Russia and the European Neighborhood

Comments

Transcription

Russia and the European Neighborhood
Russia and the
European Neighborhood
POL 137: IR IN WESTERN EUROPE
“NATO remains a military alliance, and we are against having a military alliance making
T.W. Taylor, UC Davis
itself at home right in our own backyard; in our historic territory. I simply cannot
imagine that we would travel to Sevastopol to visit NATO sailors.”
- Vladimir Putin, 2014
I. European Neighborhood Policy

Foreign policy aimed at creating ties between EU and states in the region
ENP East  eastern Europe and Caucuses
 ENP South  Middle East and North African (MENA)


Countries given assistance for reforms
Economic, political, and social reforms
 Encourage cooperation between EU and neighborhood

•
Free trade agreements
•
EU commitment toward future memberships (ENP East only)
2
Europe and the ENP
EU member states
ENP South
Enlargement agenda
ENP East
3
Russia
Other Union for the Mediterranean states
II. Russia

4
Tenuous relations with Russia
Trade dependencies
 EU and NATO relationship
 EU enlargement
 Human rights and democracy


Disputes
Gas disputes
 Russia’s “near abroad”

Putin (Russia), Hollande (France), and Merkel (Germany)
at G20 summit, 2014
5
EU energy dependency
Russian pipelines to Europe
(current and proposed)
III. Ukraine Crisis

6
Development divide in eastern Europe
Members vs. non-members
 Russian or EU sphere of influence


Background to Ukraine Crisis


Demographics
1991 independence
•

Democratically elected Viktor Yanukovych
•


1994 Budapest Memorandum
strengthened Russian ties
Ukraine moved toward EU integration
Dec 2013: Ukraine accepted Russian bailout
•
$15 billion bailout and 33% discount on natural gas
Yanukovych (Ukraine) and Putin
(Russia) sign a bilateral celebration,
2013
Ukraine protests, Feb. 2014
7
Ukraine and the Russian language
8
Course of events

Euromaiden Protests (Nov 2013 – Feb 2014)


Yanukovych flees presidency
Crimean crisis



“Russian” troops secured strategic locations in Crimea
Russia annexed Crimea after March 2014 referendum
War in Donbass


pro-Russian vs. pro-government conflict in East
Russian support
•


9
Arms and advisors
over 5,000 killed
Sanctions from West
Masked and unmarked soldiers in Crimea
Crash of Malaysian Airlines MH17
10
Sanctioning Russia
Countries that have introduced sanctions against Russia, dark green are EU member states
11
Explanations

Putin reasserting Cold War Russian politics/power
Russia expanding regional power
 Annexation of Crimea


Putin responding to encroachment from the West (Mearsheimer 2014)
e.g. Georgia war, 2008
 NATO (and EU) enlargement
 Ukraine’s pivotal role
 Conclusion: realpolitik matters

12
Responding to Ukraine
Discussion Activity

How should the EU respond to the crisis in Ukraine?

With a partner, discuss:
Should the EU take steps to intervene in the crisis in Ukraine?


If yes  what should the EU do?
•

e.g. sanctions, peacemaking, etc.
If no  what affect will this have upon future enlargement in the east?
13