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processing
Valorisation des déchets à la
production comme combustible
secondaire
Dr. Hubert Baier/ Polysius Beckum (Germany)
Polysius
Personal Intro
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier

Conditioning mineral waste for customized raw
meal substitution

Responsible for purchase and utilization of
AFR on 8 cement works as well as permitting
and EU lobbying

Charter member of the registered Federal
Association for Quality Control of Alternative
Fuels (BGS e.V.), member of Quality Board

Co-working in national + European
standardization

Technical Director of a public MechanicalBiological Treating Plant (production of
certified SRF out of municipal and industrial
waste)

Freelancer Consultary regarding capacity
building in waste management and coprocessing

Head of AFR-working area at POLYSIUS
Definition + Explanations
AFR
Alternative Fuel + Raw material
ARM
RDF
Alternative Raw Material
Residue Derived Fuel without mandatory proof
of quality and origin and consistency (general)
Alternative Liquid Fuel
AL
HCF
…
SRF
haz. pasty solidified
slurry etc.
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
High(ly enriched) Calorific Fraction;
coarse intermediate product from MBT
Solid Recovered Fuel out of non-haz. waste
inclusive QM; Grain size: ≤ 30 mm (multistage
treating is mandatory)
not defined, but titled with brand or fancy names like
Recifuel™ etc.
Content
1. Process, Emission and Product
2. Source + Waste Management
3. Designing the Pre-Processing
4. Technical defaults + solutions
5. Quality assurance
6. Lessons learned
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
General Requirements
Environment
Process
Product
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Process Necessity and Awareness
See also http://www.polysius.fr/cariboost_files/ciment.pdf
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Emission
Element
Mercury (Hg)
*DS:
Threshold input
value
 2 ppm DS*
Cadmium (Cd)
 50 ppm DS
Thallium (Tl)
Antimony (Sb)
Arsenic (As)
Lead (Pb)
Chromium (Cr)
Cobalt (Co)
Copper (Cu)
Manganese
(Mn)
Nickel (Ni)
Vanadium (V)
Tin (Sn)
 45 ppm DS
Dry substance
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
 20.000 ppm
DS
These threshold values for input
materials are re-calculated to indicate
permissible input concentrations for
RDF into a pre-heater cement kiln,
without exceeding the limited values in
accordance to the EU Incineration
Directive 2000/76/EC.
The statutory emission limit value in
Europe for Mercury (Hg), Cadmium
(Cd) and Thallium (Tl) is
0,05 mg/Nm3.
Product Stewardship
Cement plant
Concrete
plant
Building
“end-of-life”
Emissions
raw material
Clinker
burning
process
Clinker
Cement
grinding
fuels
Aggregates
Sulfate
carriers
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Production
of concrete
other main
components
Additives
Admixtures
Use
Leaching
Deposition /
Recycling
Leaching
Content
1. Process, Emission and Product
2. Source + Waste Management
3. Designing the Pre-Processing
4. Technical defaults + solutions
5. Quality assurance
6. Lessons learned
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Alternative Fuels
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Number of sectors arising feasible waste for co-processing
déchets provenant d'équipements électriques ou …
28
autres déchets municipaux
25
déchets provenant d'installations de traitement des eaux…
24
contenu de séparateurs eau/hydrocarbures
19
déchets provenant de la FFDU et du décapage de …
19
déchets provenant de la FFDU d'autres produits de…
18
déchets liquides aqueux destinés à un traitement hors site
17
boues provenant du traitement in situ des effluents
15
déchets provenant de la préparation d'eau destinée à la …
12
terres (y compris déblais provenant de sites contaminés),…
12
absorbants, matériaux filtrants, chiffons d'essuyage et …
11
déchets de revêtements de fours et réfractaires
10
déchets provenant de la FFDU de teintures et pigments…
9
déchets provenant des traitements physico-chimiques des…
8
déchets provenant de la mise en forme et du traitement…
8
déchets provenant de la FFDU de produits phytosanitaires…
8
déchets stabilisés/solidifiés
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
7
Source & Sectors
e.g. from the chemical industry
are
substantially
non hazardeous
hazardeous
34 types of waste*, which might be
fit for recycling for cement
production
41 types of non hazardous waste,
which might be fit as alternative fuel
for kilns, and
44 types of hazardous waste, which
might be fit for thermal utilization as
alternative fuel
* classified waste materials and category according to what they are and how they were produced
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Source & Sectors
e.g. from the hotel and catering
branch are
substantially
non hazardeous
hazardeous
no types of waste, which might be
fit for recycling for cement
production
12 types of non hazardous waste,
which might be fit as alternative fuel
for kilns, and
2 types of hazardous waste, which
might be fit for thermal utilization as
alternative fuel
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Source of feasible Alternative Fuel and Raw Material
[listed from German VDZ member works 2007]
Solid alternative fuels
Liquid alternative fuels
Gaseous alternative
fuels
Paper waste
Tar
Landfill gas
Textile waste
Acid sludge
Pyrolysis gas
Carpet waste
Waste oil
Plastic waste
Petrochemical waste
Rubber waste
Varnish residues
Waste tires
Chemical waste
Fuller´s earth
Waste solvents
Raw materials
Waste wood
Distillation residues
Foundry sand
Fractions of domestic waste
Wax suspensions
Fly ashes, FGD-gypsum
Sewage sludge
Asphalt sludge
Slag
Meat and bone meal
Oil sludge
Sludge (De-calcifying,
precipitation, anodizing…)
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Content
1. Process, Emission and Product
2. Source + Waste Management
3. Designing the Pre-Processing
4. Technical defaults + solutions
5. Quality assurance
6. Lessons learned
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Possible Procedure
Basic rule: “equal” to “equal”!
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Recommended Data…
Source
dry substance
Antimony
Additional Parameters
fuel component
water contend
Arsenic
size < 8 mm
Waste Catalogue Number
heat value
Beryllium
size < 16 mm
Sample ID
ash contend
Lead
size < 32 mm
Amount per year
CaO
Cadmium
size <…..mm
Nitrogen
SiO2
Chromium
bulk density
Hydrogen
Al2O3
Cobalt
kinematic viscosity at
valve train / valve (cSt)
Carbon
Fe2O3
Cupper
density at … °C kg/dm3
Oxygen
Na2O
Manganese
Chlorine
K2O
Nickel
Fluorine
MgO
Mercury
Sulphur
P2O5
Selenium
Volatile content
Tellurium
PCB
PCP
Thallium
Vanadium
gtz-PGPE
Tin
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Zinc
ARM - Alternative Raw Material
Clearly determined mineral waste compounds are
stored separately before treating due to the committed
requirements.
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Source of feasible Alternative Fuel and Raw Material
[listed from German VDZ member works 2007]
Ca-group
industrial lime
Carbide sludge, precipitation
lime sludge
water cleaning, de-carbonization
Si-group
foundry sand
Fe-group
Pyrite cinder
Converter dust
synth. Hematite
Mill scale
red mud
Illmenite slag
Al-group
metal industry
Si-, Al-, Ca-group
fly ash
Residues from paper industry
blast furnace slag
industry
S-group
REA gypsum
chemical gypsum
F-group
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
CaF2-filter sludge
Possible Procedure for Artificial Raw Material
Non hazardous
hazardous
solid
slurry
Ca
Si
free of hydrocarbons
quarry/ raw mill
containing hydrocarbons
kiln inlet/ calciner
Al
Fe
X
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Possible Procedure for Fuel Processing
Non hazardous
hazardous
solid
pasty
liquid
separation
screening
sifting
Sinterzone Burner
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
CC
PREPOL SC
pH
0-6
pH
8-14
Sinterzone Burner
(Separate Channel)
Blending plants for Liquid Fuels and Solidified Fuels
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Solidification: Blending, Mixing + Screening
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Connection between Waste Processing & Point of Entrance
Kiln inlet
Cherrypicking
concept
(CPC)
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
PREPOL SC
Calciner
Sinter zone
burner
RDF-mill
• residues, overproduction and rejects directly from the production or cut
• more or less mixed or contaminated
• chemically small fluctuation of quality
~250 mm
~ 250 mm
~ 50 to 80 mm
~ 25 mm
< 80 mm
Processing Solid Fuels
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Connection between Waste Processing & Point of Entrance
Kiln inlet
„What you
see is what
you get“
(WYSIWYG)
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
PREPOL SC
Calciner
Sinter zone
burner
RDF-mill
~ 25 mm
< 80 mm
• “end-of-life residues”, waste, garbage…
• unsorted, mixed and contaminated
• large variation of quality
~250 mm
~ 250 mm
~ 50 to 80 mm
Waste Assessment
food
textile
• Identify feasible waste
compounds + shares
• Identify chemical and
process benefits or
obstacles
• Define capabilities and
requirements for coprocessing
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
high calorific
fraction
glass
paper
leather, rubber
metal
polymeric pack
wood
construction
waste
stones
Sketch of the Mechanical-Biological Treating Plant
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Pre-Processing to get the customized Chain…
Solid Waste
1. Level:
High Calorific Fraction
(250 – 80 mm)
PREPOL SC
2. Level:
RDF
(< 80 mm)
Calciner
3. Level:
SRF
(30 - < 20mm)
SRF-Meal
100% < 3 mm
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Sinterzone Burner
Sinterzone Burner
Content
1. Process, Emission and Product
2. Source + Waste Management
3. Designing the Pre-Processing
4. Technical defaults + solutions
5. Quality assurance
6. Lessons learned
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Technical Assessment
• Exploring capabilities and the best options for
co-processing
• Detect technical and process faults
• Define basic conditions for dimensioning of
treating, feeding or storage
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Customized Concept
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
MultiStep-Combustor
Tertiary duct
kiln
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
“PREPOL SC”
Content
1. Process, Emission and Product
2. Source + Waste Management
3. Designing the Pre-Processing
4. Technical defaults + solutions
5. Quality assurance
6. Lessons learned
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Process Impacts without Quality Assurance
ring formation
corrosion
reductive burn
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Quality Assurance/ Quality Monitoring
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Getting the Setpoint
(Here: SRF out of Municipal Solid Waste)
35.000
heat value
30.000
25.000
kJ/kg
setpoint
20.000
floating average
15.000
10.000
3,0
5.000
Chlorine
2,5
0
period
wt.-% DS
2,0
Each dot represents a 200t specimen !
1,5
1,0
median
0,5
0,0
period
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
period
Bypass System for Chlorine Reduction
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Dimensioning a Pre-Processing
Semi-automatic Pre-Processing of waste to a high
calorific fraction (HCF)
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Dimensioning a Fine Processing
Processing of high calorific fraction or commercial
waste to RDF/ SRF
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Dimensioning Reception and Storage
Storage, feeding and dosage of SRF:
• uniformity and increase of technical availability
• to ensure quality
to sinter zone burner
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Dimensioning a Feeding
Storage, feeding and dosage of RDF to kiln inlet
or calciner
to kiln inlet
to calciner
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Content
1. Process, Emission and Product
2. Source + Waste Management
3. Designing the Pre-Processing
4. Technical defaults + solutions
5. Quality assurance
6. Lessons learned
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Letter of Recommendation
The cement work has to define quality criteria regarding:
• composition of natural raw material, fuels and product requirements
• type of kiln and point of process entrance
• energy demand at the point of entrance
• mass balance, defaults and cycles (chlorine, sulfur, alkaline, volatiles)
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Letter of Recommendation
Source of waste
All information regarding waste producing process, amount and
chemical composition in accordance to the substantial or thermal
utilization should be provided at first:
Main elements: CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3
Trace elements: Cl, S
Heavy metals: Hg, Cd, Tl, Pb, As
Heat value
Water content
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Lessons learned
Waste compounds are fit for coprocessing when:
 containing combustibles
 containing main elements:
CaO and/ or SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3
 less content of water
 less concentration of sulfur and
chlorine
 regarding the absorption effects of
co-processing heavy metal thresholds
of high volatiles (i.e. Hg, Cd, Tl)
have to be respected for air pollution
 and non-volatiles are dust bounded
and responsible for the quality of
product
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier
Element
Concentration
CaO
SiO2
Al2O3
single or in total
 50 wt.-%
Fe2O3
Mercury (Hg)
 2 ppm DS
Cadmium (Cd)
 50 ppm DS
Thallium (Tl)
 45 ppm DS
other trace
elements
 20.000 ppm DS
Alternative Fuels should fit…
Merci beaucoup
pour votre attention!
gtz-PGPE
Casablanca/ Morocco
16.12.2010
Dr. Hubert Baier

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