MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK 1

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MANAJEMEN STRATEGIK 1
MANAJEMEN
STRATEGIK
SEKTOR PUBLIK
MATERI I KULIAH AP
2007/2008 UNIVERSITAS
GUNADARMA
endahuluan :
Administrasi publik merupakan fenomena
kajian yang strategik di dalam
penyelenggaraan negara sebagai akibat dari
adanya perubahan dan kecenderungan
global, sehingga menuntut agar lembagalembaga pemerintah menjadi lebih
profesional dalam menjalankan misinya dan
terbebas dari proses politik praktis.
endahuluan
Why do some firms succeed while others
fail?
z
A central objective of strategic management is to
learn why this happens.
What is strategy?
z
An action a company takes to attain superior
performance.
What is the strategic management process?
z
The process by which managers choose a set of
strategies for the enterprise to pursue its vision.
z
z
z
Mission
z
Sets out why the organization
exists and what it should be doing.
Major goals
z
Specify what the organization hopes
to fulfill in the medium to long term.
Secondary goals
z
Are objectives to be attained that lead to
superior performance.
ahapan Perubahan Organisasi
Pertumbuhan melalui kreativitas – Krisis
kepemimpinan
Pertumbuhan melalui pengarahan – krisis
otonomi
Pertumbuhan melalui desentralisasi – krisis
pengawasan
Pertumbuhan melalui koodinasi – krisis
birokrasi
Pertumbuhan melalui kolaborasi – krisis
afiliasi
Organisasi sebagai suatu
istem
Organisasi sebagai sistem : merupakan
kesatuan input – proses – output, dan
sebagai kesatuan entitas yg dipengaruhi dan
berhubungan dengan lingkungannya
Bagi manajer/pemerintah daerah akan
memudahkan pengelolaan internal organisasi
dan memudahkan adaptasi organisasi
dengan lingkungannya
3 pertanyaan kunci strategis:
Di mana organisasi sekarang?
Jika tidak ada perubahan yang dibuat,di
mana perusahaan akan berada dalam
eberapa tahun ini?
Jika jawabannya tidak dapat
iterima,tindakan khusus apa yang
ebaiknya dilakukan oleh manajemen?
uang lingkup dan Model
anajemen Strategik
Manstra sebagai bidang ilmu
menggabungkan kebijakan bisnis dengan
lingkungan dan tekanan strategis.
Meliputi:pengamatan lingkungan,perumusan
strategi,implementasi strategi dan evaluasi
serta pengendalian
Tiga karakteristik keputusan strategi: Rare,
Consequential,danDirective
volusi Manajemen Strategis
• B.Henderson (BCG) :peningkatan resiko
kesalahan,biaya,memburuknya ekonomi adalah
penyebab manajer profesional melakukan manajemen
strategis secara serius.
•Gluck, Kaufmandan Walleck:empat tahap manajemen
strategis yaitu perencanaan keuangan dasar(1950an),perencanaan berbasis peramalan(1960an),perencanaan beorientasi keluar(analisis industri
dan posisi persaingan-1973-1974)dan manajemen
strategis
•Pemicu perubahan strategis: (H.Mintzberg) : CEO
baru,intervensi institusi eksternal,ancaman perubahan
engertian
Strategi adalah kerangka atau rencana yg
mengintegrasikan tujuan-tujuan kebijakan dan
tindakan/program organisasi
Strategi adalah rencana tentang apa yg ingin
dicapai atau hendak menjadi apa suatu organisasi
di masa datang
Strategi adalah pola tindakan dan alokasi sbdy yg
dirancang u/ mencapai tujuan
Strategi adalah pilihan tentang apa yg ingin dicapai
dan bagaimana cara mencapainya
ola Strategi
Perumusan Strategi:
z •Misi
z •Tujuan
z •Strategi
z •Kebijakan
z
Implementasi Strategi:
ƒ •Program
ƒ •Anggaran
ƒ •Prosedur
trategic Planning
zRational
planning by top management?
Basic Strategic Planning Model
Defining the Mission and Setting Top-Level Goals
External Analysis of Opportunities and Threats
Internal Analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses
Selection of Appropriate Strategies
he Main
Components of
he Strategic
lanning
rocess
xternal Analysis
dentify strategic opportunities and threats in
e operating environment.
Immediate (Industry)
Macroenvironment
National
nternal Analysis
dentify strengths
z
z
Quality and quantity of resources available
Distinctive competencies
dentify weaknesses
z
z
Inadequate resources
Managerial and
organizational deficiencies
WOT and Strategic Choice
zStrengths
and Weaknesses
zOpportunities and Threats
(SWOT Analysis)
Strategic Choice
Business
Functional
Global
Corporate
usiness-Level Strategies
Cost leadership
z
Attaining, then using the lowest total cost basis as
a competitive advantage.
Differentiation
z
Using product features or services to distinguish
the firm’s offerings from its competitors.
Market niche focus
z
Concentrating competitively on
a specific market segment.
unctional-Level Strategies
Focus is on improving the effectiveness of
perations within a company.
z
z
z
z
z
Manufacturing
Marketing
Materials management
Research and development
Human resources
lobal-Level Strategies
Multidomestic
nternational
Global
Transnational
orporate-Level Strategies
Vertical integration
Diversification
Strategic alliances
Acquisitions
New ventures
Business portfolio
structuring
trategy Implementation
Designing organizational structure
Designing control systems
z
z
z
z
Market and output controls
Bureaucratic controls
Control through organizational culture
Rewards and incentives
Structure
Controls
Matching strategy, structure,
d controls
z
Congruence (fit) among strategy,
structure, and controls
Strategy
Managing Strategic Change
The only constant is change.
Success requires adapting strategy and
ructure to a changing world.
The feedback loop in
Corporate
rategic planning.
Operational
Business
trategic Managers
General managers
z
Responsible for the overall (strategic)
performance and health of the total organization.
Operations managers
z
Responsible for specific business
functions or operations.
trategic Managers for All Levels
trategic Leadership
zVision,
eloquence, and consistency
zCommitment to the vision
zBeing well informed
zWillingness to
delegate and empower
zAstute use of power
zEmotional intelligence
trategy as an Emergent
rocess
Strategy making in an unpredictable world
z
Creates the necessity for flexible strategic approaches.
Strategy making by lower-level managers
z
Strategy evolves through autonomous action.
Serendipity and strategy
z
Accidental discoveries and happenstances can have
dramatic effects on strategic direction.
ntended and emergent strategies
z
Realized strategies are combinations of intended and
emergent strategies.
ntended and Emergent
trategies
The Strategic Management Process for
ntended and Emergent Strategies
trategic Planning in Practice
Planning under uncertainty
z
Scenario planning for dynamic environmental change
vory tower planning
z
z
z
Lack of contact with operational realities
The importance of involving operating managers
Procedural justice in the decision-making process
z Engagement, explanation, and expectations
Planning for the present: Strategic Intent
z
z
Recognition of the static nature of the strategic fit model
Strategic intent in focusing the organization on winning by
achieving stretch goals
mproving Strategic Decision
Making
Cognitive biases systematically influence the
tionality of decision makers.
roupthink and Strategic
ecisions
Pitfalls of groupthink
z
z
z
z
z
Failing to question underlying assumptions.
Coalescing around a single person or policy.
Filtering out conflicting information.
Developing after-the-fact rationalizations.
Having an emotional (nonobjective)
commitment to an action.
echniques for Improving Decision
Making
Two decisionmaking processes
hat counteract
ognitive biases
nd groupthink.
Manfaat perumusan strategi
Mendorong pemahaman terhadap situasi
Mengatasi konflik karena arah
pengembangan yg tidak jelas
Pendayagunaan dan alokasi sbdaya terbatas
Memenangkan kompetisi
Mampu mencapai keinginan dan
memecahkan permasalahan besar
ahapan perumusan Strategi
Fred David : manajemen strategi adalah seni
dan ilmu untuk formulasi, implementasi dan
evaluasi keputusan yg bersifat lintas
fungsional yg digunakan sebagai panduan bg
fungsi sbdy manusia, pemasaran, keuangan
dan lain-lain agar dapat mencapai tujuannya
Terima kasih sampai jumpa materi
berikutnya
By : Peni Sawitri

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