Chapter 2 Human Resources - Provincial Government of Cavite

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Chapter 2 Human Resources - Provincial Government of Cavite
Chapter 2
Human
Resources
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Population Characteristics
A Census of Population was conducted by the National Statistics Office in the year 2010. This census will become the main source
of data in this Profile. During this census, the province of Cavite remains to be the most populous province in the country, and the
CALABARZON region as the most populated region except the National Capital Region. The demographic analysis shall be based
on the censal years of 2000 and 2010 in order to establish trending at an interval of 10 years. The 2011 population was
projected using the computed participation rates and growth rates of each city/municipality. Data were subjected to geometric
formulas to come up with the projected 2011 Cavite population.
According to the National Statistics Office, as follows is the summary of population growth trend of the province of Cavite in the
last three censuses:
1990 Population
Philippines
Cavite
Population
2000 Population
60,703,810
1,152,534
2010 Population
76,506,928
2,063,161
1990-2000
Population Growth Rate
2000-2010
1990-2010
2.34
5.99
1.90
4.12
2.12
5.05
92,337,852
3,090,691
Similarly, Cavite also showed the fastest rate of population growth in the country. In the above table, the Cavite population almost
doubled from 199: to 2::: and grew for another million in 2:1:. Cavite’s population was found to grow double the rate of how
the Philippine population grows.
2011 Cavite Population and its Growth Trends
The projected population for 2011 is projected using the 2010 data of Census of Population released in March 2012. The applied
growth rate in the population projection was computed using the provincial populations of 2000 and 2010 which resulted to
4.12%. The projection resulted to a population of 3,225,156 (Table 2.1). This is higher by 134,465 individuals from the 2010
Census of Population.
Table 2.1. Population, Province of Cavite: 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010
Censal Year
Population
1980
1990
2000
2010
771,230
1,152,534
2,063,161
3,090,691
Growth Rate
(Cavite)
Growth Rate
(CALABARZON)
Growth Rate
(Philippines)
4.19%
4.10%
5.99%
4.12%
3.91%
3.07%
3.49%
2.34%
1.90%
2.12%
Source: National Statistics Office
The censuses in the past 3: years clearly show the population growth trends in Cavite. During the 198:’s we can say that the
province is very spacey considering that the population density at that time is only 540 individuals for every square kilometer.
Following censuses showed that the population always nearly doubled in a span of every ten years. The fastest rate of population
growth was observed from year 1990 to 2000. This trend does not follow the general population trend of the country as well as of
the region which showed descending pattern from 1990 to 2000. This period was the hype of industrialization in Cavite that drove
the significant population in-migration. The decreasing population growth trend started to be observed from year 2000 to 2010.
In contrary, the national population trend was increasing from 2000 to 2010. The peak of in-migration and population growth for
that matter was met by the Province during its industrialization period. From 1990 to 2000, Cavite has become a prime
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
destination of workers finding jobs at many industrial companies who chose to locate in Cavite. The same trend continued, but at a
lesser pace, at the late part of 199:’s up to the earlier part of 2:::’s. During this period, the in-migration was largely affected by
flocking of residents. A lot of residential areas were developed in Cavite ranging from resettlement and low-cost housing as well as
high-end commercial residences. Workers from Metro Manila and nearby provinces chose to reside in Cavite due to low cost of
living, peace and order situation and good transportation system.
Figure 2.1.
3,500,000
Industrialization continued which
resulted to more jobs.
3,090,691
3,500,000
3,000,000
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
Population by Censal Year, Province of
Cavite: 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010
Population increase
was driven by
Cavite’s industrial
revolution.
3,090,691
Construction of
necessary
infrastructure
2,063,161
followed.
3,000,000
2,500,000
2,063,161
2,000,000
1,152,534
1,500,000
1,000,000
1,000,000
1,152,534
771,320
500,000
500,000
0
0
1980
The population of Cavite
from 1980 increased by
more than 300% in thirty
years.
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1980
1990
2000
1990
2000
2010
2010
The projected 2011 population is 3,225,156. This is higher by 134,456 individuals from 2010 census. The City of Dasmariñas
remains to have the highest population among the cities and municipalities of Cavite. Its population alone account to 18.61% of the
total provincial population. This is being followed by the municipality of Bacoor with 17.01% share. The third largest population is
Imus with 9.77% share of the total population. The populations of these three towns continuously increase due to the urbanization
that is inevitable in the area. These three towns already account to 45.39% of the total Cavite population.
Among the seven districts, 6th District composed of Trece Martires City, Amadeo, Gen. Trias and Tanza is the most populated
district. The sole district of Dasmariñas City comes in second in terms of population despite being a lone district. Its population is
even way higher than that of 7th District composed of nine towns. 2nd District is the third most populated district.
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Table 2.2. Projected Population, Province of Cavite: 2011
City/Municipality
1st District
Cavite City
Kawit
Noveleta
Rosario
2nd District
Bacoor
3rd District
Imus
4th District
City of Dasmariñas
5th District
Carmona
Gen. M. Alvarez
Silang
6th District
Trece Martires City
Amadeo
Gen Trias
Tanza
7th District
Tagaytay City
Alfonso
Gen. Aguinaldo
Indang
Magallanes
Maragondon
Mendez
Naic
Ternate
Total
2000
Population
267,742
99,367
62,751
31,959
73,665
305,669
305,669
195,482
195,482
379,520
379,520
316,439
47,856
112,446
156,137
285,598
41,653
25,737
107,691
110,517
312,681
45,287
39,674
14,323
51,281
18,090
31,227
22,937
72,683
17,179
2,063,131
2010
Population
313,260
101,120
78,209
41,678
92,253
520,216
520,216
301,624
301,624
575,817
575,817
427,016
74,986
138,540
213,490
570,093
104,559
33,457
243,322
188,755
382,665
62,030
48,567
17,507
62,030
21,231
35,289
28,570
88,144
19,297
3,090,691
Projected 2011
Population
318,399
101,297
79,950
42,799
94,352
548,621
548,621
314,994
314,994
600,329
600,329
440,167
78,430
141,462
220,275
612,106
114,639
34,346
263,986
199,134
390,540
64,012
49,559
17,862
63,222
21,574
35,723
29,204
89,860
19,523
3,225,156
All of Cavite’s cities and municipalities
experienced growth in terms of its population
from the year 2000 to 2011. The highest
growth was recorded at Trece Martires City with
its population grew by 175.22% from 2000 to
2011. The drastic augmentation on its
population can be attributed to the development
of mass housing projects in the area. A total of
32 housing development projects were issued
with permits and licenses by the Housing and
Land-Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) and the
National Housing Authority (NHA) from year
2000 to 2010. Most of the housing projects are
considered low-cost housing that targets the
middle and low-end market. Some other are
resettlement sites identified by the government
that catered to displaced families from Metro
Manila. They were transferred due to reasons like
they were previously classified as informal
settlers or they are previously located to high-risk
and hazardous areas,
The second fastest growing municipality is Gen.
Trias which grew by 145.13% from 2000 to
2011. The growth was driven by the economic
growth in the area which is home to various
industrial estates, one of which is the Gateway
Business Park. Locators include multi-national
companies that employ thousands of employees.
Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office
The industrial growth was complemented by the
mushrooming of different housing developments in the area. There are also rise of leisure estates catering the expats like golf
courses which in effect increased the employment opportunities in the municipality and served as come-on among jobseekers that
eventually resided in Gen. Trias.
Due to population saturation, Cavite City recorded the least growth of just 1.94% in eleven (11) years. There are events of outmigration in the area. This was also affected by the withdrawal of American troops at Sangley Point Naval Base from what is now
the Naval Base Heracleo Alano. The land of the city is also fully utilized and the only room for expansion is through reclamation.
In total, the population of the Province increased by 56.32% from 2000 up to 2011.
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Figure 2.2. Projected Population by District, Province of Cavite: 2011
3rdDistrict
9.77%
In-migration and Natural
Births increases the
population.
6th District
18.98%
1st District
9.87%
6th District
12.11%
Out-migration and
Natural Deaths decreases
the population.
5th District
13.65%
4th District
18.61%
2nd District
17.01%
Among the seven congressional districts, 6th District composed of Trece Martires City, Amadeo, Gen. Trias and Tanza has the
highest population in Cavite that accounts to 18.98%. It is being followed by the lone district of City of Dasmariñas or 4th District
with 18.61% of Cavite’s population. The third biggest District in terms of population is 2nd District, also a lone district of Bacoor.
The three districts composed of six out of 23 localities in Cavite already accounts to more than half of the province’s population.
This fact has very big impact in the matters of programming social services for the Cavite constituents. 5th District composed of
Carmona, Gen. Mariano Alvarez and Silang is the fourth largest district when population is the parameter pegged at 13.65%
share. 7th District follows with 12.11% composed of Tagaytay City, Alfonso, Gen. Aguinaldo, Indang, Magallanes, Maragondon,
Mendez, Naic and Ternate. The highly urbanized 1st District is the sixth most populous district composed of Cavite City, Kawit,
Noveleta and Rosario with 9.87% share in the total population. The least populated District is the lone district of Imus or 3rd
District with 9.77%.
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Population Density
Population density is the measure of population per unit area. It determines the level of congestion in a particular area. The level of
congestion has many impacts in the way of living and quality of life that the citizens have in that specific area. Though crude
population density is not necessarily a development indicator, we may generally say if one place is suffering from congestion, we
can expect poor quality of life among its inhabitants. People tend to compete in the access of various resources such as land,
medical services, and educational services, among others.
Overcrowding phenomenon is true among highly urbanized cities/municipalities in Cavite. As of 2011, the most congested town is
the municipality of Rosario with its land area of only 567 hectares, it has a population density of 16,641 individuals per hectare.
The same congestion is being experienced in the Municipality of Gen. Mariano Alvarez with 15,081 individuals per hectare.
Figure 2.3.
Population Density Map, Province of Cavite: 2011 (Projected using the 2010 Census of Population)
Bacoor and Imus areas, among
the most crowded in the
province.
Upland areas are less dense and are
dominated with agricultural lands such
as Amadeo, Silang, Indang and
Magallanes, among others.
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
7th District has the most manageable population density among the seven districts of Cavite with an average of only 591
individuals per square kilometer. The least dense municipality is also in 7th District , Magallanes with only 274 individuals per
square kilometer. Based on the population density map, we can generally say that those areas that are near Metro Manila have
high population density. The congestion being experienced by the municipality of Rosario is due to the fact that the town is home to
one of the biggest economic zones in the country, the Cavite Economic Zone. It is also known as the cradle of Cavite’s second
revolution, the industrial revolution. For this reason, the area attracted many in-migrants, initially coming in as workers and
eventually settles in the area. On the other hand, the municipality of Gen. Mariano Alvarez has been the area of major resettlement
projects in the province. 2nd District or Bacoor has the highest population density for a district.
Table 2.3.
City/Municipality
Congestion in the municipality of Rosario is being
driven by the presence of Cavite Economic Zone, the
pioneer of industrialization in the province. More
commonly known as EPZA, this industrial estate
became the hub of employment opportunities.
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Population Density by City/Municipality, Province of Cavite: 2011
2010 Population
Projected 2011
Population
Land Area (in
Hectares)
Population
Density
1st District
313,260
318,399
3,631
8,769
Cavite City
Kawit
Noveleta
Rosario
101,120
78,209
41,678
92,253
101,297
79,950
42,799
94,352
1,183
1,340
541
567
8,563
5,966
7,911
16,641
2nd District
520,216
548,621
5,240
10,470
Bacoor
520,216
548,621
5,240
10,470
3rd District
301,624
314,994
9,701
3,247
Imus
301,624
314,994
9,701
3,247
4th District
575,817
600,329
8,234
7,291
Dasmariñas
575,817
600,329
8,234
7,291
5th District
427,016
440,167
19,671
2,238
Carmona
Gen. M. Alvarez
Silang
74,986
138,540
213,490
78,430
141,462
220,275
3,092
938
15,641
2,537
15,081
1,408
6th District
570,093
612,106
30,105
2,033
Trece Martires City
Amadeo
Gen Trias
Tanza
104,559
33,457
243,322
188,755
114,639
34,346
263,986
199,134
3,917
4,790
11,768
9,630
2,927
717
2,243
2,068
7th District
382,665
390,540
66,124
591
62,030
48,567
17,507
62,030
21,231
35,289
28,570
88,144
19,297
64,012
49,559
17,862
63,222
21,574
35,723
29,204
89,860
19,523
6,615
6,460
5,103
8,920
7,860
16,549
1,667
8,600
4,350
968
767
350
709
274
216
1,752
1,045
449
3,090,691
3,225,156
142,706
2,260
Tagaytay City
Alfonso
Gen. Aguinaldo
Indang
Magallanes
Maragondon
Mendez
Naic
Ternate
Total
Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Urban and Rural Population
According to the latest National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) and National Statistics Office data, the Province of Cavite is
a mix of urban and rural areas. In identifying the urban and rural areas in Cavite, the definition of the NSCB is being employed. The
following is an excerpt from the website of NSCB:
Urban/Rural Classification
In the Philippines, “urban” areas fall under the following categories:
1. In their entirety, all municipal jurisdictions which, whether designated chartered cities, provincial capital or not, have a population
density of at least 1,000 persons per square kilometer;
2. Poblaciones or central districts of municipalities and cities which have a population density of at least 500 persons square
kilometer;
3. Poblaciones or central districts not included in (1) and (2) regardless of the population size which have the following:







street pattern or network of streets in either parallel or right angel orientation;
at least six establishments (commercial, manufacturing, recreational and/or personal services);
at least three of the following:
a town hall, church or chapel with religious service at least once a month;
a public plaza, park or cemetery;
a market place, or building, where trading activities are carried on at least once a week;
a public building, like a school, hospital, puericulture and health center or library.
4. Barangays having at least 1,000 inhabitants which meet the conditions set forth in (3) above and where the occupation of the
inhabitants is predominantly non-farming or fishing.
Rural Areas - All poblaciones or central districts and all barrios that do not meet the requirements for classification of urban.
Thirteen among the twenty three localities of Cavite are purely urban communities. In the totality, the province in terms of
population is 88.91% urban and 11.09% rural. The First, Second, Third and Fourth Districts of Cavite are entirely urban. Generally,
these are the lowland areas of Cavite and the center of business and commerce in the Province. Seventh District is dominated by
partially rural municipalities except for Tagaytay City which is also a fully-urbanized city. The municipalities of Mendez and Naic are
both approaching to become fully urbanized municipalities while Magallanes and Maragondon are the most rural areas (Table 2.4).
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Table 2.4. Comparative Urban and Rural Population by City/Municipality, Province of Cavite:
2010 and 2011
2010 Population
City/Municipality
Total
Population
(no.)
Urban Pop
(no.)
2011 Population
Rural Pop
(no.)
Total
Population
(no.)
Urban Pop
(no.)
Rural Pop
(no.)
1st District
An urban
center in
Imus.
Cavite City
Kawit
Noveleta
Rosario
2nd District
Bacoor
101,120
78,209
41,678
92,253
101,120
78,209
41,678
92,253
101,297
79,950
42,799
94,352
101,297
79,950
42,799
94,352
520,216
520,216
548,621
548,621
301,624
301,624
314,994
314,994
575,817
575,817
600,329
600,329
74,986
138,540
213,490
74,986
138,540
67,733
78,430
141,462
220,275
78,430
141,462
69,886
104,559
33,457
243,322
188,755
104,559
14,858
243,322
188,755
114,639
34,346
263,986
199,134
114,639
15,253
263,986
199,134
62,030
48,567
17,507
62,030
21,231
35,289
28,570
88,144
19,297
62,030
8,464
3,839
22,587
330
576
23,132
72,338
4,373
40,103
13,668
39,443
20,901
34,713
5,438
15,806
14,924
64,012
49,559
17,862
63,222
21,574
35,723
29,204
89,860
19,523
64,012
8,637
3,917
23,021
335
583
23,646
73,747
4,424
40,922
13,945
40,201
21,238
35,140
5,559
16,114
15,099
3,090,691
2,741,339
349,352
3,225,156
2,867,455
357,700
3rd District
Imus
4th District
A modern
City of Dasmariñas
5th District
residential
development
in urban areas
in Cavite.
Carmona
Gen. M. Alvarez
Silang
145,757
150,389
6th District
Trece Martires City
Amadeo
Gen. Trias
Tanza
18,599
19,093
7th District
A retirement
village in a
rural
community in
Silang.
Page | 18
Tagaytay City
Alfonso
Gen. Aguinaldo
Indang
Magallanes
Maragondon
Mendez
Naic
Ternate
Provincial Total
Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office
Projected based on NSO Urban-Rural Population 2010
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Age Group and Dependency
For every 100 working population,
Cavite’s population is predominantly young. It is estimated that a total of 34.61% of the provincial population is non-working and
belongs to ages 14 years old and below. The workforce population (15 to 64 years old, DOLE) on the other hand is estimated at
62.16%. The remaining 3.23% are the elderly or those that belong to age 65 and above.
Table 2.5. Projected Population by Age Group, Province of Cavite: 2011
Age Group
All Ages
Under 1
1-4
5-9
10 - 14
15 - 19
20 - 24
25 - 29
30 - 34
35 - 39
40 - 44
45 - 49
50 - 54
55 - 59
60 - 64
65 - 69
70 - 74
75 - 79
80 & over
2010
% Distribution
3,225,156
83,666
330,166
374,738
327,693
310,641
321,474
287,041
273,146
235,370
191,579
143,919
110,417
70,294
61,009
41,922
27,408
17,256
17,416
100.00
2.59
10.24
11.62
10.16
9.63
9.97
8.90
8.47
7.30
5.94
4.46
3.42
2.18
1.89
1.30
0.85
0.54
0.54
Cumulative %
2.59
12.83
24.45
34.61
44.24
54.21
63.11
71.58
78.88
84.82
89.28
92.70
94.88
96.78
98.08
98.92
99.46
100.00
Less Cumulative %
100.00
97.41
87.17
75.55
65.39
55.76
45.79
36.89
28.42
21.12
15.18
10.72
7.30
5.12
3.22
1.92
1.08
0.54
there are 61 dependents, 51 are young
dependents
Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office
Almost 71.58% of Cavite’s population is young. Meanwhile, we can also see that only 7.30% of the population belongs to age 55
and above. The vitality of Cavite’s economy can be attributed to its workforce that comprises the majority of its population at
62.16%. Among that, only 1.89% are considered to be senior citizens. In the national trend, a portion of the population that
belongs to age 15 to 19 (9.63%) and 60 to 64 (1.89%) are considered to be not in the workforce. Those that are aged 15 to 19
are supposed to be attending schools while some of those in the age bracket 60 to 64 are already retired. The most number of
population belongs to ages 5 to 9 and the least number belongs to age bracket 75 to 79.
and 5 are old dependents.
The dependency rate of the province is at 61%. This dependency rate translates to 61 dependents for every 100 working
population in the province. Among these 61 dependents, 56 are young dependents and the remaining 5 are old dependents.
Page | 19
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Figure 2.4.
Estimated Distribution of Population, Province of Cavite: 2011
Elders Age 65
and above
104,002
3.22%
Children Age
14 and below
1,116,262
34.61%
Working
Population
2,004,891
62.16%
Households
During the 2000 Census of Population, the average household size in Cavite is at 4.78. The high household sizes are generally high
in the rural municipalities. This trend is generally being observed in the entire country. Families in the urban areas tend to have
lesser number of children, thus, smaller household size.
High household size in the rural areas is driven by strong family ties and extended households. The City of Dasmariñas which is
also the most populous town in Cavite is having high household size at 4.81 which can be attributed to its high population and
overcrowding specifically in the highly urbanized areas in the City. In total, there are 675,529 projected number of households in
the province for 2011 (Table 2.6).
The most number of households can be found in the City of Dasmariñas with 122,516. In the contrary, Gen. Aguinaldo only has
3,455 households in 2011.
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Table 2.6. Projected Number of Households, Province of Cavite: 2011
City/Municipality
Projected 2011
Population
Household Size
Projected
Households 2011
1st District
318,399
4.63
68,681
Cavite City
Kawit
Noveleta
Rosario
101,297
79,950
42,799
94,352
4.64
4.64
4.61
4.64
21,831
17,231
9,284
20,335
2nd District
548,621
4.77
115,015
Bacoor
548,621
4.77
115,015
3rd District
314,994
4.62
68,180
Imus
314,994
4.62
68,180
4 District
600,329
4.90
122,516
th
Dasmariñas
600,329
4.90
122,516
5th District
440,167
4.82
90,396
Carmona
Gen. M. Alvarez
Silang
78,430
141,462
220,275
4.57
4.97
4.92
17,162
28,463
44,771
6th District
612,106
4.69
130,798
Trece Martires City
Amadeo
Gen Trias
Tanza
114,639
34,346
263,986
199,134
4.71
4.69
4.60
4.77
24,340
7,323
57,388
41,747
7th District
390,540
4.94
79,942
64,012
49,559
17,862
63,222
21,574
35,723
29,204
89,860
19,523
3,225,156
4.91
4.93
5.17
4.82
5.29
4.97
4.81
4.75
4.85
4.78
13,037
10,053
3,455
13,117
4,078
7,188
6,072
18,918
4,025
675,529
Tagaytay City
Alfonso
Gen. Aguinaldo
Indang
Magallanes
Maragondon
Mendez
Naic
Ternate
Total
Household is defined as a
social unit consisting of a person
living alone or a group of persons
who: (a) sleep in the same housing
unit; and (b) have a common
arrangement for the preparation and
consumption of food.
Source: Provincial Planning and Development Office
Page | 21
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Language
Communication is vital in the day to day endeavors of humans. There are many mediums in which people communicate and these
determine the success of communication. Language is a vital tool in communication. In Cavite, the development is being aided by a
universal language of Tagalog. This dialect is being used by majority of Caviteños accounting to 75.96% of the population. Being the
national language, it is generally understood by all localities. This is helpful especially in the tourism sector in which language
barrier problem can already be eliminated. Tagalog is seconded by Caviteño, another version of Tagalog but with some words that
are just locally known to native Caviteños. Other major languages include Bisaya, Bikol and Waray. The diversity of languages is
attributed to in-migration trend in the province.
Figure 2.5.
Estimated Language Share, Province of Cavite: 2011
Bikol
83,616
2.54%
Waray
59,470
1.81%
Others
272,626
8.28%
Bisaya/
Binisaya,
87,163 ,
2.65%
Caviteño
288,966
8.77%
Tagalog
2,502,216
75.96%
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Religious Affiliations
Due to the diversity of Cavite’s population, the population tends to also have miscellany of religions. Based on the 2::: Census of
Population, the province is dominated by the longest running religion in the country, Catholicism. Estimating its membership in the
province for the year 2011, Catholics in Cavite total to 2,799,308. The next leading religion in terms of affiliation is Iglesia ni Cristo
with 114,173 or 3.54%. Other major religions are Evangelicals and Aglipayan. The prevalence of Catholicism is evident with the
presence of century old Catholic churches in Cavite. The province is also home to many Catholic based events like Fiesta. The
population is actively engaged in their religious affiliation and their involvement has reached that level of getting a seat at different
councils of the government as religious representative.
Figure 2.6.
Religions, Province of Cavite: 2011
Evangelicals
2.54%
Inside the Saint Gregory Parish
Aglipayan Others
1.11%
6.01%
Church at Indang, Cavite.
Iglesia ni Cristo
3.54%
Roman Catholic
86.80%
An Evangelical Church altar.
Iglesia ni Cristo, Lokal ng New Era at
Dasmariñas, Cavite.
Altar of Aglipayan Church in Cavite
City.
Page | 23
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Labor Force
Here are 10 interesting 2011labor statistics in the Philippines:
39.2 million - Estimated labor force in the Philippines as of 2011.
36.3 million - Total number of employed workers in the Philippines as of 2011.
2.9 million - Total number of unemployed workers in the Philippines as of 2011.
4.6 million - Total number of employed workers in Region IV-A, the highest among the country’s regions as of 2:11. NCR
is second with 4.4 million.
48.9% - Percentage of the total unemployed workforce (1.4 million) who are young workers aged 15 to 24 years old as
of 2011.
3 in 5 - Proportion of unemployed Filipinos who are men as of 2011.
2 in 5 - Proportion of unemployed Filipinos who are women as of 2011.
564,000 - Number of college graduates who are unemployed as of 2011.
3.9 million - Stock estimate of employed Filipinos overseas with temporary contracts as of 2009, according to the
Commission on Filipinos Overseas.
1.1 million - Total number of employed Filipinos overseas with temporary contracts in Saudi Arabia, the top destination of
overseas workers as of 2009.
The province of Cavite is experiencing difficulty in producing local statistics. The survey being conducted by the National Statistics
Office relative to labor and employment is the Labor Force Survey. It is a nationally administered survey that primarily determines
the level of employment, unemployment and underemployment in the country. Unfortunately, due to limited funding source of the
government, the number of respondents can only be taken reliable at the regional level. Thus, the generated daae can only be used
to analyze the regional situations.
Table 2.7. Labor Statistics, CALABARZON: 2006 to 2010
CALABARZON Labor
Statistics
Labor Force (in thousands)
Labor Force Participation Rate
Employment Rate
Unemployment Rate
Underemployment Rate
Male
2,660
77.6
88.9
11.1
21.2
2006
Female
TOTAL
1,821
50.3
91.5
8.5
13.7
4,480
63.5
90.0
10.0
18.1
Source: Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) - Cavite
Page | 24
Male
2,708
77.0
89.8
10.2
18.2
2007
Female
1,868
50.2
92.2
7.8
11.8
TOTAL
4,577
63.3
90.8
9.2
15.6
Male
2,751
76.7
90.3
10.9
18.8
2008
Female
TOTAL
1,872
48.9
91.3
8.7
12.3
4,623
62.3
90.0
10.0
16.1
Male
2,818
76.8
88.8
11.2
18.4
2009
Female
TOTAL
1,985
50.6
90.7
9.3
13.8
4,803
63.2
89.6
10.4
16.5
Male
2,902
76.7
89.5
10.6
19.8
2010
Female
2,063
51.3
92.00
8.0
14.3
TOTAL
4,966
63.6
90.5
9.5
17.4
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
The latest labor statistics for CALABARZON is updated up to year 2010. In the year 2010, there are almost five million population
included in the labor force. These values have been in increasing pattern since year 2006. In the contrary, the labor force
participation rate did not show any significant change for the past five years. This reflects that the proportion of working age
population in CALABARZON is almost stable at 60.00 to 65.00%. This poses lesser threat of having very young or very old
population which tends to lessen the workforce, as in the case of other nations.
The CALABARZON employment rate is also stable at around 90.00%. Despite being high, this is not a good value considering that
it is way lower than the national employment rate of 92.70% in 2010. Employment rate is also higher among females as
compared to male. On the other hand, more males than females are not satisfied with their current work and tend to look for
better or additional employment (Table 2.7).
Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) – Cavite
Accomplishments for year 2011
The DOLE is in charge of supervising the Public Employment Services Office or more commonly referred as PESO. According to the
website of Bureau of Local Employment, the Public Employment Service Office or PESO is a non-fee charging multi-employment
service facility or entity established or accredited pursuant to Republic Act No. 8759 otherwise known as the PESO Act of 1999.
To carry out full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all, and for this purpose, to strengthen and expand the
existing employment facilitation service machinery of the government particularly at the local levels there shall be established in all
capital towns of provinces, key cities, and other strategic areas a Public Employment Service Office, Hereinafter referred to as
PESO, which shall be community-based and maintained largely by local government units (LGUs) and a number of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) or community-based organizations (CBOs) and state universities and colleges (SUCs). The
PESOs shall be linked to the regional offices of the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) for coordination and technical
supervision, and to the DOLE central office, to constitute the national employment service network.
The functions of PESO are as follows:
1. Encourage employers to submit to the PESO on a regular basis a list of job vacancies in their respective establishments in
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
order to facilitate the exchange of labor market information services to job seekers and employers by providing
employment services to job seeker, both for local and overseas employment, and recruitment assistance to employers;
Develop and administer testing and evaluation instruments for effective job selection, training and counseling;
Provide persons with entrepreneurship qualities access to the various livelihood and self-employment programs offered by
both government and non-governmental organizations at the provincial/city/municipal/barangay levels by undertaking
referrals for such programs;
Undertake employability enhancement trainings/seminar for jobseekers as well as those would like to change career or
enhance their employability. This function is presently supervised by TESDA and conducted by other training;
Provide employment and occupational counseling, career guidance, mass motivation and values development activities;
Conduct pre-employment counseling and orientation to prospective local and overseas workers;
Provide reintegration assistance services to returning Filipino migrant workers: and
Perform such functions as willfully carry out the objectives of this Act.
For the year 2011, through the different PESO in the entire province, a total of 114,380 job vacancies were solicited from diverse
employers in Cavite. There are only 73,181 registered applicants wherein only a total of 48,716 were placed. This equates to a
Page | 25
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
placement rate of 66.57%. Likewise, out of the total available vacancies, there are only around 63.98% applicants who are willing
to apply. Considering that not everyone will fit to the job they are applying to, only 42.59% of the vacancies were filled.
These values indicate that the province is currently experiencing job mismatch, wherein the demand of the industry for manpower
does not fit the qualifications of available workforce. This can be attributed to mismatched educational courses being offered in the
province.
The component of the total job vacancies solicited comes from:
-
Job Fairs
Local Recruitment Activities (LRA)
Special Recruitment Activities (SRA)
Special Program for the Employment of Students (SPES)
Workers Hiring Infrastructure Projects (WHIP)
The mismatch is also evident in the performance of job fairs. For 2011, a total of 31 job fairs were organized by DOLE. A total of
37,791 jobs were solicited. Only 37,791 applicants registered to the fairs, equivalent to around 51.22% of the available jobs.
Unfortunately, only 4,173 of the applicants were placed with a placement rate of 11.04%.
The local PESOs also conducted Local Recruitment Activities or LRA. The consolidated jobs solicited in the entire province totaled
to 11,098. The applicants for those jobs are only around 5,004 or 45.09%. The placement rate is only 33.37%.
Under the Special Recruitment Activities, a total of 805 job openings were solicited. There are more than enough who applied for
the jobs at 942 but due to mismatch, only 41 were placed equivalent to 4.4% placement rate.
The SPES on the other hand, provided a total number of 1,244 jobs for students. This program is a great help to working students
in order to support their studies. Likewise, 300 jobs were opened under the WHIP program. Out of its 340 applicants, only 80
were placed.
The Department of Labor and Employment thru the Public Employment Services Office also provides career coaching, labor
market information, employment coaching and capacity building.
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Poverty Statistics (National Statistics Coordination Board, July 2011 release)
Poverty threshold is defined as the sum of the food threshold and the non-food requirements. In the methodology being employed by the National Statistics Coordination Board
(NSCB), the non-food requirements provide only the expenditures on basic non-food items. This includes clothing and footwear and other wears, fuel, light and water, housing
maintenance and other minor repairs, rental of occupied dwelling units, medical care, education, transportation and communication, non-durable furnishings, household operations
and personal care and effects but excludes alcoholic beverages, tobacco, recreation, durable furniture and equipment, miscellaneous expenditures and other expenditures. The
raising factor is estimated from the consumption pattern of all Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) families of size six by taking the average ratio of total food expenditures.
The latest data on poverty threshold is up to 2009 released by the National Statistics Coordination Board (NSCB). In 2009, a Caviteño family needs to earn at least Php20,163
annually or Php1,680.25 per month or Php56.01 daily in order to be not considered as a poor family. This is higher than the national average of Php16,841. We can say that the
cost of living in Cavite is generally higher than most of the areas in the Philippines as reflected by the lower poverty threshold of the Philippines. Furthermore, this is 23.32% higher
from the provincial poverty threshold in 2006.
Table 2. 8. Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Families, Province of Cavite: 2003, 2006 and 2009
Province
Philippines
Cavite
Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold
(in Pesos)*
Poverty Incidence Among Families
Estimates (%)
Coefficient of Variation
2003
2006
2009
2003
2006
2009
2003
2006
2009
10,976
13,348
16,841
20.0
21.1
20.9
2.3
2.3
2.1
4.8
4.2
4.5
18.2
22.8
18.7
13,976
16,350
20,163
Magnitude of Poor Families (Estimates)
2003
2006
2009
3,293,096
3,670,791
3,855,730
24,802
22,490
26,088
*Provincial poverty threshold are generated based on the weighted average of the urban and rural thresholds using the magnitude of poor population
in urban and rural areas as weights. The poor population refers to those with annual per capita income below the urban/rural provincial poverty threshold.
Source: National Statistics Coordination Board
In 2009, a Caviteño family needs to
earn at least Php20,163 annually or
Php1,680.25 per month or Php56.01
daily in order not be considered as a
poor family.
The data reflects that around 4.5% of Caviteño families are poor in the year 2009 which is estimated at 26,088 families (Table 2.8). This is higher by 0.3% from 2006 but is lower
by 0.3% from 2003. The poverty level in Cavite had a positive trend from 2003 to 2006. Magnitude of poor families decreased by 9.32% from 2003 to 2006. This trend did not
continue as exhibited by the remarkable increase of 16% from 2006 to 2009. This was due to the worldwide economic recession which affected the industrial locators in Cavite
that led to displacement of many workers. Aside from this, numerous Caviteño Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) were also sent home due to job displacement. In terms of
population, it is estimated that around 6.4% of the entire Cavite population is considered poor in the year 2009 (Table 2.9). This is around 176,133 individuals. The same trend
was observed wherein the magnitude of poor population is highest in 2009 amongst the last three poverty survey years. The poverty incidence among population of Cavite is way
below the national rate of 20.9% in 2009.
Table 2. 9. Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold, Poverty Incidence and Magnitude of Poor Population, Province of Cavite: 2003, 2006 and 2009
Province
Poverty Incidence Among Population
Annual Per Capita Poverty Threshold
(in Pesos)*
2003
2006
2009
Philippines
10,976
13,348
Cavite
13,976
16,350
Estimates (%)
Coefficient of Variation
2003
2006
2009
2003
2006
2009
16,841
20.0
21.1
20.9
2.3
2.3
20,163
6.7
6.2
6.4
15.5
22.2
Magnitude of Poor Population
(Estimates)
2003
2006
2009
2.1
3,293,096
3,670,791
3,855,730
18.7
162,512
159,568
176,133
Around 4.5% of Caviteño families are
poor in the year 2009 which is estimated
at 26,088 families.
*Provincial poverty threshold are generated based on the weighted average of the urban and rural thresholds using the magnitude of poor population
in urban and rural areas as weights. The poor population refers to those with annual per capita income below the urban/rural provincial poverty threshold.
Source: National Statistics Coordination Board
Page | 27
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
The subsistence incidence of families is defined as the proportion of families whose income cannot provide the basic food requirements called the food or subsistence threshold to
the total number of families. In Cavite, an individual should spend at least Php14,040 in order to sustain his food needs in the year 2009 (Table 2.10). This showed increasing trend
from 2003. This amount of food threshold is higher by 22.63% from 2006 and by 44.22% from 2003. The increase may have been due to increasing costs of food products,
particularly rice which showed significant price increase from 2003 to 2009. With this threshold, it is estimated that 0.6% or around 3,361 families in Cavite are having income
that cannot provide for their minimum food requirement. This proportion is way lower than the Philippine average of 7.9%. We can say that the quality of life in Cavite is generally
better than in most places in the country wherein 99.4% of Caviteño families can be able to comply with the prescribed food threshold.
Table 2. 10.
Province
Annual Per Capita Food Threshold, Subsistence Incidence Among Families (%) and Magnitude of Subsistence of Poor Families, Province of
Cavite: 2003, 2006 and 2009**
Annual Per Capita Food
Threshold
(in Pesos)*
2003
Philippines
Cavite
7,577
9,735
2006
9,257
11,449
2009
Subsistence Incidence Among Families (%)
Estimates (%)
2003
2006
2009
2003
2006
2009
8.2
8.7
7.9
3.4
3.3
3.2
11,686
14,040
Coefficient of Variation
0.7
0.7
0.6
38.0
42.1
50.6
Magnitude of Poor Families (Estimates)
2003
2006
2009
1,357,833
1,511,579
1,453,843
3,529
3,619
3,361
In 2009, a Caviteño individual should
spend at least Php14,040 annually in
order to sustain his food needs.
**Coefficient of variation of 2009 subsistence incidence among families is greater than 20%
Source: National Statistics Coordination Board
In terms of population, it is estimated that 22,710 individuals in Cavite cannot meet the minimum food requirement (Table 2.11). This corresponds to :.8% of Cavite’s population in
2009. Data shows that from 2006, the situation becomes better as exhibited by the decreased number of individuals who cannot meet the per capita food threshold. Despite the
global economic crisis in 2009, these data shows that the Caviteños prioritized their food requirements above other things.
Very high coefficient rates were observed on the subsistence data which means that the data has high variability and are mostly dispersed from the average. For instance, in 2009,
the data has an average distance from its mean of 54.8%. This can be due to small number of survey respondents. Cavite showed better poverty scenario among population than
most areas in the entire country as exhibited by the high subsistence among population percentage of the country at 10.8% in 2009 as compared to 0.8% in Cavite.
Table 2. 11.
Province
Annual Per Capita Food Threshold, Subsistence Incidence Among Population (%) and Magnitude of Subsistence Poor Population, Province
of Cavite: 2003, 2006 and 2009**
Subsistence Incidence Among Population (%)
Estimates (%)
Coefficient of Variation
Annual Per Capita Food Threshold
(in Pesos)*
2003
2006
2009
2003
2006
2009
2003
2006
2009
Magnitude of Poor Population
(Estimates)
2003
2006
2009
Philippines
7,577
9,257
11,686
11.1
11.7
10.8
3.2
3.2
3.1
8,802,918
9,851,362
9,440,397
Cavite
9,735
11,449
14,040
0.9
1.1
0.8
37.8
48.9
54.8
22,129
27,958
22,710
**Coefficient of variation of 2009 subsistence incidence among families is greater than 20%
Source: National Statistics Coordination Board
In terms of population, it is estimated
that 22,710 individuals in Cavite cannot
meet the minimum food requirement in
2009.
In the entire Philippines, the share of Cavite in the magnitude of poor families is at 0.7% in 2009 which is equivalent to 26,088 families (Table 2.12). In the entire country, there are
3,855,730 poor families in 2009. This number has increased by 17.09% from 2003 and 5.04% from 2006. The increase can be attributed to deteriorating quality of life among
Filipinos as well as population growth. In terms of population, the country’s poor population is estimated at 23,142,481 in 2009 and of which, 176,133 are from Cavite. The
sudden increase of poor population in 2009 can be attributed to rampant job displacement due to global economic crisis.
Page | 28
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Table 2. 12.Magnitude and Share of Total Poor Families and Population, Province of Cavite: 2003, 2006 and 2009
Families
Province
Magnitude of Poor
Population
% Share to Total Poor
2003
2006
2009
Philippines
3,293,096
3,670,791
3,855,730
Cavite
24,802
22,490
26,088
2003
0.8
2006
0.6
2009
0.7
Estimates
% Share to Total Poor
2003
2006
2009
19,796,954
22,173,190
23,142,481
162,512
159,568
176,133
2003
2006
2009
0.8
0.7
0.8
Source: National Statistics Coordination Board
Human Development Index
The provincial government also provides social services that aim to improve the
quality of human life of Caviteños. These dimensions of human development can be
measured thru the Human Development Index (HDI).
Human Development Index is a tool that measures the province’s achievement in
three basic dimensions of human development. These are longevity, or a long and
healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth; knowledge, as measured by basic
enrolment ratio (or enrolment ratio of children, seven to 16 years old), high school
graduate ratio of population aged 18 years and above, and functional literacy rate;
and standard of living, as measured by real income per capita [per capita income in
1997 National Capital Region (NCR) in pesos and per capita income in Purchasing
Power Parity or PPP in US$]. Two HDIs are computed: HDI-1 for interprovincial
comparisons and HDI-2 for international comparisons, for comparing provinces with
other countries. The province uses the HDI-1 in presenting the Human Development
Index of Cavite.
The Philippine Development Network has adopted the HDI methodology and applied it
to the 77 provinces of the Philippines every three years since the early 199:’s.
Positively, Cavite province has always been consistently at the country’s top five
provinces with the highest HDI since 1997.
Based on Figure 2.8, the province shows an upward trend in human development
index. As noted in the Philippine Human Development Report 2008/2009, Cavite
ranked sixth in 1997 and 2000 with an index value of 0.690 and 0.700, respectively.
The province rose to rank fourth in 2003 with an index of 0.705 and third in the
latest result of the Philippine Development Report in 2006 with an index value of
0.718.
Table 2. 13.
Human Development Index by Index Category,
Province of Cavite: 1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006
Index
Life Expectancy Index
Education Index
Income Index
Human Development Index
1997
0.722
0.713
0.636
0.690
2000
0.736
0.747
0.617
0.700
2003
0.750
0.755
0.609
0.705
2006
0.763
0.797
0.594
0.718
Source: Philippine Human Development Report 2008/2009
Figure 2.7.
Human Development Index by Year, Province of Cavite:
1997, 2000, 2003 and 2006
0.725
0.720
0.715
0.710
0.705
0.700
0.695
0.690
0.685
0.680
0.675
0.718
0.705
Human
Development
Index
0.700
0.690
1997
2000
2003
2006
According to Philippine Development Network, identification of Human Development
Index addressed the gaps of establishing the state of human development
considering its wide coverage. “It is premised on the principle that human
development cannot be measured by the yardstick of income alone since income is a
means, not an end, and there is no automatic link between income growth and
human progress.”
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CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
Family Income and Expenditure (May 2011
r e le a s e )
The Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) is a nationwide survey of households
which is being undertaken every three years since 1985. The survey gathers data on
family income and family expenditure.
Family Income
In terms of incomes, the conduct of FIES specifically aims to determine the sources of
income and income distribution, levels of living and spending patterns. Likewise, it will
determine the degree of inequality among subject families. FIES is also expected to
provide benchmark information to update weights in the estimation of consumer
price index (CPI) and to provide inputs in the estimation of the country’s poverty
threshold and incidence.
Specifically, thru FIES, the sources of family income, whether it is in cash or in kind,
are being determined as well as the number of family members that are working in
order to gain income.
Php600,000+ while the families at first decile earns around Php30,000. The major
sources of income are wages/salaries, entrepreneurial activities and other sources.
Family Expenditure
The average annual family expenditure in CALABARZON is at Php213,000 in 2009
(Table 2.15). This has grown by 14.52% from 2006. The Philippine average annual
family expenditure is at Php176,000. Comparing it to the CALABARZON average of
Php213,000, we may say that the cost of living in the CALABARZON region is
relatively more expensive than most regions in the country.
Table 2. 15.Average Annual Family Expenditure at Current Prices,
Province of Cavite: 2009
Area Coverage
CALABARZON
Cavite
Laguna
Batangas
Rizal
Quezon
Estimate
212,633
255,018
227,155
182,600
254,442
119,259
Standard
Error
6,305
12,383
11,955
10,750
14,032
7,504
Coefficient of
Variation
3.00
4.86
5.26
5.89
5.51
6.29
95% Confidence Interval
Lower
Upper
200,218
225,048
230,633
279,403
203,614
250,697
161,430
203,770
226,811
282,074
104,483
134,035
Source: Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) 2009, National Statistics Office
Table 2. 14.
Area Coverage
CALABARZON
Cavite
Laguna
Batangas
Rizal
Quezon
Average Annual Family Income at Current Prices, Province
of Cavite: 2009
Estimate
248,600
282,606
249,092
219,272
294, 402
Standard
Error
10,855
13,784
14,052
15,870
16,843
Coefficient of
Variation
4.40%
4.88%
5.64%
7.24%
5.72%
27.91%
95% Confidence Interval
Lower
Upper
227,226
269,974
255,462
309,749
221,421
276,763
188,020
250,524
261,235
327,568
Source: Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) 2009, National Statistics Office
In 2::9, Cavite’s family income has an average of Php282,6:6 (Table 2.14). Family
income is defined as the average aggregated income of all members of a particular
family in a household. This is 13.68% higher than that of the Regional average at
Php248,600. This value signifies that the Caviteño families have somewhat better
income than most of other areas in CALABARZON. Cavite ranks second in terms of
family income next to the province of Rizal. This amount is relatively high considering
that there are families who could hardly make a day-to-day living. According to the
National Statistics Office (NSO), the value was affected by extreme values, specifically
the respondents from the tenth decile or those who earns a lot or extremely high. In
the Philippine 2009 FIES, the average income of families in the tenth decile is at
Page | 30
Cavite showed the highest level of annual family expenditure. Generally speaking, this
would reflect that the cost of living in Cavite is higher than that of its neighbouring
provinces in the CALABARZON region. This can be attributed to the urbanization that
prevails in the province. Cavite also showed the lowest coefficient of variation which
means that the results of the survey are nearer to the average and there is no
presence of highly extreme values that would affect the interpretation of data.
Caviteño families spend most of their income for their food pegged at 40.35% (Table
2.16). This is true to the rest of the region as well as in the entire country
considering that food is a basic necessity in order to live.
Ranked at number 2 is the house rental. Considering the rapid urbanization and inmigration in Cavite, many workers from other places tend to rent housing units in
order to migrate immediately because of their jobs. These data are very useful inputs
in the development planning efforts of the local government and has been the basis
for the efforts to provide low-cost housing projects to Cavite in-migrants.
Furthermore, the endeavors to provide Cavite constituents with competitive road
network is also a major thrust of the government considering that it is a major
component of every Caviteño family’s expenditure. At the average, a family spends
9.65% of the family income in transportation and communication.
CAVITE SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND PHYSICAL PROFILE (SEPP) 2011
that the economy is getting better wherein the value of peso did not change a lot as
compared to the previous year.
Table 2. 16. Distribution of Total Family Expenditure by Expenditure
Item, Province of Cavite: 2009
Expenditure Item
Food
House Rental
Transportation and Communication
Fuel, Light and Water
Education
Personal Care and Effects
Others
Total
Percent
40.35
13.33
9.65
7.55
4.94
3.93
20.25
100.00
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
Source: Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) 2009, National Statistics Office
Consumer Price Index, Inflation Rate and the
Purchasing Power of Peso
The consumer price index (CPI) is also known as the cost-of-living index. Generally, it
measures the changes on the cost of average retail prices of a market basket or
collection of goods and services which is commonly purchased by the average Filipino
or Caviteño household for that matter.
This basket of goods and services differs in various regions of the country depending
on the weight and relative importance of each commodity type. The Basket includes
food, clothing, house construction materials, house rental, gas expense, electricity
and water expense, transportation, communication, medical, education and
recreation. Referring to Table 2.17, the average CPI for 2011 is 125.8. This is lower
by 25 units from 2010. This basically means that the cost to purchase basic needs
of a household became more affordable. The highest CPI was recorded in the month
of November. This can be attributed to the Christmas season which is also the
spending season among Filipinos. In the case of Cavite, the festivities became earlier
due to early release of Christmas bonuses that greatly affected the spending and
pricing of goods in the month of November. This explains the lavish spending of
Caviteños during the months of November to December.
On the other hand, the purchasing power of peso (PPP) is an economic indicator that
represents the true value of peso in a particular period of time in relation to a chosen
reference period. The 2011 average purchasing power of peso in Cavite is at
Php0.79. This has increased by Php0.13. It means that in year 2011 in Cavite, a
peso can actually buy Php0.79 value of amount of goods and services as compared
to a value of Php1.00 in 2006. The decreasing PPP indicates that additional sum of
money is required to buy the same amount of goods and services over time.
Purchasing power of peso is inversely related to the consumer price index. The
increase on the other hand indicates that the goods are becoming more affordable
while the peso is getting stronger which is basically corollary to improving economy.
Table 2. 17. Consumer Price Index, Inflation Rate and Purchasing
Power of Peso per Month, Province of Cavite: 2010 to
2011
2010
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Average
Consumer Price
Index
2010
2011
149.5
123.1
149.9
124.9
149.8
125.1
149.5
125.2
150.2
125.6
150.6
125.8
151.1
126.0
151.3
125.9
151.4
125.9
151.4
126.8
152.2
127.9
152.7
127.4
150.8
125.8
Inflation Rate
2010
4.8
4.6
4.8
4.8
5.5
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.6
3.6
3.7
3.2
4.5
2011
3.4
4.3
4.3
3.5
4.1
4.1
3.5
2.9
3.3
4.7
4.5
4.1
3.9
Monthly % Change
2010
1.0
0.3
-0.1
-0.2
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.5
0.3
2011
0.6
1.5
0.2
0.1
0.3
0.2
0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.7
0.9
-0.4
Purchasing Power of
Peso (2006=100)
2010
2011
0.67
0.81
0.67
0.80
0.67
0.80
0.67
0.80
0.67
0.80
0.66
0.79
0.66
0.79
0.66
0.79
0.66
0.79
0.66
0.79
0.66
0.78
0.65
0.78
0.66
0.79
Source: Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES), National Statistics Office
The inflation rates of the province in year 2011 range from 2.9 to 4.7 yielding an
average of 3.9. Inflation is defined as the rate of increase/decrease in the price level
over time. In layman’s explanation, inflation can be observed when the amount of
commodities that you can buy with the same sum of money changes over time.
When inflation is high or while it rises, every peso will buy a smaller percentage of
goods. Based on the inflation rates of years 2010 and 2011, we may generally say
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