Revel Casino News 2013

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Revel Casino News 2013
The Search for Life on Mars
Send Mission to Test Soil for Microbial Life.
Easy Right?
Is There Life in the Martian Soil?
Viking missions
Phoenix
Viking’s Biological Experiments
Gas Exchange Experiment:
Mixed Martian soil with a nutrient broth. Waited
to see by products of respiration of microbes
(hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen..ect)
Oxygen was released!
However, seems it was from chemical and not
biological reactions.
Carbon Assimilation Experiment
-- exposed soil to CO and CO2 with C14 labeling, let sit for
several days, then checked soil for C14 compounds. Would
expect to see C14 in soil if organisms were using either gas as a
carbon source for their metabolism.
-Found that C14 was incorporated into soil! However same thing
happened after they ‘sterilized soil’
Viking’s Biological Experiments
Labeled Release Experiment:
Mixed radioactive organic nutrients with Martian soil.
Waited to see if radioactivity in the environment
increased as organisms utilized the nutrients.
It did!
--and stopped after being heated
Viking’s Biological Experiments
Gas Chromatograph/mass spectrometer
-measured the abundance of organic material in the soil.
-No measurable organic material was detected.
Concluded results from other three experiments were not
because of biology.
Viking Biological Experiments
Results ambiguous
Focus on Habitability
•
Are the building blocks for life there?
•
Is there liquid water?
•
Is there energy to drive metabolism?
Spirit and Opportunity
Opportunity
Meridiani
Hematite
Yellowstone Mud Pot
Spirit
RIP Spirit
2004-2010
Opportunity
Clays
Opportunity
2004 - ?
Curiosity