MANAJEMEN STRATEGI: - Universitas Kristen Maranatha

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MANAJEMEN STRATEGI: - Universitas Kristen Maranatha
MANAJEMEN STRATEGI:
by : Rudy Wawolumaja
Universitas Kristen Maranatha
SESSION 1
KONSEP DASAR &
5 PROSES MANAJEMEN
STRATEGI
Rudy Wawolumaja / Universitas Kristen Maranatha
“Without a strategy the
organization is like a ship without
a rudder, going around in
circles.”
Joel Ross and Michael Kami “Quote”
Berpikir Strategis :
The Three Big Strategic Questions
1. Where are we now -- what is our situation?
2. Where do we want to go?
– Business(es) we want to be in and market
positions we want to stake out
– Buyer needs and groups we want to serve
– Outcomes we want to achieve
3. How will we get there?
What Is Strategy?
Konsep
• Langkah –langkah bersaing dan pendekatan bisnis
yang dilakukan manajemen dalam menjalankan
perusahaan.
• Management’s “game plan” untuk
– Memuaskan pelanggan
– Memposisikan perusahaan dalam pasar yang dipilih.
– Mencapai kinerja bisnis yang prima
Defining a Company’s Business
•
Definisi bisnis yang baik mencakup 3
faktor :
–
Customer needs -- WHAT is being
satisfied
–
Customer groups -- WHO is
satisfied
–
Technologies used and functions
performed -- HOW customer needs
are satisfied
being
Strategy Is Both Planned and
Reactive to Changing
Planned (or Circumstances
Intended)
Strategy
Actual
Strategy
Adaptive
Reactions
Lima Proses Manajemen Strategi
Proses 1
Perumusan
Strategi
Revise as
Needed
Proses 2
Proses 3
Proses 4 Proses5
Penetapan
Sasaran &
Way To Achieve
Penyusunan
Program
&
Anggaran
Implementasi
& Ekseskusi
Strategi
Revise as
Needed
Improve/
Change
Improve/
Change
Pemantauan
& Evaluasi
Recycle
as Needed
Perumusan Strategi
Proses ke 1 Manajemen Strategi
• Mulai dgn pemikiran strategis tentang:
– Bisnis Masa Depan Organisasi
– Kemana Organisasi akan dibawa
• Tugas pada proses ini :
–
–
–
–
Create a roadmap of a company’s future
Decide what future business position to stake out
Provide long-term direction
Give the firm a strong identity
Perumusan Strategi
•
5 Keluaran Perumusan Strategi :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Analisis Lingkungan Makro dan Industri yang
akan dimasuki organisasi dimasa depan.
Misi organisasi
Visi Organisasi
Keyakinan dasar dan nilai dasar organisasi.
Strategi untuk mewujudkan visi dan tujuan
organisasi.
Missions vs. Strategic Visions
•
Pernyataan missi
fokus pada aktifitas
bisnis masa kini
–
–
Bisnis organisasi
yang dijalankan
sekarang.
Kebutuhan pelanggan
yang sekarang
dilayani.
•
Visi strategis berkaitan
dengan alur bisnis
organisasi dimasa
mendatang.
–
–
Akan menjadi seperti apa,
organisasi dimasa depan.
Kebutuhan pelanggan yang
akan dipenuhi dimasa
mendatang.
Examples: Mission and
Vision Statements
McDonald’s Corporation
McDonald’s vision is to dominate the global
foodservice industry. Global dominance means
setting the performance standard for customer
satisfaction while increasing market share and
profitability through our Convenience,
Value, and Execution Strategies.
Examples: Mission and
Vision Statements
Microsoft Corporation
One vision drives everything we do: A
computer on every desk and in every home
using great software as an empowering
tool.
Mission &Vision Statements
BADAN PENDIDIKAN KRISTEN PENABUR
(BPK- PENABUR)
Visi :
Menjadi lembaga pendidikan Kristen yang mengutamakan
mutu penyelenggaraan pendidikan, untuk menghasilkan
lulusan yang beriman dan andal, dengan memanfaatkan
perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi, serta
memberi peluang pengembangan bagi guru dan karyawan
terbaiknya.
Misi :
Memberikan pendidikan bermutu kepada siswa agar
mandiri, berguna dan siap melayani, serta memberikan
peluang kepada guru dan karyawan untuk
mengembangkan diri, dengan didasari nilai-nilai iman
Kristiani.
Mission &Vision Statements
UNIVERSITAS KRISTEN MARANATHA
Visi :
Menjadi Perguruan Tinggi yang mandiri dan berdaya
cipta serta mampu mengisi dan mengembangkan ilmu
pengetahuan, teknologi dan seni abad ke 21 berdasarkan
kasih dan keteladanan Yesus Kristus.
Misi :
Mengembangkan cedekiawan yang handal, suasana yang
kondusif dan nilai-nilai hidup yang Kristiani sebagai
upaya pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi dan
seni dalam penyelenggaraan Tridharma Perguruan
Tinggi Kristen Maranatha.
Pilihan Strategi
•
Grand Strategy - Corporate Strategy, pilihan utk :
–
Strategi Pertumbuhan (Growth strategy)
– Strategi stabilitas (stability strategy)
– Strategi Pengurangan (retrenchment strategy)
•
Business strategy – Competitive strategy, pilihan
mengejar keunggulan bersaing melalui
•
•
•
•
•
Broad Low cost
Broad Differentiation atau Product superiority
Focused low-cost
Focused differentiation
Unique organizational capabilities
Penetapan Sasaran
Process ke 2 Manajemen Strategi
•
Menetapkan SASARAN (OBJECTIVES):
–
Merubah visi menjadi target kinerja yg spesifik
–
Menetapkan tonggak/yardsticks utk menelusuri
kinerja
–
Mendorong organisasi untuk menjadi inventive &
focused
Sasaran (Objectives) :
Financial Objectives
Keluaran difokuskan
utk meningkatkan
kinerja keuangan
organisasi
$
Strategic Objectives
Keluaran difokuskan untuk
meningkatkan daya saing
dan posisi bisnis jangka
panjang organisasi.
Jenis Sasaran (Balanced Score Cards)
Financial Objectives
Strategic Objectives
Kinerja dari perspektif :
Kinerja dari perspektif :
KEUANGAN
$
•CUSTOMER
•PROSES INTERN
•PROSES
PEMBELAJARAN &
PERTUMBUHAN
Balanced Score Cards
Perspektif Keuangan
Perspektif Proses
Intern
$
Perspektif Customer
Perspektif
Pembelajaran
& Pertumbuhan
Examples: Financial Objectives
•
Grow earnings per share 15% annually
•
Boost annual return on investment (or EVA) from 15%
to 20%
•
Increase annual dividends per share
to stockholders by 5% each year
•
Strive for stock price appreciation
equal to or above the S&P 500 average
•
Maintain a positive cash flow
•
Achieve and maintain a AA bond rating
Examples: Strategic Objectives
• Increase firm’s market share
• Overtake key rivals on quality or customer
service or product performance
• Attain lower overall costs than rivals
• Boost firm’s reputation with customers
• Attain stronger foothold in international
markets
• Achieve technological superiority
• Become leader in new product introductions
• Capture attractive growth opportunities
Crafting a Strategy – Menetapkan
“Way to Achieve”
•
Strategy involves determining whether to
–
–
–
–
Concentrate on a single business or several
businesses (diversification)
Cater to a broad range of customers or focus on a
particular niche
Develop a wide or narrow product line
Pursue a competitive advantage based on
•
Low cost or
• Product superiority or
• Unique organizational capabilities
Crafting a Strategy
•
Involves deciding how to
–
–
–
–
–
Respond to changing
buyer preferences
Outcompete rivals
Respond to new market
conditions
Grow the business over
the long-term
Achieve performance
targets
Our strategy
will be . . .
Strategy Is Both Planned and
Reactive to Changing
Planned (or Circumstances
Intended)
Strategy
Actual
Strategy
Adaptive
Reactions
The Hows That Define a Firm's Strategy
•
•
•
•
•
•
How to grow the business
Strategy
How to please customers
is HOW
to . . .
How to outcompete rivals
How to respond to changing market conditions
How to manage each functional piece of the
business and develop needed organizational
capabilities
How to achieve strategic and financial objectives
Understanding Company Strategy -What to Look For
Diversification
Actions to Strengthen
Resources & Capabilities
How Functional
Activities Are
Managed
Defensive Moves
Pattern
of Actions
That Define
Strategy
Pursuing New
Opportunities
Forward or
Backward Integration,
Collaboration
Responses to
Changing Conditions
Offensive Moves
to Gain Edge
Changes in
Product Line,
Quality, or Service
Geographic
Coverage
Strategy Example: McDonald’s
•
Strategic priorities
–
Continued growth
–
Providing exceptional customer care
–
Remaining an efficient and quality producer
–
Offering high value and good-tasting
products
–
Effectively marketing McDonald’s brand on
a global scale
Core Elements of
McDonald’s Strategy
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Add 2500 restaurants annually
Promote frequent customer visits via attractive menu
items, low-price specials, and Extra Value Meals
Be highly selective in granting franchises
Locate on sites offering convenience to customers and
profitable growth potential
Focus on limited menu and consistent quality
Careful attention to store efficiency
Extensive advertising and use of Mc prefix
Hire courteous personnel; pay an equitable wage;
provide good training
Crafting Strategy Is an
Exercise in Entrepreneurship
•
Strategy-making is a market-driven and
customer-driven activity that involves
–
Risk-taking and venturesomeness
–
Innovation and business creativity
–
Keen eye for spotting market
opportunities
–
Keen observation of customer needs
–
Choosing among alternatives
Characteristics of
Entrepreneurial Managers
•
Boldly pursue new strategic opportunities
•
Emphasize out-innovating the competition
•
Lead the way to improve firm performance
•
Willing to be a first-mover and take risks
•
Respond quickly and opportunistically
new developments
•
Devise trail blazing strategies
to
Why Do Strategies Evolve?
•
There is always an ongoing need
to react to
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Shifting market conditions
Fresh moves of competitors
New technologies
Evolving customer preferences
Political and regulatory changes
New windows of opportunity
The crisis of the moment
What Is a Strategic Plan?
Where firm is headed -Strategic vision and
business mission
Short and long term
performance targets --Strategic
and financial objectives
Action approaches to achieve
targeted results -- A
comprehensive strategy
Proses ke 3 Managemen Strategi
Penyusunan Program & Anggaran
•
Proses ini lebih memperinci target/goal yang
SMART : S - Specific
M - Measureable
A - Actionable
R - Realistic
T - Time – Bound
Dan juga program dan langkah untuk mencapai
target di rinci berikut anggarannya.
Hoshin Plan
CEO
Hoshin Plan
OBJECTIVE
STRATEGY/
TACTIC
Mgr
Hoshin Plan
OBJECTIVE
STRATEGY/
TACTIC
Individual
Implementation
OBJECTIVE
………
STRATEGY/
TACTIC
SI UKM-2010
Objective
Target/
Goal
Strategy/
Tactic
Performance
Measures
 ………..  ………..  ……….  ………..
…………  ………..  ……….  ………..
…………  ………..  ………..  ………..
.
SFLK UKM-2010
Objective
Target/
Strategy/ Performanc
Goal
Tactic
e Measures
 ………..  ………..  ……….  ………..
…………  ………..  ……….  ………..
…………  ………..  ………..  ………..
.
SI UKM-2010
Objective
SFLK UKM2010
Target/
Goal
Strategy/
Tactic
 ………..
 D3
Mandarin
 Grow
+3 PS.
Teknologi
…………
Informasi
.
… …….
 ……….
Objective
Target/
 Strategy/
………..
Goal
Tactic
 ………..  ………..  ……….
…………  ………..  ……….
…………  ………..  ………..
.
disiapkan oleh: Herianto Wibowo - UK Maranatha – 06.2001.
Performanc
e Measures
 Th.2002
 ………..
 ………..
Performanc
e Measures
 ………..
 ………..
 ………..
What Is a Strategic Plan?
Where firm is headed -Strategic vision and
business mission
Short and long term
performance targets --Strategic
and financial objectives
Action approaches to achieve
targeted results -- A
comprehensive strategy
Implementing Strategy
Proses ke 4 Managemen Strategi
•
Creating fits between way things
are done and what it takes for
effective strategy execution
•
Getting the organization to
execute strategy proficiently and
efficiently
•
Producing excellent results in a
timely manner
Strategy Implementation
Strategy implementation is an
internal, operations-driven activity
involving organizing, budgeting,
motivating, culture-building,
supervising, and leading to
“make the strategy work”
as intended!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What Does Strategy Implementation
Include?
Building a capable organization
Allocating resources to strategy-critical activities
Establishing strategy-supportive policies
Motivating people to pursue objectives
Tying rewards to achievement of results
Creating a strategy-supportive corporate culture
Installing needed information, communication, and
operating systems
• Instituting best practices for continuous improvement
• Exerting strategic leadership
Evaluating Performance
The Fifth Task of Strategic Management
•
The tasks of strategy are not a
one-time only exercise
–
Times and conditions change
–
Events unfold
–
Better ways to do things emerge
–
New managers with different
ideas take over
Evaluating Performance
•
Corrective adjustments
–
Alter long-term direction
–
Redefine the business
–
Raise or lower performance
objectives
–
Modify the strategy
–
Improve strategy execution
Characteristics of the
Strategic Management Process
• Need to perform tasks never goes away
• Boundaries among tasks are blurry
• Strategizing is not isolated from other
managerial activities
• Time required comes in lumps and spurts
• The big challenge is to get the best strategysupportive performance from employees,
perfect current strategy, and improve
strategy execution
Who Performs the Five
Strategic Management Tasks?
•
Senior Corporate
Level Executives
•
Subsidiary Business
Unit Managers
•
Functional Area
Managers
•
Operating
Managers
Strategizing: An Individual
or Group Responsibility?
•
Teams are increasingly used because
–
Strategic issues cut across departmental lines
–
Ideas of people with different backgrounds can be
tapped into
–
More people will have an ownership stake in the
strategy
Role of Strategic Planners
•
Gather necessary information
• Provide support in revising strategic plans
• Coordinate review and approval process
• Crystallize strategic issues to be addressed
• Conduct studies of industry and competitive
conditions
• Establish an annual review cycle
• Develop strategy performance assessments
Why Planners Should Not
Be Strategy Makers
•
Managers may toss tough
planners
•
Planners know less about
situation
•
Difficult to fix accountability for
results
•
Managers have no “buy in” to strategy
•
Strategic planning may be viewed as an
unproductive “bureaucratic” activity
decisions to
company’s
poor
Strategic Management Principle
Strategy-making is a job for
line managers, not a staff of
planners -- doers should be the
strategy-makers!
Strategic Role of a
Board of Directors
•
Continuously audit validity of a company’s longterm direction and strategy
•
Evaluate strategic leadership skills of the CEO
and candidates to succeed the CEO
Strategic Management Principle
A board of director’s role in the
strategic management process is to
critically appraise and ultimately
approve strategic action plans, but
rarely, if ever, to develop the details!
Benefits of Strategic Approach to
Managing
• Guides entire firm regarding “what it is we are
trying to do and to achieve”
• Lowers management’s threshold to change
• Provides basis for evaluating competing
budget requests
• Unifies numerous strategy-related
decisions
• Creates a proactive atmosphere
• Enhances long-range performance
Recap of Important Terms
Strategic Vision
A view of an organization’s future direction and business
course; a guiding concept for what the organization is trying
to do and to become.
Organization Mission
Represents management’s customized answer to the
question “what is our business and what will it be.” A
mission statement broadly outlines the organization’s future
direction and serves as a guiding concept for what the
organization is to do and to become.
Recap of Important Terms
Performance Objectives
Organization’s targets for achievement; both short and
long range objectives are needed.
Financial Objectives
Financial performance targets a company wants to
achieve.
Strategic Objectives
Targets relating to strengthening a company’s overall
market position and competitive viability.
Recap of Important Terms
Long-Range Objectives
Achievement levels to be reached within the next three to
five years.
Short-Range Objectives
Near-term performance targets; they establish the pace for
achieving the long-range objectives.
Recap of Important Terms
Strategy
Managerial action plan for achieving organizational
objectives; strategy is mirrored in the pattern of moves
and approaches devised by management to produce the
desired performance. Strategy is the how of pursuing an
organization’s mission and reaching target objectives.
Strategic Plan
Statement outlining an organization’s mission and future
direction, near-term and long-term performance targets,
and strategy, in light of organization’s external and
internal situation.
Recap of Important Terms
Strategy Implementation
Includes the full range of managerial
activities associated with putting the chosen
strategy into place, supervising its pursuit,
and achieving the targeted results.

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