KOLOKIUM PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIK DAN SAINS 2012 KERTAS

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KOLOKIUM PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIK DAN SAINS 2012 KERTAS
KOLOKIUM PENDIDIKAN MATEMATIK DAN
SAINS 2012
12 SEPTEMBER 2012, UNIVERSITI MALAYA
KERTAS KERJA
CARA MENINGKATKAN MINAT PELAJAR
TERHADAP SAINS DAN MATEMATIK
AMINAH AYOB (PhD)
UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS
PENGENALAN:
PENDIDIKAN S&M SEJAK TAHUN 80an
Sek Ren: SAINS RENDAH, MATEMATIK RENDAH
Sek Men: Aliran sastera: SAINS TERAS, MATEMATIK
Aliran sains: FIZIK, KIMIA, BIOLOGI, MAT.MODEN,
MAT. TAMBAHAN, SAINS TAMBAHAN, ICT.
Aliran teknikal: Reka Cipta, Grafik Berkomputer,
Produksi Multimedia, Mechanical Engineering Studies,
Engineering Drawing, Electrical & Electronic
Engineering, Kejenteraan Pertanian,Teknologi Pejabat
Perniagaan, Teknologi Binaan, dll - 93 mata pelajaran.
Universiti: PURE SC., APPLIED SC., MEDICINE, ENG., TECHN.
TUJUAN PENDIDIKAN SAINS/MATEMATIK
• MELAHIRKAN PELAJAR YANG:
– CELIK SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI
– BERFIKIRAN LOGIK, KRITIKAL, ANALITIKAL DAN KREATIF,
– MENGGUNA CARA/KAEDAH SAINTIFIK UNTUK MENYIASAT
DAN MENYELESAIKAN MASALAH
– MENGUASAI ILMU SAINS DAN MAT. UNTUK MEMENUHI
BIDANG PEKERJAAN STEM
– MENGGUNA & MENGHAYATI SMT DALAM KEHIDUPAN
SEHARI-HARI
– BERETIKA DAN BERNILAI MULIA
OBJEKTIF PENDIDIKAN SAINS (CHEMISTRY)
• “Malaysia needs to create a society that is scientifically
oriented, progressive, knowledgeable, having a high
capacity for change, forward looking, innovative and a
contributor to scientific and technological developments
in the future”;
and
• “science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and
technology culture by focusing on the development of
individuals who are competitive, dynamic, robust, and
resilient, and able to master scientific knowledge and
technology competency”
(PPK, KPM 2004, p.2-3)
Mengapa minat pelajar terhadap S&M merosot?
Ini fenomena seluruh dunia (OECD, 2010)
“OECD governments must take concrete steps to make science and
technology studies more attractive” - this was one of the main conclusions
from the international conference on declining student enrolment in
science and technology courses, OECD, Nov. 14-15, 2005, Amsterdam.
Persidangan itu mendapati:
• Tren enrolmen membimbangkan dalam bidang spt
Matematik, Fizik dan Kimia. Penurunan graduan universiti
sehingga 30-50% dalam masa 8-10 tahun ini;
• Young people often have stereotyped visions of S&T
professionals and their careers;
• S&T curricula are often rigid and outdated.
• Some teachers in primary or secondary education lack
adequate S&T training.
Kesan kemerosotan S&M di Malaysia?
• Sejak 2007, peratus pelajar aliran sains ialah
±29% masih berlum meningkat sehingga 2012.
Sasaran negara ialah 60% pada 2020.
• Bilangan Researcher-Scientist-Engineer (RSE):
– RSE Malaysia: 25 per 10,000 orang.
– RSE Jepun : 346 per 10,000 orang
– RSE Korea : 300 per 10,000 orang
Perbandingan RSE Malaysia dengan
negara jiran
Negara
MALAYSIA
INDONESIA
SINGAPORE
SRI LANGKA
THAILAND
Headcount – no No of reseracher
of researcher per million popu.
24,937
180
92,817
438
28,817
4745
16,851
393
76,814
286
SUMBER: UNESCO, 2008
Mengapa S&M penting masa hadapan?
• Semua perkara dalam kehidupan kita kini
bergantung kepada SMT
– Contoh: Membayar bil, mengira cukai taksiran, kos
dan perbelanjaan harian/bulanan, kenaikan harga
barangan, petrol, dsb
– Memahami aspek kesihatan dan penyakit,
pencemaran, kualiti kehidupan, makanan, dsb
– Pelru menggunakan pelbagai peralatan ciptaan baru,
semakin banyak perkhidmatan yang menggunakan
sistem elektronik/pengkomputeran/ internet dan
teknologi digital – internet banking, internet payment,
e-permohonan, portal dan blog ,
– dsb
Kajian Juriah Long dan rakan-rakan (2007)
Pandangan pelajar
Sains (%)
Mat. (%)
 Guru mengajar S&M dalam BI dengan
cara menarik
59.3
59.3
 Guru menerangkan pelajaran S&M dalam
BI dengan jelas
59.1
58.7
 Guru menggunakan komputer/internet
semasa mengajar S&M
50.9
13.8
 Saya berpeluang menggunakan
komputer/internet dalam kelas S&M
8.9
5.7
 Saya boleh berbincang dengan kawan
dalam BI dalam kelas S&M
33.0
33.6
Kesimpulan: pelajar tidak mendapat manfaat drp
pelaksanaan PPSMI kerana guru-guru kurang fasih BI.
DAPATAN KAJIAN LAIN
• Mageswari, Zurida Ismail & Norita (2007):
“kurikulum Kimia sekolah menengah GAGAL
melahirkan individu yang seimbang dari segi
JERI kerana keterlaluan penekanan diberikan
kepada teknik menghafal dan mengingat
konsep-konsep/fakta-fakta, untuk peperiksaan”.
• Pedagogi yang digunakan tidak menyumbang
kepada peningkatan kreativiti dan pemikiran
kreatif, malah pembelajaran masih berpusatkan
guru.
DAPATAN KAJIAN-KAJIAN
• Aida Suraya & rakan-rakan (2005): kaji
kebolehan pelajar universiti menyelesaikan
masalah:
• Dapatan: kebolehan pelajar adalah sederhana.
– “students do not have the generic skills in problem
solving, specifically in definition and formulation of
problems, in generation of alternatives subscale, in
decision making and in implimention and verification
of the solution”
• Projek ‘ROSE’ (Relevance of Science Education),
Malaysian students were interested in jobs that
required ‘creativity’.
Laporan Keputusan PMR oleh guru di sek X
Kelemahan yang diperhati kerana ramai gagal S&M:
• Pelajar-pelajar tidak begitu terdedah kepada format baru
peperiksaan PMR 2004.
• Kebanyakan pelajar-pelajar gagal dalam bahagian kertas 2
Sains yang merupakan 60% daripada markah keseluruhan.
Ini kerana pelajar tidak dapat menjawab mengikut teknik
yang betul, jawapan mereka tidak memenuhi kehendak
soalankerana kertas 2 berbentuk soalan subjektif.
• Kekerapan guru-guru menghadiri kursus yang diadakan
semasa waktu persekolahan menyebabkan sukatan
pelajaran tidak dapat dihabiskan lebih awal.
• Pertukaran guru yang mengajar kerana perpindahan
mungkin merupakan factor sampingan yang menjejaskan
proses P&P dan menjejaskan keputusan peperiksaan.
KEADAAN PEMBELAJARAN
YG MENJEMUKAN
PELBELAJARAN YANG LEBIH MERANGSANGKAN
MASALAH YANG WUJUD
1. MASALAH DENGAN GURU & SEKOLAH,
SILIBUS DAN PEPERIKSAAN
2. SEMUA PIHAK MASIH TIDAK MENYEDARI
PERUBAHAN ZAMAN – PERUBAHAN GAYA
BELAJAR PELAJAR  PENGAJARAN MASIH
BERPUSATKAN GURU, TEKNIK LAMA
3. DORONGAN IBU BAPA DAN NILAI PASARAN
MATA PELAJARAN S&M
Mengapa minat pelajar terhadap S&M
merosot ?
Kemungkinan sebab:
1. Mismatch antara kurikulum, pengajaran dan gaya
belajar dan ciri-ciri pelajar zaman sekarang
2. Minat & PCK guru tidak mencapai tahap
3. Ibubapa & Pelajar tidak yakin dengan kerjaya S&M
masa hadapan
4. Sistem pendidikan yang lapok – masih tidak berubah,
dan tidak sensitif kepada perubahan di sekeliling dan
perubahan kepada nilai hidup generasi baru – belum
dapat tukar mind-set lama.
5. Banyak lagi faktor lain, khususnya berkaitan faktor
individu, sikap, budaya, dan keselesaan hidup.
MISMATCH KURIKULUM &
PELAJAR
INI ADALAH ABAD DIGITAL
MEMAHAMI GENERASI DIGITAL
• Landskap digital baru (The Digital Diet)
– Today's digital tools in small bytes
– Blogs, wikis, Twitter, Facebook, online video, search
engines, social networking.
• In this vast new electronic landscape we face a
totally different kind of student than we were
when we were in the classrooms. Indeed, today
even the definition of the classroom itself has
been revolutionized and completely redefined by
the digital age.
MINAT KANAK-KANAK/PELAJAR MASA KINI
MINDA BEBAS; ADA IDEA
SENDIRI; KECERDASAN
PELBAGAI & MAHU
DIHORMATI
BIJAK ICT: IPAD, INTERNET,
GAMES
Bagaimana menjadikan S&M
menarik?
• Science based activities help students become
decision makers, developing abilities to ask
questions, to find the answers, and to use the
information they discover.
S&M menarik minat pelajar – melalui
kerja projek
PERLU ADA KOMITMEN GURU
Science Programs for Kids run by Dan Weissman, the winner of the
Presidential Award for Excellence in Science and Math Teaching. This
Science Programs consists of a team of dedicated teachers and wellqualified science enthusiasts that want to make learning science FUN!
What do you get when you mix a numerous every
day objects in some physics, and top it off with
inquisitive and energetic kids?
PERLU ADA PERANCANGAN, IDEA, DAN USAHA
OLEH GURU
• “We spent time in class learning preparing. “There was terrific energy in
the classroom - students brainstormed and discussed ideas with their
partners
• “After we made the decision to change the curriculum and begin the
year focusing on scientific method and problem-solving”
• We consider these 4 challenges:
1. Design and build a vehicle to win a 2 meter race without being
powered by human contact
2. Design and build a catapult that can launch a marshmallow the
furthest distance
3. Design and build the highest tower possible that is capable of
supporting an egg for 15 seconds.
4. Design and build a contraption that will keep and dropped egg
from breaking from three different heights.”
• “The students were totally engaged in this
project and worked collaboratively in ways
we often don’t get to observe in a typical
classroom setting,”
• “There were many instances of creative
problem-solving on the fly in order to achieve
overall success for the class.”
(Reflection by the teacher)
Teaching for Tomorrow:
Teaching Content and Problem
Solving Skills
Teaching and Learning Approaches in
Science
•
•
•
•
•
Inquiry-Discovery
Constructivism
Science, Technology and Society
Contextual Learning
Mastery Learning
CADANGAN MENGATASI MISMATCH
• GUNA KAEDAH PEMBELAJARAN AKTIF
– PROJEK SAINS ATAU MATEMATIK,
– LEBIH BANYAK AKTIVITI HANDS-ON PERLU
DIJALANKAN
– BERI AUTONOMI KEPADA PELAJAR UNTUK
MENENTUKAN SKOP PEMBELAJARAN DAN GURU
SEBAGAI FASILITATOR
– ASPEK PEPERIKSAAN BOLEH DI ATASI – APABILA
PELAJAR BERMINAT BELAJAR, MAKA TIDAK SUKAR
LAGI UNTUK PELAJAR BELAJAR KONTEN
SUK.PELAJARAN.
A Fun Science Project for the Kids
• Wednesday, February 25th, 2012
• We have the coolest science experiment for you to do with
your kids. It was inspired by the amazing teachers at Poets
school. We did this one with one of our Little Seed friends,
Paloma and she loved it. First you take celery and cut off the
ends, keeping the flowery leaves at the top.
• Science and Technology education should allow
children to explore the way our world functions and
changes.
• Students learn how to apply scientific processes and
take action in solving technological challenges.
• They learn about both natural and made environments
through the learning processes of Investigating,
Designing and Making and Using technology.
DAPATKAN BANTUAN PAKAR,
UNIVERSITI PERLU BANTU;
BOLEH ANJURKAN PROJEK
BERSAMA PELAJAR DAN GURU
PROJEK ANJURAAN
UNESCO – 2008 CHINA
GROUP 4: TEACHING AND
LEARNING METHODS AND
ACTIVITIES
HANDS-ON LEARNING (Learning by Doing)
Program in Science Education, August 2001
• The MOE and the Association of Science and
Technology China jointly advocated and
boosted the “Learning by Doing”
experimental reform program for science
education in China, aiming at advancing
education of science for kindergartens and
primary schools and implementing quality
education - an important reform program
for education.
Initiated by international scientific society
The project aims to enhance and
innovate science education in preschools and primary and middle
schools
LBD project in school
• Science concepts learn in the classroom are
translated and shown their applications in the
lab.
• This is what makes the experience
unforgettable to students!
• Learning is meaningful, enjoyable and fun
• High order thinking skills and creativity
• Nurturing future scientists and technologists
LBD in primary science – learning how bicycle works
Shanghai LBD project school –
Physics lab
• science concepts learn in the classroom are
translated and shown their applications in
the lab.
• This is what makes the experience
unforgettable to students!
A physics lab
Application of the principle of
kinematics & dynamic
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
• Emphasize on experience – grounded in
students’ experiences as a continuing process.
• Some experiential methods: case studies, role
play, simulations, internships.
• PROJECT-BASED,
• INQUIRY-BASED,
• EXPERIMENTS, EXPLORATION, RESEARCH.
Kaedah P&P: thoughful learning:
• “Thoughful learning - process that helps
students acquire knowledge & master skills that
will help them develop their minds to the
optimum level.
• Thoughful learning can occur through various
learning approaches such as inquiry,
constructivism, contextual learning, and mastery
learning
• Learning activities should be geared towards
activating students’ critical and creative
thinking skills and solve problems”
(Curriculum Spesifications, Chemistry Form 5 (CDC, MoE, 2006, p.10),
CARA-CARA MENINGKATKAN MINAT PELAJAR
• Let students participate in the discovering
process – using ICT, to search, analyse,
hypothesize, discuss, create, test, and
experience the real problems - they would
understand better;
• Ignite their curiosity and encourage their selfmotivation for learning;
ACTIVE LEARNING – STUDENTS ARE ENGAGED
For more information contact [email protected]
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
• Students are actively engaged in meaningful,
hands-on, minds-on, and authentic learning
experiences
• Students learn to value the subjects they are
learning
• Students become confident in their ability to
learn
• Students become problem solvers
• Students learn to communicate
• Students become highly motivated
•
•
•
•
Chemistry and Ceramics:
Shared ground common fire
in conjunction with the exhibition
Don Reitz: clay, fire, salt, and wood
Chemistry and Ceramics:
Shared ground
common fire
in conjunction with the exhibition
Don Reitz: clay, fire, salt, and wood
ROALD HOFFMANN
Nobel Laureate In Chemistry
Frank H.T. Rhodes Professor Of Humane Letters
And Of Chemistry, Cornell University
APRIL 25, 2005, 5:30 P.M.
Elvehjem Museum Of Art, Room L140
800 Universityave,Madison, Wi
nobel laureate in chemistry
Concert at Chemistry
Thursday, March 12, 2009
1:15 p.m.
Seminar Hall, Room 1315
Daniels Chemistry Building, UW-Madison Campus
Making Science Fun
11 March 2009
Which of (if any) of these statements is true for you?
A. Science is inherently boring, and it’s up to teachers
to make it fun so kids will want to learn it.
B. Science is inherently fun, and it’s up to teachers to
avoid boring ways of presenting the matieral.
C. Science is not fun or boring. It’s just a topic we
should cover. Making it fun helps us get through the
material quicker.
• In the real wold, science is amazingly fun. Science
isn’t just doing experiments, testing hypotheses, and
taking notes (although, that can be fun indeed).
• Science is also throwing rocks in a pond and
watching the ripples. It’s looking through a telescope
and talking about the vastness of space. It’s debating
about how water could have managed to exist on our
planet. It’s making Playdoh. It’s creating pottery. It’s
cooking (thank you Alton Brown!). It’s manufacturing
(thank you How It’s Made!) It’s getting sick and
getting better. It’s composting. It’s woodworking.
YOU NAME IT!
• Science is real, and it’s everywhere. And
it’s amazing, and fun.
•
PERTANDINGAN S&T
SINGAPORE
EXPERIENCE
SMT COMPETITIONS
SCIENCE FAIR
EXHIBITION OF
STUDENTS’
WORK/INVENTIONS
The main task is to help students learn
how to find information and broaden their
vision on the platform of the Internet in
order to cultivate their ability to master,
analyze and synthesize knowledge and to
solve real problems.
Observation
Information
Discussion
Question
Discussion
Expression
Discussion
Recording
Imagination
Recording
Data Processing
Discussion
Design
Recording
Recording
Experiment
The Process of Inquiry
SCIENCE & MATH
FAIR
EMPHASISING:
AUTHENTIC
PROBLEMS, CRITICAL &
CREATIVE THINKING, &
DISCOVERY
MULAKAN DENGAN KANAKKANAK PRASEKOLAH ATAU DI
PERINGKAT TASKA
• KANAK-KANAK SANGAT INKUISITIF, SUKA
BERTANYA DAN INGIN TAHU PELBAGAI
PERKARA DALAM DUNIA PERSEKITARAN
MEREKA.
• INILAH PELUANG MEMBINA MINAT
TERHADAP SAINS DAN MATEMATIK
Almost all young children in
almost all environments “do
science” most of the time; they
experience the world around
them and develop theories about
how that world works.
Childhood curiosity leads to real
science
• Many early childhood teachers are hesitant about
introducing science in their classrooms (because of
their unpleasant experience with science in
school).
• Science is not only plants or animals; science is
everywhere, all around us.
• Often teachers see science as some kind of magic
trick to perform. They bring out the baking soda
and vinegar to “make a volcano.” - Children may
be amazed and amused but it does not build
accurate knowledge and does not represent real
science.
HOW SHOULD YOUNG CHILDREN LEARN
SCIENCE ?
• Real science begins with child curiosity,
• This leads to exploration.
• With teachers’ help and encouragement;
leads to discovery.
• It involves three major components:
• content,
• processes, and
• attitude.
• Young children, like scientists, they need to
practice the process skills of predicting,
observing, classifying, hypothesizing,
experimenting, and communicating.
• Like adult scientists, they need opportunities to
reflect on their ‘discoveries’ -- how they
discovered/found them, and how the findings
compare to their previous ideas and the ideas of
others.
• In this way, children are encouraged to develop
the attitude of a scientist.
1. Science responds to children’s need to learn about
the world around them.
2. Children’s everyday experience is the foundation for
science.
3. Hands-on science activities let teachers observe and
respond to children’s individual strengths and needs.
4. Science strongly supports language and literacy.
Vocabulary grow as children talk about everyday
world, dan their observation with and adult.
5. Problem-solving skills of science easily enhance the
social skills of children
6. Science demonstrations help children become
comfortable in large group conversations.
7. Science connects easily to other areas, including
math, art, music, and social studies.
CONTOH-CONTOH AKTIVITI SAINS DARI INTERNET
All About Air
Electricity
Chemistry
Energy
Color
Density
Food Science
Magnetism
Forces & Motion
Rocks & Minerals
[email protected]
PERSEPSI
YANG SALAH
TENTANG
S&M
• I grew up afraid of science because I was given the
impression that you had to be a math whiz to really
handle the “hard” subjects. I didn’t take physics in high
school for that reason. What a mistake.
• Science doesn’t have to be dull reading in a book. It
doesn’t require expensive lab equipment;
POINT UNTUK DIFIKIR DAN DIUBAH
•
•
•
•
•
•
KURIKULUM SM TERLALU PADAT
MASA TIDAK CUKUP
BEBAN TUGAS GURU BERAT
TUGAS-TUGAS LAIN MENJEJASKAN SM
GURU KURANG PENGETAHUAN
SIKAP DAN EKSPEKTASI IBUBAPA DAN
NEGARA
SEKIAN
TERIMA KASIH

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