohavegoodstandardtoassessthephotocatalyticactivityofmaterialsanda
labeltoguarantythatthesystemsthatareonthemarketaresaveandwillnotcontributetoincreasetheindoor
airpollution.
CERTECH, association sans but lucratif associée à l’Université catholique de Louvain
Zone industrielle C - Rue Jules Bordet - B-7180 Seneffe
Tél.32(0)64 52 02 11 - Fax 32(0)64 52 02 10
TVA BE 0470.677.454 - IBAN : BE87.3701.1282.1494 - BIC : BBRUBEBB
E-mail : [email protected] http://www.certech.be
n°400-TEST
Dépollutiondel’airparphotocatalyse,l’étatdeslieux,développementsfuturs.Stratégie
pourprogressersurunmarchéémergent
Présentation de Didier CHAVANON gérant de BMES et de Pascal KALUZNY gérant de TERA
Environnement, Président de la commission AFNOR B44A (Photocatalyse) et du CEN TC 386
(Photocatalysis) , (tous deux membres de la FFP Fédération Française de la Photocatalyse et
partenairesduprojetCOVKO)
BMESjeuneentrepriseinnovante,spécialiséedansletraitementdel’eauetdel’airpartechnologie
UV et par Procédés d’Oxydation Avancée (POA) comme la photocatalyse, s’est positionnée avec 9
entreprisesLyonnaisesdontTERAEnvironnement(5Pme,3laboratoires,1utilisateur)pourmenerà
bienleprojetCOVKO«0Microorganismes»«0COV»«0deurs».
Partieduconstatsuiteàlaparutiondel'articledansRisqueetSantédeJanvier/Février2011queles
matérielsprésentssurlemarchén’étaientpasd’unegrandeefficacité(desmatérielsproduisaient
euxͲmêmesdespolluants),BMESavecsespartenairesontdécidédereleverledéfi:
Développerlemarchédeladépollutiondel’airintérieur,retrouverlaconfiancedeconsommateurs
déçus pour certains et suspicieux pour d’autres, assurer un résultat final non contestable pour
l’utilisateur.
Pour cela COV KO, projette de concevoir des matériels innovants (faible bruit, basse
consommationLED,technologiePOA)sécurisés(indicationdemauvaistraitement)quirépondent
auxattentesdesclientsavecdestestsenlaboratoiresetinsitu(maisonvideouencoreavecla
présencedeshabitants),avecunelabellisationdequalitédedépollutionreconnueetincontestée,
quiprennentencomptelesnormesactuelles.
Unétatdeslieuxdesnormesexistantesautourdesépurateursd’airseradoncprésenté(notamment
cellesexistantsauseindelacommissionAFNORB44A).
LadémarchemiseenœuvreparlaFFPpourmettreenplacecelabelseraégalementdécrite.
Indoorairpollutionremovalbyphotocatalyticprocess,stateofart,futurdevelopment.Strategy
forthisemergingmarketdevelopment
PresentationofDidierCHAVANONBMES’SCEOetdePascalKALUZNYTERAEnvironnement,
ChairmanofAFNORB44AcommissionandofCENTC386(Photocatalysis)
(membersofFrenchFederationofPhotocatalysisandpartnersonprojectCOVKO)
BMESisastartupandengineeringandconsultingfirmandalsoamanufacturerthatspecializes
inthedesignandthemanufactureofunitsfortreatmentofwaterandairwithUVtechnologyand
withAdvancedOxidationProcesses(AOP)asphotocatalysis.With9partnersofLyon’sareaofwhich
TERAenvironment(5companies,3laboratories,1Enduser)tobringtoasuccessfulconclusionthe
COVkOproject"0Microorganisms""0VOC""0smells".
LeftthereportfurthertothepublicationofthearticleinRiskandHealthofJanuary/February,2011
when the present equipments on the market were not of a big efficiency (equipments produced
themselvespollutants),BMESwiththepartnersdecidedtotakeupthechallenge:
Developthemarketofthecleanupoftheinternalair,findtheconfidenceofconsumersdisappointed
forcertainandsuspiciousfortheothers,guaranteeanotquestionablefinalresultfortheuser.
COV KO, intends to design innovative equipments (low noise, low consumption LED, AOP
technology) with safety information if the unit doesn’t work efficiently, which answer customer
expectations with tests in laboratories and in situ (empty house or still with the presence of the
inhabitants),withaqualitylabelingofrecognizedanduncontestedcleanup,whichtakeintoaccount
thecurrentstandards.
Aninventoryoftheexistingstandardsdealingwithairpurifierswillthusbepresented(inparticular
thoseexistingwithincommissionAFNORB44A).
ThestepimplementedbytheFPtosetupthislabelwillbealsodescribe
BMES
PARCARIANE2
290RueFerdinandPERRIER
69800SAINTPRIEST
Téléphone+33(0)960041024
Mobile+33(0640191328
[email protected]
www.bmes.fr
628,RueCharlesdeGaulle38920CROLLES
PascalKALUZNY
Tel:0476921011
Fax:0476908524
Email:[email protected]Ͳenvironnement.com
Siteweb:www.teraͲenvironnement.com
Jeudi 27 septembre 2012
Emissions Industrielles / Industrials Emissions
09h00 - 09h40
Focus réglementation /
Regulation focus
Emissions atmosphériques
des véhicules et contraintes
juridiques / Vehicle emissions :
regulatory constraints
Anne-Caroline Urbain, Jones Day
Pollution de l’air et émissions
industrielles : vers un renforcement
des règles relatives à la limitation
des émissions polluantes / Air
pollution and industrial emissions :
toward a reinforcement of the
rules relating to the limitation of
pollutant emissions
Carine Le Roy Gleizes &
Corentin Chevallier, Winston & Strawn
Obligations et responsabilités liées
à la qualité de l’air extérieur /
Obligations and responsabilities
related to outdoor air quality Laurence Lanoy, Laurence Lanoy
Avocats
09h40 - 10h00
Emissions atmosphériques de
l’agglomération de Marrakech / Air
emissions inventory of the urban
agglomeration of Marrakech
Erik Sinno, Environ France
10h00 - 10h20
Coffee Break
10h20 - 10h40
Les émissions atmosphériques
du compostage : bilan des
connaissances et des méthodes
d’évaluation / Existing knowledge
of atmospheric emissions from
composting facilities
Isabelle Déportes, Ademe
10h40 - 11h00
Méthodologie d’évaluation des
risques sanitaires : application
aux rejets gazeux d’une chaudière
biomasse / Methodology for health
risk assessments: application to
gaseous discharges of a biomass
boiler
Christophe Royer, Bertin Technologies
11h00 - 12h00
Table ronde / Round table
Les pesticides / Pesticides
Regulatory approach for risk
assessment of pesticides in air
Sari Nuutinen, ANSES
Simulation numérique de la
dispersion de pesticide à l’échelle
des rangs de vigne et de la
parcelle / Numerical simulation
of the pesticide dispersal at the
level of vineyard rows and plots
Ali Chahine, SupAgro Montpellier
Surveillance des pesticides dans
l’air / Surveillance of pesticides
in air
Bernard Bonicelli, IRSTEA
Utilisation de l’abeille (apis
mellifica) pour la bio-surveillance
de pollution agricole (pesticides).
Illustration avec l’utilisation d’un
compteur d’abeilles par vidéosurveillance pour le suivi à distance
et en temps réel de la mortalité
au sein des colonies / Using the
bee (Apis Mellifica) for bio-monitoring agricultural pollution
(pesticides). Case study via use
of a video based bee counter for
remote monitoring and real-time
mortality in colonies
Benjamin Poirot, Apilab
12h00 - 12h20
Modélisation de la dispersion atmosphérique de polluants sur sites
industriels / Numerical modeling of
atmospheric pollutants on industrial
sites
Catherine Turpin & Perrine Volta,
Sillages Environnement
12h20 - 12h40
Plum’Air, un nouvel outil pour la
surveillance des odeurs et de la
qualité de l’air dans l’environnement des sites industriels /
Plum’Air, a new tool to control
odour annoyances and air quality
around industrial plants
Frédéric Pradelle, Numtech
12h40 - 13h00
Questions - Answers - Discussion
13h00
Déjeuner / Lunch
14h00 - 14h20
L’analyse des COV, gaz permanents
et composés soufrés par μGC/
MS sur site : une alternative aux
méthodes usuelles - Etudes sur un
gaz sidérurgique
Karim Medimagh, Explorair
14h20 - 14h40
Qualité de l’air intérieur : démarche
de contrôle des agents chimiques
dangereux dans les ateliers et
bureaux de PSA Peugeot Citroën /
Indoor air quality: hazardous chemicals process control in the workshops and offices of PSA Peugeot
Citroën
Juliette Quartararo, PSA Peugeot
Citroën
14h40 - 15h00
Système multi-sites de surveillance
et gestion des odeurs. Etude d’un
cas concret / Multi-sites system of
monitoring of odour : a case study
Jean-Michel Turmel, Odotech
15h00 - 15h20
Caractérisation et traitement des
fumées de bitume / Characterization and treatment bitumen fumes
Jérôme Rheinbold, Colas Environnement
15h20 - 15h40
Mise à l’échelle d’un système de
biofiltration methanotrophe pour
la réduction des GES générés par
un lieu d’enfouissement au Québec
(Canada) / Scale-up of methanotrophic biofilters to reduce GHG generated by LFG in Quebec (Canada)
Nicolas Turgeon, CRIQ & Matthieu
Alibert, Ville de Québec
15h40 - 16h00
Coffee Break
16h00 - 16h20
Traitement de faibles concentrations
de TEX par un biofiltre végétalisé :
capacité d’élimination et rôles des
bactéries indigènes / Treatment of
low concentrations of TEX through a
planted biofilter : removal efficiency
and roles of indigenous bacteria
Anne Rondeau, Laboratoire d’Ecologie Microbienne
16h20 - 16h40
Contrôle de la pollution intérieure
dans les cabines de peinture et des
émissions de Composés Organiques
Volatils (COV) dans l’environnement / Air quality control inside
painting booths and VOC emissions
regulation
Déborah Kuntz, Vision’Air
16h40 - 17h00
Traitement des composés à phrases
de risque : comment dimensionner
pour atteindre des valeurs < 2mg/
m3 / Treatment of compounds
with risk phrases : how to design
treatment units and reach values <
2mg/m3
Patrice Vasseur, Biobatique
17h00 - 17h20
Le traitement de l’air par la technologie AELORVE / Air pollution
removal by the AELORVE photocatalytic process
Cédric Dutriez, AELORVE
17h20 - 18h00
Questions - Answers - Discussion
18h00
Fin de la seconde journée / End of
Day Two
Fin du congrès / End of the congress
Vehicle Emissions: Regulatory Constraints – September 27, 2012
Emissions atmosphériques des véhicules et contraintes juridiques – 27 septembre 2012
Jones Day
2 rue Saint-Florentin
75001 Paris
www.jonesday.com
Abstract
While France may soon debate a ban on the use of dieselpowered vehicles in urban areas, the issue of the environmental
and public health impact of emissions originating from motor
vehicles is worth an update.
Unsurprisingly, applicable emissions standards result from
European Union regulations. These vary according to the
nature and type of motor vehicules, i.e., whether light-duty
vehicles (cars and light vans) or heavy-duty vehicles (trucks
and buses) are concerned, to the type of energy used (petrol,
gas or diesel), and to the types of pollutants emitted (e.g.,
particulates or PM, nitrogen oxides or Nox, carbon monoxide or
CO, and carbon dioxide or CO2).
Anne-Caroline Urbain
Associate
+33 1 56 59 39 39
[email protected]
Emissions standards set for new light-duty vehicles are
increasingly stringent: the Euro 5 standard entered into force in
September 2009 while the Euro 6 standard will enter into force
in September 2014.
This is in fact a fast changing legal framework under pressure
from vehicle manufacturers on the one hand, and under the
scrutiny of municipalities and health organizations alike, on the
other hand while new technologies seem to allow fast and
meaningful improvements on emission levels.
At the national level, Member States retain significant
prerogatives in the implementation of various tools designed to
curb motor vehicle emissions. In this respect, France uses a
wide range of incentive measures for the purchase or use of
“clean” vehicles (tax credit for hybrid cars) or, conversely, of
disincentives discouraging the use or purchase of the most
polluting vehicles (bonus-malus system depending on CO2
perfomance, taxes on polluting vehicles, the so-called “écotaxe” on trucks).
Jones Day
Today, we are one of the largest international law firms, with
more than 2,400 lawyers in 37 offices around the world. Our
clients - a substantial number of whom have trusted us for
decades - are among the Fortune Global 500. The Paris Office
opened in 1970 and counts more than 90 lawyers.
Jones Day’s Environmental, Health & Safety practice is one of
the most substantial in the world. Our lawyers help clients in
Europe, the U.S. and Asia comply with complex laws and
regulations pertaining to solid and hazardous waste, air
emissions, water quality, and employee health & safety. We
have extensive experience with the full range of environmental,
health & safety laws that relate to litigation, transactional and
regulatory compliance matters. We also advise clients on all
climate change and REACH related issues.
The Paris team is ranked among the top environmental
practices in France in the guides Chambers Europe, PLC Which
lawyer? and The Legal 500 - EMEA.
«Pollutiondel’airetémissionsindustrielles:versunrenforcementdesrèglesrelativesà
lalimitationdesémissionspolluantes».
CarineLeRoyͲGleizes
et
CorentinChevallier
AvocatsauBarreaudeParis
Winston&Strawn
Depuisl'interventiondelaloin°96Ͳ1236du30décembre1996surl'airetl'utilisationrationnellede
l'énergie, désormais codifiée aux article L. 220Ͳ1 et suivants du Code de l'environnement, et le
Grenelle de l’Environnement, la prise en considération de l'impact des émissions atmosphériques
polluantesetlarecherchedeleurmaitrisen'acessédeserenforcertantdanslesréglementations
nationalesquedanslecadredelatranspositiondesdirectivescommunautaires.
Lesintervenantsseproposentd’exposerainsinotammentlesenjeuxassociésàlatranspositionde
directive2010//CEdu24novembre2010relativeauxémissionspolluantes(diteIED)danslecodede
l’environnement. En effet, le principal apport de cette Directive consiste dans la nouvelle portée
donnée aux Meilleures Techniques Disponibles («MTD»), issues des documents de référence
(«BREFs»)sectorielsoutransversauxélaborésauniveaucommunautaire.Cesconclusionsfixeront
lesvaleurslimitesd’émission(«VLE»),ycomprispourl’air,àreprendredanslestitresd’exploitation
des installations. Les possibilités de discussion et de dérogations seront moindres qu’auparavant.
Cecisupposedoncuneattentionparticulièredesexploitantsd’installationsindustriellessurcepoint,
ced’autantplusqueleprincipeestceluid’unréexamenplusfréquentdesconditionsd'autorisation
(dansundélaide4anssuivantl'adoptionoulamiseàjourdesconclusionssurlesMTD).
Parailleurs,lesdifférentsplansmisenplaceparlespouvoirspublics,auniveaunationaloulocal,et
les outils de gouvernance dont ils disposent ont de réelles incidence pour les exploitants des
installations. Seront ainsi évoqués les enjeux que présentent, pour les émissions industrielles,
notamment le plan «particules», les schémas régionaux climat air énergie ou encore les Plans de
Protectiondel’Atmosphère.
***
ATMOS'FAIR 2012
«Industrialemissions»
LaurenceLanoy
PhDinlaw
Lawyer/Certifiedspecializationin
environmentallaw
3,rueAntoineArnauld•75016
PARIS
Tél.+33(0)145201310•
[email protected]
Obligationsandresponsibilitiesrelatedtooutdoorairquality
Faced with increased regulations related to air quality and public health
obligations particularly following the Grenelle Environment Forum, public
andprivateactorsareexposedtoincreasedlegalrisks.
Liabilityforindustrialcompaniesandtheirofficersforfailuretocomplywith
airqualityrequirementscanhavesignificantimplications.Airpollutionfrom
a registered facility may expose operators to civil liability towards
government authorities and third parties, and to criminal sanctions for
endangerment.
TheState,municipalities,andotherpublicbodiesalsoplayanimportantpart
in the prevention and sanctioning of air pollution. In particular, under EU
commitments regarding outdoor air quality and the exercise of their law
enforcement powers, public bodies are required to implement concrete
actions;thismayraisetheissueofliabilityforfaultornuisance.
Laurence Lanoy, a certified environmental law specialist, will review the
latest developments in the obligations of industrial firms and public bodies
regarding outdoor air quality and the related legal risks, with concrete
examplesofliabilitybasedondecisionsbycivil,administrativeandcriminal
courts..
***
A lawyer since 1990 and graduated with a PhD from PARIS II – Panthéon
Assas University, Laurence Lanoy has developed a sound practice in
environmental law before establishing in 2004 LAURENCE LANOY AVOCATS,
which now ranks among the most highly recommended firms in
environmentallawinFrance.
Laurence Lanoy assists and represents corporations, public administrations
andinternationallawfirmsinenvironmentalandhealthandsafetymatters.
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Existingknowledgeofatmosphericemissionsfromcompostingfacilities
Isabelle DEPORTES –Health impacts and waste management – ADEME –Waste prevention and
managementdepartmentͲ20avenueduGrésillé–BP90406Ͳ49004ANGERScedex01–France–
[email protected]–phone:+33(0)241204306
LaurenceLOYON(IRSTEA),PascalMALLARD(IRSTEA),IsalineFRABOULET(INERIS),HélèneBACHELEY
(VERI), Nathalie WERY (INRA), Marina MOLETTAͲDENAT (CSTB), Fabrice GUIZIOU (IRSTEA), Olivier
SCHLOSSER(SuezEnvironnement)
Emissions of gas and particulates (including bioaerosols) linked to composting wastes come
essentiallyfromthebiodegradationoforganicmatterbymicroorganismsandfromsitemanagement
activities,especiallymaterialhandling(oftherawwaste,mixesandcompost):movements,turning,
screeningandloading.Carbondioxide(CO2)is,intermsofweight,themaingasproducedalongwith
watervapourduringcomposting.However,manyothergasesemittedinsmallamountscanhavea
majorimpactontheenvironmentoronhealth.Suchisthecasefornitrousoxide(N2O)andmethane
(CH4)withrespecttoglobalwarming,andalsoforammonia(NH3)withrespecttoacidificationand
eutrophicationofthelocalenvironment,andofawiderangeofsulphurͲbasedandvolatileorganic
compoundswhichcanpotentiallyleadtoodourandhealthrisks.Asforemitteddustparticles,they
canoftencarrymicrobesandbiologicalcompoundswiththeknownhealtheffectsofinflammation,
allergicreactionsandinfection.Thusdealingwiththeseemissionsandtheevaluationoftheirhealth
andenvironmentalimpactsrepresentskeyaspectsinthelongtermsustainabilityofthecomposting
option.
Eveniftheunderstandingoftheseemissionsremainsincomplete,takingintoaccountthewiderange
ofsolidwastestreatedandofthemethodsofcompostingavailable,effortshavebeenmadethese
lastyearstobettercharacterizethesubstrateandtoimprovethemeasurementmethods.ADEMEin
particular launched in 2006 a research programme specifically addressing this theme, involving
nineteen research organizations, technical centres, research consultancies and industrial partners.
Thecharacterizingemissions,oftheirsourcesandcontrollingfactors,oftheirmetrology(whetherat
theworkcarriedoutinthisframeworkhasenabledanimprovementintheknowledgeofsourceor
within the environment around treatment sites), of their dispersion to the atmosphere and
subsequentexposuretothelocalpopulation.Followingonfromthisprogramme,acompilationof
the results produced, drawing also from a literature review has been undertaken. This scientific
work,writtenbytheresearchpartnersoftheprogramme,benefitsfromtheirexpertiseandgained
experience. It can thus be considered a “state of the art” of the current understanding of
atmospheric emissions from composting: be it emission values, means of measurement or of their
control.
Thedocumentisorganizedinthreemainparts:
In the first, the general principles of composting and the related atmospheric emissions are given.
Thesectionalsosetsoutthecurrentunderstandingofthemainimpactsontheenvironmentandon
thehealthofstaffandpeoplelivingnearthecompostingsites.
Thesecondpartdealswiththequantificationofemissions.Itdescribesthemethodsandstrategies
of sampling and analysis for gas emissions (including odours) and for particulates (including
microorganisms. The current report takes note in particular of the knowledge of factors affecting
emission
The third part looks at the consequences of the work given in the report. This includes especially
recommendations for the prevention of emissions and for the direction of future studies. The
outlookforcomplimentaryresearchisalsoincluded.
Someresultsandconclusionsfromthereportaregivenbelow.
OnthebasisofresultsfromtheADEMEprogrammeandthescientificliterature,emissiondatacould
be provided. They could be given as a function of the composting phase and according to certain
kindsofwastes.Table1setsoutthedynamicsofthewholesetofemissionsstudiedinthisreportfor
thedifferentstagesofthecompostingprocess.
Table1:Dynamicsofemissionduringtheprocess(wherearrows,quantitativedatascanbefoundinthereport)
Fresh
matter
handling
Sorting
Milling
Turning
Sieving
Composting
Maturation
NH3
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
ј
n.a.
јјј
N2O
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
ј
n.a.
јјј
CH4
AsafunctionofanaerobicconditionsandinthepresenceofbiodegradableC
CO2
n.a.
n.a.
ј
n.a.
јјј
ј
VOC
n.a.
јјј
јјј
ј
јјј
јјј
Sulphated
compounds
Odours
Particles
d<2,5μm
Particles
2,5<d<10μm
Particles
d>10μm
AsafunctionofanaerobicconditionsandinthepresenceofbiodegradableS
n.a.
јјј
јјј
ј
јјј
јјј
јј
n.a.
јј
јј
јјј
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
јј
n.a.
n.a.
јј
n.a.
јј
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.:notavailable
Thedatathatisavailabletodaydoesnotenabletheidentificationoftheroleofthecompletesetof
factors that determine compost emissions. Thus the references for that relating for sludge, green
wastesandhouseholdrefusearescarceandforthegasesN2O,CH4andCO2,thereisastrongneed
fordatafrommuchlongertrialperiods(exceeding6weeks).Effectively,forsomegases,especially
N2O, the key emission stages are found at the end of the process rather than at the beginning or
withintheactivestages.
For particulates, (including the microͲorganisms), the current data essentially enables the
demonstration of the role of material handling operations on the atmospheric emissions. The
influence of other determining factors is not evident. The research programme enabled a better
characterisation of the microbial diversity in composting bioaerosols and the developments of new
monitoring techniques.
The report is available on the ADEME Web site: www.ademe.fr under rubric Médiathèque (French
site)orPublications(Englishwebsite).EnglishversiontranslatedbyColinBurton.
Methodologyforhealthriskassessment:applicationtogaseousemissionsofabiomassboiler
ChristopheRoyer,IndustrialRiskAssessmentConsultantͲTel:+33(0)139306065Ͳ[email protected]
PascaleCompain,SalesManagerͲ+33(0)442604634Ͳ[email protected]
ObjectiveofHealthRiskAssessment(HRA)istohighlightifproductsused,producedorcoͲproducedin
industrialprocess,wasteornuisancecreatedbyanindustrialsitemayhaveforneighboringpopulations,
directorindirectchroniceffectsonhealth.
Studyoftheeffectsofthesedischargesonhumanhealthistodayconductedbasedontheguidelinesof
the French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS) and the French National
Institute of Health Surveillance (INVS) published respectively in 2003 and 2000. This type of study is
usually conducted as part of "health effects" impact studies in administrative siting and authorization
document(DDAE)butalsouponrequestoftheadministration,particularlyinthepreliminarystepsof
establishmentofairemissionsmonitoringplans.
Asafirststep,forallidentifiedsubstancesreleased,theassociatedeffectsarecollected(nonͲthreshold
carcinogenicandothereffectsthreshold).Preferentialroutesofexposure(inhalationand/oringestion)
are defined and the relationship between exposure levels and the occurrence of hazards specific
pollutantsconsidered,definedbythetoxicologicalreferencevalues(TRVs).ThechoiceofTRVismade
consistentwiththecircularof30May2006,basedonthedatastatedinINVS’sfuretox.frwebsiteand
INERIS’sTRVselection.
Analysisofsiteenvironmentcanthencharacterizesensitivityofthestudyarea.Sensitivepoints(EPCͲ
exposurepointconcentration)suchasschools,kindergartens,hospitals,andvegetablecropsorculture
areasandlivestockaresystematicallyidentified.Followingthecharacterizationofthestudyareabased
onrelevanteffectsidentifiedabove,aconceptualframeworkofmultimediatransferisdefined.
Modelingofatmosphericdispersionofemissionsisperformedusingdispersionsoftwaredevelopedby
the ADMS4 CERC recognized by INERIS. This model allows determination of air concentrations and
ground
deposition,
particularly
at
sensitive
points
identified
above.
Exposurelevelsareevaluatedfromtheresultsofmodeling.Thecomparisonoftheseairconcentrations
withtheTRVareusedtocharacterizeinhalationrisks.
In accordance with the INERIS recommendations, concentrations in the different media of the food
chainarecalculatedusingthemodelHHRAPfromUSͲEPA.Thesecalculationstakeintoaccountnational
orregionaldietaryhabits.
The calculated concentrations allow to define a daily dose of exposure (DDE). DDE can then be
comparedwiththeTRVtocharacterizeriskbyingestion.
A practical application of this methodology to a gaseous biomass boiler will be presented. Due to the
presence of heavy metal emissions and dioxin, risk assessment will be complete with ingestion in
additiontoriskassessmentbyinhalation.
BT.D01.Pa
In conclusion, future developments of the French regulation on the analysis of the health effects of
industrial waste will be discussed: changes in methods of health risk assessment and in particular the
choice of TRV, implementation of atmospheric emissions monitoring plan in the environment,
developmentofareastudiesforlargeindustrialplatforms.
REGULATORYAPPROACHFORRISKASSESSMENTOFPESTICIDESINAIR
NUUTINENS.,POULSENV.
FrenchAgencyforFood,EnvironmentalandOccupationalHealth&Safety(ANSES)
RegulatedProductsDepartment
EcotoxicologyandEͲfateRiskAssessmentUnitforPesticidesandFertilizers
253AvenueduGénéralLeclerc,94701,MaisonsͲAlfortcedex,France
EͲ[email protected]
Regulatorycontext
Before placing on the market and before being used in agriculture, the plant protection products
(pesticides)havetobeauthorised.Theauthorisationprocessreliesonseveralimportantregulatory
criteria and includes among other things assessment of risks to ensure the protection of
environment.AtEuropeanlevel,regulation(EC)No1107/20091providestherulesforauthorisation
and assessment of plant protection products, but also of active substances in those products. In
France, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) is
responsibleofevaluationofapplicationsformarketingofplantprotectionproducts.TheRegulated
ProductsDepartmentprocessesapplicationsforplantprotectionproductsandpreparesopinionsto
be submitted for decision to the Ministry of Agriculture responsible for issuing marketing
authorisations.
Riskassessmentofpesticidesinair
The regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 requires the assessment of predicted environmental
concentrations in soil, surface water, groundwater and air resulting from the use of pesticides.
However, unlike for other compartments, no agreed guideline has been available for air risk
assessment until recently. FOCUS2 organisation is an initiative of the European Commission to
harmonise the calculation of predicted environmental concentrations of active substances of plant
protectionproductsintheframeworkoftheregulation(EC)No 1107/2009.FOCUSisbasedoncoͲ
operationbetweenscientistsofregulatoryagencies,academiaandindustry.InJune2008,theFOCUS
working group on pesticides in air published a report3 establishing a tiered shortͲrange exposure
assessment scheme for the air compartment. ANSES follows the recommendations of FOCUS Air
reportinitsriskassessment.
Tier1considersthepotentialofasubstancetoreachtheatmosphere.Someapplicationtechniques
such as granular formulations or incorporation into the soil can reduce the amount of substance
reachingtheairtosuchextentthatassessmentofairconcentrationisnotneeded.Incaseswhereair
contaminationispossible,vapourpressureisusedasatriggerforpotentialofthesubstancetoreach
the air. Vapour pressure of >10Ͳ4 Pa (at 20 °C) indicates potential for volatilisation from soil and
vapour pressure of >10Ͳ5 Pa (at 20 °C) indicates potential for volatilisation from plants. Only
substancesshowingpotentialforvolatilisationareconsideredforthefollowingexposureassessment.
When substance is volatilised, it will deposit back onto water or soil surface. Another route of
contaminationofwaterandsoilisthelossesduringapplication(spraydrift).Incaseswheretherisk
foraquaticandterrestrialorganismsisacceptablewithoutspraydriftmitigationmeasures(i.e.nonͲ
spray buffer zones), contamination by deposition of volatilised pesticide is considered to be minor
1
2
3
Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 concerning the placing of
plant protection products on the market and repealing Council Directives 79/117/EEC and 91/414/EEC
FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe
Focus (2008). “Pesticides in Air: Considerations for Exposure Assessment”. Report of the FOCUS Working Group on
Pesticides in Air, EC Document Reference SANCO/10553/2006 Rev 2 June 2008. 327 pp.
compared to other routes of contamination. If spray drift mitigation measures are needed,
deposition after volatilisation is considered in addition to spray drift deposition in calculating the
environmentalconcentrationofthesubstance.
Tier2consistsofmodellingdepositionaftervolatilisationasafunctionofdistancefromtheedgeof
thefield.TheFOCUSairgrouprecommendsusingEVA2.0modelforthesecalculations.EVA2.0isan
empirical model, which uses the relationship between vapour pressure and deposition after
volatilisationtoanonͲtargetsurface.ThemodelhasonebuiltͲinscenario;itestimatesvolatilisation
duringthefirst24hoursafterapplication;andconsidersdispersionupto20metersfromthetreated
crop.
Tier3suggeststhatifmodellingresultsleadtoarisktoaquaticorterrestrialorganisms,experimental
dataand/ormitigationmeasurescanbeapplied.
For very volatile substances e.g. fumigants (vapour pressure >10Ͳ2 Pa at 20°C) volatilisation and
subsequent deposition can be substantially higher, even when they are incorporated into the soil.
These substances would not be adequately assessed by the above described exposure assessment
andastudywouldberequiredtodeterminethedepositionfromthistypeofsubstances.
TheFOCUSAirreportstatesthatlongͲrangetransportofpesticideispossibleiftheDT504inairofthe
substanceislongerthan2days.Inthiscase,monitoringdataonconcentrationsofsubstanceinair
havetobeprovidedtoANSES.InFrance,associationsAASQA5havemadecampaignstomeasurethe
airqualitysince2001.Thesemonitoringdatamaybeusedtoconductriskassessmentforresidents.
4
5
Time taken for 50% of substance to disappear.
Associations Agréées pour la Surveillance de la Qualité de l’Air
Numerical simulation of pesticide dispersal at the scale of
rows and vineyards
ALI CHAHINE12, SYLVAIN DUPONT1, YVES BRUNET1 and CAROLE SINFORT2
1
UR1263 Ephyse, INRA, F-33140 Villenave d’Ornon, France
2
UMR ITAP, SupAgro Montpellier, France
ABSTRACT
Spray drift during pesticide applications is a major path for atmospheric
contamination by agrochemical products, which has been shown to be a potential risk
for human health. Spray drift should therefore be better understood in order to reduce
their undesirable effects. As spray drift is controlled by canopy architecture and wind
flow structures, modelling pesticide dispersal is a promising way to survey pesticide
input to the atmosphere and evaluate resulting exposure levels for the bystanders.
In this study pesticide dispersal over vineyards was studied combining numerical
and experimental approaches. The experimental approach consisted in measuring
wind velocity and monitoring spray application in a vineyard, in order to quantify the
air flow generated by an air-assisted sprayer as well as vertical losses to the air and
ground deposition. The numerical approach was used to model wind flow and
pesticide dispersal over the vineyard. The atmospheric wind flow model ARPS was
used in the large-eddy simulation (LES) mode to solve the transient air flow within
and above the vineyard, while for pesticide dispersal a coupled Lagrangian-LES
approach was used to track droplet trajectories.
Our measurements show that the vertical losses of pesticides are well correlated
with meteorological conditions such as temperature, wind speed and turbulence
level. They also show that the spatial structure of pesticide losses at the plot scale is
directly related to the characteristics of the spray jet. In the numerical approach the
source of pesticide at the scale of the rows is considered as a moving air-assisted
sprayer. The model predictions compare well with the measurements. At a larger
scale the source is deduced from the spatial structure of pesticide losses at the
vineyard-atmosphere interface. Several scenarios of vineyard configurations, differing
by the orientation of the vine rows with respect to the dominant wind direction and the
presence of a tree hedge, were studied numerically. The exposure level of the
bystanders during the vine treatment is shown to depend strongly on the vineyard
configuration. With this modelling strategy, we show that it is possible to simulate
pesticide drift and predict human exposure levels at larger scales.
Atmos’Fair2012,Lyon26Ǧ27septembre2012
SurveillancedesPesticidesdansl’Air
SurveillanceofPesticideinAir
1
2
BERNARDBONICELLI ,JEANͲLOUISFANLO ,BRUNOAUBERT3,MICHAELDOUCHIN4,ALICHAHINE1,
CAROLESINFORT5
1
2
UMRITAP,IrsteaMontpellier,France, LGEI,EcoledesMinesd’Ales,France,3Cairpol,MéjannesͲlèsͲ
Alès,France,43Liz,Montpellier,France,
5
UMRITAP,SupAgroMontpellier,France
Session:Airemissions
Topic:Measures,methodologyandmodeling
Keywords:airpollution,Healthimpacts,monitoringsystem,modeling
ABSTRACT
Air contamination by Plant Protection Products (PPPs) carries significant risks for human health.
Improving knowledge on exposure pathways is a key point to reduce the potential impacts. The
presentcommunicationpresentstheongoingresearchanddevelopments.
Cropprotectionsprayinginducesaircontamination.Observationsshowedtransfersduringandafter
spraying. For each situation, agrochemical concentration in air results in a set of interactions:
localization, weather conditions, spraying process, properties of compounds. In consequence, the
concentrations vary greatly in space and time. At the human scale, health impact depends on
chronicles of the exposition by inhalation. As concentration peaks are impossible to measure the
researchfocusedoncouplingsimulationandexperimentationtocalculatetheaircontamination.
Simulations are based onclassical Gaussian dispersion. The model includes low complexity models
and GIS visualization. The model validation will be achieved in semi artificial conditions and wind
tunnel. Specific tools of the Montpellier/Ales Regional Research Platform are dedicated on this
development.Experimentationsconductedinfieldsconcernsprayingpractices,weatherconditions
andaircontamination.Themonitoringofairqualityimplementssmartsensorsandspecifictracer
dyes.Analysismethodologiesareorientedondecisionsupport.
Irstea UMR ITAP – 361 rue Jean-François Breton – 34796 Montpellier Cedex 5
[email protected] – 06 50 91 52 78
¯¯¯
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¯
¯¯¯¯¯
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¯
Benjamin Poirota, Valérie Neversa, Petra Gomezb, Michel Ménardb, Didier Crauserc, Yves Le
Contec
a
APILAB, Pôle technologique – 40 rue Chef de Baie 17 000 La Rochelle. Tel: +33 (0) 5 46 34 10 71, Fax: +33
(0)5 35 54 01 98 www.apilab.fr, [email protected]
b
Laboratoire Informatique Image et Interaction (L3i) – avenue Michel Crépeau 17 042. La Rochelle. Tel :
+33 (0) 5 46 45 82 62, [email protected]
c
UMR « Abeilles et environnement » INRA –Université d’Avignon et des Pays de
Vaucluse. INRA Domaine Saint-Paul - Site Agroparc 84 914 Avignon. Tel : +33 (0) 4 32 72 26 01,
[email protected]
Summary:
The use of bee for environmental biomonitoring is a relatively recent technique which has
proven its efficiency. Indeed, scientific researches revealed that bee is a perfect tool for
environmental diagnostics thanks to pollutant biocollection.
A recent study1 has clearly demonstrated that bees can be used for the characterization of
environmental contamination by xenobiotics and more particularly by the following
compounds: heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs. Bees were also used to detect radioisotopes in
the environment after Chernobyl and other industrial disasters2.
Bee can also be used as a biointegrator. Bee colonies are used as an alert tool in case of
environmental pollution. Principal indicators studied are daily mortality and colony behavior.
The number of ingoing/outgoing bees is a reliable parameter. An innovating bee counter using
video surveillance was developed by the INRA of Avignon and the L3i (Laboratoire Image
Intéraction) of La Rochelle University. This presentation will introduce this innovating tool
and the different possibilities of application.
Devillers
J. Utilisation de l’abeille pour caractériser le niveau de contamination de l’environnement
par les xénobiotiques. Bulletin Technique Apicole (35) 4, 2008, 179-180.
Porrini,
C. Les abeilles utilisées pour détecter la présence de radio-isotopes dans
l’environnement. Bulletin Technique Apicole (35) 4, 2008, 168-178.
2012
Modélisationdeladispersionatmosphériquedepolluantssursitesindustriels
NumericalModelingofatmosphericpollutantsonindustrialsites
CatherineTURPIN
Ingénieurd’étudesetdedéveloppement
[email protected]Ͳenv.com
SillagesEnvironnement
64,chemindesMouilles69134ECULLYCedex
www.sillagesͲenv.com
Aucoursdesdernièresannées,lapollutionatmosphériqueestdevenueunepréoccupationmajeure
denotresociété.Danscecontexte,denouvellesdirectivesenvironnementalesvisantàdiminuerles
impactsenvironnementauxdesindustriesontétéadoptées.
En regard des problématiques de qualité d’air sur les sites industriels, la société Sillages
Environnement, experte dans le domaine de la modélisation de la mécanique des fluides
environnementale,réalisedesétudesnumériquesdedispersionatmosphériquedepolluantsàpetite
échelle à l’aide de logiciel de CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic). Pour ses calculs, Sillages
Environnement a développé une méthodologie de calcul adaptée au cas d’écoulement
atmosphérique en tenant compte de la stratification thermique de l’atmosphère, de la présence
d’obstaclescomplexes(i.e.relief,bâtimentsouzonesporeuses)etdelarugositéaérodynamiquedes
sitesétudiés.Saméthodologieaétévalidéepardesexpériencesensoufflerie(LMFA–ECL).
L’objectif de la présentation est d’exposer la méthodologie, mise en œuvre par Sillages
Environnement, permettant de représenter correctement un écoulement de couche limite
atmosphérique dansun calcul dedispersiondepolluant.Autraversd’exemplestypessur dessites
industriels,l’ensembledespossibilitésd’applicationd’untelmodèledecalculserontprésentés.
Plum’Air:anewtooltocontrolairqualityandodourannoyancesaround
industrialplants
Dr.FrédéricPradelle
[email protected]
NUMTECH,6alléeAlanTuring
ParcTechnologiquedeLaPardieu
BP30242Ͳ63175AubièreCedex,France
Tel:+33(0)617775388
Abstract
Theatmosphericdispersionmodelingsystemsarenowcommonlyusedtoassesstheimpact
ofodorousemissionsintotheenvironment,andmeetregulatoryrequirements.Anumberof
researchprojectshavevalidated these modelingapproachesappliedtoodors.Meanwhile,
theneedfortoolsofdecisionsupportinacontextofsustainabledevelopmenthasledlarge
industrial companies to develop integrated modeling systems for operational monitoring
and forecasting of air quality in the environment facilities. The development and
standardizationofcomputationaltoolsnowmakeitpossibletousethesesystemsonsmaller
facilities,especiallyformonitoringandforecastingodornuisancearoundwastefacilitiesand
water treatment plants. We propose to present one of these tools, the system Plum'Air
developed by NUMTECH, and to illustrate this by presenting concrete use cases.
Plum'Air system can also be coupled to the system Expoll.net that centralizes information
from local residents (complaints, systematic observations), and electronic noses for realͲ
timecharacterizationoftheemissionfluxlevelofsources
WebinterfaceofthePlum’Airsystem
L’analysedesCOV,gazpermanentsetcomposéssoufrésparμGC/MSsursite:une
alternativeauxméthodesusuelles:Etudesurungazsidérurgique
KarimMedimagh,ExplorairͲ[email protected],rueLaverlochèreͲ38780PontEvêque
Introduction
CetteinterventionapourobjectifdefairelalumièresurlaméthodeexploitéeparEXPLORAIRpour
conduire des analyses sur un site industriel quel qu’il soit, du moment qu’il s’agit de mesurer et
suivre des gaz organiques (COV, alcanes, aromatiques….) ou permanent ainsi que les soufrés (H2S,
COS,CS2)etendehorsdesacideinorganiques.
Nousmontreronsl’avantagedel’utilisationdelaμGCMSsursiteparrapportauxautresméthodes
usuellesoumêmeparfoisréglementaires.
Nous traiterons le cas d’un site sidérurgique produisant un gaz à haut pouvoir calorifique mais
contenant aussi des polluants nocifs (composés soufrés: H2S, COS, CS2..) que ce soit pour
l’environnementoupourleprocessluiͲmême.
Problématique
Danslecasgénéral,quandundonneurd’ordrefaitappelàunlaboratoirepourconduiredesmesures
surungazdeprocessouungazderejetatmosphérique,lelaboratoiresouhaiteavoiruneidéesurce
qu’ildoitchercherdanscegazoulecaséchéantilimposeral’analysedescomposésqu’ilsaittraiter.
Decefait,ilestdorsetdéjàcertainquelelaboratoirevapasseràcotédecertainesmoléculesqui
dans certain cas peuvent avoir un intérêt particulier, comme un fort potentiel calorifique ou
inversement un caractère nocif pour l’environnement ou pour le process luiͲmême comme par
exemplelescomposéssoufrés.
De plus le laboratoire en question va déployer toute une panoplie de méthode et d’appareils de
mesures ainsi que de prélèvement pour essayer de répondre aux mieux à la demande. Dans cette
panoplie de méthodes, certaines seront conduite en continu et d’autre en prélèvement ponctuel
aveclerisquequeleprocessnesoitpasstable.
Vient ensuite la question du prix d’une telle campagne de mesure et ce qu’elle engendre de sous
traitanceetdedélaid’attentepourlesrésultats.
Notresolution
EXPLORAIR a essayé de lever tous ces verrous en proposant
l’analyse en direct, en continu et sur site par la technique de la
μGC/MS.
Avantage:
x
unseulappareil,
x
unseultechniciensursite,
x
une durée de mesure de quelques heures jusqu'à
quelquesmois,
x
unpasd’analysetoutesles3min,uneanalysesexhaustivedesCOVetgazpermanents
x
Unsuiviqualitatifetquantitatifdirectementsursite.
x
Possibilité de calculer le PCI et PCS en direct sur un
gazdeprocess.
x
Prix équivalent aux mesures usuelles et
réglementaires.
En effet EXPLORAIR a misé sur l’utilisation d’une technique
connue et éprouvée qui est la GCMS, avec le chalenge
d’amenerl’appareilversl’échantillonetnonl’inverse,etceci
pour une meilleure réactivité et une meilleure stabilité de
l’échantillon.
Etuded’uncasparticulier:ungazdesidérurgie.
Uncastrèsintéressantquiseradéveloppéaucoursdelaprésentationestlegazdesidérurgie.Car
cesgazsontassezcomplexesdepartleurcomposition:ilsontunPCIimportant(présencedeH2,CO,
CH4) mais aussi de nombreux COV à fort pouvoir calorifique qu’il ne faut pas négliger (alcanes,
aromatiques…).
Mais leurs inconvénient c’est qu’ils peuvent aussi contenir des composés très toxiques pour
l’environnementmaisaussipourleprocessluiͲmêmecommelescomposéssoufrésetnotammentle
H2SquiformeduSO2aprèscombustion. En effetlesgazdesidérurgie dépendentbeaucoupdela
matièrepremièreentrantedanslesHautsfourneaux(lahouille)quipeutêtreplusoumoinsricheen
composés soufrés. D’où la nécessité d’une mesure en continu sur une période représentative qui
permetdeconnaitrelavariabilitédesconcentrationsainsiquelesniveauxhautsànepasdépasser
pourlaréglementationfrançaise.
propene
Suivi des COV dans le gaz Haut fourneaux
H2S
24 heures
1,3-cyclopentadiene
COS
4000
3500
Concentration en mg/(n)m3
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
03:07
02:38
02:08
01:39
01:09
00:40
00:10
23:41
23:12
22:42
22:13
21:43
21:14
20:44
20:15
19:45
19:16
18:47
18:17
17:48
17:18
16:49
16:19
15:13
14:44
14:08
13:20
12:50
11:52
12:21
11:22
10:53
10:23
09:54
09:23
0
08:20
500
Nous avons conduit une étude durant une année complète sur un site sidérurgique. Cette étude a
d’abordcommencéparunétatdeslieuxdesgazcͲaͲduneconnaissancedétailléedelacomposition
dugazetlecalculdesontPCIavectouslescomposésd’intérêt.Ensuitecetteétudes’estpoursuivi
parlamesureencontinusuruneannéedemoléculessoufréesCOS,CS2 et H2Safin defournirau
client la variation annuelle des concentrations de ces molécules. Les résultats sont fournis chaque
semaine par envoi d’un rapport sur la base des données collectés directement par internet. Enfin
nousavonsaccompagnénotreclientsurlamiseenplacedesonréseauanalytiqueeninternepourle
suividecesmolécules.
Toutecetteétudeaétéconduiteparunseulappareilsursitedéportéparrapportaugazdeprocess
avecfournituredesrésultatsenmoinsd’unesemaineaprèslesanalyses.
Qualitédel’airintérieur:Démarchedecontrôledesagentschimiquesdangereuxdansles
ateliersetbureauxdePSAPEUGEOTCITROEN
Juliette Quartararo, Martine Klinguer, Guillaume Meunier, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Centre Technique
deBelchamp,Voujeaucourt,France
DrPatrickRosseel,PSAPeugeotCitroën,PôleTertiaire,Poissy,France
LegroupePSAPeugeotCitroënestengagédepuis2004dansunedémarchedecontrôledesAgents
ChimiquesDangereuxetdesCMR(CancérogènesMutagènes,toxiquespourlaReproduction).
Pour chaque process de l’automobile (emboutissage, ferrage, peinture, montage, mécanique et
fonderie),desmesuresàl’émissionontpermisd’établirunelistedesubstancesàrisquecontrôlées
annuellement sur opérateur et en ambiance. Ce Plan de Surveillance a permis d’établir une
cartographie des principaux polluants, de réaliser la traçabilité des substances en fonction des
processetdemettreenœuvrelesplansd’actiondesubstitutionet/oudeprotectionnécessaires.
L’objectifdecetteétudeestdeprésenterladémarchemiseenplace,d’évaluerlesapportspourla
protectiondessalariésetdecommenterladémarcheparrapportàlarèglementation(notamment
parrapportaudécret2009.1570relatifaucontrôledurisquechimiquesurleslieuxdetravail).
MultiSiteOdorTracking&MonitoringSolutiontoControlOdor
andReduceOperatingCostsassociatedwithOdor
JeanͲMichelTURMEL,PhD
DirecteurCommercial
ODOTECHSAS
20,ruedelaVillette
69328LYON,France
The SMTD (Syndicat Mixte de Traitement de Déchets) is a public institution which is charged with
treating household and other waste generated from the largest part of Bearn: 265 municipalities
members,thatismorethan280000inhabitants.CapEcologiaisasitethatprocessesthewasteand
includesseveralunitsofwastetreatment(Water,Householdwaste,GreenWaste).
The site of Cap Ecologia is near residences and near a shopping mall. Over the last few years, the
number of complaints received by the SMTD has grown. Unfortunately, even though there were
manycomplaintsaboutthestench,itwasusuallyimpossibletodeterminetheoriginoftheseodor
nuisances. A system of odor tracking and monitoring (OdoWatch) was installed in 2009 on the
wastewatertreatmentplant(STEP),andonthecompostingplatformandthewasteincinerator.
Thesystemisusedbytheoperatorsofeachsite,aswellasbytheSMTD,toestimatewhichsources
ofodorgeneratesthecomplaints.Thealarmsystemintegratedintothesystemallowstheoperator
to know in real time which source causes the nuisance and which methodology must be
implementedtominimizeit.
The system’s results demonstrate that the waterͲtreatment plant was rarely responsible for the
nuisances,whileitwasthoughttobethesourceoftheodors.Inplacingtheelectronicnoseonthe
chimneyandusingtheprocessofdeodorization,theSTEPwasabletoreducetheaveragelevelofthe
odor by 50%. The tracking system highlighted that when the doors of the incinerator storage zone
were open there were more complaints of odor nuisance. Using this information the operations
processesweremodified.
Thecompostingsite,whichwasonlyveryrarelythoughttobeanodorsource,hasbeenprovedtobe
the main source of complaints. Improvements have been made this summer based on this
informationgeneratedbythesystem.Amanagementsystemtotrackthecomplaintswassetupby
theSMTDusingtheOdoWatchsystem.TheSMTDreceivedmorethan200complaintsin2008and
nowreceiveslessthan2complaintspermonth.
Caractérisationettraitementdesfuméesdebitume
JérômeRHEINBOLD–ColasEnvironnement
1) Caractérisationdesfuméesdebitumes
Lebitumeestunproduitconnuetréférencé.Maischaquebitumeasaproprespécificitéetaucune
fiche de données ne précisent les molécules le constituant. Les traitements mis en place peuvent
diminuerlesodeursmaisnepasavoird’influencesurlesconcentrationsouinversement.
Ilestpossibledecaractériserlebitumeselonces2critères:
- AnalysesolfactométriquesͲodeurs:
La concentration d’odeur est exprimée en unités d’odeur par m3 (uoE /m3). Le seuil de
perception d’un gaz est défini par l’article 29 de l’arrêté du 2 février 1998 comme étant la
concentration à laquelle 50% des personnes constituant un échantillon de population ne
«ressent»plusl’odeurdecegaz.Leseuildeperceptionestéquivalentà1uoE/m3.
Lors d’une opération de dépotage, les résultats obtenus après analyses olfactométriques des
échantillonsprélevéssontlessuivants:
Niveauolfactif(uoE/m3)
Audébutdudépotage
990000
Alafindudépotage
2125270
Avantl’unitédetraitement
-
AnalyseschimiquesͲmoléculesodorantes:
Desprélèvementstype«TENAX»ontpermisdedéterminélesmoléculesprésentes.Ellessont
lessuivantes:
Composé
Concentration
mg/(n)m3
alcane/alcène(deC9àC12)
3,61
Aromatique(deC9àC10)
0,87
Soufré(Thiophene3Ͳpropyl)
0,05
Une caractérisation plus fine a ensuite été effectuée. Les molécules les plus détectées sont:
Butaneetisobutane,H2S,Isobutene,pentane.
2) Traitementdesfuméesdebitumes
Plusieurs pilotes ont été menés: refroidissement cryogénique, lavage des gaz, réaction chimique,
filtration.
Puis,plusieurstraitementontétéréalisésaussibiensurdescuvesdestockagesdebitumesquedes
postes d’enrobé. Les systèmes de traitement par filtration sur charbon actif se sont avérés être
performantsavecdesbilanstechnicoéconomiqueavantageux.
Traitementdesgazd’unecuvedestockagede
bitume
Cetraitementestcomposéd’unrefroidisseur,d’une
turbineetdefiltrespourcapterlesCOVainsique
l’H2S.
L’ensembledecetteunitéestéquipéd’unsystème
desuividesconcentrationsencontinu,notamment
aurejet.
3) Influenced’unteltraitement
Les données collectées sur les fumées de bitume permettent de déterminer les impacts par
dispersionsurlesavoisinantsaussibienentermedegêneolfactifquederisqueliéauxcomposés.
Concernant les concentrations des molécules présentes dans le bitume, les résultats de l’étude de
risquetoxiquemontrentqueleseffetssurlasantédusàuneexpositiondirecteparinhalationouune
exposition indirecte par voie orale sont faibles et, pour tous les scénarii étudiés, l’Excès de Risque
Individuelestinférieurouégalà10Ͳ5,valeurpréconiséeparl’OMS.
Lesrendementsobtenusparlessystèmesdefiltrationenentréeetensortiedel’unitédetraitement
desgazsont,d’unepart,pourlesrendementsolfactométriquesdeplusde99,5%et,d’autrepart,de
plusde90%pourlesanalyseschimiques.L’influencedutraitementsurlesodeursauxavoisinantsest
représentéainsi:
Avanttraitement–Impactgénéral
Aprèstraitement–Impactconfinéausite
Miseàl'échelled’unsystèmedebiofiltrationméthanotrophepourlaréductiondes
GESgénérésparunlieud'enfouissementauQuébec(Canada)
ScaleͲupofmethanotrophicbiofilterstoreduceGHGgeneratedbyLFGinQuebec(Canada)
N.Turgeon1,M.Alibert2
:CentrederechercheindustrielleduQuébec(CRIQ),333,Franquet,Québec(Québec)G1P4C7,
Canada
Tél.:418Ͳ659Ͳ1550poste2620 eͲmail:[email protected]
2
:VilledeQuébec,1595,rueMonseigneurͲPlessis,Québec(Québec)G1M1A2,Canada
Résumé
1
Le méthane (CH4) est un gaz à effet de serre (GES) qui possède un pouvoir de réchauffement
planétaire (PRP) 21 à 25fois plus important que le dioxyde de carbone (CO2). Les sites
d’enfouissement, par la dégradation anaérobie des déchets organiques, constituent une des
principalessourcesanthropiquesd’émissionsdeCH4.Commedansdenombreuxpaysàtravers
le monde, le Canada a mis en œuvre aux cours de dernières années des programmes et des
règlementations pour inciter les exploitants à capturer et à brûler les gaz d'enfouissement
(biogaz). Toutefois, lorsque l'oxydation thermique (par torchage ou valorisation énergique) ne
peut être utilisée (c.ͲàͲd. concentration de CH4 ou flux énergétique trop faibles), l'oxydation
microbienne du méthane par le biais de bactéries méthanotrophes peut représenter, dans un
contextedelutteauxchangementsclimatiques,unesolutionintéressantepourlaréductiondes
GESprovenantdusecteurdesdéchets.Untravailexploratoireeffectuédansleslaboratoiresdu
CRIQ(Québec,Canada)encollaborationavecl’UniversitédeSherbrookeetl’UniversitéLavala
permisdetesterdifférentstypesdesupports(organiqueetinorganique)pourlaconceptiondes
biofiltres méthanotrophes. À la suite de cette initiative, un projet à l'échelle pilote a été
entreprisen2009encollaborationaveclaVilledeQuébec(Canada).L'objectifétaitd'évaluer,
enutilisantunprototype(1m3)installédansunlieud'enfouissementfermé(Beauport,Québec),
la faisabilité technicoͲéconomique pour l’implantation d’un système de biofiltration
méthanotrophe de type BIOSORMD pour le traitement des biogaz1. À la suite des résultats
obtenus, un projet visant la mise à l'échelle de la technologie BIOSORMD sur le site
d’enfouissementdeBeauportaétéproposédanslecadreduProgrammededémonstrationdes
technologiesvertesvisantlaréductiondesémissionsdegazàeffetdeserreTECHNOCLIMATMC.La
présentation fera état de la démarche d’innovation réalisée depuis les cinq dernières années
pourlamiseenœuvreprochained’unepremièrevitrinepourcetteapplicationdelatechnologie
auQuébec.
Abstract
Methane(CH4)hasaglobalwarningpotential(GWP)21to25timesofcarbondioxide(CO2)and
landfillsareoneofthemajoranthropogenicsourcesofatmosphericCH4producedbyanaerobic
degradationoforganicwaste.Canada,asmanycountriesaroundtheworld,hasimplemented
programs and regulations to encourage capture and burning of landfill gas (LFG). However,
when thermal oxidation (flaring or energetic valorisation) is not possible (i.e. low CH4
concentration or flowrate), microbial methane oxidation by methanotrophic biofilters
1
Turgeon N., Bourgault, C., Buelna, G. Le Bihan, Y., Verreault, S., Lessard, P., Nikiema, J., Heitz, M. (2011),
Application of methanotrophic biofilters to reduce GHG generated by LGF in Quebec (Canada), 19th International
Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, Air Pollution XIX, Wessex Institute of
Technology, WIT Press, 387-397
represents a new technology that holds great promises for GHG reduction and air pollution
controlofLFG.ExploratoryworkdoneinCRIQlaboratories(QuebecCanada)incooperationwith
Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval allowed testing different types of mediums
(organicandinorganic)forthedesignofmethanotrophicbiofilters.Followingthisinitiative,pilot
scale project using the BIOSOR“ technology was undertaken in 2009. The objective was to
evaluate, using a prototype (1 m3) installed in a closed landfill (Beauport, Quebec City), the
technicalandeconomicfeasibilityofimplantationofmethanotrophicbiofilterforthetreatment
ofLFG1.Followingtheresults,aprojecttoscaleͲupBIOSOR“technologyattheBeauportlandfill
wasproposedintheframeworkofthedemonstrationprogramofgreentechnologiestoreduce
emissionsofGHGs(TECHNOCLIMATTM).Thepresentationwillreporttheinnovationprocesscarried
out during the last five years for the upcoming implementation of the first demonstration
technologyinQuebec(Canada)forthisapplication.
TREATMENTOFLOWCONCENTRATIONSOFTEXTHROUGHAPLANTEDBIOFILTER:
REMOVALEFFICIENCYANDROLESOFINDIGENOUSBACTERIA
AnneRONDEAU1,2,AgnèsMANDON2,LucMALHAUTIER3,ThomasPOMMIER1,FranckPOLY1,Agnès
RICHAUME1
1
UniversitédeLyon,Lyon,FͲ69003,France.CNRS, UMR5557 USCINRA1193, Ecologie Microbienne,
France43boulevarddu11Novembre1918,Villeurbanne,FͲ69622.
2
Canevaflor®,24rueduDocteurGuffon,69170,Tarare.
3
Laboratoire Génie de l’Environnement Industriel, Ecole des Mines d’Alès, Avenue de Clavières 6,
30319,AlèsCedex,France.
The treatment of urban atmospheric pollution, mainly linked to transport and heating, is a
major environmental and public health question. In town, indoor car parks are confined spaces in
which high degrees of pollution are found, so complex that 275 substances have been identified
(AFSSET2007,ATMORA2010).Themaincompoundsarecarbonoxides(COx),nitrogenoxides(NOx)
as well as VOCs such as BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene). The pollution
concentratedinthesecarparksisalsoasourceofcontaminationoftheexternalenvironmentsince
thetreatmentoftheairpumpedoutbyventilationsystemsisnotregulated.Amongstthepolluting
agents present in car parks, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are
notoriousfortheirharmfuleffectsonhealthandtheenvironmentastheyleadtotheformationof
tropospheric ozone and contribute to global warming. Filtering the air from such environments
throughaplantedbiofilterisaninnovativeandlongͲtermsolutioncontributingtotheimprovement
of urban air quality by reducing the dispersion of gaseous pollutants and providing other
environmentalandsocialbenefitslikebiodiversityandlandscapeintegration.
The efficiency of biofiltration in the treatment of VOCs and NOx has been clearly
demonstrated. However, for the treatment of air, using a planted biofilter combining bacteria and
plants is an innovative and efficient approach. It uses bioremediation exploiting the degradation
capacities of numerous pollutants (VOCs, NOx…) serving as a source of energy for the
microorganisms. It also exploits the purifying qualities of plants (consumption of CO2, fixing of
VOCs…)and theircapacitytoencouragetheexistenceofrichandvariedrhizosphericmicroflora.A
recentstudyshowedtheefficiencyofsuchasysteminthetreatmentoflowconcentrationsofTEX
(about200μg.mͲ3)foranairͲflowspeedclassicallyusedinbiofiltrationof100m.hͲ1(Rondeauetal.
2012).
TheaimofthepresentworkistodeterminetheinfluenceofairͲflowspeedandfillingheight
onbiofiltrationefficiencyinordertoimproveplantedbiofiltersperformanceinthetreatmentofTEX,
particularly in terms of the volume of air treated. However, the understanding of microbial
functioningofplantedbiofiltersremainsinsufficientregardingoptimaloperationalcontrolofthese
innovative systems of treatment. This study thus also aims at evaluating the way the microbial
communityfunctionsinaplantedbiofiltrationsysteminthetreatmentofNOxandVOCs.
ThefunctioningofapilotͲscaleunitofbiofiltration,madeupof6bioreactorsintheformofa
column,wasstudiedinthelaboratoryfor50days.Eachcolumnwasfilledupto20cmor40cmwith
an organoͲmineral support enabling microbial growth and plant cultivation. It was equipped with
three(20cmcolumns)orfive(40cmcolumns)gassamplingportsat10cmintervals.Ivy(Hederahelix)
previouslygrowninapotwasplantedwithitsmoundofsoilinthecentreofthefilteringmaterialat
thetopofeachbioreactor.Acontinuoussyntheticgaseouseffluentwasgeneratedbyvolatilization
ofliquidcompoundsincleanair,previouslyhumidifiedsoastoobtaina600μg.mͲ3 concentrationof
TEX (200 μg.mͲ3 for each compound), which corresponds to the concentrations of TEX currently
observed in underground car parks. The biofilters were fed with an upward flow and the gas flow
rateineachcolumnwasadjustedsoastomaintainsuperficialgasvelocityof200m.hͲ1(EBRTof7sor
3.5srespectivelyforthecolumnswith40cmor20cmofpackingmaterial).
Thebiofiltrationefficiencywascheckeddailyforthevariousheightsofgassamplingandthe
results showed a removal efficiency higher than 97% whatever the bioreactor packing material
height.
Themicroflorawascharacterizedwhenthesystembeganworkingandaftermaintainingthe
maximalremovalefficiencyfor30daysonthebasisof:
(i)afunctionalanalysisusingmicrobialactivitymeasurements,
(ii)aquantitativeandqualitativeanalysisofthetotalbacterialcommunity,usingmolecular
biology techniques, such as real time quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing from the metagenomic
DNA.
Theglobalmicrobiologicalfunctioningwasthusevaluatedandthisstudyenablesustorealize
thepotentialofmicrobialcommunitiesinthebiodegradationofNOxandTEXinplantedbiofilters.It
thus seems possible to treat large volumes of air polluted by low concentrations of TEX with a
plantedbiofilteroflimiteddepth.Theindigenousbacterialcommunitiesofthepackingmaterialand
themoundofsoilarerapidlyabletoadapttothefunctioningconditionsofsuchasystem.
AIRQUALITYCONTROLINSIDEPAINTINGBOOTHSANDVOCEMISSIONSREGULATION
OBJECT:
As a specialist in environmental painting cabins, we offer an energy eco system of supervision and
optimization of ventilation: the PROB’AIR. This regulation system allows meeting the goals of performance,
profitability and control of the painting activity’s impacts on operators, environment and energy resources. Our
schemeisanintelligentregulationsystemofairexhaustforpaintingbooths.
Today, 60 to 70% of the energy used for ventilation of paint booth operations is consumed outside painting
operations.Measureandassesssafelybecomesessentialtoacteffectivelyandsustainably:controlofinformation
results in adjustment of ventilation to the needs of the production (preparation of the parts, marouflage,
dessolvatation...).Thesystemensures,measuresandanalysesinrealtime,targetsandreactsinstantlytochangesin
pollutants concentration (in particular of VOC), corrects gradually and simultaneously the relevant parameters,
maintainsqualityandoptimallyandconstantairtemperature.
PROB’AIRSPECIFICBENEFITS:
•Security:
ImmediatedetectionoftheVOClevelsinsidesprayboothsthankstotheCELLUL’AIRsensor
Protectionforoperators’healthandsecurity
•Cleantechnology:
Rationalmanagementoftheneedinenergy(treatedairvolume)
ReductionofGreenhouseGasEmissions
•Ergonomics:
Programmablecontroller
Startandstopwithspraygunapplication
Keepconstanttemperatureandcleanairflowinsidethepaintingbooths
Reductionofthenoiselevelinsprayareas
•Easyinstallationandmaintenance:
Readyforuse:Compatiblewithanytypeofpaintingcabins
Easymaintaining
Increaselifetimeofglobalequipment(fans,mechanicalparts…)
•Performance:
Ventilationondemandandconstantconformitytostandards
Deleting unnecessary evacuation (and unnecessary replacement) of heated or airͲconditioned airflow in the spray
areas
•CostandEnergySavings:
Energycostscuttingupto70%:
- heating,airconditioning,drivingforce
- gas, electricity: related to the treatment of captured emissions in waste gas (VOC treating equipment,
installedonpaintingcabins’exhaust)
Runningcostscuttingduetotheequipmentoptimization
VISION’AIRTECHNOLOGICALCOMPETENCES:
The painting cabins aim is the protection for operators during each production painting stage. The system
controlsinformation,allowsthedetectionofthesestages,andresultsinadjustmentofventilationtotheneedsof
theproduction(preparationoftheparts,“marouflage”,flashoff...).
The benefit remains in saving on energy consumption and keeping a constant conformity with standards, a total
operators’safe,anadvancedusingcomfort,anincreasedcareofenvironment.
VISION’AIR
171,chemindelaMadragueVilleͲ13002MARSEILLEͲTel:0491942431ͲFax:0491482062
[email protected]Ͳair.orgͲwww.visionͲair.org
METHODS:
PROB’AIRisanintelligentregulationsystemofairexhaust:
Forexample,inthatcaseofonesingleclosedpaintingboothwithoneMakeͲupandaverticalairflow:Findhere
belowthesequenceofoperations(occupancyrate)inthepaintingboothandalltheventilationcontrolleranswers
(extractionlevelswhichdependsonnecessarystages)
Stage1:Preparationofpieces ÎPROB’AIRholdsonminimumventilation
Stage2:Marouflage ÎPROB’AIRkeepsonminimumventilation
Stage3:SpraypaintingÎPROB’AIRgraduallyincreasestheventilationstepbystepfromminimumupto
maximumventilation
Stage4:StoppaintingÎPROB’AIRdecreasestheventilationbylevels:ittakesaround2minutesfrom
maximumtominimumventilation,informationconfirmedbytheVOCsensor
CELLUL’AIR
Theairqualityinsidethepaintingboothisconstantlyfiltered,heated,VOCͲfreeandbalanced.
IncaseofdetectionbytheVOCsensorCELLUL’AIR(ex:fabricsimpregnatedwithsolvent,leftinthepainting
booth),withorwithoutpresenceofoperatorsinthepaintingbooth:PROB’AIRdetectsimmediatelytheventilation
needsandgraduallyincreasesventilationratebasedonthethresholdofppmtoleranceprogram(forexample:180
ppm).
PROB’AIRistheonlycontrollerabletotakeintoaccountinthesametimetheMakeͲupandtheairbalancedDemand
andiscompetentenoughtoofferacustomizedsolution.
PROB’AIRRESULTS:
EnergySavings:
Thissystemreducesenergycostsofgasandelectricityupto70%.Thepaybacksaregenerallyasfastaslessthan2
years,accordingtotheflowofeachsprayarea.Actually,thereturnoninvestmentwiththissystemisconsequent,
especiallywithcontinuallyrisingenergycosts.
EnvironmentalGain:
ThePROB'AIRrespondsinrealtimetothecompensationandextractiondemandofthepaintingboothsbydetecting
sprayandvariationsinconcentrationsofpollutantsfromtheVOCssensorCELLUL’AIR.
ThePROB'AIRpreciselyadjuststheventilationtotheneedsoftheproductionandensuressafetyandcomfortonthe
spraysareasinthesametimethanareductionofthelevelofnoiseoutofpaintingoperations.
TheEcologicalandSustainableSolutionPROB'AIRprovidesarealenvironmentalgainwithhugereductionsin
GreenhouseGasEmissionsanddividesCO2emissionsby2.
Accordingtotheflowinm3/hofeachzoneofsprayandtheoccupancyofyourcabins,thePROB'AIRistheonly
controllerabletotakeintoaccountinthesametimetheMakeͲupandtheairbalancedDemandandiscompetent
enoughtoofferacustomizedsolution.
CONCLUSION:
Adaptabletoeveryindustryexhaustsystem,thissynchronizingsolutionisthekeyallowingthebalancesandthe
controlforairmakeͲupunits,animprovedemployeeworkingenvironment(reducednoiselevelsandstable
temperatures),andatthesametimeofferinganecologicalandsustainableprocessgoingwithaneconomicalissue.
VISION’AIRoffersaleadingͲedgetechnologyintermsofventilationondemand,constantairqualityinsidethe
paintingbooths,globalsecurity,accordingtoeverysingleneedorenvironmentalandenergybalance.
ThePROB’AIRistheidealmonitorͲpartnerforyourpaintingbooths.
DéborahKUNTZ
Technology&ProcessDepartment/QualityDepartment
0609207550
[email protected]Ͳair.org
www.visionͲair.org
VISION’AIR
171,chemindelaMadragueVilleͲ13002MARSEILLEͲTel:0491942431ͲFax:0491482062
[email protected]Ͳair.orgͲwww.visionͲair.org
TRAITEMENT DES COMPOSES A PHRASES DE RISQUE
COMMENT DIMENSIONNER POUR ATTEINDRE DES VALEURS < 2 mg/m3 ...
TREATMENT OF COMPOUNDS WITH RISK PHRASES
HOW TO DESIGN TREATMENT UNITS AND REACH VALUES < 2 mg/m3…
Patrice Vasseur – Chargé d’affaires
Mobile : +33 6 76 85 90 45
BIOBATIQUE
31 J, rue Victor Schoelcher 68200 MULHOUSE
[email protected]
Tél : +33 3 89 45 54 09 / Fax : +33 3 89 56 26 51
¾ Généralitéssurcesmolécules
o Donnéesphysiques/Utilisationsindustrielles/Risques
¾ Lestechnologiesdisponibles
o PeutͲonatteindre2mg/m3aveclestechniquesclassiquesdetraitementdesCOV
¾ Combinaisonsetassociationsdetechniques
o Pourquoiaugmenterlestempsdecontactpouratteindrecesrendements
¾ Retoursd’expérience
o EliminationdeDMF(diméthylformamide)parabsorption(fabricationdefibrespour
dialyseurs)
o EliminationdeCOV(benzène)paroxydationthermique(industriechimique–traitement
d’éventsderéacteursetcuvesdestockage)
o Récupérationde1,2DCE(dichloroéthane)paradsorptionsurcharbonactif(industrie
chimique–traitementderéacteurs)
Elimination de DMF
Elimination de COV (benzène)
Récupération de 1,2 DCE
AirpollutionremovalbytheAELORVEphotocatalyticprocess
CédricDutriez
ResponsableProjets
AELORVE
27,avenueGalliéni
92400Courbevoie
Aelorveprojectsconcernthedecontaminationoftheindoorair.Inparticular,Aelorvefocusesonthe
eliminationofbothchemicalsandmicroorganisms(virusandbacteria).
Themultiplicationofchemicalallergiesandviralpandemicsinthelastyearsencouragespublichealth
authorities to put in place systems of control and reduction of allergenic and contagion outbreaks.
Aelorve works for the application of photocatalysis in critical places such as aircrafts, hospitals or
researchlabs.
Aelorvepromotestheengineeringandtheindustrializationofembeddedsystemthatuseaspecially
designed photocatalytic reactor. According the first experiments, conducted with the help of
CERTECH,CIMLandCNRS,thereactorisshowingexcellentresultsinairtreatment,forbothbiological
andchemicalpollutions.
The Aelorve solution is now adapted to different systems of air treatment via different research
projects:
x SAVABproject(SystemAntiͲVirusandAntiBacteriological)aimstodevelopasystemforthe
treatmentofair,atreasonablecostandmaintenance,capableofdestroyingvirusesandL1or
L2 type bacteriological agents combining two technologies (germicidal ultraviolet and
photocatalysis)whilerespectingthestandardsofcivilaviation.
x UniT’R project aims to create a system for the treatment of air in hazardous conditions
(Industrial disaster or chemical weapon attack). This project concerns both chemical and
biologicalthreat.
x Aelorve will equip the soon opening Immunophenomic lab of Luminy, to maintain a good
indoorairqualityinaL3/R3lab.
In the course of those projects, Aelorve wishes to accurately characterize the efficiency of its
photocatalyticreactorindifferentenvironments(humidity,temperature,concentrationofpollutants
…) and to adapt the reactor for different uses (long time air treatment, short time depollution in
hazardousconditions,inlineormobilesystems…).
Une offre complète dédiée à la sécurité industrielle
pour la protection de l'environnement
Analyses de risques
Etudes de dangers
Evaluation des risques sanitaires
Etudes d'impact environnemental
Dossiers de demande d'exploitation
Mesures et analyses de polluants chimiques et biologiques
Système de contrôlle 'aérosols biologiques
www.bertin.fr
Contact : Pascale Compain ([email protected])
Call for papers / Appel à communications
s po ke n p r e s e n t a t i o ns a n d p osters / présen ta tion s ora les et posters
D e a d l i n e : N o v e m b e r 15, 2 0 12
Certification - Retours / Certification - Feedbacks
Terres excavées - Matériaux alternatifs / Excavated soils - Alternative materials
Impact des sites et sols pollués sur l’air ambiant / Impact of contaminated lands on ambient air
Techniques innovantes de dépollution / Innovative techniques for pollution control
w w w.i ntersol .fr
26 to 28 March 2013 - Lyon, France
In partnership with :
www.webs-event.com
In collaboration with :
UCIE
L’Union
Union des Consultants
Consultan
nts eet Ingénieurss en Environnement
on