Fact sheet May 2013 · Government

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Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
Montenegro Facts
Government Guide Series
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Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
STATE SYSTEM OF MONTENEGRO
Parliamentary democracy
PRESIDENT OF
MONTENEGRO
The Head of State. Represents
Montenegro in the country
and abroad and commands
the armed forces in
accordance with the decisions
of the Defence and Security
Council.
GOVERNMENT OF
MONTENEGRO
The executive branch of
the State. It manages the
country’s internal and foreign
policy and implements
regulations. The Prime
Minister is elected by the
Parliament at the proposal of
the President of Montenegro.
The Parliament approves
the Prime Minister’s agenda
and the composition of his/
her Cabinet. The current
government comprises 16
ministries.
PARLIAMENT OF
MONTENEGRO
The Montenegrin Parliament is
a single-chamber legislature.
It adopts the Constitution,
passes laws, approves the
State budget and elects the
Prime Minister. There are 81
seats in the Parliament.
SUPREME COURT
The highest judicial authority
in Montenegro. It ensures
uniform application of laws by
all courts. The president of the
Supreme Court is appointed
and removed from office by
the Parliament. The Supreme
Court president is also the
president of the Judicial
Council.
LOCAL SELF
GOVERNMENTS
Municipalities are the
basic forms of local selfgovernment in Montenegro.
They are administered by
mayors/municipal presidents
and municipal assemblies.
The country is divided in 21
municipalities, including the
capital, Podgorica, and the
royal capital, Cetinje, and the
two town municipalities of
Podgorica.
PUBLIC PROSECUTION
OFFICE
An independent authority in
charge of conducting criminal
prosecution in relation to all
indictable offences. Public
prosecutors are appointed by
the Prosecution Council for
five-year terms. The Supreme
Public Prosecutor is appointed
by the Parliament.
CENTRAL BANK
An independent institution
responsible for monetary and
fiscal stability and functioning
of the banking system. It is
managed by the Governor and
controlled by the Council of
the Central Bank.
JUDICIAL COUNCIL
An independent authority that
appoints and removes judges,
court presidents and lay
judges and safeguards their
independence and autonomy.
It comprises four members of
the Conference of Judges, two
MPs, two reputable lawyers
and the Minister of Justice.
CONSTITUTIONAL COURT
Decides on the conformity of
laws and other regulations
with the Constitution and
ratified international treaties.
Rules on constitutional
complaints against breaches
of the human rights
enshrined in the Constitution.
Constitutional Court judges
are nominated by the
President of Montenegro and
appointed and removed by the
Parliament.
THE ELECTORATE
STATE AUDIT INSTITUTION
An independent state body
reviewing the management of
the financial affairs of publicly
financed bodies.
It is managed by the Senate of
the State Audit Institution. The
chairman and members of the
Senate are appointed by the
Parliament.
OMBUDSMAN
An independent and
autonomous authority
safeguarding human
rights and freedoms. The
Ombudsman is nominated by
the President and appointed
by the Parliament for a term of
six years.
Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
│1
Montenegro in Brief
Official name: Area:
Population:
Border length:
Land area:
Coastline:
Climate:
Average number
of sunny days:
Average air
temperature:
Capital:
Royal capital: Montenegro
13,812 km2
620 029 (2011 census)
614 km
13,812 km2
293 km
Mediterranean
8.65%
4.91%
3.31%
4.87%
Main religions:
Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Roman Catholicism
180
National holidays:
27.4° C in summer,
13.4° C in winter
Podgorica (population of 187,085) – administrative and economic centre
Cetinje – historical and cultural centre
Form of government:Parliamentary republic
Official language: Montenegrin; Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are also in official use.
Literacy rate:
98.5%
Ethnic composition:
Montenegrins
Serbs Bosniaks
Albanians
Muslims
Non-declared
44.98%
28.73%
Independence Day – 21 May
Statehood Day – 13 July
Other public holidays:
New Year’s Day – 1 January
Labour Day – 1 May
BASIC ECONOMIC FACTS:
(2012 estimates)
GDP: EUR 3.276 billion
GDP real growth rate:-0.5%
GDP per capita: EUR 5,284
Unemployment rate: 19.7%
Inflation: 4.1%
Official Currency: Euro
Major industries: Tourism, metal industry,
agriculture
2│
Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
President of Montenegro
The President is the Head of State on whom the
Constitution confers the power to:
-- represent Montenegro within the country and
abroad;
-- command the military on the basis of the
decisions of the Defence and Security Council;
-- proclaim laws by ordinance;
-- call parliamentary elections;
-- propose to the Parliament: the candidate for
prime minister, after consultations with the
representatives of the political parties represented
in the Parliament; the Constitutional Court
President and judges; and the Ombudsman;
-- appoint and revoke Montenegrin ambassadors
and heads of diplomatic missions abroad, at the
proposal of the Government and after obtaining
the opinion of the Parliamentary Committee
responsible for international relations;
-- accept letters of accreditation and recall of
Plavi dvorac (The Blue Palace), the presidential residence
foreign diplomats;
-- award medals and honours of Montenegro;
-- grant amnesty; and
-- perform other responsibilities stipulated by the
Constitution or the law.
The President is elected for a five-year term in
direct, general elections, by secret ballot.
Every citizen of Montenegro residing in the country
for no less than 10 years in the past 15 years is eligible to
run for President. The President may serve а maximum
of two Presidential terms.
The President is also the Chairman of the Defence
and Security Council.
The current President of Montenegro, Mr Filip
Vujanović, was elected on 7 April 2013, and formally
inaugurated on 20 May 2013.
The official residence of the President is located in
the Royal Capital of Cetinje.
Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
│3
Parliament of Montenegro
The Montenegrin Parliament is a single-chamber
legislature. MPs are elected by universal suffrage,
through a direct and secret ballot, for a period of four
years.
The Parliament adopts the Constitution, passes laws
and secondary legislation, approves the State budget,
appoints and removes the Prime Minister and cabinet
members and ratifies international treaties.
Following the October 2012 elections, the European
Montenegro coalition (Democratic Party of Socialists –
DPS, Social Democratic Party – SDP and Liberal Party
– LP), together with ethnic minority parties, Bosniak
Party – BS, Croatian Civic Initiative – HGI and ethnic
Albanian parties (FORCA and DP) holds 45 seats in the
81-seat Parliament.
As for the opposition, the Democratic Front (DF)
holds 20, Socialist People’s Party (SNP) nine, and
Positive Montenegro (PCG) seven seats.
The current speaker of the Parliament is Mr Ranko
Krivokapić, leader of the SDP, and deputy speakers are
Mr Željko Šturanović, Vice-President of the DPS, Mr
Branko Radulović of the DF, and Mr Suljo Mustafić of
the Bosniak Party.
SECRE- SPEAKER DEPUTY DEPUTY
SPEAKER SPEAKER
TARY
GENERAL
SDP DPS
Democratic Party of Socialists – DPS
Social Democratic Party – SDP
MPs Club of Albanian parties
(FORCA, DP) HGI and LPCG
Bosniak Party – BS
Socialist People’s Party – SNP
Positive Montenegro – PCG
Democratic Front – DF
Composition of the Parliament
4│
Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
Government of Montenegro
The current Montenegrin Government under Prime
Minister Milo Đukanović was voted in on 4 December
2012, following the parliamentary elections on 14 October
2012.
The new Prime Minister performed a substantial
reshuffle of his predecessor’s Cabinet. Instead of three,
there are now four Deputy Prime Ministers, and several
new ministers have been appointed. The number of the
ministries, 16, remains intact.
The Government is backed by 45 out of 81 MPs. It
is a coalition government consisting of the Democratic
Party of Socialists (DPS), Social Democratic Party (SDP),
Liberal Party (LP), Bosniak Party (BS), Croatian Civic
Initiative (HGI), and ethnic Albanian parties (FORCA and
DP).
According to the Constitution, the Government of
Montenegro, as the executive branch of the State, has the
power to:
-manage the internal and foreign policy of Montenegro;
-enforce laws, other regulations and general acts;
-adopt decrees, decisions and other regulations for the
enforcement of laws;
-sign international agreements;
-propose the Development Plan and Spatial Plan of
Montenegro;
-propose the Budget and the Final Statement of the
Budget;
-propose the National Security Strategy and Defence
Strategy;
-decide on the recognition of states and establishment
of diplomatic and consular relations with other states;
-nominate ambassadors and heads of diplomatic
missions abroad; and
-perform other responsibilities stipulated by the
constitution or the law.
The Cabinet is proposed by the Prime Minister
Designate, who is nominated by the President, and is voted
in by a simple majority vote in the Parliament.
The Cabinet
Prime Minister
Milo Đukanović
DPS
Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
Igor Lukšić
DPS
Deputy Prime Minister for Political System, Foreign and Interior Policy and Minister
of Justice
Duško Marković
DPS
Vujica Lazović
SDP
Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Policy and Financial System and Minister for Information
Society and Telecommunications
Deputy Prime Minister for Regional Development
Rafet Husović
BS
Minister of the Interior
Raško Konjević
SDP
Minister of Defence
Milica Pejanović-Đurišić
DPS
Minister of Finance
Radoje Žugić
DPS
Minister of Education
Slavoljub Stijepović
DPS
Minister of Science
Sanja Vlahović
DPS
Minister of Culture
Branislav Mićunović
DPS
Minister of Economy
Vladimir Kavarić
DPS
Minister of Transport and Maritime Affairs
Ivan Brajović
SDP
Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development
Petar Ivanović
DPS
Minister of Sustainable Development and Tourism
Branimir Gvozdenović
DPS
Minister of Health
Miodrag Radunović
DPS
Minister for Human and Minority Rights
Suad Numanović
DPS
Minister of Labour and Social Welfare
Predrag Bošković
Marija Vučinović
DPS
Minister without Portfolio
HGI
Fact sheet May 2013 · Government
│5
The Judiciary
The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court is the highest court in Montenegro. Its chief responsibility is to ensure the uniform
enforcement of law by all courts.
The president of the Supreme Court is elected by the Parliament at the joint proposal of the President of
Montenegro, the Speaker of the Parliament and the Prime Minister.
The Judicial Council
Judges are appointed and removed from office by the Judicial Council. The Judicial Council comprises the
president of the Supreme Court, four judges elected by the Conference of Judges, two MPs (elected by the
Parliament from amongst the ruling majority and the opposition), two renowned lawyers (appointed by the Head
of State) and the Minister of Justice.
Structure of the Judiciary
Supreme Court of Montenegro
administrative Court
of Montenegro
Court of appeal of Montenegro
Commercial Court Podgorica
Superior Court Podgorica
Superior Court Bijelo Polje
Basic Court Podgorica
Basic Court Bijelo Polje
Basic Court Bar
Basic Court Berane
Basic Court Danilovgrad
Basic Court Žabljak
Basic Court Kotor
Basic Court Kolašin
Basic Court Nikšić
Basic Court Plav
Basic Court Ulcinj
Basic Court Pljevlja
Basic Court Herceg Novi
Basic Court Rožaje
Commercial Court Bijelo Polje
Basic Court Cetinje
Historic Milestone
The General Code of Montenegro and the Highlands, adopted on 29 October 1789 by the People’s Assembly and
the Council of Chieftains in the Stanjevići Monastery in Budva, lays the legal foundations for the modern Montenegrin
state and introduces the first central judicial authority of Montenegro: the Court Council of Montenegro and the
Highlands – (Praviteljstvo suda crnogroskog i brdskog).
The Court Council was the highest judicial authority, comprising 50 judges, who took an oath of loyalty to the
fatherland and pledged to make judgments according to the law and on the merits of individual cases.
29 October is celebrated as the Day of the Montenegrin Judiciary.
6│
Fact sheet May 2013 · Society
The Media
Freedom of the press and freedom of expression are
guaranteed by the Constitution.
Media representatives are guaranteed the freedom
of expression, freedom of investigation, collection,
dissemination, publicising and receiving of information;
free access to information; protection of personal
integrity and dignity; and the uncensored and free flow
of information.
Free access to information is further improved by the
new Law on the Free Access to Information, according
to which a broad spectrum of data is to be made available
directly at the official websites of state bodies and offices,
thus making access to information easier.
Apart from registration with the relevant authorities,
no other authorisation is required for the establishment
of media outlets, while foreign and domestic journalists
enjoy equal rights under the law.
In order to promote freedom of speech further,
Montenegro has decriminalised libel, while restricting
the level of damages awarded in litigation cases against
journalists in line with the case law of the European
Court of Human Rights.
For a country with a population of 620,000,
Montenegro has a diverse and very rich media scene.
The Press
-------
lic Montenegro – daily
B
Dan – daily
Dnevne novine – daily
Pobjeda – daily
Vijesti – daily
Monitor – weekly
Television
(National Coverage)
-- TV Montenegro (RTCG) – public broadcaster,
operates two networks and a satellite channel
-- Pink M – private
-- Prva TV – private
-- TV Vijesti – private
Radio
(National Coverage)
- Radio Montenegro (RCG) – public broadcaster,
operates two networks
- Antena M – private
- Atlas Radio – private
- Prva Radio – private
- Radio D Plus – private
- Radio Delfin – private
- Radio Elmag – private
News Agency
- MNNews - Mina - private
Fact sheet May 2013 · Society
│7
Human and Minority Rights
The Montenegrin Constitution provides the legal basis
for the promotion and advancement of fundamental
human rights and freedoms and affirms Montenegro’s
commitment to respect international standards in this
area.
There are three key constitutional provisions,
essential for the enjoyment of human rights and
freedoms. Article 6 provides general protection for
human rights and freedoms as inviolable categories.
Article 7 prohibits incitement to hatred and intolerance
on any grounds, while Article 8 bans discrimination, as
a general precondition for the enjoyment of all human
rights and freedoms.
The Constitution provides minority ethnic
communities with the following specific rights:
-- to express, maintain, advance and publicly display
their national, ethnic, cultural and religious
specificities;
-- to choose, use and publicly display ethnic symbols
and celebrate ethnic holidays;
-- to use their own language and alphabet for private,
public and official purposes;
-- to receive education in their own language and
alphabet in public institutions and for school
curricula, in communities where they account for
a significant portion of the population, to include
references to their history and culture;
-- for local self-government bodies, public
administration and judicial authorities, in
communities where they account for a significant
portion of the population, to conduct proceedings
in their own language;
-- to establish educational, cultural and religious
associations with financial support from the state;
-- to have their names written in their own language
in official identification documents;
-- to have traditional names of places and streets
and other topographic signs written in their own
language;
-- to have authentic representation in the Parliament
of Montenegro and local assemblies in
communities where they account for a significant
portion of the population, in accordance with the
principle of affirmative action;
-- to proportional representation in public services,
national authorities and local self-government
bodies,
-- to information in their language;
-- to establish and maintain contacts with persons
and associations outside of Montenegro with
whom they share common national or ethnic
origin, cultural and historical heritage or religious
beliefs;
-- to establish councils for the protection and
promotion of specific rights.
In 2010, Montenegro passed the Anti-Discrimination
Law, prohibiting discrimination on any grounds.
Institutional Framework
The Ministry for Human and Minority Rights is a
government department in charge of the monitoring,
research and protection of human and minority rights
in accordance with the Constitution and international
treaties governing this area.
The Government has established the AntiDiscrimination Council, as the core advisory body
chaired by the Prime Minister comprising high
government officials and representatives of the civil
society.
Within the Montenegrin Parliament, there are
two committees in charge of human rights issues,
the Human Rights and Freedoms Committee and the
Gender Equality Committee.
The Ombudsman (formally: the Protector of
Human Rights and Freedoms) is an independent
institution in charge of safeguarding the human rights
and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution, laws,
ratified international treaties and general principles of
international law.
Fact sheet May 2013 · Society
8│
Unity in Diversity: Ethnicities
Throughout its history, Montenegro has cherished its religious, ethnic and cultural diversity.
Statistics
Montenegro’s main demographic feature is a great versatility of ethnic and religious communities.
Population by ethnicity
2011 CENSUS
2011 CENSUS
No.
ETHNICITY
POPULATION
PERCENTAGE
No.
ETHNICITY
POPULATION
PERCENTAGE
1.
Montenegrins
278,865
44.98%
11.
Russians
946
0.15%
2.
Serbs
178,110
28.73%
12.
Macedonians
900
0.15%
3.
Bosniaks
53,605
8.65%
13.
Slovenians
354
0.06%
4.
Albanians
30,439
4.91%
14.
Hungarians
337
0.05%
Italians
135
0.02%
Germans
131
0.02%
5.
Muslims
20,537
3.31%
15.
6.
Roma
6,251
1.01%
16.
7.
Croatians
6,021
0.97%
17.
Others
8,818
1.42%
8
Egyptians
2,054
0.33%
18.
Unspecified
30,170
4.81%
9.
Regional affiliation
1,202
0.19%
620,029
100%
10.
Yugoslavs
1,154
0.19%
Historic Old Town of Bar, famous for its religious and ethnic pluralism
TOTAL
Fact sheet May 2013 · Society
Religious Diversity
Hussein Pasha’s Mosque in Pljevlja
Population by religion
NO.
RELIGION
POPULATION
PERCENTAGE
1.
Orthodox
446,858
72.07%
2.
Islam/Muslims
118,477
19.1%
3.
Catholicism
21,299
3.44%
4.
Atheist
7,667
1.24%
5.
Christians
1,460
0.24%
6.
Adventists
894
0.14%
7.
Protestant
143
0.02%
8.
Other religions
7,051
1.13%
9.
Unspecified
16,180
2.61%
620,029
100%
TOTAL
│9
Built in 1569 as a pious endowment of HusseinPasha Boljanić, a high-ranking official of the
Ottoman Empire originally from the village of
Boljanići near Pljevlja in Montenegro. It is regarded
as one of the most beautiful sacral monuments
of Islamic architecture in South-East Europe.
Source: the 2011 Census
St Triphon’s Cathedral in Kotor
Ostrog Monastery
A 17th-century monastery dedicated to its founder
St Vasilije of Ostrog (Sveti Vasilije Ostroški). Placed
against an almost vertical mountain side, it is one
of the most famous pilgrimage sites in the region.
A monument of Roman architecture, built in 1166
on the foundations of an older pre-Roman church
from the 10th century. It was completely restored
after the 1979 earthquake. 2009 celebrated the 1,200th
anniversary of the moving of St Triphon’s relics from
Constantinople to Kotor.
10 │
Fact sheet May 2013 · World
Montenegro and the World: Foreign Policy
EU and NATO integration
With regard to its strategic interests and the interest of
its citizens, with due respect given to regional processes and
the broader context of European and global perspectives,
Montenegro’s foreign policy gives the highest priority to
European and Euro-Atlantic integration.
Montenegro sees the EU as the optimal framework
for the accommodation of further development of overall
reforms, harmonisation with European standards and their
adoption, as well as the enhancement of bilateral relations
with EU member states.
There is a broad social consensus in Montenegro about
the need to join the EU, which provides an additional
impetus for enhanced progress toward this goal.
NATO accession, as one of the key foreign policy
priorities, guarantees the stability and security necessary for
achieving other strategic national goals, economic growth
and further development of the country.
Moreover, through its participation in international
organisations, Montenegro protects and promotes its
interests, participates in defining global political trends and,
together with countries of the region and beyond, seeks to
invigorate cooperation and joint representation in broader
international forums.
Since regaining independence, Montenegro has opened
22 Embassies, 6 Missions to International Organisations,
as well as 3 Consulates around the world.
Good neighbourly relations and
regional cooperation
Montenegro is committed to nurturing and developing
good relations with its neighbours, considering this as
a constituent part of its European and Euro-Atlantic
integration. Moreover, Montenegro is devoted to the
improvement of existing and creation of new forms
of cooperation in the regional context, with the aim of
maximising the opportunities for economic development,
encouraging substantial democratic processes and
contributing to fostering and preserving regional stability.
Montenegro particularly advocates the concept of
establishing closer ties with the broader neighbourhood.
This involves not only bordering countries, but also
Macedonia and Slovenia, as well as Austria, Hungary,
Romania, Bulgaria.
Bilateral and multilateral
cooperation
The substance and quality of bilateral cooperation, as
the basis of success in the European and Euro-Atlantic
integration processes, is a vital and unchangeable part
of Montenegrin foreign policy. Working to enhance
comprehensive relations with all countries of the world
improves the role and position of Montenegro on the
global political scene as an open and reliable partner.
Montenegro’s
Fact sheet May 2013 · World
│ 11
Montenegro’s European Integration
Key facts
-- There is a broad national and political consensus on
EU integration as Montenegro’s strategic priority.
-- The Government of Montenegro appointed the
Chief Negotiator for EU accession in December
2011, while establishing the structure for
negotiations on accession to the European Union
in February 2012.
-- The negotiation process between Montenegro and
the European Union officially started on 29 June
2012.
EU Integration Milestones
-- 21 May 2006 – The Montenegrin independence
referendum takes place – 55.5% of votes cast in
favour of independence.
-- 15 October 2007 – The Stabilisation and Association
Agreement (SAA) signed in Luxembourg.
-- 1 November 2007 – The European Commission
Delegation in Podgorica set up.
-- 13 November 2007 – The Parliament of
Montenegro ratifies the SAA, the Interim
Agreement and Agreements on Visa Facilitation
and Readmission.
-- 1 January 2008 – Interim Agreement on Trade
and Trade-related Issues and Visa Facilitation and
Readmission Agreements enter into force.
-- 15 December 2008 – Montenegro submits its
application for EU membership.
-- 23 April 2009 – The Council invites the Commission
to submit its opinion on Montenegro’s application.
-- 30 November 2009 – The European Council grants
visa-free travel for Montenegrin citizens.
-- 1 May 2010 – The Stabilisation and Association
Agreement enters into force, after being ratified by
all 27 Member States.
-- 9 November 2010 – European Commission
presents positive Opinion on Montenegro’s EU
membership application.
-- 17 December 2010 – European Council grants
Candidate Status to Montenegro
-- 12 October 2011 – In the Progress Report, the
European Commission recommends the opening
of accession negotiations with the EU.
-- 9 December 2011 – The European Council
welcomes the European Commission’s assessment
on the good progress made by Montenegro.
-- 29 December 2011 – Chief Negotiator is appointed
by the Government of Montenegro.
-- 2 February 2012 – The Government of
Montenegro adopts the Decision Establishing
the Negotiating Structure for the Accession of
Montenegro to the European Union.
-- 23 May 2012 – The European Commission
publishes the Report on Montenegro’s Progress in
the Implementation of Reforms and recommends
the EU member states to open the negotiations on
accession of Montenegro in June 2012.
-- 26 June 2012 – European General Affairs Council
in Luxembourg decides to recommend initiation of
accession negotiations between Montenegro and
EU to the European Commission
-- 29 June 2012 – Official beginning of the negotiation
process between Montenegro and European Union.
-- 18 December 2012 – Chapter 25 – Science and
Research opened and provisionally closed at the
Intergovernmental conference in Brussels.
-- 15 April 2013 – Chapter 26 – Education and
Culture opened and provisionally closed at the
Intergovernmental conference in Brussels.
--
12 │
Fact sheet May 2013 · World
Montenegro & NATO
In the Declaration of Independence of 3
June 2006, Montenegro clearly expressed its
commitment to Euro-Atlantic integration, as one
of the top national priorities. Montenegro believes
that NATO membership is a guarantee for longterm stability and security of the Western Balkans.
important facts:
-- The official relations between Montenegro and
NATO began on 29 November 2006, with an
invitation to join the Partnership for Peace (PfP)
programme.
-- Since joining the PfP, Montenegro has
participated in all political, military and defence
partnership programmes. Montenegro is currently
implementing the Membership Action Plan
(MAP), as well as military and defence programmes
PARP and IPCP (Planning and Rewire Process
and the Individual Programme for Cooperation
and Partnership).
-- At the meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs
of the Alliance on 3-4 December 2009 in Brussels,
Montenegro was invited to initiate the MAP cycle,
following good results in internal reforms and
participation in PfP; MAP represents the final
stage of integration before considering country’s
readiness to join NATO.
-- Montenegro is actively participating in the ISAF
mission in Afghanistan since March 2010.
-- The first MAP (2010-2011) began after the official
presentation of the first Annual National Program
(ANP) in Brussels, on 18 September 2010.
Montenegrin delegation, headed by the Prime Minister,
attended the NATO Summit in Chicago, USA, held
on 20-21 May 2012. Montenegro participated at
the Summit as an ISAF contributing country and
attended the meeting on Afghanistan, as well as
foreign ministers’ meeting of the Alliance member
states with the aspirant countries – 28+4 (Montenegro,
Bosnia, Macedonia, and Georgia). The Summit
confirmed the constructive role of Montenegro
as the factor of stability in the region and beyond,
through its participation in international peacekeeping
missions and ISAF. Montenegro was particularly
encouraged by the Declaration from the Summit.
-- The first MAP was concluded with a successful
assessment in June 2011
-- The second MAP was concluded on 27 June
2012 at the meeting between the Montenegrin
delegation and NAC in Brussels.
-- Information Centre for Euro-Atlantic integration
was opened in Podgorica on 5 November
2012, with the support of the Government of
Montenegro and coordinated by NGO Centre for
Democratic Transition.
-- Third ANP MAP was presented on 30 October
2012, at the meeting of NAC and Montenegrin
delegation in Brussels.
-- Since January 2013, Montenegro chairs the South
East Europe Security Cooperation Steering Group
(SEEGROUP).
-- On 28 February 2013 Montenegro renamed the
Council for Partnership for Peace Membership –
NATO Membership Council and appointed the
National Coordinator for NATO.
US-Adriatic Charter A5
Regional cooperation remains Montenegro’s priority,
especially within the most important security regional
initiative – the US-Adriatic Charter A5, whose members
already contribute to the ISAF Mission in Afghanistan.
Montenegro will chair the US-Adriatic Charter A5, for
the second time, from 1 July to 31 December 2013.
Fact sheet May 2013 · Economy
Economy at a Glance
Key Facts
-- National currency: EUR
-- Monetary system: full euroisation
-- Tax system: 17% VAT, 9% personal income tax,
15% on salaries above average (720 EUR)
International credit ratings
-- Moody’s: BA3, stable
-- Standard&Poor’s: LongTerm (BB), outlook
negative, Transfer and Convertibility Assessment
(AAA)
KEY INDICATORS
2009
2010
2011
2012*
GDP nominal growth
-3,4
4,1
4,2
1,3
GDP (million EUR)
2981
3104
3234
3276
Real growth of GDP (%)
-5,7
2,5
3,2
-0,5
GDP per capita (EUR)
4720
5006
5211
5284
Unemployment rate
(%)
19,1
19,7
19,7
19,7
Inflation
(% end of the year)
3,4
0.5
3,1
4,1
Average monthly net
wage (EUR)
463
479
484
487
1066,50
552,1
389,1
453,6
External debt
(million EUR)
699,9
912,4
1063,7
1295,0
Fiscal deficit
(% of GDP)
-5,7
-4,9
-5,5
-4,0
Current account
balance (% of GDP)
-27,9
-22,9
-17,7
-17,9
Deficit/Surplus of state
budget (% of GDP)
-4,4
-3,6
-5,9
-4,9
Export of goods (million
EUR)
296,3
356,6
476,5
356,6
Import of goods
(million EUR)
1617,9
1623,8
1782,8
1780,7
Trade balance
(million EUR)
-1321,6
-1267,2
-1306,2
-1424,1
Tourist overnight stays
(mil)
7.552,0
7.964,9
8.775,1
9.151,2
Net foreign direct
investment
(million EUR)
*2012 data are estimates
│ 13
14 │
Fact sheet May 2013 · Economy
Major Development Projects in Montenegro
ENERGY
TOURISM
Underwater power cable project
In 2010 Montenegro and Italy established
cooperation to build an underwater electricity
interconnection cable in the Adriatic Sea, which will
position Montenegro as an energy hub in the region.
The entire project is worth around EUR 850 million and
will be implemented by Italy’s Terna and Montenegro’s
CGES.
Kumbor
The former military base Kumbor in the Boka
Kotorska (Bay of Kotor) area will be turned into an
impressive, Europe’s first One&Only resort with 150
luxurious rooms and villas, a large marina, spa centre,
and a number of world-class services. Kumbor is located
at the narrowest part of the entrance to the Tivat Bay,
and its 60 acres lay between dramatic mountains and the
stunning coastline of the Adriatic.
INFRASTRUCTURE
Bar-Boljare high-way
The Bar-Boljare high-way is going to play a major
strategic role in the regional transport network, by
connecting Montenegro’s coast and the capital city with
other regional capitals and economic centres, providing
good infrastructure for fast, safe, and reliable travel.
This impressive undertaking involves the
construction of approximately 170 km of motorway
with 134 different road structures, such as tunnels
viaducts and bridges, amounting to approximately 30%
of the total motorway length.
Luštica Peninsula
This jewel of the Adriatic is situated at the very
entrance to the Bay of Kotor, in the municipality of Tivat.
Not only has nature graced the peninsula with an optimal
position both at sea and land, but it also boasts a rich
cultural heritage, spanning centuries. Here, the Luštica
Development Company, part of the Swiss-Egyptian
consortium Orascom, will build, over an area of seven
million square metres, a high-end resort encompassing
eight hotels with spa and wellness facilities, three marinas,
275 residential villas, and a golf course.
Fact sheet May 2013 · People
│ 15
History Timeline
-- Early 2nd century B.C. – The Illyrian state that
included today’s Montenegro falls to the Romans
-- First half of the 7th century A.D. – The Slavs
migrate to today’s Montenegro
-- Mid-11th century – The Slavic principality of
Doclea (Duklja) gains independence from the
Byzantine Empire after a famous triumph under
Vojislav at Tudjemili near Bar in 1042
-- 1077 – Mihailo Vojislavljević becomes king after
accepting the crown from Pope Gregory VII
-- Late 12th century – Duklja becomes part of the
State of Nemanjić (later the Empire of Serbia)
-- Mid-14th century – Duklja becomes the
independent state of Zeta (later Montenegro) under
the Balšić Dynasty
-- Late 15th century – The Crnojević Dynasty acquires
the first printing house among the South Slavs in
which the first book “Oktoih” is published in 1494
-- 1496 – Montenegro loses its formal independence
and falls under the Ottoman Empire, but during the
16th century develops a form of unique autonomy
within the Ottoman Empire
-- 1697 – After securing a de facto independence from
the Ottomans, the Assembly of the Montenegrins
appoints Danilo Petrović as Prince-Bishop (Vladika),
Orthodox Metropolitan and ruler, founder of the
Petrović Dynasty (1697-1918) and theocracy in
Montenegro
-- 1784-1830 – Vladika Petar I Petrović unites the
people in most of today’s Montenegro, sets the
legal foundations of the modern Montenegrin state,
repels Ottoman attacks and becomes one of the
most important figures in Montenegro’s history
-- 1830-1851 – Vladika Petar II Petrović (Njegoš)
becomes very popular in European courts as the
most highly regarded poet among the South Slavs
(most notable for his The Mountain Wreath, 1847);
Creates a strong state apparatus
-- 1851 – Prince Danilo becomes the first secular
Petrovic ruler and enforces state centralisation
-- 1878 – After the final liberation war and the Congress
King Nikola I (1841 – 1921)
--
--
--
--
---
--
of Berlin, Montenegro receives full international
recognition of independence and sovereignty under
Prince Nikola Petrović
1910 – The Kingdom of Montenegro proclaimed
under (now) King Nikola I after adopting the
Constitution in 1905
1914-1916 – Montenegro takes part in World War I
on the side of the Allies and wins a seminal victory
at Mojkovac (6 January, 1916) against the much
stronger Austria-Hungary; Liberated in 1918 by the
Allies
1918 – After the Assembly of Podgorica, Montenegro
loses its independence and joins the Kingdom of
Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of
Yugoslavia)
1941 – After the capitulation of Yugoslavia in World
War II, Montenegrins organise a mass popular
uprising on 13 July
1945 – Montenegro becomes an equal member of
the six-Republic Federation of Yugoslavia (SFRY)
1990 – Following the break-up of the SFR
Yugoslavia, Montenegro forms the Federal Republic
of Yugoslavia with Serbia (later the State Union of
Serbia and Montenegro)
2006 – After a referendum on independence on 21
May, Montenegro restores independence
16 │
Fact sheet May 2013 · People
Carnivals and Festivities
Kotor Carnival
The Kotor Carnival has been held each year since
the 1960s, when the long tradition of the festivity was
reestablished after being interrupted by WW II. The
carnival’s central event is a masquerade procession.
In addition to carnival troupes from Kotor and other
coastal towns in Montenegro, the Kotor Carnival also
welcomes many carnival groups from all over the world.
The event takes place in February and attracts thousands
of visitors each year.
Mimosa Festival
The Mimosa Festival has been celebrated in the
coastal municipality of Herceg Novi since 1969. Taking
place in February, the festival displays the region’s
abundance of flowers, particularly mimosa flowers, at a
time when most of Europe is still covered with snow. The
event features a brass band procession with majorettes,
a traditional wine and fish feast, a masquerade and many
other cultural, sports and entertainment options.
Days of Bleak and Wine
The festival celebrates Montenegro’s wine-making
and fishing tradition. The festivities take place in the
picturesque town of Virpazar, once Montenegro’s
biggest market place, on the shores of Lake Skadar,
where the local producers offer free tasting of their
wines and foods. The Lake Skadar bleak is a fish species
endemic to the lake.
Fact sheet May 2013 · People
In Montenegro – Sport Matters
HANDBALL
Women’s national handball team won gold at the
2012 European Championship in Belgrade, after
winning silver at London 2012 Olympics. “Zlatne lavice”
(“Golden Lionesses”) are much loved by Montenegrins
of all generations. Montenegro is lauded as one of the
world’s strongest women’s handball nations.
WATER POLO
Montenegro is widely considered as one of the
world’s strongest water polo nations.
As the most recent achievement, the national men’s
team took fourth place in the 2012 Olympics in London.
The period from 2008 to 2010 was particularly
fruitful for Montenegro’s water polo, when the national
team and top clubs won four gold medals in major
competitions in three years.
FOOTBALL
In March 2013, men’s national football team topped
Group H in 2014 Brazil World Cup Qualifiers, with two
points ahead of England and four ahead of Poland,
having scored 14 goals in six matches (only three goals
scored against).
Montenegro’s national team boasts a number of
very prominent stars of European football, most
notably Mirko Vučinić and Stevan Jovetić.
BASKETBALL
Men’s national basketball team qualified for the
EuroBasket 2013 in Slovenia.
Players from Montenegro have received a number of
awards and recognitions, most recent being the 2012/13
Eurocup Rising Star trophy for Bojan Dubljević
(Valencia Basket, power forward). Nikola Vučević
(Orlando Magic, centre) was NBA’s second rebounder
in the 2012/13 season and notched 46 double-doubles,
which ranked third.
│ 17
18 │
Fact sheet May 2013 · Nature
World’s First Ecological State
The Montenegrin Parliament adopted the
Declaration on the Ecological State of Montenegro on
20 September 1991, making Montenegro the world’s
first Ecological State. The concept of Montenegro as
an ecological state is enshrined in the Constitution.
Nature Reserves
There are five national parks in Montenegro:
Durmitor, Biogradska gora, Lovćen, Lake Skadar
and Prokletije. The national parks cover 9.04% of
Montenegro’s territory.
DURMITOR
The Durmitor region with its untouched beauty is
a rare and authentic work of nature. It was declared
a national park in 1952. Situated in the northwest of
the country, the park occupies a large portion of the
Durmitor massif, including the canyons of the Rivers
Tara, Draga and Sušica and the upper part of the
Komarnica River Canyon. It covers an area of 32,100
hectares.
The most striking geographical feature of the
national park is a vast plateau, cut by deep canyons at
1,500 metres above sea level. The area is dotted with
mountain tops, 48 of them above 2,000 metres, the
highest being Bobotov Kuk at an altitude of 2,525 m.
The Durmitor National Park has been on UNESCO’s
World Heritage List since 1980. In addition, the River
Tara Basin, which is part of the national park, has been
recognised as a biosphere reserve under UNESCO’s
Man and the Biosphere Programme since 1977.
BIOGRADSKA GORA
Located in the central part of Montenegro, between
the Rivers Tara and Lim in the central part of the
Bjelasica massif, it covers an area of 5,650 hectares
(31,961 acres).
Biogradska Gora became a protected area only six
years after Yellowstone was declared the world’s first
national park. In 1878, the area was presented as a
gift to the then ruler of Montenegro Prince Nikola I
Petrović and has been under state protection ever since.
The park’s most important natural feature is a 1,600acre virgin forest, one of the last three in Europe.
LOVĆEN
Lovćen National Park sits in the central and
highest part of the Lovćen massif, in the southwest of
Fact sheet May 2013 · Nature
Montenegro between the Lake Skadar Basin, the Bay of
Kotor and the Budva Riviera. The area covering 6,220
hectares was declared a national park in 1952.
The park’s centrepiece monument is the Mausoleum
of Peter II Pretrović Njegoš, erected at Jezerski Vrh
(Lake Peak), the resting place chosen by the famous
ruler and poet himself. (cover page photo)
The place is legendary for its lookouts offering
amazing views of the Bay of Kotor, Lake Skadar and
the highlands in the north.
│ 19
LAKE SKADAR
Covering an area ranging from 370 to 530 square
kilometres, depending on the water level, Lake Skadar is
the biggest lake in the Balkans.
Its favourable geographical position and subMediterranean climate have made it one of Europe’s
most important habitats of marsh birds, second only to
the River Danube delta. Around 280 bird species breed
and nest on the lake, including the rare curly pelican,
which became the symbol of the national park and the
lake itself.
Two thirds of Lake Skadar belong to Montenegro
and one third to the Republic of Albania. The
Montenegrin part of the lake, with 40,000 hectares of
shore land, was proclaimed a national park in 1983.
PROKLETIJE
The Prokletije mountain range was proclaimed
Montenegro’s fifth national park in 2009.
Prokletije National Park covers an area of 16,630
hectares. It has two natural reserves: Lake Hrid (347
ha) and Volušnica (705 ha). Prokletije also boasts the
highest peak in Montenegro, Zla Kolata, at 2,534m.
Glacial activity made a deep impact on Prokletije,
now considered one of the most glacial mountain
ranges in Europe, second only to the Alps. With its
endemic flora and fauna, Prokletije is not only important
within the Balkans, but is also a significant European
and global centre of biodiversity. The Prokletije area
is home to over 140 species of butterflies, making it
Europe’s richest area for butterflies.
The locals called it “Prokletije” – “The Cursed
Mountain” due to its wild, harsh climate, and threats
from bears, lynxes and wolves.
20 │
Fact sheet May 2013 · Content
State System of Montenegro
Government
0
Montenegro in Brief
Government
1
President of Montenegro
Government
2
Parliament of Montenegro
Government
3
Government of Montenegro
Government
4
The Judiciary
Government
5
The Media
Society
6
Human and Minority Rights
Society
7
Unity in Diversity: Ethnicities
Society
8
Religious Diversity
Society
9
Montenegro and the World: Foreign Policy
World
10
Montenegro’s European Integration
World
11
Montenegro & NATO
World
12
Economy at a Glance
Economy
13
Major Development Projects in Montenegro
Economy
14
History Timeline
People
15
Carnivals and Festivities
People
16
In Montenegro – Sport Matters
People
17
World’s First Ecological State
Nature
18
Content
20
│ 21
Title:
Montenegro Facts
Government Guide Series
Published in:
Podgorica
Publisher:
Government of Montenegro
Public Relations Bureau
Karadjordjeva bb, 81 000 Podgorica, Montenegro
Published:
2013
Design:
Incognito Advertising&Media, Podgorica
Cover Page Photo:
Mausoleum of Petar II Petrović-Njegoš on Mount Lovćen
Print:
AP Print, Podgorica
Print run:
200 pcs.