Organisasi Industri

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Organisasi Industri
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Teknologi
Organisasi
produksi
Mass-production
Teori/prinsip manajemen
Lebih b
Lebih k esar ?
omplek
s?
OPTIMAL
PENGANTAR
Revolusi Industri
(pertengahan abad 18)
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The Evolution of Management Theory
Many theories were developed since than and change working condi5ons, produc5on and environment. S5ll there is no perfect method. www.debrina.lecture.ub.ac.id
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Teori Organisasi Kerja
di Industri
Teori klasik, menekankan pada pendekatan ilmiah (scientific management)
dan teori organinsasi klasik (classical organization theory)
Teori yang lebih menekankan pada hubungan antar manusia dan perilakuperilakunya (behaviour management theory)
Teori yang mengembangkan pendekatan kuantitatif untuk menghadapi
permasalahan organisasi yang kompleks dengan mengaplikasikan model
dan perhitungan matematis (management science, operational research,
dan lain-lain)
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Pandangan Klasik tentang
Organisasi Kerja
•  Organisasi kerja : kumpulan satuan-satuan kegiatan yang terdiri dari
personal yang memiliki peran dan jabatan yang sudah ditentukan
perancang organisasi kerja untuk mencapai tujuan tertentu.
•  Menyamakan antara mesin dan organisasi.
•  Revolusi industri teknologi perangkat keras (mesin/alat produksi) guna
meningkatkan produktivitas maka memerlukan perbaikan metode kerja,
pengorganisasian, dan pengelola kerja dengan memperhatikan faktor
manusia sebagai tenaga kerja (dengan mengatur gerakan kerja, hubungan
kerja antar pekerja melalui organisasi dan struktur, dsb)
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Tokoh – tokoh (1)
Robert Owen
(1771-1858)
Charles Babbage
(1792-1871)
o  memperbaiki kondisi kerja dari
tenaga kerja dapat meningkatkan
produktivitas dan profit
o  Memperkenalkan studi mengenai
tata cara mengoperasikan proses
produksi agar lebih efisien
o  Pekerja adalah “a vital machine”
o  Mengaplikasikan prinsip/metode
ilmiah pada proses kerja untuk
meningkatkan produktivitas dan
menekan biaya
o  Usulan: pengurangan jam kerja,
menolak penggunaan tenaga
kerja anak-anak, menciptakan
suasana kompetisi pegawai, dsb.
o  pembagian kerja karyawan
terspesialisasi secara tegas
(division of labor)
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Tokoh – tokoh (2)
Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1905)
o  Konsep Scientific Management (manajemen ilmiah) à
meningkatkan produktivitas kerja melalui perbaikan
tata cara dan efisiensi kerja karyawan
o  Identifikasi dan eliminasi gerakkan-gerakan kerja yang
tidak produktif
o  Tujuannya membuat suatu rancangan kerja yang
diupayakan untuk menjadi langkah yang terbaik (the
best way) dalam mengembangkan standar-standar
waktu yang diperoleh dari aktivitas pengukuran kerja,
agar pekerja sebagai “human being” dapat
didayagunakan secara maksimal.
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Four Principles of
Scientific Management
1. Study the way the job is performed now & determine
new ways to do it.
 
Gather detailed, time and motion information.
 
Try different methods to see which is best.
2. Codify the new method into rules.
 
Teach to all workers.
3. Select workers whose skills match the rules set in
Step 2.
4. Establish a fair level of performance and pay for
higher performance.
 
Workers should benefit from higher output.
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Problems with
Scientific Management
  Managers frequently implemented only the
increased output side of Taylor’s plan.
  Workers did not share in the increased output.
  Specialized jobs became very boring, dull.
  Workers ended up distrusting the Scientific Management
method.
  Workers could purposely “under-perform.”
  Management responded with increased use of machines
and conveyors belts.
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Tokoh – tokoh (3)
Frank & Lilian Gilberth (1868-1972)
o  Parents of Motion Study
o  Tujuan : memperbaiki lingkungan kerja melalui penelitian
gerakan kerja (baik yang dilakukan oleh manusia, mesin/alat
maupun material) selama berlangsungnya proses kerja
o  Dengan pengembangan Scientific Management maka moral
kerja karyawan meningkat, efisiensi penggunaan tenaga fisik,
dsb.
o  Inovasi :
o  Work Simplification
o  Elemen Therbligs (Ekonomi Gerakan)
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Tokoh – tokoh (4)
Henry Fayol (1841-1925)
o  The classical organiztion theory
o  Sukses kerja tidak hanya ditentukan dari kemampuan
personil saja, juga ditentukan oleh metode dan organisasi
kerjanya
o  5 fungsi manajemen:
o  Planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, dan controlling
o  Mengemukakan 14 prinsip manajemen dalam mengelola
organisasi, yaitu:
o  Division of labor, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of
direction, sub-ordination of individual interest the commongood, remuneration, centralization, the hierarchy, order, equity,
stability of staff, initiative, dan esprit de corps.
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Pandangan Baru tentang Pentingnya
Faktor Manusia dalam Organisasi Kerja
  Teori pendekatan klasik mempunyai banyak kesulitan
dalam penerapannya karena performansi pekerja
sulit diprediksi
  Organisasi kerja manusia ≠ Organisasi kerja mesin
  Chapanis à “a nonliniar machine continually change
its programming without telling us”
  Mempelajari faktor manusia sbg salah satu penentu
produktivitas kerja tidak dari kemampuan fisik saja,
melainkan juga motivasi dan perilaku manusia
  Aliran manajemen “behavioralism”
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Tokoh – tokoh (1)
Hugo Munsberg (1863-1916)
o  Melalui tulisannya Psychology and Industrial Efficiency,
menyatakan produktivitas kerja manusia dapat ditingkatkan
dengan 3 cara:
1.  Tenaga kerja terbaik yang diseleksi melalui berbagai pengujian
baik fisik maupun mental-psikologis
2.  Menciptakan kondisi lingkungan fisik kerja yang ergonomis
3.  Memberikan pengaruh-pengaruh psikologis untuk meningkatkan
motivasi-motivasi kerja karyawan
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Tokoh – tokoh (2)
Elton Mayo (1880-1949)
o  The Hawthorne Studies (1924-1932).
o  Konsep hubungan antar manusia dalam
organisasi sebagai kunci keberhasilan
manajemen dalam menggerakkan dan
memotivasi karyawannya (Hawthorne effect ).
o  Seorang manajer harus mampu mempelajari
faktor-faktor sosial-psikologis apakah yang
mendorong dan memberikan motivasi pekerja.
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Tokoh – tokoh (3)
Abraham Maslow
o  Berdasarkan teori hierarki kebutuhan:
o  manusia secara emosional selalu ingin diterima, diberikan
tempat, diakui eksistensi dirinya oleh kelompoknya.
o  Mendambakan hidup berkelompok yang sesuai dengan
perasaan dan harga dirinya.
o  Manusia lebih bersikap menundukkan diri bukan
berloyalitas pada suatu kelompok.
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Tokoh – tokoh (4)
Douglas McGregor
Proposed the
two different
sets of
assumptions
about
workers.
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Management Science Theory
  Contemporary approach to management that focuses on the use
of rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make
maximum use of organizational resources to produce goods and
services.
  “The use of [mathematical and statistical] techniques,
mathematical programming, modeling, and computer science [to
solve complex operational and strategic issues].” -- US Army
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History of Management Science
  It was originated from two sources:
  Operational Research
  Management Information Systems
  It is thus more emphasizing on the analysis of solution
applications than learning their on how models were
derived.
  Other names for management science: quantitative
methods, quantitative analysis and decision sciences.
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Management Science
Objective
  Given a limited amount of personnel, resources
and material, how do we use them most
effectively to:
  Maximize -- Profit, Efficiency
  Minimize -- Cost, Time
  Management Science is about doing the best
you can with what you’ve got -- OPTIMIZATION
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Management Science Applications
  Quantitative management
  utilizes linear and
nonlinear programming,
modeling, simulation,
queuing theory and
chaos theory.
  Total Quality Management
(TQM)
  focuses on analyzing
input, conversion, and
output activities to
increase product quality.
  Operations management
  techniques used to
analyze any aspect of
the organization’s
production system.
  Management Information
Systems (MIS)
  provides information
vital for effective
decision making.
Models to be considered
in this subject
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The processes of a
Management
Science Study
In practice, this
step is critical
1. 
Observation — Identification of a problem
that exists in the system or organisation.
2. 
Definition of the Problem — Problem must
be clearly and consistently defined showing
its boundaries and interaction with the
objectives of the organisation.
3. 
Model Construction — Development of the
functional mathematical relationships that
describe the decision variables, objective
function and constraints of the problem.
4. 
Model Solution — Models solved using
management science techniques.
5. 
Model Implementation — Actual use of the
model or its solution.
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Administrative
Management Theory
Administrative
Management
The study of how to
create an
organizational
structure that leads
to high efficiency
and effectiveness.
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Tokoh
Max Weber
 Developed the principles of bureaucracy as a
formal system of organization and administration
designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness.
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Weber’s Principles
of Bureaucracy
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Rules, SOPs and Norms
Rules
Standard
Operating
Procedures (SOPs)
Norms
•  formal written instructions that specify
actions to be taken under different
circumstances to achieve specific goals
•  specific sets of written instructions about
how to perform a certain aspect of a task
•  unwritten, informal codes of conduct that
prescribe how people should act in particular
situations
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Organizational
Environment Theory
  Organizational Environment –
The set of forces and conditions that operate
beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect
a manager’s ability to acquire and utilize
resources
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Systems
Synergy – the
performance gains that
result from the combined
actions of individuals and
departments
Possible only in an
organized system
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Systems
Open System
  A system that takes
resources for its external
environment and
transforms them into
goods and services that
are then sent back to that
environment where they
are bought by customers.
Closed System
  A self-contained system that
is not affected by changes
in its external environment.
  Likely to experience entropy
and lose its ability to control
itself
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The OpenSystems View
•  Inputs: the acquisition of
external resources to
produce goods and services
•  Conversion: transforms the
inputs into outputs of finished
goods and services.
•  Output: the release of
finished goods and services
to its external environment.
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Contingency Theory
  “There is no one best way to organize”
  The idea that the organizational structures and
control systems manager choose depend on—
are contingent on—characteristics of the
external environment in which the organization
operates.
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Contingency Theory
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Type of Structure
Organic Structure
(theory Y)
•  Authority is decentralized
throughout the
organization.
•  Departments are
encouraged to take a
cross-departmental or
functional perspective
•  Works best when
environment is unstable
and rapidly changing
Mechanistic Structure
(theory X)
•  Authority is centralized at
the top.
•  Emphasis is on strict
discipline and order
•  Employees are closely
monitored and managed.
•  Can be very efficient in a
stable environment.
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Thank You!