etwinning Parceiro da Polónia

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etwinning Parceiro da Polónia
TRENY KOCHANOWSKIEGO
Renaissance in Poland
16th century was called „the Golden
Century”
Century”.
The Jagiellon Era- the union of
Poland and Lithuania under the
Jagiellon Dynasty.
Poland was the biggest country in
Europe at that time with the land of
990.000km2 and 11 million people.
Poland was the strong
country in the 16th
century with the gentry
democracy, whereas there
was absolutism in other
European countries.
Time of the
Reformation
movement in the
church which led to
Calvinism,
Lutheranism
and Anglicanism.
Poland was very tolerant
with many people of
foreign origin. That is
why, there was a high
number of foreigners.
Nicolaus Copernicus
The most famous
astronomer from Toruń
lived 1473-1543.
He formulated
heliocentric theory of the
solar system.
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Jan Kochanowski 15301530-1584
The famous
Polish
poet.
poet.
Kochanowski
graduated from
Academy of Cracov.
Cracov.
He got
a degree in art as
well as Greek and
Latin.
Latin.
He developed in
philology and
humanistic field.
field
He was considering becoming a priest.
priest.
He travelled a lot and loved chess.
chess.
In 1574 Kochanowski settled down in
Czarnolas where he married Dorota
Podlodowska.
Podlodowska. They were
happily married and had
6 daughters and 1 son.
Due to his bad health Kochanowski was writing
less and less. He did not take pleasure in
literature any more.
more.
The main reasons of
this situation were
deaths of his two
daughters.
daughters.
His masterpieces include Treny (Threnodines
(Threnodines;
Threnodines;
Laments)
Laments)- a series of 19 elegies upon the
death his beloved twotwo-andand-a-half year old
daughter Urszula;
Odprawa Posł
Posłów Greckich (the
(the Dismissal of
the Grecian Envoys)
Envoys)- a blank werse tragedy
based on the incident that led to the Trojan
war.
Furthermore,
Furthermore, Kochanowski wrote Fraszki
(Epigrams 1584), Pieś
Pieśni (Songs
(Songs 1586), long
political poem Satyr (The
(The Satyr 1564),
Zgoda (Concord
(Concord 1564) as well as
translation of the Psalms.
Psalms.
Kochanowski died of heart attack in
1584 on his way from Cracov to
Lublin in the south of Poland.
Poland.
The Laments are
a series of 19 elegies
written
in Polish and
published in 1580.
They are a highlight
of Polish
Renaissance
literature.
literature.
Kochanowski loses his
daughter and writes cycle
of threnodies honouring
the death
of Urszulka, who was
only two and
a half years old.
old.
The poet feels defeated in his hopes.
He protests against the mortality of the
individual.
He quarrels with God, with fate
and death.
He sees the world as an unfair place, full of evil,
anger and without love.
The poem expresses Kochanowski's
boundless grief in contrast to his
previous works which advocated
stoicism and emotional balance.
balance.
The laments show an intelligent
man of the Renaissance at the
moment of crisis when he is
forced,
forced, through suffering to
rere-evaluate his former humanistic
philosophy of life and faith in
God.
God.
Many Polish people know 8th Threnody by
heart and the work is required for all
school-children. It is unclear why the
Threnodies have had to wait so long for a
German version. The Baroque period saw
the translation of lyrics from Latin, French,
then Italian, Spanish and English.
You flight,
flight, my dearest,
dearest, caused
This vast emptiness in my house.
house.
We are a crowd yet no one's here:
here:
One tiny soul and so much is gone.
gone.
You spoke and sang for all alone,
alone,
Skipped around in every corner of the
house.
house.
Never let your mother fret,
fret,
Never let your father brood,
brood,
Hugging one and then the other,
other,
Cheering all with joyful laughter.
laughter.
Now all is silent,
silent, the house stands
bare,
bare,
There's no laughter,
laughter, song or joy.
joy.
From every corner stares remorseless
grief
As gnawing heartache vainly seeks
relief.
Zespó
Zespół Szkó
Szkół im. Jana III Sobieskiego,
Gorzó
Gorzów Wlkp.
Wlkp.
in Poland.
Poland.
By 1 TT and 2 TT
Coordinator
Mał
Małgorzata Sał
Sałatka

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