Southern York County I

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Southern York County I
Southern York County
I-83 Park N Ride Study
January 2011
Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................................................... 1
York County Commuter Travel .................................................................................................... 3
Commuter Programs ..................................................................................................................... 6
York County Park N Ride Facilities.............................................................................................. 9
Future Commuters ...................................................................................................................... 13
Existing Parking Inventory.......................................................................................................... 17
Constructing a Park N Ride Facility............................................................................................ 28
Summary ..................................................................................................................................... 33
Appendix..................................................................................................................................... 37
List of Maps
Map 1 – Study Area Map .............................................................................................................. 2
Map 2 – York County Outbound Commuter Shed 2008 ............................................................... 3
Map 3 – York County Park N Ride Map ....................................................................................... 9
Map 4 – Existing Parking Inventory: Exit 16 Queen Street ......................................................... 17
Map 5 – Existing Parking Inventory: Exit 14 Leader Heights ..................................................... 18
Map 6 – Existing Parking Inventory: Exit 10 Loganville ............................................................ 18
Map 7 – Existing Parking Inventory: Exit 8 Glen Rock .............................................................. 19
Map 8 – Existing Parking Inventory: Exit 4 Shrewsbury ............................................................ 19
List of Figures
Figure 1 – Top Ten Commuter Destinations ................................................................................. 4
Figure 2 – rabbitExpress One Way Trips (Combined) .................................................................. 6
Figure 3 – Commuter Services of PA Database Membership ....................................................... 7
Figure 4 – Exit 33 Yocumtown Park N Ride Vehicle Count ....................................................... 10
Figure 5 – Exit 24 Board Rd Hop N Ride Vehicle Count ............................................................ 11
Figure 6 – Exit 4 Shrewsbury Park N Ride Vehicle Count.......................................................... 11
Figure 7 – Southbound Commuter Projections............................................................................ 15
Figure 8 – South Central York County Population Projections ................................................... 16
Figure 9 – Commuter Mode (All Responders) ............................................................................ 29
Figure 10 – Question 10 (All Responders) .................................................................................. 30
Figure 11 – Question 10 (Southbound Responders) .................................................................... 31
Figure 12 – Question 11 (All Responders) .................................................................................. 31
Figure 13 – Question 11 (Southbound Responders) .................................................................... 32
List of Tables
Table 1 – Population Data for South Central York County ......................................................... 13
Table 2 – Southbound Commuter Projections ............................................................................. 14
Table 3 – Existing Parking Inventory: Initial Survey Locations .................................................. 20
Table 4 – Top Six Locations in the Existing Parking Inventory .................................................. 27
Table 5 – Survey Respondents’ Commute Direction................................................................... 28
Introduction
The purpose of this study is to pinpoint strategic locations for Park N Ride lots to facilitate the
use of rabbittransit’s Express Bus Service to Maryland and to compliment the alternative
transportation advocacy efforts of Commuter Services of Pennsylvania.
This study was funded through PennDOT’s Pennsylvania Communities Transportation Intitiative
(PCTI) grant program. The PCTI program is intended to fund planning and construction projects
that demonstrate creative and efficient ways of addressing various transportation challenges
through Smart Transportation. PennDOT’s Smart Transportation program has ten Smart
Transportation themes:
1. Money counts
2. Understand the context; plan and design within the context
3. Choose projects with high value/price ratio
4. Enhance the local network
5. Look beyond level-of-service
6. Safety first and maybe safety only
7. Accommodate all modes
8. Leverage and preserve existing investments
9. Build towns not sprawl
10. Develop local governments as strong land use partners
The study area involves the I-83 corridor south of York City from Exit 16 Queen Street south to
the Maryland line and is shown on the map below, Map 1.
The following deficiencies or needs have been identified for the study area:
• The growing number of York County residents commuting to the Baltimore area through
the I-83 corridor via single occupancy vehicles creates continuously rising levels of
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and particulate matter.
• The demand for Park N Ride spaces between I-83 Exit 24 and the Maryland line far
exceeds the number of Park N Ride spaces available.
• The lack of adequate Park N Ride facilities contributes to the high percentage of single
occupancy vehicle commuters and their reluctance to explore alternative modes, such as
rabbitExpress, carpooling, and vanpooling.
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
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Map 1
2
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
York County Commuter Travel
York County has a large and growing commuter population. According to the 2000 Census
Transportation Planning Package (2000 CTPP) data, some 51,000 York County residents
traveled outside of York County to work each day. The recently released 2006-2008 American
Community Survey (2008 ACS) shows that this number has risen to just under 65,000 residents.
This out-of-county commuting population has grown in both number and as a percentage of the
total number of York County workers. In 2000, the split between the number of workers who
lived and worked in York County and the number of workers who lived in but worked outside of
York County was 73.6% and 26.4%, respectively. By 2008, the percentages moved to 69.6%
worked in York County and 30.4% worked outside of York County.
Map 2 details the Outbound Commuter Shed for York County residents for 2008. This map
shows the counties to which York County residents traveled to for work using the 2008 ACS
data. Approximately 83.5% of these out-of-county commuters traveled to a county adjacent to
York County for work, and the remaining 16.5% traveled further than an adjoining county.
Map 2
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
3
The chart below, Figure 1, shows the top ten commuter destinations outside of York County and
the number of York County residents who commute to work there for the years of 1990, 2000
and 2008. This information comes from the 1990 US Census Journey to Work (1990 JTW) data,
the 2000 CTTP and the 2008 ACS. From the 2008 ACS data, these ten destinations account for
93.3% of the total number of out-of-county commuters.
Top Ten Commuter Destinations
14000
12000
12440
11625
11780
10815
9850
10047
10000
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2000 CTPP
7970
6605
1990 Census JTW
7071
7285
5485
3845
2008 ACS
5525
4925
3454
4035
2730
1891
3415
2945
2200
1815 1497
1180
1200
1155
800
300
547
256
Figure 1
Cumberland County continues to be the number one out-of-county employment destination for
York County residents. The fastest growing out-of-county employment destination for York
County residents is Baltimore County with an increase of 78.3% since 1990.
It is worth noting that the four Pennsylvania county destinations are all adjacent to York County.
Yet, of the six Maryland county destinations, three are adjacent to York County, and three are
beyond the adjacent counties. Between 2000 and 2008, the number of York County residents
commuting to Maryland counties for work has increased by some 8,700 commuters, while the
increase to the Pennsylvania counties was just under 4,200 commuters. For the same time
period, the number of York County residents commuting north to the Harrisburg area increased
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Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
by 8%, while the number of York County residents commuting south to the Baltimore area
increased by 48%.
In the nine years since the 2000 Census, estimates show that approximately 47,000 new residents
have come to York County. Municipal managers agree that a significant portion of these York
County newcomers commute out of the County to work. Key segments of I-83 show traffic
volume increases from 2000 to 2009 between 14% - 18% in both the northbound and southbound
directions. Secondary roadways in the study area that provide access to I-83 show traffic volume
increase of up to 108% for the same time period.
This continuing increase in the number of commuters traveling the I-83 corridor on a daily basis
stresses the York County transportation network and continuously adds to the levels of
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and particulate matter. PennDOT’s Smart Transportation
principles call for a sound policy to strategically find cost effective approaches that enhance the
current network, emphasize intermodal connections, and preserve existing investments. In York
County, there are currently three programs working to reduce the number of single occupant
vehicles traveling the I-83 corrridor: rabbittransit Express Bus service to Harrisburg,
rabbittransit Express Bus service to Maryland, and Commuter Services of Pennsylvania. All of
these programs provide alternatives to the single occupant vehicle commute, aimed at reducing
the number of vehicles on I-83 and secondary roads.
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
5
Commuter Programs
The rabbittransit express bus service,
known as rabbitExpress, travels both
north and south on I-83, providing
commuter service to both the Harrisburg
and the Baltimore area. Both service
routes are shown in the Appendix.
The rabbitExpress service to Harrisburg began in July 2006. At a cash price of $3.50 per trip,
there are currently four buses primarily serving York-Harrisburg office commuters. In August
2010, the service showed a high ridership level of 229 trips in one day and an average of 204
trips per day. This level is a 0.9% increase over August 2009.
The rabbitExpress service to Baltimore began in February 2009. At a cash price of $5.00 per
trip, there are currently three buses. Unlike the Harrisburg express service, this route serves a
variety of riders, including office-working commuters, various hospital shift staff, light-rail
transfers to Baltimore City, and BWI-bound travelers. In August 2010, the service showed a high
ridership level of 90 trips in one day and an average of 71 trips per day. This level is a 37.4%
increase over the ridership level in August 2009.
Figure 2 below shows four full years of rabbitExpress ridership levels by quarter through June
2010. From the first quarter of operation in the Summer of 2006 through the end of Spring 2010,
the ridership levels rose from 7,856 to 17,333 – that’s 120.6%. Overall, measuring the JulyAugust-September quarters from 2006 through 2009, average growth in ridership has increased
steadily by just under 30% annually.
rabbitExpress One Way Trips (combined)
Start of
rabbitExpress
to Baltimore
18,000
16,000
13,36013,79512,91713,321
11,717
10,43910,249
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
17,333
16,881
15,561
15,364
14,867
7,856 7,944
8,594
7,803
6,000
4,000
2,000
JAS OND JFM AMJ JAS OND JFM AMJ JAS OND JFM AMJ JAS OND JFM AMJ
2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010
JAS: July, Aug, Sept (Summer)
OND: Oct, Nov, Dec
JFM: Jan, Feb, Mar
AMJ: April, May, June (Spring)
Figure 2
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Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Commuter Services of Pennsylvania
(Commuter Services) promotes carpooling,
vanpooling, and transit use as an alternative
to driving alone throughout their 9-county
service area in central Pennsylvania. This
non-profit organization, funded through the
metropolitan planning organziations (MPO’s) in their services area, has garnered the support of
more than 14,000 commuters for potential carpool/vanpool matches through their ridesharing
database and advocates transit use in areas with transit service. Currently, the Commuter
Service’s service area covers the following nine counties in central Pennsylvania: Adams, Berks,
Cumberland, Dauphin, Franklin, Lancaster, Lebanon, Perry and York. By working with area
employers, Commuter Services is able to reach thousands of commuters at their commute
destination points, as well as helping area employers to tailor commuter incentive programs.
One key to their success is Commuter Service’s Emergency Ride Home (ERH) program.
Commuters often say that one of the barriers to using transit or carpooling to work is that they
may need to make last minute schedule changes due to family emergencies or unscheduled
overtime. Using transit or carpooling does not provide the flexibility that driving alone does
under these circumstances. Under the ERH program, registered commuters- carpoolers,
vanpoolers, transit riders alike - in the Commuter Service’s database can be reimbursed for
travel expenses incurred when encountering these last-minute schedule changes.
The chart below, Figure 3, shows the increase in the Commuter Services database membership
since the start of their outreach program in the fall of 2005. From the beginning of the program’s
second year, there has been an average database increase of 87% annually, ranging from 15% to
161% yearly. Overall, membership has grown a total of 824% in about five years. The database
membership includes those commuters looking for a carpool or vanpool match through the ridematching software, along with transit riders who are registered for the Emergency Ride Home
program.
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
-
Commuter Services of PA Database Membership
14,440
13,393
13,682
13,066
11,660
12,535
11,499
11,593
10,185
7,722
211
1,563
2,584 2,984
3,415
4,085
4,926 5,441
Figure 3
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
7
Millions of vehicle miles have been taken off the roads throughout central Pennsylvania due to
the efforts of Commuter Services. According to the 2009 database survey conducted by
Susquehanna Polling and Research, survey respondents who said that Commuter Services
directly influenced their decision to change their commuting pattern from driving alone credited
them with reducing vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by just under 6.5 million miles. From an air
quality perspective, this reduction in VMT translates to the prevention of tons of air pollutants
including just over three tons of the volitile organic compounds that lead to ozone production
and approximately 50 tons of carbon monoxide.
The increasing number of commuters traveling to work by rabbitExpress and registering for
ride-matching and the ERH program shows that, given viable alternatives and facilites, York
County commuters will chose an alternative to driving alone.
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Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
York County Park N Ride Facilities
Map 3
A key to the continuing success of both rabbitExpress and Commuter Services programs is the
support system of Park N Ride facilities. Map 3, above, shows the location of both official and
non-official Park N Ride facilities in York County. These facilities provide the gathering points
for rabbitExpress stops, as well as meeting places for carpool and vanpool commuters. Surveys
by Commuter Services show that the availability of convenient parking facilities directly
influences commuters’ willingness to try transit services or carpool/vanpool alternatives.
There are three types of facilities shown on Map 3. The green symbols denote the three locations
where the transit agency has made arrangements with private property owners to use a portion of
retail parking areas for use by transit riders: the Giant parking lot in New Cumberland at the
entrance to Capital City Airport, across the street from Northern High School on Route 74, the
Kmart parking lot on Haines Road, the South York Value Center on South Queen Street, and the
former Crown gas station lot on E. Forrest Avenue (SR 851).
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
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The red symbols show places where commuters have created pull-off parking areas alongside
roadways to use for parking, usually without the property owners permission. The non-offical
parking areas located on this map are along York County’s major thrufares: I-83, Route 30, and
Route 15. No doubt there are other non-official parking areas being used around the County
along the secondary roadways. While these parking areas are often just off the roadway and
provoke safety concerns for both the parked vehicles and passing traffic, they are also temporary
in nature, should the property owner choose to prohibit access to the property. There is
increasing reluctance among property owners to allow commuter parking on private property.
No Trespassing/ Private Property signs were recently posted at a parking area off of I-83 Exit 8
(Glen Rock); while small, that parking area had been used for years.
There are only three official Park N Ride facilities in York County, denoted by the blue symbols.
The northernmost facility located at I-83 Exit 33Yocumtown and southernmost facility off of I83 Exit 4 Shrewsbury on Route 851 are owned by PennDOT. The middle location off of I-83
Exit 24 Emigsville on Board Road is a rabbittranist Hop N Ride facility. Two of the three
facilities are rabbitExpress stops and are also used by carpools/vanpools.
The graphs below, Figures 4-6, show vehicle parking data for each of the three official Park N
Ride facilites. This data is collected sporadically by the York County Planning Commission
staff. The three lots combined provide a total of 267 spaces, including handicap spaces. While
the Exit 4 Shrewsbury Park N Ride was originally striped for 37 spaces, the line striping has
faded away and currently provides parking for approximately 22 to 25 vehicles.
Exit 33 Yocumtown Park N Ride Vehicle Count
105 spacess total
80
70
60
50
6/2006:
rabbittExpress
service to
Harrisburg
begins
40
38 38
37
30 34
29 31 30
20
68
57
48
36
51
48
75
66
61
59
52
61
55
56
54
46
54
50
45
35
31
25
10
0
1/3/2005
1/3/2006
1/3/2007
1/3/2008
1/3/2009
1/3/2010
Figure 4
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Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Exit 24 Board Rd Hop N Ride Vehicle Count
125 spaces total
80
70
69
60
61
59
50
40
73
70
52
54
53
43
30
20
52
40
36
23
10
0
3/22/2007
3/22/2008
3/22/2009
3/22/2010
Figure 5
Exit 4 Shrewsbury Park N Ride Vehicle Count
37 spaces total
60
51
46
50
40 46
30
45
45
33
33
45
36
31
20
22
15
10
0
01/05/05
01/05/06
01/05/07
01/05/08
01/05/09
01/05/10
Figure 6
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
11
The locations marked by both the green and red symbols are non-official Park N Ride facilities.
They are not designated by or maintained through normal highway funding as are the official
Park N Ride facilities are denoted by the blue symbols.With just those known and documented
locations shown on this map, there are three times as many non-official parking areas as official
facilities, showing that the demand for Park N Ride lots quite exceeds the supply.
With the loss of the Glen Rock parking area and the anticipated development plans for the
temporary Hop N Ride lot at Exit 4, it is easy to see that the southern section of I-83 is
underserved by Park N Ride facilities with only 25 official spaces available for the 16 miles of
highway south of Exit 16 Queen Street, carrying a combined directional traffic volume of
approximately 40,000 to 60,000 vehicles each day with heavy peak hour commuter usage.
Traffic counts on the I-83 exit ramps of Exit 16 to Exit 4 show an average of 18,000 vehicles
leaving I-83 during the PM-Peak hour on a daily basis.
Of these 18,000 PM-Peak drivers, the split between northbound and southbound travelers on I-83
is pretty even at 48% and 52% respectively. The origin of the southbound commuters is
difficult to determine as they could be coming from anywhere within York County as well as
outside the County. For the northbound commuters, however, it is easier to determine that the
majority of them are coming from jobs in Maryland. The highest PM-Peak period exit traffic
volumes is at Exit 4 Shrewsbury. As the closest entrance to I-83 is Maryland Exit 36, it is
reasonable to assume that 5,000 commuters exiting I-83 at this location came from Maryland.
This assumption can also be applied to the majority of the vehicles leaving I-83 exits north
through Exit 16 Queen Street.
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Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Future Commuters
While there are commuters to Maryland living throughout the County, the highest concentrations
live in the municipalities in the south central area of York County along the I-83 corridor. The
municipalities in this area are shown on the study area map on page 2. In the rabbittransit
survey that was conducted in order to set up the route and schedule for the rabbitExpress to
Maryland, the majority of survey respondents claimed residence in this area. Also, the 2009 PA
Commuter Services database reflects a commuting distribution that mirrors the County
commuting habits: of the 2507 commuters registered for the ridematching service, approximately
8% of these commuters travel south out of Pennsylvania to work. Of this group, the majority of
them live in the municipalities in the south central York County area.
These 26 municipalities comprise just over one third of the total municipalities in York County
and have just over one third of the total County population. According to Census estimates from
2000 – 2009, the area saw an overall population increase of 12% or over 15,000 new residents,
which is in line with the County’s increase of 12.4% or 47,000 new residents. The population
numbers for the County and the individual municipalities in the area are shown in the table
below.
Table 1
Population Data for South Central York County
Geographic Area
2000
Census
2009
Census
Estimate
Change
in
Population
% Change
in
Population
Pennsylvania
12,281,054
York County
381,751
428,937
47,186
12.4%
3,646
518
4,087
2,209
449
1,809
5,062
1,203
908
3,512
7,915
2,507
300
6,149
492
3,378
5,947
3,946
555
4,081
2,527
485
1,841
5,862
1,188
1,025
4,253
9,185
2,951
303
6,067
508
3,582
7,076
300
37
(6)
318
36
32
800
(15)
117
741
1,270
444
3
(82)
16
204
1,129
8.2%
7.1%
(0.1%)
14.4%
8.0%
1.8%
15.8%
(1.2%)
12.9%
21.1%
16.0%
17.7%
1.0%
(1.3%)
3.3%
6.0%
19.0%
Codorus Township
Cross Roads Borough
Dallastown Borough
East Hopewell Township
Felton Borough
Glen Rock Borough
Hopewell Township
Jacobus Borough
Loganville Borough
New Freedom Borough
North Codorus Township
North Hopewell Township
Railroad Borough
Red Lion Borough
Seven Valleys Borough
Shrewsbury Borough
Shrewsbury Township
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
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Geographic Area
Spring Garden Township
Springettsbury Township
Springfield Township
Stewartstown Borough
Windsor Borough
Windsor Township
Winterstown Borough
Yoe Borough
York Township
Area Total
Area % of Total
York County Population
2000
Census
11,974
23,883
3,889
1,752
1,331
12,807
546
1,022
23,637
2009
Census
Estimate
12,099
24,968
5,138
2,002
1,314
16,730
542
1,020
27,339
Change
in
Population
125
1,085
1,249
250
(17)
3,923
(4)
(2)
3,702
% Change
in
Population
1.0%
4.5%
32.1%
14.3%
(1.3%)
30.6%
(0.7%)
(0.2%)
15.7%
130,932
146,587
15,655
12.0%
34.3%
34.2%
33.2%
The anticipated population growth in this area foretells the amount of growth in southbound
commuters and can give us an estimate of the number of future southbound commuters. Table 2
and Figure 7 below show the projection ranges for 2010 through 2040 for southbound
commuters calculated by two methods. First, the percentages of the 2000 York County Census
and Journey-to-Work data were calculated and applied to the population estimates for the
decennial years of 2010 through 2040 (Countywide JTW). These figures are shown in the
Countywide JTW column. The second method was derived through the professional guidance of
some of the area’s municipal managers who estimated that approximately 70% of their new
resident households have a family member who works in Maryland. Using the populations
projections for 2010 through 2040, the number of additional households was calculated with
70% of these households having one southbound commuter (Muni Mgr Est).
Table 2
Southbound Commuter Projections
Year
1990 (actual)
2000 (actual)
2010
2020
2030
2040
Countywide JTW Method
9,682
12,075
20,207
22,170
24,142
26,234
Muni Mgr Est Method
9,682
12,075
17,968
22,504
26,870
31,348
These projection methods show the southbound commuter population increasing by a range of
8% to 67% annually, eventually leading to a range of 117% to 160% increase over 2000 levels
by 2040.
Having looked at the travel patterns and location of current southbound York County commuters
and projected the number of future southbound commuters, it is important to look at the location
or origin of these future southbound commuters. The graphic below (Figure 8) has three maps
14
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
showing the population data by 2000 Census block group for the 2000 Census, 2020 population
projections, and 2040 population projections. All three maps use the same scale and are shaded
light to dark for the number of people in each block group. Basically, the darker the area, the
more people live there and the more southbound commuters are likely to live there.
Southbound Commuter Projections
33,000
31,348
28,000
2008 Data:
19,425
Southbound
Commuters
23,000
26,870
22,504
20,207
26,234
24,142
Ctywide JTW
22,170
Muni Mrg Est
18,000
17,968
12,075
13,000
9,682
8,000
1990
2000
2010
2020
2030
2040
Figure 7
The first map on the left depicts the population distribution by Census block group from the 2000
Census and shows the higher concentrations of people living in the northern part of the study
area closest to Exit 16 and just north of Exit 14. The east side of I-83 also shows a higher
population concentration than the west side.
The second map shows the population projection for the year 2020. All new population growth
from 2000-2020 was distributed to census block group areas throughout the residentially zoned
areas that are not developed. Then, the same scale as the 2000 Census map was applied to the
2020 projection. According to the 2000 Census, the municipal occupancy rates in York County
range from 92% to 94%. Thus, the majority of population increases within a municipalitiy will
occupy new dwelling units that will be built on land that is zoned for residential development
and is currently not developed. From the 2020 population projection map, the higher population
concentrations are in the northeast section of the study area east of Exits 16 and 14 and now
extending to just north of Exit 10.
The third map shows the population projection for the year 2040. New population growth was
distributed using the same methodology as for the 2020 map detailed above. Again, the same
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
15
scale was applied as on the 2000 and 2020 maps, and the darker the area, the more people that
live there and the more likely that southbound commuters will be traveling from that area to
access I-83 South. The 2040 map shows a continued increase in population in the northeast
section of the study area east of Exits 16 and 14 and also in the southeast section east of Exit 4.
The increase in population on the west side is primarily between Exits 10 and 8.
From these maps, we can see the origin points of current and futue southbound commuters. In
order to look at where they access I-83, we need to look at the study area map in Exhibit 1. The
southbound commuters coming from the northern and northeastern sections of the study area
may access I-83 anywhere from Exit 16 to Maryland Exit 36 by utilizing the secondary roadways
and depending on the amount of congestion experienced and driving preferences. The secondary
roadway is shown as the red roads in the Exhibit 1 map. For example, commuters coming from
the northeast section of the study area could use Route 74 to use Exit 16, Route 182 to use Exit
14, Route 214 to use Exit 10, Route 216 to use Exit 8, or Route 24 or Route 851 to use Exit 4. A
similar secondary network is available on the west side of I-83 also. Therefore, Exit 16, the most
northern exit in the study area would potentially attract only those southbound commuters who
live near that exit; however, those commuters could choose that exit or any exit in the direction
of their destination. This holds for each successive exit in that direction. Thus, the southern
exits, Exit 10, Exit 8, and Exit 4 would attract more and more southbound commuters with Exit 4
potentially attracting the most southbound commuters accessing I-83 of any of the exits.
Figure 8
16
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Existing Parking Inventory
In employing PennDOT’s Smart Transportation principles, the most cost-effective solution
would be to use existing parking areas for a ParkN Ride facility.
Using aerial photographs, individual maps were made of each area surrounding the following
interchanges along I-83:
Exit 16 Queen Street
Exit 14 Leader Heights Road
Exit 10 Loganville
Exit 8 Glen Rock
Exit 4 Shrewsbury
As shown on Map 4 through Map 8, the ½ mile and 1 mile distances from the interchanges were
marked. In the first phase of identifying existing parking inventory, all parking areas of
significant size inside 1 mile distances were marked and data collected to create an initial
inventory list of 31 locations. The locations are shown by number on the following maps of each
Exit along I-83.
Map 4
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
17
Map 5
Map 6
18
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Map 7
Map 8
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
19
An initial survey of these 31 locations was performed and gathered the following information:
drive time to the Southbound I-83 ramp, number of parking spaces, and ease of access. During
the survey, high activity events were noted, along with an initial list of site amenities. Fourteen
locations were deemed unacceptable due to various reasons such as poor access, lack of striping
or poor pavement condition in the parking area, low number of total parking spaces, and
consistent activity from the pre-school on site.
Table 3
Existing Parking Inventory: Initial Survey Locations
I-83
ID # Exit #
1
16
2
16
3
16
4
16
5
16
6
16
7
16
8
14
9
14
10
14
11
14
12
14
13
14
14
10
15
10
16
10
17
8
18
8
19
8
20
4
21
4
22
4
23
4
24
4
25
4
26
4
27
4
28
4
29
4
30
4
31
4
Distance
Category
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
1 mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
1 mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
1 mile
½ mile
1 mile
1 mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
1 mile
½ mile
½ mile
½ mile
20
Location Name
Ruby Tuesday’s
Office Building/JMT
Tailgater’s
South York Plaza
South York Value Center
Queensgate
Aldersgate U.M. Church
Temple Baptist Church
Quarter Deck Partners
Glatfelter
Leader Commons
Holiday Inn Express
Greek Orthodox Church
State Police
Interco Print LLC
True Value
Penn Mar Organization
Motel
Freedom Armory
Saubels
Old Giant
Shrewsbury Commons
New Giant
Cracker Barrel
Gold’s Gym/ Bill Bateman’s
Wellspan
Hampton Inn
Home Depot
Tractor Supply Company
Phantom Fireworks
Ruby Tuesday’s
Location
St. Charles Way
St. Charles Way
St. Charles Way
Pauline Drive
Queen Street
Springwood Road
Tyler Run Road
Pine Grove Road
Keyway Drive
Associates Drive
Leader Heights Road
Pine Grove Circle
Pine Grove Road
Trooper Court
North Street
Ssqhna Trail/North St
Susquehanna Trail
Seaks Run Road
Seaks Run Rd/2nd Am
E. Forrest Avenue
E. Forrest Avenue
Shrewsbury Cmns Ave
Mt Airy Road
Wolfe Road
Far Hills Drive
Wolfe Road
Far Hills Drive
Far Hills Drive
Renaissance Drive
Renaissance Drive
Far Hills Drive
Access
Designation
Poor
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Good
Other
Good
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Poor
Good
Other
Poor
Other
Good
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Poor
Good
Poor
Poor
Good
Good
Good
Poor
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
In the second phase of identifying existing parking inventory, each of the 17 locations remaining
was surveyed during a one-week period at various intervals, and then at AM peak and PM peak
hours. The number of vehicles parked at each location was tallied. These figures were then used
to calculate the most number of parking spaces occupied and the least number of parking spaces
available during three times of day: AM hours, Mid-Day hours, and PM hours. The AM hours
are the hours of 8am - 12pm; Mid-Day hours are 12pm – 3pm; and the PM hours are 3pm – 6pm.
The results of the inventory are found below.
Location
Photo
Location Details
#2 Exit 16
Professional
Building/ JMT
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 94 sec
St. Charles Way
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 262
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 151
Time: Mid Day hours
Location
Amenities: None
Photo
Location Details
#4 Exit 16
South York
Plaza
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 127 sec
Pauline Drive
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 747
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 449
Time: PM hours
Amenities: Grocery, Restaurant, Retail, Movies, Bank, Gas
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
21
Location
Photo
Location Details
#5 Exit 16
South York
Value Center
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 38 sec
S. Queen Street
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 605
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 316
Time: Mid Day hours
Location
Amenities: Grocery, Restaurant, Retail, Bank
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 168 sec
#6 Exit 16
Queensgate
Springwood
Road
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 857
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 644
Time: AM Hours
Location
Amenities: Grocery, Restaurant, Retail, Movies
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 86 sec
#7 Exit 16
Aldersgate
United
Methodist
Church
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 229
Tyler Run Road
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 208
Time: AM hours
Amenities:
22
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Location
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 141 sec
#10 Exit 14
Glatfelter
Associates Drive
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 447
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 156
Time: AM hours
Location
Amenities: None
Photo
Location Details
#12 Exit 14
Holiday Inn
Express
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 85 sec
Pine Grove
Circle
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 153
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 108
Time: AM and PM hours
Amenities: None
Location
Photo
Location Details
#13 Exit 14
Greek Orthodox
Church
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:170 sec
Pine Grove
Road
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 114
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 106
Time: Mid-day hours
Amenities: None
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
23
Location
Photo
#15 Exit 10
Interco Print
LLC
North Street
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:39 sec
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 146
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 127
Time: AM and Mid-day hours
Location
Amenities: None
Photo
#19 Exit 8
Freedom
Armory
Seaks Run
Road/ 2nd
Amendment
Drive
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 67 sec
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 41
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 33
Time: Mid-day PM hours
Amenities: None
Location
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:127 sec
#21 Exit 4
Old Giant/CVS
Shopping
Center
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 436
E. Forrest
Avenue
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 421
Time: Mid Day hours
Amenities: None
24
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Location
Photo
Location Details
#22 Exit 4
Shrewsbury
Commons
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp: 99 sec
Shrewsbury
Commons
Avenue
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 1181
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 696
Time: Mid Day hours
Location
Amenities: Grocery, Restaurant, Retail, Bank
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:199 sec
#23 Exit 4
New Giant
Mt. Airy Road
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 394
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 199
Time: AM hours
Location
Amenities: Grocery, Restaurant, Retail, Bank
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:124 sec
#25 Exit 4
Gold’s
Gym/Bill
Bateman’s
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 170
Far Hills Drive
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 80
Time: AM hours
Amenities: Restaurant, Gym
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
25
Location
Photo
Location Details
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:157 sec
#28 Exit 4
Home Depot
Far Hills Drive
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 460
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 353
Time: AM hours
Amenities: None
Location
Photo
Location Details
#29 Exit 4
Tractor Supply
Company
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:132 sec
Renaissance
Drive
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 105
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 88
Time: Mid Day hours
Location
Amenities: None
Photo
Location Details
#30 Exit 4
Phantom
Fireworks
Access: Good
Drive Time to Ramp:133 sec
Renaissance
Drive
Total Non-Handicapped
Spaces: 52
Least # of Parking Spaces
Available: 50
Time: All hours
Amenities: None
26
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
From the information gathered, each location could serve as a viable option for a Park N Ride
facility; however, one set of locations could more easily accommodate commuter parking than
the others. By sorting the 17 locations by the highest values in the Least Number of Parking
Spaces Available category during the three different time periods, six locations form a natural
break from the rest of the locations:
Table 4
ID #
#22
#6
#4
#21
#28
#5
Top Six Locations in the Existing Parking Inventory
Exit
Exit 4
Exit 16
Exit 16
Exit 4
Exit 4
Exit 16
Location
Shrewsbury Commons
Queensgate
South York Plaza
Old Giant/CVS
Home Depot
South York Value Center
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Least #of Parking
Spaces Available
696
644
449
421
353
316
27
Constructing a Park N Ride Facility
In constructing a Park N Ride facility, its location plays a crucial role in its successful use by
commuters. A Park N Ride facility must be easily accessible and convenient for the greatest
number of potential users.
As part of this study, a survey was conducted to determine certain preferences of the commuting
public. The 20-question survey was accessible on Survey Monkey via the internet at
www.myparkandride.com. Yard signs directing commuters to this website were distributed
throughout the study area, concentrated at the I-83 exits. The survey questions are listed in the
Appendix.
The survey asked for the origin and destination points of each responder. Responders had the
option of not answering any individual question, and a few of the questions allowed more than
one particular answer. There were 146 responses total. Table 5 below shows the breakdown for
the destination direction of the responders.
Table 5
Survey Respondents Commute Direction
Destination Direction
East
West
North
South
Unknown
Number of Responders
7
3
79
47
8
While all but a few responders gave the zipcode area of the origin and destination of their
commute, approximately half the responders did not respond to Question 5 If you use I-83 for
your commute, where do you access the Interstate when going to work (A.M.)? or
Question 6 If you use I-83 for your commute, where do you exit the Interstate when
returning from work (P.M.)?, rendering these questions useless in determining how the
commuters were utilizing the secondary roads.
All of the responders answered Question 7 How do you travel? (commuter mode). The
results are shown in Figure 9 below. The top three responses, comprising 93%, are Drive Alone
(63%), Carpool (20%), and Transit (10%).
28
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Commuter Mode
(All Responders)
No Response
4
Other
5
Vanpool
2
Transit
Commuter Mode
14
Carpool
29
Drive Alone
92
0
20
40
60
80
100
Figure 9
In survey Question 12 If you drive alone, have you ever considered using rabbittransit
Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling?, the responder could chose any or all of the
alternatives. There were 148 responses to this question. Approximately 80% of these single
occupancy vehicle commuters said that they have considered using the express bus (39%),
carpooling (30%), or vanpooling (11%). Tied for the third most common obstacle to using one
of these commuting options, asked in Question 13 If yes, what are the obstacles to using
rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling, was lack of convenient Park N Ride
location. For Question 14 Would you be more likely to start using rabbittransit Express
bus, carpooling or vanpooling if there was a Park N Ride facility conveniently located
close to your commute?, 83% replied that they would.
The location of a convenient Park N Ride facility as defined by each respondent and how far
each one would travel to access this facility were covered in Questions 10 If you could build a
Park N Ride facility in a location most convenient for you, near which exit location would
you build it? and Question 11 How far would you be willing to drive to access a Park N
Ride Facility?. The responses are shown below, Figure 10 and Figure 11, in two variations for
each question: All Responders and Southbound Responders. According to all of the survey
responders, the top three most popular convenient exit locations for a Park N Ride facility are
Exit 16 (33%), Exit 14 (22%), and Exit 4 (21%). For the southbound commuters only, the top
three most popular exit locations are Exit 4 (34%), Exit 14 (23%), and Exit 10 (21%). The
difference in responses obviously comes from the large number of northbound commuters that
responded to the survey.
The responses to Question 11 How far would you be willing to drive to access a Park N
Ride Facility?, however, are nearly identical. The responders were able to choose more than
one answer for this question. Approximately 1/4 of all of the responders are willling to travel in
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
29
the opposite direction of their commute (25% for all responders, 23% for southbound
responders). Half or more of both groups are willing to travel one exit in the direction of their
commute (50% for all, 59% for southbound). Twenty-five percent of all responders and 18% of
southbound responders are willing to travel several exits along their normal commute in order to
access a Park N Ride facility. Some responders chose all three options (7% for all, 4% for
southbound).
Question 10: If you could build a Park N Ride facility in a location
most convenient for you, near which exit location would you
build it?
(All Responders)
Exit 4
21%
Exit 16
33%
Exit 4
Exit 8
7%
Exit 8
Exit 10
Exit 14
Exit 14
22%
Exit 10
17%
Exit 16
Figure 10
30
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Questions 10: If you could build a Park N Ride facility in a location
most convenient for you, near which exit location would you build it?
(Southbound Responders)
Exit 16
13%
Exit 4
34%
Exit 4
Exit 8
Exit 14
23%
Exit 10
Exit 14
Exit 16
Exit 8
9%
Exit 10
21%
Figure 11
Question 11: How far would you be willing to drive to access a Park N
Ride facility?
(All Responders)
Several exits along
your normal route
25%
One exit in the
opposite direction
25%
One exit in the opposite
direction
One exit along your normal
route
One exit along your
normal route
50%
Several exits along your normal
route
Figure 12
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
31
Question 11: How far would you be willing to drive to access a Park N
Ride facility?
(Southbound Responders)
Several exits along
your normal route
18%
One exit in the
opposite direction
23%
One exit in the opposite
direction
One exit along your normal route
One exit along your
normal route
59%
Several exits along your normal
route
Figure 13
32
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Summary
The purpose of this study is to pinpoint strategic locations for Park N Ride lots to facilitate the
use of rabbittransit’s Express Bus Service to Maryland and to compliment the alternative
transportation advocacy efforts of Commuter Services of Pennsylvania.
From the examination of the existing parking inventory, locations at Exit 16 and Exit 4 have
exiting facilities that could possibly be used for the most cost-effective solution. In analyzing the
location of current and future southbound commuters in the study area, a Park N Ride facility
near the southernmost exit, Exit 4, will potentially attract the largest number of southbound
commuters. From the survey responses, southbound responders indicate their preference for a
facility near Exit 4 or Exit 14 and that 77% of them would travel one or more exits in the
direction of their normal commute to access a Park N Ride facility. It is interesting to note, from
the large number of survey respondents that travel north to work, that those respondents
indicated a preference for a Park N Ride location near Exit 16.
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
33
APPENDIX
rabbittransit Express Bus Service routes for rabbitEXPRESS – Harrisburg
and rabbitEXPRESS – Maryland
rabbitEXPRESS – Harrisburg AM
rabbitEXPRESS – Harrisburg PM
Appendix
37
rabbitEXPRESS – Maryland
38
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
Survey Questions as posted on SurveyMonkey.com
rabbittransit and the York County Planning Commission are conducting a study to pinpoint strategic
locations for a Park N Ride facility along the I-83 corridor between Exit 16, South Queen Street, and Exit
4, Shrewsbury. The information that you provide by taking the following survey will help in the selection of
the location for the Park N Ride facility.
1. Where do you begin your commute? (commuter origin)
City
Zip Code
2. What are the nearest intersecting streets to where you begin your commute?
Street #1
Street #2
3. Approximately how long (in miles and minutes) is your commute?
Miles
Minutes
Is this one way or
roundtrip
4. What is your final destination? (commute destination)
City
Zip Code
5. If you use I-83 for your commute, where do you access the Interstate when going to work
(A.M.)?
Exit 16-Queen Street
Exit 14-Leader Heights
Exit 10-Loganville
Exit 8-Glen Rock
Exit 4-Shrewsbury
Appendix
39
6. If you use I-83 for your commute, where do you exit the Interstate when returning from work
(P.M.)?
Exit 16-Queen Street
Exit 14-Leaders Heights
Exit 10-Loganville
Exit 8-Glen Rock
Exit 4-Shrewsbury
7. How do you travel? (commuter mode)
Drive alone in car/truck/SUV
Carpool
Vanpool
rabbittransit Express bus
Other
8. If you take the rabbittransit Express bus, where do you park to catch the bus?
9. If you carpool or vanpool, where does your carpool/vanpool meet? (shopping center, church,
member's house, etc.)
10. If you could build a Park N Ride facility in a location most convenient for you, near which exit
location would you build it?
Exit 16-Queen Street
Exit 14-Leaders Heights
Exit 10-Loganville
Exit 8-Glen Rock
Exit 4-Shrewsbury
40
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study
11. How far would you be willing to drive to access a Park N Ride facility? Would you travel:
One exit in the opposite direction
One exit along your normal route
Several exits along your normal route
12. If you drive alone, have you ever considered using rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or
vanpooling?
rabbittransit Express bus
Carpooling
Vanpooling
No, I have never considered using any of these
13. If yes, what are the obstacles to using rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling?
14. Would you be more likely to start using rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling if
there was a Park N Ride facility conveniently located close to your commute?
Yes
No
15. Near what I-83 exit would that convenient location be?
16. If you have never considered using rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling, have
you ever heard of the rabbittransit Express bus service?
Yes
No
Appendix
41
17. If you have never considered using rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling, have
you ever heard of Commuter Services of Pennsylvania (www.pacommuterservices.com)?
Yes
No
18. If you have never considered using rabbittransit Express bus, carpooling or vanpooling, have
you ever heard of Commuter Services of PA's Emergency Ride Home program?
Yes
No
19. Would you like information on:
Would you like information on: rabbittransit Express bus
Carpooling
Vanpooling
Commuter Services of PA
Emergency Ride Home program
20. Please enter your email address so that information may be forwarded to you if requested.
Done
42
Southern York County I-83 Park N Ride Study